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Sample records for asymptomatic aortic stenosis

  1. Diagnosis and management of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a disease that progresses slowly for years without symptoms, so patients need to be carefully managed with appropriate follow up and referred for aortic valve replacement in a timely manner. Development of symptoms is a clear indication for aortic valve intervention in patients with severe AS. The decision for early surgery in patients with asymptomatic severe AS is more complex. In this review, we discuss how to identify high-risk patients with asymptomatic severe AS who may benefit from early surgery. PMID:26981214

  2. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a better outcome predictor than exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Olivia; Richardson, Marjorie; Coisne, Augustin; Polge, Anne-Sophie; Mouton, Stephanie; Godart, François; Edmé, Jean Louis; Matran, Regis; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Montaigne, David

    2017-01-15

    Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship between peak VO2 and AS severity criteria derived from rest and supine exercise echocardiography (SEE) has never been explored. We aimed to determine whether low peak VO2 (<85% of predicted value) is associated with severity parameters in SEE, and poor clinical outcome. Fifty one asymptomatic patients (mean age of 54±21years) with moderate to severe aortic stenosis (Vmax>3m/s) and left ventricle ejection fraction>50% prospectively underwent resting and SEE and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Peak VO2 was lower than expected (21.9±7.4mL/kg/min), i.e. <85% of predicted value in 57% patients, secondary to cardiac limitation in most of them (69%). In multiple regression analysis, age, BMI and female gender were the only independent determinants of peak VO2. Interestingly no parameter derived from SEE was associated with peak VO2. After 21±7month follow-up, no patient died, 20 underwent cardiac surgery. Peak VO2<85% of predicted value was associated with lower event free survival compared to normal peak VO2 (57%±11% vs 93±6%, p=0.036) whereas no exercise echocardiographic parameter could predict such events. Peak VO2≥85% had a negative predictive value of 97%. CPX detects a high proportion of false asymptomatic AS patients with poorer outcome that cannot be predicted by SEE markers of AS severity. Assessment of aerobic capacity should be part of current approach within a "watchful waiting" strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic Value of Exercise-Stress Echocardiography in Asymptomatic Patients With Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Goublaire, Coppelia; Melissopoulou, Maria; Lobo, David; Kubota, Naozumi; Verdonk, Constance; Cimadevilla, Claire; Codogno, Isabelle; Brochet, Eric; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-07-13

    This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of mean pressure gradient (MPG) increase and peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) measured during exercise stress echocardiography in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Exercise testing is recommended in asymptomatic AS patients, but the additional value of exercise-stress echocardiography, especially the prognostic value of MPG increase and peak SPAP, is still debated. We enrolled all consecutive patients with pure, isolated, asymptomatic AS and preserved ejection fraction ≥50% and normal SPAP (<50 mm Hg) who underwent symptom-limited exercise echocardiography at our institution. Occurrence of AS-related events (symptoms or congestive heart failure) or occurrence of aortic valve replacement was recorded. We enrolled 148 patients (66 ± 15 years of age; 74% males; MPG: 47 ± 13 mm Hg; SPAP: 34 ± 6 mm Hg). No complications were observed. Thirty-six patients (24%) had an abnormal exercise test result (occurrence of symptoms, fall in blood pressure, and/or ST-segment depression) and were referred for surgery. Among the 112 patients with a normal exercise test result, 38 patients (34%) had abnormal exercise echocardiography scores (MPG increase >20 mm Hg and/or SPAP at peak exercise >60 mm Hg). These 112 patients were managed conservatively. During a mean follow-up of 14 ± 8 months, an AS-related event occurred in 30 patients, and 25 patients underwent surgery. Neither MPG increase >20 mm Hg nor peak SPAP >60 mm Hg was predictive of occurrence of AS-related events or aortic valve replacement (all p > 0.20). In contrast, baseline AS severity was an important prognostic factor (all p < 0.01). In this observational study including 148 patients with asymptomatic AS, we confirmed and extended the importance of exercise testing for unveiling functional limitation. More importantly, neither the increase in MPG nor in SPAP at peak exercise was predictive of outcome. Our results do

  4. Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bakaeen, Faisal G; Rosengart, Todd K; Carabello, Blase A

    2017-01-03

    This issue provides a clinical overview of aortic stenosis, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  5. Association Between Left Atrial Dilatation and Invasive Hemodynamics at Rest and During Exercise in Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nicolaj Lyhne; Dahl, Jordi Sanchez; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Jensen, Kurt; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Søndergaard, Eva Vad; Videbæk, Lars; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2016-10-01

    Transition from an asymptomatic to symptomatic state in severe aortic stenosis is often difficult to assess. Identification of a morphological sign of increased hemodynamic load may be important in asymptomatic aortic stenosis to identify patients at risk. Thirty-nine patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm(2), peak jet velocity >3.5 m/s) underwent exercise testing with simultaneous invasive hemodynamic monitoring and Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac index, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) were recorded. Patients were followed up for the composite end point of death, unplanned hospitalization, or aortic valve replacement. Patients were stratified into 2 groups according to left atrial (LA) volume index ≥35 mL/m(2). In 25 patients (64%) LA volume index was ≥35 mL/m(2). Aortic valve area was similar between groups (0.81±0.15 versus 0.84±0.18 cm(2); P=0.58). PCWP was higher at rest and during exercise in patients with LA volume index ≥35 mL/m(2) (P<0.01), despite similar cardiac index. At rest, PCWP was <12 mm Hg in 11 patients (44%) with LA dilatation, whereas PCWP was <25 mm Hg in 1 patient (4%) with exercise. LA volume index and E/e' predicted exercise PCWP>30 mm Hg with areas under the receiver operating curve of 0.75 and 0.84, respectively. During follow-up, 14 cardiac events were recorded. LA volume was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-4.15). LA size reflects hemodynamic burden in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Quantitative measurements of LA and diastolic function are associated with left ventricular filling pressures with exercise and could be used to identify asymptomatic patients with increased hemodynamic burden. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02395107. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Association of Guideline Adherence for Serial Evaluations With Survival and Adverse Clinical Events in Patients With Asymptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aisha; Sorajja, Paul; Garberich, Ross F; Farivar, R Saeid; Harris, Kevin M; Gössl, Mario

    2017-09-06

    For patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular function, current practice guidelines empirically recommend serial evaluations every 6 to 12 months. The benefit of this clinical monitoring is unknown. To determine the association of guideline adherence with clinical outcomes in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. This retrospective cohort study involved 300 patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis who were seen in the ambulatory Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital. Rates of survival and adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure hospitalization, were compared between patients who adhered to serial evaluation guidance and those who did not. Medical records were reviewed from July 25, 2007, to December 6, 2012. Data analysis took place from February 4, 2017, to July 10, 2017. All-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and major adverse clinical events during follow-up. The study population of 300 comprised 143 men (47.7%) and had a mean (SD) age of 78.6 (11.5) years. There were no differences in age, race/ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, insurance status, left ventricular function, and aortic stenosis severity between patients with (n = 202) and patients without (n = 98) guideline adherence. Aortic valve replacement (surgical or catheter based) was performed more frequently (54.0% vs 19.4%; P < .001) and the median (interquartile range) time for this performance was earlier (2.2 [1.2-3.6] years vs 3.5 [2.0-5.8] years; P < .001) in patients with guideline adherence. All-cause mortality was higher for nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07-2.30; P < .001), and these patients also had a higher rate of hospital admission for heart failure decompensation in follow-up (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.27-2.18; P < .001). Four-year survival that is free from death and heart failure hospitalization was higher for

  7. Prognostic value of NT-proBNP and an adapted monin score in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Farré, Núria; Gómez, Miquel; Molina, Luis; Cladellas, Mercedes; Blé, Mireia; Roqueta, Cristina; Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Comin-Colet, Josep; Vila, Joan; Bruguera, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in patients with asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis and to validate an adapted Monin score using natriuretic peptide levels in our setting. Prospective study of 237 patients with degenerative asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis. NT-proBNP was determined in all patients, who were then followed up clinically. The adapted Monin score was defined as follows: (peak velocity [m/s]×2)+(logn NT-proBNP×1.5)(+1.5 if woman). A clinical event was defined as surgery, hospital admission due to angina, heart failure or syncope, or death. A total of 51% were women, and the mean age was 74 years. Mean (SD) echocardiographic values were as follows: peak velocity 4.14 (0.87) m/s; mean gradient, 43.2 (16.0) mmHg; aortic valve area, 0.87 (0.72) cm(2), and aortic valve area index, 0.49 (0.14) cm(2)/m(2). The median NT-pro-BNP value was 490.0 [198.0-1312.0] pg/mL. There were 153 events during follow-up (median 18 months). The optimum NT-proBNP cut-point was 515 pg/mL, giving event-free survival rates at 1 and 2 years of 93% and 57%, respectively, in patients with NT-proBNP <515 pg/mL compared with 50% and 31% in those with NT-proBNP >515 pg/mL. Patients were divided into quartiles based on the Monin score. Event-free survival at 1 and 2 years was 87% and 79% in the first quartile, compared with 45% and 28% in the fourth quartile, respectively. NT-proBNP determination provides prognostic information in patients with asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis. The adapted Monin score is useful in our setting and allows a more precise prognosis than does the use of NT-proBNP alone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Asymptomatic aortic stenosis: An assessment of patients' and of their general practitioners' knowledge, after an indexed specialized assessment in community practice.

    PubMed

    Guerbaii, Raphaëlle-Ashley; Fustier, Gabriel; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Ringle, Anne; Trouillet, Camille; Graux, Pierre; Vincentelli, André; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and echocardiography follow-up is recommended in patients with aortic stenosis to detect symptom onset, thus a watchful waiting approach has to be safe and effective. For both AS patients and their general practitioners, evaluation of valvular heart disease (VHD) knowledge, after the indexed specialized assessment has never been measured. To evaluate the knowledge of clinical symptoms of aortic stenosis by both patients and their general practitioner. Sixty-four patients, with moderate to severe and initially asymptomatic AS (median AVA (interquartile range) 1.01(0.80-1.15) cm2) previously referred to a tertiary center and medically managed for at least 6 months after the index echocardiogram, and their primary care doctors were interviewed on the phone and asked to answer specific questions related to knowledge of aortic stenosis symptoms. Fifty-six percent of patients quoted shortness of breath as one of the aortic stenosis symptoms, and only 16% knew the 3 aortic stenosis symptoms. Fifty percent of patients reported having received sufficient information regarding aortic stenosis; only 48% remembered receiving information regarding specific symptoms. Only 14% general practitioners quoted the 3 specific symptoms. According to the initial recommendation, only 41 patients (64%) benefitted from a 6-to-12 month clinical and echocardiography follow up. GPs are not sufficiently trained to safely manage AS patients in the community and to ensure adequate follow-up and monitoring. AS patients were not properly informed about their diagnosis and symptomatology. Hence, therapeutic education should be improved for patients with asymptomatic AS and continuous medical education on VHD should be reinforced, for GPs.

  9. Incremental Prognostic Use of Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Asymptomatic/Minimally Symptomatic Patients With Severe Bioprosthetic Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Redo Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Naji, Peyman; Shah, Shailee; Svensson, Lars G; Gillinov, A Marc; Johnston, Douglas R; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Grimm, Richard A; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-06-01

    With improved survival of patients undergoing primary bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR), reoperation to relieve severe prosthetic aortic stenosis (PAS) is increasing. Timing of redo surgery in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients remains controversial. Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a marker of subclinical LV dysfunction. In asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with severe PAS undergoing redo AVR, we sought to determine whether LV-GLS provides incremental prognostic use. We studied 191 patients with severe bioprosthetic PAS (63±16 years, 58% men) who underwent redo AVR between 2000 and 2012 (excluding mechanical PAS, severe other valve disease transcatheter AVR, and LV ejection fraction <50%). Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was calculated. Standard echocardiography data were obtained. LV-GLS was measured on 2-, 3-, and 4-chamber views using velocity vector imaging. Severe PAS was defined as aortic valve area <0.8 cm(2), mean aortic valve gradient ≥40 mm Hg, and dimensionless index <0.25. A composite outcome of death and congestive heart failure admission was recorded. At baseline, mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, LV ejection fraction, mean aortic valve gradients, and right ventricular systolic pressure were 7±6, 58±6%, 54±10 mm Hg and 40±14 mm Hg, whereas 50% had >2+ aortic regurgitation. Median LV-GLS was -14.2% (-11.4, -17.1%). At 4.2±3 years, 41 (22%) patients met the composite end point (2.5% deaths and 1% strokes at 30 days postoperatively). On multivariable Cox survival analysis, LV-GLS was independently associated with longer-term composite events (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.33), P<0.01. The C statistic for the clinical model (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, degree of aortic regurgitation, and right ventricular systolic pressure) was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.79), P<0.001. Addition of LV-GLS to the clinical model increased the C statistic

  10. Attitude towards one's illness vs. attitude towards a surgical operation, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm and asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Stanisić, M; Rzepa, T

    2012-08-01

    Two most frequent asymptomatic diseases qualifying for vascular surgery are abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Emotions experienced by the patient activate processes of dealing with the cognitive dissonance of asymptomatic disease. The aim of this paper was to compare the reasons involved in decision making on surgery in two asymptomatic vascular pathologies. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the ICAS group-27 (CAS or CEA) and the AAA group-23 (EVAR or open surgical operation (OSR). Specific questionnaire regarding: 1) self-image; 2) attitude to one's illness; 3) reasons for decision on surgery was applied for the study. The χ² test was used to for the analysis. The AAA patients reacted emotionally (88.2%) comparing to ICAS patients reacting "rationally" (59.3%) (α=0.05). In AAA patients attitude towards themselves had worsened (α=0.001) AAA patients were less likely to seek support in decision on surgery (α=0.01). ICAS patients are internally motivated (78.7%), whereas AAA patients are externally motivated (63.9%) (α=0.001). Reasons underlying the decision on surgery, were predominantly rational (55.8%). In the process of decision-making on surgery by asymptomatic patients, evolutionary transformation takes place - the emotional attitude to one's illness leads to rationally evaluated decision. Regardless of the causes the process of making a decision on surgical operation tended to run more smoothly in ICAS patients. The ICAS patients tended to display a rational attitude to their illness. AAA patients displayed a distinctly emotional attitude towards their illness.

  11. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... evaluation of aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 29, 2014. Mohty D, ... Valvular heart disease in elderly adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 2, 2014. Bonow RO, ...

  12. [Congenital aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M

    2001-08-01

    Recent advances in and controversies concerning the management of children with congenital valvular aortic stenosis are discussed. In neonates with critical aortic stenosis, improved survival has recently been reported after surgical open valvotomy and balloon valvuloplasty, although it is difficult at this point to compare the results of the two procedures and determine their differential indications. Good results have also been achieved after extended aortic valvuloplasty for recurrent aortic stenosis and/or insufficiency, but the length of follow-up in these patients is still short. The technique first reported in 1991 for bilateral enlargement fo a small annulus permits the insertion of an aortic valve 3-4 sizes larger than the native annulus. It entails no risk of distorting the mitral valve, damaging the conduction system or important branches of the coronary arteries, or resulting in left ventricular dysfunction. The Ross procedure is now widely applied in the West, with reports of early mortality rates of less than 5% and event-free survival rates of 80-90% during follow-up of 4-8 years. Longer follow-up and continued careful evaluation are required to resolve the issue of possible dilatation and subsequent neoaortic valve dysfunction and pulmonary stenosis due to allograft degeneration after pulmonary autograft root replacement in children.

  13. Rationale and design of the PRognostic Importance of MIcrovascular Dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with Aortic Stenosis (PRIMID-AS): a multicentre observational study with blinded investigations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anvesha; Ford, Ian; Greenwood, John P; Khan, Jamal N; Uddin, Akhlaque; Berry, Colin; Neubauer, Stefan; Prendergast, Bernard; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Williams, Bryan; Samani, Nilesh J; McCann, Gerry P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aortic stenosis (AS) is the commonest valve disorder in the developed world requiring surgery. Surgery in patients with severe asymptomatic AS remains controversial. Exercise testing can identify asymptomatic patients at increased risk of death and symptom development, but with limited specificity, especially in older adults. Cardiac MRI (CMR), including myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) may be a novel imaging biomarker in AS. Aims (1) To improve risk stratification in asymptomatic patients with AS and (2) to determine whether MPR is a better predictor of outcome than exercise testing and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Method/design Multicentre, prospective observational study in the UK, comparing MPR with exercise testing and BNP (with blinded CMR analysis) for predicting outcome. Population 170 asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe AS, who would be considered for aortic valve replacement (AVR). Primary outcome Composite of: typical symptoms necessitating referral for AVR and major adverse cardiovascular events. Follow-up: 12–30 months (minimum 12 months). Primary hypothesis MPR will be a better predictor of outcome than exercise testing and BNP. Ethics/dissemination The study has full ethical approval and is actively recruiting patients. Data collection will be completed in November 2014 and the study results will be submitted for publication within 6 months of completion. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01658345. PMID:24353258

  14. Genetics Home Reference: supravalvular aortic stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions supravalvular aortic stenosis supravalvular aortic stenosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before ...

  15. Aortic Stenosis: Changing Disease Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Rashedi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) occurs in almost 10% of adults over age 80 years with a mortality about 50% at 2 years unless outflow obstruction is relieved by aortic valve replacement (AVR). Development of AS is associated with anatomic, clinical and genetic risk factors including a bicuspid valve in 50%; clinical factors that include older age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes and elevated serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels; and genetic factors such as a polymorphism in the Lp(a) locus. Early stages of AS are characterized by focal areas of leaflet thickening and calcification. The rate of hemodynamic progression is variable but eventual severe AS is inevitable once even mild valve obstruction is present. There is no specific medical therapy to prevent leaflet calcification. Basic principles of medical therapy for asymptomatic AS are patient education, periodic echocardiographic and clinical monitoring, standard cardiac risk factor evaluation and modification and treatment of hypertension or other comorbid conditions. When severe AS is present, a careful evaluation for symptoms is needed, often with an exercise test to document symptom status and cardiac reserve. In symptomatic patients with severe AS, AVR improves survival and relieves symptoms. In asymptomatic patients with severe AS, AVR also is appropriate if ejection fraction is < 50%, disease progression is rapid or AS is very severe (aortic velocity > 5 m/s). The choice of surgical or transcatheter AVR depends on the estimated surgical risk plus other factors such as frailty, other organ system disease and procedural specific impediments. PMID:26140146

  16. Prognostic value of coronary flow reserve in asymptomatic moderate or severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and nonobstructed coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Banovic, Marko; Bosiljka, Vujisic-Tesic; Voin, Brkovic; Milan, Petrovic; Ivana, Nedeljkovic; Dejana, Popovic; Danijela, Trifunovic; Serjan, Nikolic

    2014-04-01

    Patients with moderate and severe aortic stenosis (AS) and without obstructive epicardial coronary disease have been shown to have an impairment of coronary flow reserve (CFR). We investigated the prognostic significance of CFR in predicting death during mid-to-long-term follow-up in asymptomatic patients with moderate/severe AS, preserved ejection fraction (EF), and with nonobstructed coronary arteries. A total of 127 patients with moderate or severe AS (effective orifice area of 1.5 cm(2) or less), mean age 66 ± 11 were enrolled in this prospective study. The median follow-up was 32 ± 7 months. All patients had standard Doppler echo study, coronary angiography, and adenosine-stress transthoracic Doppler echo for CFR measurement. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus, CFR, aortic valve area (AVA), maximal velocity (Vmax ), mean pressure gradient (Pmean ), energy loss index (ELI), aortic valve resistance (AVR), NT-proBNP, E/E', valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva ), and stroke work loss (SWL) were associated (P < 0.05) with death. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only Zva and CFR were independent predictors of death, with the CFR being the single strongest predictor (Table 2). Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, the CFR value of 1.85 had the highest accuracy in predicting the death during mid-to-long-term follow-up (area under the curve; AUC 0.890, P = 0.009, sensitivity 96.3%, specificity 75%; 95% CI 0.287-0.946; Fig. 1). The Zva value of 5.52 Hg/mL per m had a sensitivity 70.0% and specificity 72.0% (AUC 0.766, 95% CI 0.587-0.946; P = 0.005). This study demonstrates that CFR has a prognostic value in patients with asymptomatic moderate or severe AS with preserved EF and nonobstructed coronary arteries. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  18. Severe aortic stenosis: forgotten associations.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Ana Rita; Amorim, Sandra; Campelo, Manuel; Martins, Elisabete; Lopez Rodriguez, Elisa; Coelho, Rosa; Macedo, Guilherme; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2014-09-01

    The authors present the case of a 68-year-old man with predominantly right heart failure in the context of severe aortic stenosis associated with pulmonary hypertension. Anemia was diagnosed which, after endoscopic study, was considered to be secondary to angiodysplasia and a diagnosis of Heyde syndrome was made. After valve replacement surgery the patient's heart failure improved and hemoglobin levels stabilized. We present this case to show the need to recognize less common associations of severe aortic stenosis, in order to provide immediate and appropriate treatment.

  19. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis: reproducibility and comparison with age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anvesha; Horsfield, Mark A; Bekele, Soliana; Khan, Jamal N; Greiser, Andreas; McCann, Gerry P

    2015-07-01

    (i) To establish the test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (AS), (ii) to compare reproducibility using motion-corrected (MOCO) parametric T1 maps for analysis vs. full MOLLI series of images, and (iii) to compare T1 and ECV between patients and age-matched controls. 3 T cardiac MRI was performed twice on 10 patients (median interval 7 days) to assess reproducibility. An additional 40 patients and 22 asymptomatic controls underwent a single MRI. Native T1 and ECV were calculated by outlining the myocardium on T1 maps generated inline, and using an offline T1 fit on the MOCO multiple inversion-time raw image series, in the reproducibility cohort (n = 10). Reproducibility was excellent using the inline T1 maps (CoVs for T1: 1.77%; ECV: 6.52%) and good using the full MOLLI series (CoVs for T1: 8.52%; ECV: 12.98%). On comparing AS and controls, who were well matched for age, gender and co-morbidities, there was no significant difference in the native T1 or ECV (T1 = 1103.32 ± 33.07 vs. 1092.27 ± 34.29; ECV = 0.243 ± 0.019 vs. 0.251 ± 0.026 in patients and controls, P > 0.05), which was maintained even after splitting the patients into moderate and severe AS subgroups. The test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 quantification using MOLLI is excellent in patients with AS and is highest using inline generated T1 maps for analysis. There was no difference in native myocardial T1 or ECV between asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe AS and age-matched controls without valve disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Misconceptions and Facts About Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Argulian, Edgar; Windecker, Stephan; Messerli, Franz H

    2017-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease leading to intervention, and it is typically a disease of the elderly. Recent clinical advances have expanded the role of transcatheter aortic valve intervention in patients with severe aortic stenosis, making aortic valve intervention feasible and effective even in patients at intermediate, high, and prohibitive surgical risk. With the rapid advances in treatment, proper diagnosis becomes crucial for a wide range of patients with aortic stenosis: from "concordant" high-gradient aortic stenosis to "discordant" low-gradient aortic stenosis. The latter group commonly presents a clinical challenge requiring thoughtful and comprehensive evaluation to determine eligibility for aortic valve intervention. Providers at all levels should be familiar with basic diagnostic caveats and misconceptions when evaluating patients with possible aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  2. Specific changes in circulating cytokines and growth factors induced by exercise stress testing in asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kolasa-Trela, Renata; Konieczynska, Malgorzata; Bazanek, Marta; Undas, Anetta

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated exercise-induced changes in the profile of circulating cytokines and growth factors in patients with AS. We studied 32 consecutive asymptomatic moderate-to-severe AS patients and 32 age and sex-matched controls. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured at 4 time points, i.e. at rest, at peak bicycle exercise, one hour and 24 hours after a symptom-limited exercise. Exercise increased all the 5 markers in both groups (all p<0.0001). The maximum levels of all tested cytokines were higher in the AS group (all p<0.05) compared with controls. In AS patients the highest levels of VEGF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed one hour after exercise, while in the control group at peak exercise. In both groups maximum TGF- β levels were observed one hour after exercise. HGF levels were higher at peak and one hour after test in the AS group (p = 0.0001), however the maximum value in AS was observed at peak while in controls after test. In both groups TGF-β was the only marker that remained increased 24 hours after exercise compared with the value at rest (p = 0.0001). The cytokines and growth factors showed no association with heart rate and the workload. In asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe AS, exercise produces a different pattern of changes in circulating cytokines and growth factors, and maximum levels of all tested cytokines were significantly higher in AS patients compared with the control group.

  3. Specific changes in circulating cytokines and growth factors induced by exercise stress testing in asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolasa-Trela, Renata; Konieczynska, Malgorzata; Bazanek, Marta; Undas, Anetta

    2017-01-01

    Background We evaluated exercise-induced changes in the profile of circulating cytokines and growth factors in patients with AS. Methods We studied 32 consecutive asymptomatic moderate-to-severe AS patients and 32 age and sex-matched controls. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured at 4 time points, i.e. at rest, at peak bicycle exercise, one hour and 24 hours after a symptom-limited exercise. Results Exercise increased all the 5 markers in both groups (all p<0.0001). The maximum levels of all tested cytokines were higher in the AS group (all p<0.05) compared with controls. In AS patients the highest levels of VEGF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed one hour after exercise, while in the control group at peak exercise. In both groups maximum TGF- β levels were observed one hour after exercise. HGF levels were higher at peak and one hour after test in the AS group (p = 0.0001), however the maximum value in AS was observed at peak while in controls after test. In both groups TGF-β was the only marker that remained increased 24 hours after exercise compared with the value at rest (p = 0.0001). The cytokines and growth factors showed no association with heart rate and the workload. Conclusion In asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe AS, exercise produces a different pattern of changes in circulating cytokines and growth factors, and maximum levels of all tested cytokines were significantly higher in AS patients compared with the control group. PMID:28291817

  4. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and close once ... valve consists of three tightly fitting, triangular-shaped flaps of tissue called cusps. Some children are born ...

  5. Association Between Gout and Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kevin; Yokose, Chio; Tenner, Craig; Oh, Cheongeun; Donnino, Robert; Choy-Shan, Alana; Pike, Virginia C; Shah, Binita D; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Sedlis, Steven P; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-02-01

    An independent association between gout and coronary artery disease is well established. The relationship between gout and valvular heart disease, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gout and aortic stenosis. We performed a retrospective case-control study. Aortic stenosis cases were identified through a review of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) reports. Age-matched controls were randomly selected from patients who had undergone TTE and did not have aortic stenosis. Charts were reviewed to identify diagnoses of gout and the earliest dates of gout and aortic stenosis diagnosis. Among 1085 patients who underwent TTE, 112 aortic stenosis cases were identified. Cases and nonaortic stenosis controls (n = 224) were similar in age and cardiovascular comorbidities. A history of gout was present in 21.4% (n = 24) of aortic stenosis subjects compared with 12.5% (n = 28) of controls (unadjusted odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.48, P = .038). Multivariate analysis retained significance only for gout (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00-4.32, P = .049). Among subjects with aortic stenosis and gout, gout diagnosis preceded aortic stenosis diagnosis by 5.8 ± 1.6 years. The age at onset of aortic stenosis was similar among patients with and without gout (78.7 ± 1.8 vs 75.8 ± 1.0 years old, P = .16). Aortic stenosis patients had a markedly higher prevalence of precedent gout than age-matched controls. Whether gout is a marker of, or a risk factor for, the development of aortic stenosis remains uncertain. Studies investigating the potential role of gout in the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis are warranted and could have therapeutic implications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Celiac Axis Stenosis: Incidence and Etiologies in Asymptomatic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang Min; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Results Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. Conclusion The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition. PMID:11752963

  7. Diabetes, intracranial stenosis and microemboli in asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Thach D; Lammers, Stephanie; Munoz, Claudio; Tamayo, Arturo; Spence, J David

    2013-03-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is now so low that it is important to have methods to identify those patients most likely to benefit from intervention, or who may require special consideration in choice of medical therapy. We studied the prediction of stroke, death or transient ischemic attacks (stroke/death/TIA) in patients with ACS by intracranial arterial stenosis, and microemboli on transcranial Doppler (TCD), and the effect of diabetes mellitus on microemboli, intracranial stenosis and risk of events. Patients with ACS > 60% by Doppler ultrasound were recruited from the Stroke Prevention Clinic of University Hospital, London, Canada. All 339 participants underwent TCD for detection of intracranial stenosis and detection of microemboli, and carotid ultrasound to measure extracranial stenosis and total carotid plaque area. Participants were followed for three years, to determine the risk of stroke/death/TIA. Stroke/death/TIA occurred in 38% of patients with microemboli versus 10% without (p=0.0001), and in 18% of patients with intracranial stenosis, versus 10% without (p=0.042). Diabetics were significantly more likely to have intracranial stenosis (45% vs. 29%, p =0.014), microemboli (38% vs. 10%, p <0.0001), and had significantly higher risk of stroke/death/TIA over three years (21% vs. 11% without; p=0.024). Survival free of stroke, TIA or death was significantly better without microemboli or intracranial stenosis (p<0.0001). Diabetes, microemboli and intracranial stenosis predicted higher risk of stroke, death or TIA than did extracranial stenosis or total plaque area; diabetics may need more intensive therapy.

  8. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.

  9. Supravalvular aortic stenosis in adult with anomalies of aortic arch vessels and aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Acrisio Sales; Alencar, Polyanna; Santos, Alana Neiva; Lobo, Roberto Augusto de Mesquita; de Mesquita, Fernando Antônio; Guimarães, Aloyra Guedis

    2013-01-01

    The supravalvular aortic stenosis is a rare congenital heart defect being very uncommon in adults. We present a case of supravalvular aortic stenosis in adult associated with anomalies of the aortic arch vessels and aortic regurgitation, which was submitted to aortic valve replacement and arterioplasty of the ascending aorta with a good postoperative course. PMID:24598962

  10. Low-gradient aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a ‘low-gradient’ AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm2) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA—low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. PMID:27190103

  11. Treating calcific aortic stenosis: an evolving science.

    PubMed

    Hull, Christine L

    2012-01-01

    Calcific aortic stenosis is a common valvular disease, but its pathophysiology remains undetermined and important considerations exist for treatment. Pathophysiology, treatment by the advanced practice nurse, and literature review are discussed in the context of a case study.

  12. Aortic Stenosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jessica; Naqvi, Syed Yaseen; Giri, Jay; Goldberg, Sheldon

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of aortic stenosis increases with age, affecting up to 10% of the population by the eighth decade. Once symptoms develop, aortic stenosis is rapidly fatal. Proper management requires an understanding of the physiology and criteria used to define disease severity. There is no effective pharmacologic treatment. Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the gold standard treatment for decades. However, over the last 10 years transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as an attractive, less-invasive option for appropriately selected patients. Refinements in valve design and delivery systems have led to widespread use of this breakthrough technology in selected patients. We review the pathophysiology, criteria for valve replacement, and the results of the trials comparing transcatheter aortic valve replacement with surgical aortic valve replacement.

  13. Supravalvular aortic stenosis after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field.

  14. Relationship between exercise pressure gradient and haemodynamic progression of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ringle, Anne; Levy, Franck; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Le Goffic, Caroline; Castel, Anne-Laure; Delelis, François; Menet, Aymeric; Malaquin, Dorothée; Graux, Pierre; Vincentelli, André; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    We hypothesized that large exercise-induced increases in aortic mean pressure gradient can predict haemodynamic progression during follow-up in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis. We retrospectively identified patients with asymptomatic moderate or severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area<1.5cm(2) or<1cm(2)) and normal ejection fraction, who underwent an exercise stress echocardiography at baseline with a normal exercise test and a resting echocardiography during follow-up. The relationship between exercise-induced increase in aortic mean pressure gradient and annualised changes in resting mean pressure gradient during follow-up was investigated. Fifty-five patients (mean age 66±15 years; 45% severe aortic stenosis) were included. Aortic mean pressure gradient significantly increased from rest to peak exercise (P<0.001). During a median follow-up of 1.6 [1.1-3.2] years, resting mean pressure gradient increased from 35±13mmHg to 48±16mmHg, P<0.0001. Median annualised change in resting mean pressure gradient during follow-up was 5 [2-11] mmHg. Exercise-induced increase in aortic mean pressure gradient did correlate with annualised changes in mean pressure gradient during follow-up (r=0.35, P=0.01). Hemodynamic progression of aortic stenosis was faster in patients with large exercise-induced increase in aortic mean pressure gradient (≥20mmHg) as compared to those with exercise-induced increase in aortic mean pressure gradient<20mmHg (median annualised increase in mean pressure gradient 19 [6-28] vs. 4 [2-10] mmHg/y respectively, P=0.002). Similar results were found in the subgroup of 30 patients with moderate aortic stenosis. Large exercise-induced increases in aortic mean pressure gradient correlate with haemodynamic progression of stenosis during follow-up in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the role of ESE in the decision-making process in comparison to other prognostic markers in asymptomatic

  15. [Management of aortic stenosis in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Labbé, Vincent; Ederhy, Stéphane; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Cohen, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area <1cm(2) or 0.6cm(2)/m(2) body surface area, and maximum jet velocity ≥4m/sec, and mean aortic pressure gradient ≥40mmHg) undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with symptoms (dyspnoea, angina, syncope, or heart failure). Before any surgery, clinical assessment should search for signs of aortic stenosis which justifies echocardiographic examination, particularly in the elderly. A systematic rest echocardiography with searching aortic stenosis should be considered in patients undergoing high risk surgery. The key points of pre-operative cardiac risk assessment are: assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, measurement of the functional capacity, evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function, search of associated coronary artery disease, estimate of the surgical risk of cardiac events, and achievement of risk indices. In symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, only urgent non-cardiac surgery should be performed under careful haemodynamic monitoring. Aortic valve replacement should be considered before elective non-cardiac surgery. In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement should be considered before non-cardiac high risk surgery. Non-cardiac surgery at low/intermediate risk can be performed provided an adapted anaesthetic technique.

  16. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  17. Congenital valvular aortic stenosis in young adults: predictors for rate of progression of stenosis and aortic dilatation.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Denise; Andrinopoulou, Elini-Rosalina; Oechslin, Erwin N; Budts, Werner; van Dijk, Arie P J; Pieper, Petronella G; Wajon, Elly M C J; Post, Marco C; Witsenburg, Maarten; Silversides, Candice K; Oxenius, Angela; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2013-09-30

    Congenital aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common obstructive left-sided cardiac lesion in young adults, however little is known about the progression in adults. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the progression rate of AS and aortic dilatation in a large multicenter retrospective cohort of asymptomatic young adults with congenital valvular AS. Data were obtained from chart abstraction. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the progression of AS and aortic dilatation over time. A joint model combining longitudinal echocardiographic and survival data was used for survival analysis. A total of 414 patients (age 29 ± 10 years, 68% male) were included. Median follow-up duration was 4.1 (2.5-5.1) years (1587 patient-years). Peak aortic velocity was 3.4 ± 0.7 m/s at baseline and did not change over time in the total patient population (-0.01 ± 0.03 m/s/year). Increased left ventricular mass was significantly associated with faster AS progression (p<0.001). Aortic dilatation was present in 34% at baseline and 48% at follow-up (p<0.001). The aortic diameter linearly increased over time with a rate of 0.7 ± 0.2mm/year. Rate of aortic dissection was 0.06% per patient-year. Seventy patients required an aortic valve intervention (4.4% per patient-year), with AS progression rate as most powerful predictor (HR 5.11 (95% CI 3.47-7.53)). In the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate congenital AS, AS severity does not progress over time. However patients with left ventricular hypertrophy are at risk for faster progression and should be monitored carefully. Although aortic dissections rarely occur, aortic dilatation is common and steadily progresses over time, warranting serial aortic imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aortic Stenosis and Vascular Calcifications in Alkaptonuria

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, Hwaida; Introne, Wendy J.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Lee, Sook-Jin; O'Brien, Kevin; Suwannarat, Pim; Kayser, Michael A.; Gahl, William A.; Sachdev, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports . We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications. PMID:22100375

  19. Fluid dynamics of aortic valve stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Maftoon, Nima

    2009-11-01

    Aortic valve stenosis, which causes considerable constriction of the flow passage, is one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and is the most common cause of the valvular replacements which take place for around 100,000 per year in North America. Furthermore, it is considered as the most frequent cardiac disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model considering the coupling effect between fluid flow and elastic deformation with reasonable boundary conditions to describe the effect of AS on the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulsatile and Newtonian blood flow through aortic stenosis with vascular wall deformability is analyzed and its effects are discussed in terms of flow parameters such as velocity, resistance to flow, shear stress distribution and pressure loss. Meanwhile we developed analytical expressions to improve the comprehension of the transvalvular hemodynamics and the aortic stenosis hemodynamics which is of great interest because of one main reason. To medical scientists, an accurate knowledge of the mechanical properties of whole blood flow in the aorta can suggest a new diagnostic tool.

  20. Asymptomatic Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Hemodynamic Adaptation and Successful Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a well-established possible complication following an atrial fibrillation ablation of pulmonary veins. Symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis range from asymptomatic to severe exertional dyspnea. The number of asymptomatic patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is greater than originally estimated; moreover, only about 22% of severe pulmonary vein stenosis requires intervention. We present a patient with severe postatrial fibrillation (AF) ablation pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, which was seen on multiple imaging modalities including cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiogram, lung perfusion scan, and pulmonary angiogram. This patient did not have any pulmonary symptoms. Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the clinical severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Our patient had an abnormal lung perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) scan, suggesting pulmonary artery blood flow redistribution. The patient ultimately underwent safe repeat atrial fibrillation ablation with successful elimination of arrhythmia. PMID:28105376

  1. [Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis. Initial experience].

    PubMed

    Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo; Lázaro-Castillo, José Luis; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; Macías-Miranda, Enriqueta; Dosta-Herrera, Juan José; Galván Díaz, José

    2016-12-09

    Aortic stenosis is a frequent disease in the elderly, and is associated with other systemic pathologies that may contraindicate the surgical procedure. Another option for these patients is percutaneous aortic valve implantation, which is less invasive. We present our initial experience with this procedure. Patients with aortic stenosis were included once selection criteria were accomplished. Under general anaesthesia and echocardiographic and fluosocopic control, a transcatheter aortic valve was implanted following s valvuloplasty. Once concluded the procedure, angiographic and pressure control was realized in order to confirm the valve function. Between November 2014 and May 2015, 6 patients were treated (4 males and 2 females), with a mean age of 78.83±5.66 years-old. The preoperative transvalvular gradient was 90.16±28.53mmHg and posterior to valve implant was 3.33±2.92mmHg (P<.05). Two patients had concomitant coronary artery disease which had been treated previously. One patient presented with acute right coronary artery occlusion which was immediately treated. However due to previous renal failure, postoperative sepsis and respiratory failure, the patient died one month later. It was concluded that our preliminary results showed that in selected patients percutaneous aortic valve implantation is a safe procedure with clinical improvement for treated patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is associated with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lal, Brajesh K; Dux, Moira C; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Goldstein, Carly; Khan, Amir A; Yokemick, John; Zhao, Limin

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, coronary artery disease) and stroke can lead to vascular cognitive impairment. The Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Cognitive Function study evaluated the isolated impact of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (no prior ipsilateral or contralateral stroke or transient ischemic attack) on cognitive function. Cerebrovascular hemodynamic and carotid plaque characteristics were analyzed to elucidate potential mechanisms affecting cognition. There were 82 patients with ≥50% asymptomatic carotid stenosis and 62 controls without stenosis but matched for vascular comorbidities who underwent neurologic, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Overall cognitive function and five domain-specific scores were computed. Duplex ultrasound with Doppler waveform and B-mode imaging defined the degree of stenosis, least luminal diameter, plaque area, and plaque gray-scale median. Breath-holding index (BHI) and microembolization were measured using transcranial Doppler. We assessed cognitive differences between stenosis patients and control patients and of stenosis patients with low vs high BHI and correlated cognitive function with microembolic counts and plaque characteristics. Stenosis and control patients did not differ in vascular risk factors, education, estimated intelligence, or depressive symptoms. Stenosis patients had worse composite cognitive scores (P = .02; Cohen's d = 0.43) and domain-specific scores for learning/memory (P = .02; d = 0.42) and motor/processing speed (P = .01; d = 0.65), whereas scores for executive function were numerically lower (P = .08). Approximately 49.4% of all stenosis patients were impaired in at least two cognitive domains. Precisely 50% of stenosis patients demonstrated a reduced BHI. Stenosis patients with reduced BHI performed worse on the overall composite cognitive score (t = -2.1; P = .02; d = 0.53) and tests for learning

  3. Left innominate vein stenosis in an asymptomatic population: a retrospective analysis of 212 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangjiang; Shi, Yaxue; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Lan; Xue, Guanhua; Gu, Leyi; Hao, Changning; Yang, Shuofei; Kan, Kejia

    2017-01-23

    Although left innominate vein (LIV) stenosis has been demonstrated to be attributed to compression by adjacent anatomical structures, most of the studies are focusing on hemodialysis patients with clinical symptoms compatible with LIV stenosis. The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence of LIV stenosis and its influencing factors in an asymptomatic, non-hemodialysis population, which has rarely been performed. From Jan 2013 to Dec 2014, 212 consecutive cases undergoing a chest multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography were enrolled. LIV stenosis was defined as loss of the area of the LIV (that is, 1 - compression degree) >25%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the independent risk factors associated with LIV stenosis. LIV stenosis occurred in 35.4% of cases (75/212), with the median loss of the area of the LIV of 36.2% (interquartile range 30.2-49.8%). There were significant differences in age (62.5 ± 11.7 vs. 58.6 ± 14.3 years; P = 0.041), BMI (23.9 ± 2.9 vs. 23.0 ± 3.3, P = 0.036), the frequency of crossing site of LIV over the origin of the aortic arch (54.7 vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001), and the space between aortic arch and sternum [mean ± SD, 11.6 ± 4.2 mm vs. median, 14.1 (interquartile range 11.9-16.3) mm, P < 0.001] between patients with and without LIV stenosis, but only the latter two were confirmed as independent factors by the multivariate logistic regression analysis [crossing site of LIV over the aortic arch, OR (95% CI) = 2.632 (1.401, 4.944), P = 0.003; space between the aortic arch and sternum, OR (95% CI) = 0.841 (0.770, 0.919), P < 0.001]. The patients with an older age, high BMI, LIV crossing over the origin of the aortic arch, or smaller space between aortic arch and sternum may have high risks for LIV stenosis. They should be paid more attention to exclude LIV stenosis preoperatively using MDCT angiography to prevent venous access

  4. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement for inoperable severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Raj R; Fontana, Gregory P; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Kapadia, Samir; Pichard, Augusto D; Douglas, Pamela S; Thourani, Vinod H; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Webb, John G; Herrmann, Howard C; Bavaria, Joseph E; Kodali, Susheel; Brown, David L; Bowers, Bruce; Dewey, Todd M; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, Murat; Moses, Jeffrey W; Williams, Matthew R; Siegel, Robert J; Akin, Jodi J; Anderson, William N; Pocock, Stuart; Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B

    2012-05-03

    Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is the recommended therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery. The outcomes beyond 1 year in such patients are not known. We randomly assigned patients to transfemoral TAVR or to standard therapy (which often included balloon aortic valvuloplasty). Data on 2-year outcomes were analyzed. A total of 358 patients underwent randomization at 21 centers. The rates of death at 2 years were 43.3% in the TAVR group and 68.0% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001), and the corresponding rates of cardiac death were 31.0% and 62.4% (P<0.001). The survival advantage associated with TAVR that was seen at 1 year remained significant among patients who survived beyond the first year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.92; P=0.02 with the use of the log-rank test). The rate of stroke was higher after TAVR than with standard therapy (13.8% vs. 5.5%, P=0.01), owing, in the first 30 days, to the occurrence of more ischemic events in the TAVR group (6.7% vs. 1.7%, P=0.02) and, beyond 30 days, to the occurrence of more hemorrhagic strokes in the TAVR group (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.16). At 2 years, the rate of rehospitalization was 35.0% in the TAVR group and 72.5% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001). TAVR, as compared with standard therapy, was also associated with improved functional status (P<0.001). The data suggest that the mortality benefit after TAVR may be limited to patients who do not have extensive coexisting conditions. Echocardiographic analysis showed a sustained increase in aortic-valve area and a decrease in aortic-valve gradient, with no worsening of paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Among appropriately selected patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVR reduced the rates of death and hospitalization, with a decrease in symptoms and an improvement in valve hemodynamics that were sustained at 2 years of

  5. Normal rate of ventricular emptying in valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, S M; Gash, A K; Bove, A A; Spann, J F

    1981-01-01

    The delayed upstroke of the arterial pulse in valvular aortic stenosis has been attributed, in part, to prolonged left ventricular emptying. Left ventricular emptying rate, however, has not been measured in aortic stenosis. We assessed the rate of left ventricular emptying by computer analysis of biplane cineangiograms in seven normal subjects, six patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 12 patients with severe aortic stenosis. As an indicator of delayed arterial pulse rise, T time index (time to half maximum aortic pressure corrected for heart rate) was measured in each group. T time index averaged 0.07 +/- 0.01 units in normal subjects, 0.14 +/- 0.04 units in the patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 0.13 +/- 0.05 units in those with severe aortic stenosis. Patients with mild to moderate and severe aortic stenosis differed significantly from normal subjects. Relative emptying rates were defined as the percentage of initial systolic volume ejected divided by the percentage of systole elapsed. These relative emptying rates were determined during the first, second, and third thirds of systole in all three groups. No significant decrease in the relative rate of left ventricular emptying was noted when each group of patients with aortic stenosis was compared with the normal subjects. Neither was there slowing in the actual rate of ejection of blood in ml per second throughout systole. We conclude that the rate of ventricular emptying is normal in aortic stenosis and does not explain the arterial pulse delay in this disease. PMID:7295438

  6. Efficacy of Stentless Aortic Bioprosthesis Implantation for Aortic Stenosis with Small Aortic Annulus.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Takashi; Okada, Yukikatsu; Kanemitsu, Hideo; Fukunaga, Naoto; Konishi, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Ken; Koyama, Tadaaki

    2015-09-01

    In patients with small aortic annulus, sufficient size of stented aortic bioprosthesis cannot be implanted without additional procedures. In such cases, we use stentless aortic bioprosthesis to obtain sufficient effective orifice area. In this study, we investigated long-term impact of stentless aortic bioprosthesis on clinical outcomes, compared with stented aortic bioprosthesis. We retrospectively investigated 140 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with porcine bioprosthesis for severe aortic stenosis between 1999 and 2010. Patients who had moderate or more aortic regurgitation and who underwent concomitant mitral procedures were excluded. A total of 69 patients (49%) were implanted stentless bioprosthesis (Freestyle group; Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States) and 71 patients (51%) were implanted stented bioprosthesis (Mosaic group; Medtronic Inc). Follow-up was complete in 97.9% patients. Median follow-up period was 4.2 years. Patients in Freestyle group had smaller body surface area, smaller aortic annulus diameter, smaller aortic valve area, larger mean pressure gradient, higher peak velocity across aortic valve, larger left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Mean size of implanted prosthesis was larger in Freestyle group. In-hospital mortality was 1.4% in Freestyle group and 2.8% in Mosaic group (p = 0.980). Five-year survival rate was not different between two groups (5-year survival rate was 87.5 ± 4.7% in Freestyle group and 84.1 ± 7.5% in Mosaic group; log rank, p = 0.619). Late New York Heart Association functional class was lower in Freestyle group. Late LVMI and LVEF became similar between two groups. Stentless aortic bioprosthesis is superior in left ventricular remodeling after AVR for aortic stenosis and is especially effective for small aortic annulus. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Subcoronary versus supracoronary aortic stenosis. an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Valvular aortic stenosis is the most common cause of left ventricular hypertrophy due to gradually increasing pressure work. As the stenosis develop the left ventricular hypertrophy may lead to congestive heart failure, increased risk of perioperative complications and also increased risk of sudden death. A functional porcine model imitating the pathophysiological nature of valvular aortic stenosis is very much sought after in order to study the geometrical and pathophysiological changes of the left ventricle, timing of surgery and also pharmacological therapy in this patient group. Earlier we developed a porcine model for aortic stenosis based on supracoronary aortic banding, this model may not completely imitate the pathophysiological changes that occurs when valvular aortic stenosis is present including the coronary blood flow. It would therefore be desirable to optimize this model according to the localization of the stenosis. Methods In 20 kg pigs subcoronary (n = 8), supracoronary aortic banding (n = 8) or sham operation (n = 4) was preformed via a left lateral thoracotomy. The primary endpoint was left ventricular wall thickness; secondary endpoints were heart/body weight ratio and the systolic/diastolic blood flow ratio in the left anterior descending coronary. Statistical evaluation by oneway anova and unpaired t-test. Results Sub- and supracoronary banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy compared with the control group. The coronary blood flow ratio was slightly but not significantly higher in the supracoronary group (ratio = 0.45) compared with the two other groups (subcoronary ratio = 0.36, control ratio = 0.34). Conclusions A human pathophysiologically compatible porcine model for valvular aortic stenosis was developed by performing subcoronary aortic banding. Sub- and supracoronary aortic banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. This model may be valid for experimental investigations of aortic

  8. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Griffin, Maura; Sabetai, Michael; Thomas, Dafydd J; Tegos, Thomas; Geroulakos, George; Labropoulos, Nicos; Doré, Caroline J; Morris, Tim P; Naylor, Ross; Abbott, Anne L

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. This was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients undergoing medical intervention for vascular disease. Hazard ratios for ICA stenosis, clinical features, and plaque texture features associated with ipsilateral cerebrovascular or retinal ischemic (CORI) events were calculated using proportional hazards models. A total of 1121 patients with 50% to 99% asymptomatic ICA stenosis in relation to the bulb (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) were followed-up for 6 to 96 months (mean, 48). A total of 130 ipsilateral CORI events occurred. Severity of stenosis, age, systolic blood pressure, increased serum creatinine, smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, history of contralateral transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke, low grayscale median (GSM), increased plaque area, plaque types 1, 2, and 3, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) without acoustic shadowing were associated with increased risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for predicted risk versus observed CORI events as a measure of model validity. The areas under the ROC curves for a model of stenosis alone, a model of stenosis combined with clinical features and a model of stenosis combined with clinical, and plaque features were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64), 0.66 (0.62-0.72), and 0.82 (0.78-0.86), respectively. In the last model, stenosis, history of contralateral TIAs or stroke, GSM, plaque area, and DWAs were independent predictors of ipsilateral CORI events. Combinations of these could stratify patients into different levels of risk for ipsilateral CORI and stroke, with predicted risk close to observed risk. Of the 923 patients with ≥ 70% stenosis, the predicted cumulative

  9. Left coronary artery stenosis causing left ventricular dysfunction in two children with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Okan; Altin, Firat H; Kaya, Mehmet; Ozyılmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Erek, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an arteriopathy associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and other isolated elastin gene deletions. Cardiovascular manifestations associated with WBS are characterized by obstructive arterial lesions such as SVAS and pulmonary artery stenosis in addition to bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. However, coronary artery ostial stenosis may be associated with SVAS, and it increases the risk of sudden death and may complicate surgical management. In this report, we present our experience with two patients having SVAS and left coronary artery ostial stenosis with associated left ventricular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Echocardiographic aortic valve calcification and outcomes in women and men with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henrik K; Cioffi, Giovanni; Gerdts, Eva; Einarsen, Eigir; Midtbø, Helga Bergljot; Mancusi, Costantino; Cramariuc, Dana

    2017-10-01

    Sex differences in risk factors of aortic valve calcification (AVC) by echocardiography have not been reported from a large prospective study in aortic stenosis (AS). AVC was assessed using a prognostically validated visual score and grouped into none/mild or moderate/severe AVC in 1725 men and women with asymptomatic AS in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. The severity of AS was assessed by the energy loss index (ELI) taking pressure recovery in the aortic root into account. More men than women had moderate/severe AVC at baseline despite less severe AS by ELI (p<0.01). Moderate/severe AVC at baseline was independently associated with lower aortic compliance and more severe AS in both sexes, and with increased high-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) only in men (all p<0.01). In Cox regression analyses, moderate/severe AVC at baseline was associated with a 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.64 to 3.80) higher hazard rate of major cardiovascular events in women, and a 2.2-fold higher hazard rate in men (95% CI 1.54 to 3.17) (both p<0.001), after adjustment for age, hypertension, study treatment, aortic compliance, left ventricular (LV) mass and systolic function, AS severity and hs-CRP. Moderate/severe AVC at baseline also predicted a 1.8-fold higher hazard rate of all-cause mortality in men (95% CI 1.04 to 3.06, p<0.05) independent of age, AS severity, LV mass and aortic compliance, but not in women. In conclusion, AVC scored by echocardiography has sex-specific characteristics in AS. Moderate/severe AVC is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity in both sexes, and with higher all-cause mortality in men. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00092677. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. [Emergent transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis in cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Pizzighini, S; Finet, G; Obadia, J-F; Revel, D; Bresson, D; Rioufol, G

    2015-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a therapeutic option for high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and with cardiac symptoms. This procedure requires the preliminary evaluation by a "heart team" and presents some contraindications. We report the case of a 58-year-old man with severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and cardiogenic shock. In spite of contraindications and because of the failure of balloon aortic valvuloplasty, transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed in emergency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement for bicuspid aortic stenosis 13years post heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maureen B; Desai, Nimesh; Brozena, Susan; Herrmann, Howard C

    2016-12-16

    Despite the widespread use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for moderate and high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, it is utilized less frequently in patients with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV). Orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) donors tend to be younger and may have undiagnosed BAV. We present a case of successful TAVR in a patient with BAV thirteen years after OHT.

  13. The relation between transaortic pressure difference and flow during dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, S; Rimington, H; Chambers, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between transaortic pressure difference and flow in patients with aortic stenosis.
METHODS—50 asymptomatic patients with all grades of aortic stenosis were studied using dobutamine stress echocardiography. Individual plots of mean pressure drop against flow were drawn. Comparisons were made between grades of aortic stenosis as defined by the continuity equation.
RESULTS—A significant linear relation between pressure difference and flow was found in 34 patients (68%). There was a significant curvilinear relation in four (8%), while no significant regression line could be fitted in 12 (24%). In the 34 patients with linear fits, the slopes (mean (SD)) were 0.08 (0.07) in mild, 0.10 (0.04) in moderate, and 0.22 (0.16) in severe aortic stenosis (p = 0.0055).
CONCLUSIONS—Transaortic pressure difference can be related directly to flow in many patients with all grades of aortic stenosis. However, there are individual differences in slope and intercept suggesting that resistance calculated at rest may not always be representative. Raw pressure drop/flow plots may be an alternative method of describing valve function.


Keywords: aortic stenosis; continuity equation; resistance; Doppler echocardiography PMID:10377300

  14. Analysis of Osteopontin Levels for the Identification of Asymptomatic Patients with Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Juan B.; Poggio, Paolo; Sainger, Rachana; Vernick, William J.; Seefried, William F.; Branchetti, Emanuela; Field, Benjamin C.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Acker, Michael A.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is the most common etiology of acquired valve disease. Initial phases of CAVD include thickening of the cusps, whereas advanced stages are associated with biomineralization and reduction of the aortic valve area. These conditions are known as Aortic Valve Sclerosis (AVSc) and Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS), respectively. Due to its asymptomatic presentation, little is know about the molecular determinants of AVSc. The aim of this study is to correlate plasma and tissue Osteopontin (OPN) levels with echocardiographic evaluation for the identification of asymptomatic patients at risk of CAVD. In addition, we aim to analyze the differential expression and biological function of OPN splicing variants as biomarkers of early and late stages of CAVD. Methods From Jan 2010 to Feb 2011, 254 patients were enrolled in the study. Subjects were divided in three groups based on transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) evaluation: Controls (56 subjects), AVSc (90), and AVS (164). Plasma and tissue OPN levels were measured by IHC, ELISA and qPCR. Results Patients with AVSc have and AVS higher OPN levels compared to controls. OPN levels are elevated in asymptomatic AVSc patients with no appearance of calcification during TEE evaluation. Osteopontin splicing variants -a, -b, and -c are differentially expressed during CAVD progression and are able to inhibit biomineralization in a cell-based biomineralization assay. Conclusions The analysis of the differential expression of OPN splicing variants during CAVD may help in developing diagnostic and risk stratification tools to follow the progression of asymptomatic AV degeneration. PMID:22093695

  15. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a bridge to aortic valve replacement in a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, B M; Jaarsma, W; Wely, L Relik-van; van Swieten, H A; Ernst, J M P G; Plokker, H W M

    2003-03-01

    This case report describes a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis who was initially considered inoperable because of a very poor left ventricular function and severe pulmonary hypertension. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty, the clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient improved to such an extent that subsequent aortic valve replacement was considered possible and eventually proved to be successful. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has value as a potential bridge to aortic valve replacement when the risks for surgery are considered to be too high.

  16. Management of concomitant large aortic aneurysm and severe stenosis of aortic arc.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shiyan; Sun, Guang; Yang, Yuguang; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Primary large saccular aortic aneurysm with high grade stenosis of aortic arc is rare, and no standard therapy is available. We have encountered one case and successfully treated using a hybrid interventional approach. A 59-year-old woman with a 7-day history of headache, dizziness and chest pain, and a 5-year history of hypertension admitted and was diagnosed with transverse aortic aneurysm with sever aortic stenosis, the huge saccular aneurysm was located behind the transverse aortic arc. During surgery, a bypass with graft from ascending aorta to left external iliac artery was made initially in order to ensure the blood supply to the left leg, afterward, a 40 mm × 160 mm covered stent was implanted to cover the orifice of aneurysm and was used as a supporting anchorage in the descending aorta, a second covered stent (20 mm × 100 mm) was implanted to expand the stenosis of aortic arc. Follow-up at 1.5-year after surgery, the patient has been doing well without any surgical complication. A collateral pathway between internal mammary artery and inferior epigastric artery via the superior epigastric artery was found on3-dimensional reconstruction before surgery. Interruption of the compensatory arterial collateral pathway in the patient with severe stenosis of aortic arc should be prevented if possible in order to ensure the satisfactory perfusion of the lower limbs of the body.In conclusion, a patient with transverse aortic aneurysm accompanied with severe aortic stenosis can be treated by hybrid surgery.

  17. Severe Aortic Stenosis Associated with Unicommissural Unicuspid Aortic Valve in a Middle Aged Male

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hee-Jin; Kim, Song Soo; Sun, Byung Joo; Jin, Sun Ah; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Siwan; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Seong, In-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is an extremely rare form of congenital aortic valvular abnormality. Although UAV shows similar clinical characteristics to bicuspid aortic valve, the clinical symptoms develop at earlier age and progress at a faster pace in UAV. In this report, we are presenting a 42-year-old male with severe aortic stenosis associated with unicommissural UAV. The patients underwent a successful Bentall operation. PMID:27721957

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of unoperated patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bach, David S

    2011-05-01

    Although aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the preferred therapy for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), a substantial number of patients with indications for surgery do not undergo AVR. The study aim was to address, at multiple geographic locations and practice settings, the prevalence of unoperated patients with severe AS, and to explore potential barriers to intervention. The medical records at 10 centers of various size and geographic distribution were reviewed retrospectively to identify patients with clinically severe AS (echocardiography/Doppler mean gradient > or = 40 mm Hg, effective orifice area < 1.0 cm2, or an overall interpretation of severe AS; and no clinical contradiction of severe AS). Demographic, clinical and outcomes data were recorded, including referral to a cardiothoracic surgeon (CTS), performance of AVR, and rationale when no AVR was performed. Of 952 patients who met the criteria for clinically severe AS, 497 (52%) were referred to a CTS for evaluation for AVR; subsequently, 395 patients (41%) underwent AVR and 557 (59%) were unoperated. Trends were similar across the institutions. Symptoms were present in 666 (79%) of 842 patients with available data, including 296 of 340 (87%) operated patients and 370 of 502 (74%) unoperated patients. Those patients referred to a CTS were younger, more often male, had higher aortic valve gradients, and more often were symptomatic. The dominant reasons cited for not undergoing AVR were comorbidities or high operative risk, advanced age or limited life expectancy, asymptomatic status, and patient or family refusal. The one-year survival was 94 +/- 2% for operated patients, and 69 +/- 3% for unoperated patients (66 +/- 3% for unoperated symptomatic and 78 +/- 5% for unoperated asymptomatic patients). In this multicenter survey, only about one-half of the patients with severe AS were referred to a CTS, and only about 40% underwent AVR. Three-quarters of unoperated patients were symptomatic. Referral to

  19. Haemodynamic and anatomic progression of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Estellat, Candice; Codogno, Isabelle; Huart, Virginie; Benessiano, Joelle; Duval, Xavier; Pibarot, Philippe; Clavel, Marie Annick; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2015-06-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a progressive disease, but the impact of baseline AS haemodynamic or anatomic severity on AS progression remains unclear. In 149 patients (104 mild AS, 36 moderate AS and 9 severe AS) enrolled in 2 ongoing prospective cohorts (COFRASA/GENERAC), we evaluated AS haemodynamic severity at baseline and yearly, thereafter, using echocardiography (mean pressure gradient (MPG)) and AS anatomic severity using CT (degree of aortic valve calcification (AVC)). After a mean follow-up of 2.9±1.0 years, mean MGP increased from 22±11 to 30±16 mm Hg (+3±3 mm Hg/year), and mean AVC from 1108±891 to 1640±1251 AU (arbitrary units) (+188±176 AU/year). Progression of AS was strongly related to baseline haemodynamic severity (+2±3 mm Hg/year in mild AS, +4±3 mm Hg/year in moderate AS and +5±5 mm Hg/year in severe AS (p=0.01)), and baseline haemodynamic severity was an independent predictor of haemodynamic progression (p=0.0003). Annualised haemodynamic and anatomic progression rates were significantly correlated (r=0.55, p<0.0001), but AVC progression rate was also significantly associated with baseline haemodynamic severity (+141±133 AU/year in mild AS, +279±189 AU/year in moderate AS and +361±293 AU/year in severe AS, p<0.0001), and both baseline MPG and baseline AVC were independent determinants of AVC progression (p<0.0001). AS progressed faster with increasing haemodynamic or anatomic severity. Our results suggest that a medical strategy aimed at preventing AVC progression may be useful in all subsets of patients with AS including those with severe AS and support the recommended closer follow-up of patients with AS as AS severity increases. COFRASA (clinicalTrial.gov number NCT 00338676) and GENERAC (clinicalTrial.gov number NCT00647088). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Serum and tissue biomarkers in aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Tsourelis, Loukas; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Cokkinos, Dennis V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is seen in a large proportion of individuals over 60 years. It is an active process, influenced by lipid accumulation, mechanical stress, inflammation, and abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. Various biomarkers (BMs) are studied, as regards mechanisms, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: In the calcified valves calcium deposition, elastin fragmentation and disorganization of cellular matrix were assessed, together with expression of OPN, OPG, osteocalcin (OCN) and RL2. We prospectively studied the following serum BMs in 60 patients with CAVS and compared them to 20 healthy controls, free from any cardiac disease: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), which regulate collagen turnover, inflammatory factors, i.e. tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) which regulates fibrosis, fetuin-A (fet-A), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and relaxin-2 (RL2) which positively or negatively regulate calcification. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also studied as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) an oxidative marker. Results: Extent of tissue valve calcification (Alizarin Red stain) was negatively correlated with tissue elastin, and RL2, and positively correlated with tissue OCN and serum TIMP1 and MCP-1 and negatively with MMP9. Tissue OCN was positively correlated with OPN and negatively with the elastin. Tissue OPN was negatively correlated with elastin and OPG. Tissue OPN OPG and RL2 were not correlated with serum levels In the serum we found in patients statistically lower TIMP1, fet-A and RL2 levels, while all other BMs were higher compared to the healthy group. Positive correlations between SOST and IL2, OPG and MDA but negative with TNFa and OPN were found; also MMP9 was negatively correlated with TNFa and MCP-1

  1. Critical aortic stenosis and acute ascending aortic penetrating ulcer managed utilizing transapical TAVR and TEVAR.

    PubMed

    Allen, Keith B; Davis, J Russell; Cohen, David J

    2015-10-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of acute ascending aortic pathology is feasible; however, the unique features of this aortic segment in addition to access challenges restricts its use to a select, high-risk subset of patients. With the advent of TAVR, large device delivery using transapical access has become a well-defined technique. We report a patient with critical aortic stenosis and an acute ascending aortic penetrating ulcer with tamponade managed successfully utilizing transapical TAVR and TEVAR. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a hybrid single-stage TAVR and ascending aortic TEVAR using transapical access.

  2. Patch annulo-aortoplasty in an adult patient with congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoto; Morimoto, Keisuke; Morimoto, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    A 39-year-old woman with familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia had supravalvular and valvular aortic stenosis. Modified Nick's procedure and aortic valve replacement was performed to relieve both the supravalvular and annular stenoses. At surgery, the ascending aorta was found to be narrowing at the level of the sinotubular junction, which was compatible with congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis. Histological examination of the aortic cusps showed sclerotic change due to hypercholesterolemia. These findings indicated that familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia caused valvular aortic stenosis and exacerbated congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis.

  3. Surgery for supravalvular aortic stenosis - the three-patch technique.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz, Elena; Koolbergen, Dave; Adsuar, Alejandro; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the three-patch technique for repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). Supravalvular aortic stenosis is a rare malformation as a result of an abnormal thickening of the aortic wall. SVAS may present in two forms: a localized form (affecting only the aortic sinotubular junction) and a diffuse form, where the aortic arch and its side branches are also affected. Since 1960, multiple surgical techniques have been described with the aim of relieving the aortic narrowing and restoring the aortic root. We present the three-patch technique as originally developed by Brom. After transection of the aorta at the sinotubular junction, three longitudinal incisions are made into the three sinuses. The aortic root geometry is then restored by placement of three separate patches of autologous pericardium in the opened sinuses. Brom's technique provides a complete and symmetric restoration of the aortic anatomy. The technique is illustrated by angiographies, surgical drawings, videos and a review of the literature. The results of the three-patch technique are good and our long-term experience will be described.

  4. [Unicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis Combined with Aortic Coarctation;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takehiro; Wakasa, Satoru; Shingu, Yasushige; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2016-06-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve in an adult is extremely rare. In addition, 90% of the patients with aortic coarctation are reported to die before the age 50. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of exertional dyspnea which had begun one year before. She had been under medical treatment for hypertension since early thirties, and had been also diagnosed with moderate aortic stenosis at 50 years of age. She was at 1st diagnosed with aortic coarctation combined with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The aortic valve was then found unicuspid and was replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass with perfusion to both the ascending aorta and the femoral artery. Repair of aortic coarctation was performed 3 months later through left thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation due to the rich collateral circulation. She had no postoperative complications, and hypertension as well as ankle-brachial index improved to the normal levels.

  5. Velocity ratio predicts outcomes in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved EF.

    PubMed

    Jander, Nikolaus; Hochholzer, Willibald; Kaufmann, Beat A; Bahlmann, Edda; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt; Chambers, John B; Nienaber, Christoph A; Ray, Simon; Rossebo, Anne; Pedersen, Terje R; Wachtell, Kristian; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Minners, Jan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of velocity ratio (VR) in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (LGSAS) and preserved EF. LGSAS despite preserved EF represents a clinically challenging entity. Reliance on mean pressure gradient (MPG) may underestimate stenosis severity as has been reported in the context of paradoxical low flow, LGSAS. On the other hand, grading of stenosis severity by aortic valve area (AVA) may overrate stenosis severity due to erroneous underestimation of LV outflow tract (LVOT) diameter, small body size or inconsistencies in cut-off values for severe stenosis. We hypothesised that VR may have conceptual advantages over MPG and AVA, predict clinical outcomes and thereby be useful in the management of patients with LGSAS. Patients from the prospective Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study with an AVA<1.0 cm(2), MPG≤40 mm Hg and EF≥55% and asymptomatic at baseline were stratified according to VR with a cut-off value of 0.25. Outcomes were evaluated according to aortic valve-related events and cardiovascular death. Of 435 patients with LGSAS, 197 (45%) had VR<0.25 suggesting severe and 238 (55%) had VR≥0.25 suggesting non-severe stenosis. Aortic valve-related events (mean follow-up 42±14 months) were more frequent in patients with VR<0.25 (57% vs 41%; p<0.001) as was cardiovascular death within the first 24 months (p<0.05). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, MPG was the strongest independent predictor of aortic valve events (p<0.001) followed by VR (p<0.02). Adjusting AVA by VR increased predictive accuracy for aortic valve events (area under the receiver operating curve 0.62 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.67) vs 0.56 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.61) for AVA, p=0.02) with net reclassification improvement calculated at 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.54, p<0.001). VR did not improve the prediction of clinical events by MPG. In the difficult setting of LGSAS, VR shows a strong association with valve-related events and-although not

  6. Nearly Asymptomatic Eight-Month Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arjun; Kumar, Krishan; Zeltser, Roman; Makaryus, Amgad N.

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is a rare, but lethal, medical condition that is either misdiagnosed as a myocardial infarction or overlooked completely. Though thoracic aortic dissections are commonly diagnosed in patients exhibiting sharp chest pain, there are some notable cases where patients do not report the expected severity of pain. We report a unique case of a patient with a thoracic aortic dissection who was initially nearly asymptomatic for eight months, in order to heighten awareness, highlight diagnosis protocol, and improve prognosis for this commonly misdiagnosed, but fatal, condition. PMID:27257400

  7. Aortic coarctation, aneurysm, and ventricular dysfunction in an asymptomatic infant.

    PubMed

    García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.

  8. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt; Chambers, John B; Egstrup, Kenneth; Nienaber, Christoph A; Pedersen, Terje R; Ray, Simon; Rossebø, Anne B; Willenheimer, Ronnie; Kienzle, Rolf-Peter; Wachtell, Kristian; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Minners, Jan

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are <1.0 cm2 for AVA and <0.6 cm2/m2 for AVAindex. To investigate the influence of indexation on the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis and on the predictive accuracy regarding clinical outcome. Echocardiographic and anthropometric data from a retrospective cohort of 2843 patients with aortic stenosis (jet velocity >2.5 m/s) and from 1525 patients prospectively followed in the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis (SEAS) trial were analysed. The prevalence of severe stenosis increased with the AVAindex criterion compared to AVA from 71% to 80% in the retrospective cohort, and from 29% to 44% in SEAS (both p<0.001). Overall, the predictive accuracy for aortic valve events was virtually identical for AVA and AVAindex in the SEAS population (mean follow-up of 46 months; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) vs. 0.68 (CI 0.65 to 0.71) (NS). However, 213 patients additionally categorised as severe by AVAindex experienced significantly less valve related events than those fulfilling only the AVA criterion (p<0.001). Indexing AVA by BSA (AVAindex) significantly increases the prevalence of patients with criteria for severe stenosis by including patients with a milder degree of the disease without improving the predictive accuracy for aortic valve related events.

  9. "Killer coronary artery" and aortic valve stenosis: A tricky case.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joseph; Labont, Béatris Alina; Houpe, David; Caus, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right coronary sinus is rarely diagnosed in elderly patients. We report such an anomaly in a 75-year-old lady presenting with chest pain and syncope. Preoperative screening revealed that her aortic valve was moderately stenotic. The patient underwent a successful unroofing procedure combined with aortic valve replacement. The outcome was uncomplicated and the patient remained asymptomatic at one year postoperatively. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis in a newborn exposed to carbamazapine during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Zehra; Karataş, Ahmet; Özlü, Tülay; Goksugur, Sevil B.; Varan, Birgül

    2014-01-01

    The use of antiepileptic drugs increases the risk of major congenital malformations during pregnancy. Here, we report an infant who had a history of in-utero carbamazepine exposure and who was born with a cardiac malformation. The infant was born at 39 weeks of gestation vaginally to an epileptic mother who had been treated with carbamazepine throughout her pregnancy. He was referred due to cardiac murmur in the second week of his life. The mother had not received folic acid supplementation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed bicuspid aortic valve, mild aortic stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale and the renal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis. Follow-up echocardiography performed 14 weeks later showed increased severity of aortic stenosis and percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed. To our knowledge, there is only one case report in the literature mentioning the association of a bicuspid aortic valve and aortic stenosis with oxcarbazepine exposure, which is a structural derivative of carbamazepine. However, there are no reports for association with carbamazepine itself. Bicuspid aorta and aortic stenosis may be among the cardiac malformations that result from the teratogenic effect of carbamazepine. PMID:25584038

  11. Myocardial remodeling with aortic stenosis and after aortic valve replacement: mechanisms and future prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, William M; Mukherjee, Rupak; Ikonomidis, John S; Zile, Michael R; Spinale, Francis G

    2012-03-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a common cause of left ventricular pressure overload, a pathologic process that elicits myocyte hypertrophy and alterations in extracellular matrix composition, both of which contribute to increases in left ventricular stiffness. However, clinical and animal studies suggest that increased myocardial extracellular matrix fibrillar collagen content occurs later in the time course of left ventricular pressure overload at a time coincident with severe abnormalities in diastolic function followed by the development of symptomatic heart failure. Aortic valve replacement remains the most effective treatment for elimination of chronic pressure overload secondary to aortic stenosis but has traditionally been recommended only after the onset of clinical symptoms. Long-term follow-up of patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis after aortic valve replacement suggests that valve replacement may not result in complete reversal of the maladaptive changes that occur within the myocardial extracellular matrix secondary to the pressure overload state. To the contrary, residual left ventricular extracellular matrix abnormalities such as these are likely responsible for persistent abnormalities in diastolic function and increased morbidity and mortality after aortic valve replacement. Defining the mechanisms and pathways responsible for regulating the myocardial extracellular matrix during the natural history of aortic stenosis may provide a means by which to detect crucial structural milestones and thereby permit more precise identification of the development of maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Supravalvular aortic stenosis. Long-term results of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    van Son, J A; Danielson, G K; Puga, F J; Schaff, H V; Rastogi, A; Edwards, W D; Feldt, R H

    1994-01-01

    To determine long-term outcome after operation for supravalvular aortic stenosis, we reviewed the case histories of 80 patients who had repair of the localized form (group A) (n = 67) or diffuse form (group B) (n = 13) from 1956 to 1992, including 31 patients with the Williams-Beuren syndrome. Ages ranged from 7 months to 54 years (mean = 12.6 years). Forty-six patients had one or more associated cardiovascular anomalies; the most common was aortic valve stenosis (33.8%). Eighteen patients had 22 previous cardiovascular operations, and 28 patients had one or more additional anomalies repaired during their initial procedure at our institution. In group A, the aortic root was enlarged with a teardrop-shaped patch (n = 61) or a pantaloon-shaped patch (n = 6). In group B, patch enlargement of the aorta was confined to the root (n = 4) or extended into the ascending aorta or aortic arch (n = 7); one patient had a graft placed between the ascending and descending thoracic aorta and one patient had a left ventricular-aortic conduit. There were no deaths in group A; two patients in group B in whom patch enlargement was confined to the aortic root died during the operation (2.5%). Follow-up extended to 33.4 years (mean = 14.2 years); there were five late deaths in group A and one in group B. Survival excluding operative mortality was 94% at 10 years and 91% at 20 years. All patients were in functional class I or II. There was no significant difference between patients with a teardrop-shaped or pantaloon-shaped patch in terms of late gradient, survival, or aortic insufficiency. By Cox multivariate model, the only independent predictor of late death for all patients was associated aortic valve disease (p = 0.02), which was also a risk factor for late reoperation (p = 0.02). In group B, overall survival was better in patients who received an extended patch versus aortic root patch only (p = 0.02). We reached the following conclusions: (1) Associated aortic valve disease was

  13. Symptoms in severe aortic stenosis are associated with decreased compensatory circumferential myocardial mechanics.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Shemy; Mutlak, Diab; Lessick, Jonathan; Reisner, Shimon A; Rakowski, Harry; Agmon, Yoram

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) demonstrate abnormal left ventricular (LV) mechanics. The aim of this study was to compare mechanics in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with severe AS using two-dimensional myocardial strain imaging. One hundred fifty-four patients with severe AS (aortic valve area ≤ 1.0 cm(2)) referred to a heart valve clinic from 2004 to 2011 were studied. Thirty patients were asymptomatic, with normal LV ejection fractions (≥ 55%), without other significant valvular disease or wall motion abnormalities. Thirty-two symptomatic patients who underwent early aortic valve replacement, with similar age, gender, LV ejection fraction, and aortic valve area, were selected for comparison. Both groups were also compared with 32 healthy subjects with similar age and gender distributions and normal echocardiographic results who served as controls. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and rotation were measured using speckle-tracking software applied to archived echocardiographic studies. Conventional echocardiographic and myocardial mechanical parameters were compared among the study subgroups. Patients with asymptomatic severe AS demonstrated smaller reductions in longitudinal strain, higher (supernormal) apical circumferential strain (-38 ± 6% vs -35 ± 4%, P < .05), and extreme (supernormal) apical rotation (12.2 ± 4.9° vs 2.9 ± 1.7°, P < .0005) compared with symptomatic patients. Apical rotation < 6° was the single significant predictor of symptoms in logistic regression analysis of clinical, echocardiographic, and mechanical parameters. Twelve asymptomatic patients underwent eventual aortic valve replacement and showed decreases in strain and apical rotation compared with baseline values. Longitudinal strain was uniformly low in patients with severe AS and lower in those with symptoms. Compensatory circumferential myocardial mechanics (increased apical circumferential strain and rotation) were absent in

  14. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with a small aortic annulus in a patient having Werner's syndrome and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, M; Kasuya, S; Yamamoto, K; Koshika, M; Oguma, F; Hayashi, J

    2001-12-01

    Werner's syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by premature aging and scleroderma-like involvement of the skin. We report a case of aortic valve replacement for severely calcified aortic valve stenosis with a small annulus in a patient suffering from Werner's syndrome and liver cirrhosis

  15. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a bridge to aortic valve replacement in a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Wely, L. Relik-van; van Swieten, H.A.; Ernst, J.M.P.G.; Plokker, H.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis who was initially considered inoperable because of a very poor left ventricular function and severe pulmonary hypertension. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty, the clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient improved to such an extent that subsequent aortic valve replacement was considered possible and eventually proved to be successful. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has value as a potential bridge to aortic valve replacement when the risks for surgery are considered to be too high. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696195

  16. [Asymptomatic carotid stenosis at high risk of ipsilateral cerebro-vascular events].

    PubMed

    Becker, F; Loppinet, A

    2004-01-01

    The management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis remains unclear in terms of screening as well as of treatment. The degree of carotid stenosis is not enough to clarify the debate. It seems useful to search among severe carotid stenosis parameters indicating higher ipsilateral stroke risk. Duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler offer this opportunity with a diagnostic battery allowing to evaluate hemodynamical risk (degree of stenosis, common carotid flow, MCA signal, cerebral vasoreactivity), thrombo-embolic risk (echostructure of the stenosis, micro-embolic signals, HITS) and progression of the stenosis.

  17. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve . Learn about the different types of stenosis: Aortic stenosis Tricuspid stenosis Pulmonary stenosis Mitral stenosis Outlook for ... Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - ...

  18. Fibrotic Aortic Valve Stenosis in Hypercholesterolemic/Hypertensive Mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi; Lund, Donald D; Doshi, Hardik; Keen, Henry L; Knudtson, Kevin L; Funk, Nathan D; Shao, Jian Q; Cheng, Justine; Hajj, Georges P; Zimmerman, Kathy A; Davis, Melissa K; Brooks, Robert M; Chapleau, Mark W; Sigmund, Curt D; Weiss, Robert M; Heistad, Donald D

    2016-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) in humans. We have examined aortic valve function, structure, and gene expression in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. Control, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic (Apoe(-/-)), and hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice were studied. Severe aortic stenosis (echocardiography) occurred only in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. There was minimal calcification of the aortic valve. Several structural changes were identified at the base of the valve. The intercusp raphe (or seam between leaflets) was longer in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice than in other mice, and collagen fibers at the base of the leaflets were reoriented to form a mesh. In hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice, the cusps were asymmetrical, which may contribute to changes that produce AVS. RNA sequencing was used to identify molecular targets during the developmental phase of stenosis. Genes related to the structure of the valve were identified, which differentially expressed before fibrotic AVS developed. Both RNA and protein of a profibrotic molecule, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, were increased greatly in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. Hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice are the first model of fibrotic AVS. Hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice develop severe AVS in the absence of significant calcification, a feature that resembles AVS in children and some adults. Structural changes at the base of the valve leaflets include lengthening of the raphe, remodeling of collagen, and asymmetry of the leaflets. Genes were identified that may contribute to the development of fibrotic AVS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. [Supravalvular aortic stenosis. Report of clinical findings in 5 patients].

    PubMed

    Dumont, C R; Gil, M; Mispireta, J; Attié, F

    1975-01-01

    Five cases of supravalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) diagnosed by heart catheterization were studied in the Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia of Mexico. The clinic and laboratory data of interest of the differential diagnosis with other forms of obstruction of the left ventricle as follows: 1. Three cases had mental retardation and "elfin" face (SAS with specific psychophysical syndrome), the rest had a normal psyco-physical state without family antecedents (sporadic SAS). 2. The aortic focus was the epicenter of the expulsion murmur. In the phoncarodiographic study, two patients had protosistolic click and another had, in addition, a descending protodiastolic murmur (Int. I-IV). In the radial sphigmograms, one case had an amplitude difference in favor of the right side. 3. All had serum calcium figures within normal limits. 4. A chromosomatic analysis of preperipheral blood was performed on two patients, with normal results. 5. In the electrocardiogram, one case had right ventricular enlargement secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension, due to stenosis of the main pulmonary arteries. 6. The radiologic study did not show dilatation of the ascending aorta and aortic bud in any case. 7. The angiocardiography showed: stenosis directly above the Valsalva sinuses; absence of dilatation or hypoplasia of the aorta above the stenosis; and the coronary network, indirectly opaqued, showed no abnormalities. One case had aortic coarctation and abnormal implantation of the right sublaviar artery, and another, stenosis of the right and left branch of its origen of the truncus of the pulmonary artery. The literature up to the present is reviewed and an anatomo-functional classification is proposed with the objective of including new varieties.

  20. Regional aortic distensibility and its relationship with age and aortic stenosis: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis T L; Narayan, Om; Leong, Darryl P; Bertaso, Angela G; Maia, Murilo G; Ko, Brian S H; Baillie, Timothy; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Worthley, Matthew I; Meredith, Ian T; Cameron, James D

    2015-06-01

    Aortic distensibility (AD) decreases with age and increased aortic stiffness is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The association of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with AD in different aortic regions has not been evaluated. Elderly subjects with severe AS and a cohort of patients without AS of similar age were studied. Proximal aortic cross-sectional-area changes during the cardiac cycle were determined using retrospective-ECG-gating on 128-detector row computed-tomography. Using oscillometric-brachial-blood-pressure measurements, the AD at the ascending-aorta (AA), proximal-descending-aorta (PDA) and distal-descending-aorta (DDA) was determined. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to determine the association of age and aortic stenosis on regional AD. 102 patients were evaluated: 36 AS patients (70-85 years), 24 AS patients (>85 years) and 42 patients without AS (9 patients <50 years, 20 patients between 51-70 years and 13 patients 70-85 years). When comparing patients 70-85 years, AA distensibility was significantly lower in those with AS compared to those without AS (0.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.03) while there was no difference in the PDA (1.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.0 ± 1.2, P = 0.26) and DDA (1.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.97). In patients without AS, AD decreased with age in all aortic regions (P < 0.001). The AA in patients <50 years were the most distensible compared to other aortic regions. There is regional variation in aortic distensibility with aging. Patients with aortic stenosis demonstrated regional differences in aortic distensibility with lower distensibility demonstrated in the proximal ascending aorta compared to an age-matched cohort.

  1. Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients undergoing general and vascular surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Paciaroni, M; Caso, V; Acciarresi, M; Baumgartner, R; Agnelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Current available data do not seem to support the strategy for carotid endarterectomy prior to surgical intervention in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. However, in patients with coronary artery disease, synchronous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting should be considered where there is a proven surgical risk of <3% with unilateral asymptomatic stenosis >60% or bilateral carotid stenosis >75% on the same side as the most severe stenosis. Clarification of the optimal strategy requires an adequately powered, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. PMID:16170071

  2. Conduction disturbance after isolated surgical aortic valve replacement in degenerative aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, You Mi; Kim, Jun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Minsu; Hwang, Jongmin; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Nam, Gi Byoung; Choi, Kee Joon; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, You Ho

    2017-06-15

    Conduction disturbances are common in patients with aortic stenosis. We investigated the incidence, reversibility, and prognosis of conduction disorders requiring permanent pacemaker implantation in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis after isolated aortic valve replacement. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care center. We evaluated the incidence of conduction disturbances in patients who underwent isolated surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis between January 2005 and May 2015. Relevant clinical information was obtained from the patients' medical records. We reviewed results of 663 patients with pathologically proven degenerative aortic stenosis (bicuspid aortic valve, n = 285 [43.0%]) who underwent isolated aortic valve replacement (mechanical valve, n = 310 [46.8%]). Patients' mean age was 67.1 ± 8.1 years, and 362 were male (54.6%). Immediate postoperative intraventricular conduction disorders occurred in 56 patients (8.4%), and atrioventricular block occurred in 68 patients (10.3%). Ten patients with symptomatic second-degree or third-degree atrioventricular block underwent permanent pacemaker implantation within 30 days of aortic valve replacement. During the mean follow-up period of 1288 ± 1122 days, 64 patients (9.7%) developed irreversible conduction disorders (bundle branch block n = 24 and first-degree atrioventricular block n = 42). Of the 10 patients requiring permanent pacemakers, 4 remained depend on the permanent pacemaker during follow-up. Beyond 30 days after aortic valve replacement, 1 patient underwent permanent pacemaker implantation for de novo conduction disturbance 44 months postoperatively. After isolated aortic valve replacement, permanent pacemaker implantation for conduction disturbance is rare (n = 10/663, 1.5%). Isolated aortic valve replacement for degenerative aortic stenosis has a low risk of conduction disturbances during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 The

  3. Relation between symptoms and profiles of coronary artery blood flow velocities in patients with aortic valve stenosis: a study using transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Omran, H.; Fehske, W.; Rabahieh, R.; Hagendorff, A.; Lüderitz, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse profiles of coronary artery flow velocity at rest in patients with aortic stenosis and to determine whether changes of the coronary artery flow velocities are related to symptoms in patients with aortic stenosis. DESIGN: A prospective study investigating the significance of aortic valve area, pressure gradient across the aortic valve, systolic left ventricular wall stress index, ejection fraction, and left ventricular mass index in the coronary flow velocity profile of aortic stenosis; and comparing flow velocity profiles between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis using transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography to obtain coronary artery flow velocities of the left anterior descending coronary artery. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: Fifty eight patients with aortic stenosis and 15 controls with normal coronary arteries. RESULTS: Adequate recordings of the profile of coronary artery flow velocities were obtained in 46 patients (79%). Left ventricular wall stress was the only significant haemodynamic variable for determining peak systolic velocity (r = -0.83, F = 88.5, P < 0.001). The pressure gradient across the aortic valve was the only contributor for explaining peak diastolic velocity (r = 0.56, F = 20.9, P < 0.001). Controls and asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (n = 12) did not differ for peak systolic velocity [32.8 (SEM 9.7) v 27.0 (8.7) cm/s, NS] and peak diastolic velocity [58.3 (18.7) v 61.9 (13.5) cm/s, NS]. In contrast, patients with angina (n = 12) or syncope (n = 8) had lower peak systolic velocities and higher peak diastolic velocities than asymptomatic patients (P < 0.01). Peak systolic and diastolic velocities were -7.7 (22.5) cm/s and 81.7 (17.6) cm/s for patients with angina, and -19.5 (22.3) cm/s and 94.0 (20.9) cm/s for patients with syncope. Asymptomatic patients and patients with dyspnoea (n = 14) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Increased pressure gradient across the

  4. Genetic predisposition to calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification.

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Brusina, Elena B; Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Golovkin, Alexey S; Barbarash, Olga L

    2014-09-01

    Valvular calcification precedes the development of valvular stenosis and may represent an important early phenotype for valvular heart disease. It is known that development of valvular calcification is likely to occur among members of a family. However, the knowledge about the role of genomic predictive markers in valvular calcification is still elusive. Aims of this review are to assess the impact of gene polymorphisms on risk and severity of aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. According to the results of the investigations carried out, all polymorphisms may be divided into the three groups conferring the level of evidence of their association with valvular stenosis. It is possible to conclude that apoB (XbaI, rs1042031, and rs6725189), ACE (rs4340), IL10 (rs1800896 and rs1800872), and LPA (rs10455872) gene polymorphisms may be associated with valvular calcific stenosis with a relatively high level of evidence. A number of other polymorphisms, such as PvuII polymorphism within the ORα gene, rs1042636 polymorphism within the CaSR gene, rs3024491, rs3021094, rs1554286, and rs3024498 polymorphisms within the IL10 gene, rs662 polymorphism within the PON1 gene, rs2276288 polymorphism within the MYO7A gene, rs5194 polymorphism within the AGTR1 gene, rs2071307 polymorphism within the ELN gene, rs17659543 and rs13415097 polymorphisms within the IL1F9 gene may correlate with a risk of calcific valve stenosis with moderate level of evidence. Finally, rs1544410 polymorphism within the VDR gene, E2 and E4 alleles within the apoE gene, rs6254 polymorphism within the PTH gene, and rs1800871 polymorphism within the IL10 gene may be associated with aortic stenosis with low level of evidence.

  5. Unicuspid Aortic Stenosis in a Patient with Turner Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, Michael; Castellon-Larios, Karina; Zuleta-Alarcon, Alix; Portillo, Juan Guillermo; Crestanello, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Congenital aortic valve anomalies are the cause of premature aortic stenosis in pediatric and younger adult populations. Despite being very rare, unicuspid aortic valves account for approximately 5% of isolated aortic valve replacements. Patients with aortic stenosis, present with the same symptomatology independent of leaflet morphology. However, the presence of bicuspid and unicuspid aortic stenosis is associated with a higher incidence of aortopathy, especially in Turner syndrome patients. Turner syndrome, an X monosomy, is associated with aortic valve anomalies, aortopathy, and hypertension. These risk factors lead to a higher incidence of aortic dissection in this population. Patients with Turner syndrome and aortic stenosis that present for aortic valve replacement should therefore undergo extensive aortic imaging prior to surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice for valvular pathology, yet it can misdiagnose unicuspid aortic valves as bicuspid valves due to certain similarities on imaging. Transesophageal echocardiography is a better tool for distinguishing between the two valvular abnormalities, although diagnostic errors can still occur. We present a case of a 50-year-old female with history of Turner syndrome and bicuspid aortic stenosis presenting for aortic valve replacement and ascending aorta replacement. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed a stenotic unicommissural unicuspid aortic valve with an eccentric orifice, which was missed on preoperative imaging. This case highlights the importance of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in confirming preoperative findings, diagnosing further cardiac pathology, and ensuring adequate surgical repair.

  6. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery.

    PubMed

    Leon, Martin B; Smith, Craig R; Mack, Michael; Miller, D Craig; Moses, Jeffrey W; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, E Murat; Webb, John G; Fontana, Gregory P; Makkar, Raj R; Brown, David L; Block, Peter C; Guyton, Robert A; Pichard, Augusto D; Bavaria, Joseph E; Herrmann, Howard C; Douglas, Pamela S; Petersen, John L; Akin, Jodi J; Anderson, William N; Wang, Duolao; Pocock, Stuart

    2010-10-21

    Many patients with severe aortic stenosis and coexisting conditions are not candidates for surgical replacement of the aortic valve. Recently, transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) has been suggested as a less invasive treatment for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. We randomly assigned patients with severe aortic stenosis, whom surgeons considered not to be suitable candidates for surgery, to standard therapy (including balloon aortic valvuloplasty) or transfemoral transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial valve. The primary end point was the rate of death from any cause. A total of 358 patients with aortic stenosis who were not considered to be suitable candidates for surgery underwent randomization at 21 centers (17 in the United States). At 1 year, the rate of death from any cause (Kaplan–Meier analysis) was 30.7% with TAVI, as compared with 50.7% with standard therapy (hazard ratio with TAVI, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.74; P<0.001). The rate of the composite end point of death from any cause or repeat hospitalization was 42.5% with TAVI as compared with 71.6% with standard therapy (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.59; P<0.001). Among survivors at 1 year, the rate of cardiac symptoms (New York Heart Association class III or IV) was lower among patients who had undergone TAVI than among those who had received standard therapy (25.2% vs. 58.0%, P<0.001). At 30 days, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, was associated with a higher incidence of major strokes (5.0% vs. 1.1%, P=0.06) and major vascular complications (16.2% vs. 1.1%, P<0.001). In the year after TAVI, there was no deterioration in the functioning of the bioprosthetic valve, as assessed by evidence of stenosis or regurgitation on an echocardiogram. In patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, significantly reduced the rates of death from any cause

  7. Calcific aortic stenosis and its correlation with a novel inflammatory marker, the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Efe, Tolga Han; Gayretli Yayla, Kadriye; Yayla, Cagri; Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Cimen, Tolga; Erken Pamukcu, Hilal; Bilgin, Murat; Erat, Mehmet; Dogan, Mehmet; Yeter, Ekrem

    2016-11-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease, a chronic progressive disorder, is the leading cause of valve replacement among elderly patients. The lymphocyte/monocyte ratio has been recently put forward as an inflammatory marker of relevance in several cancers as well as in cardiovascular disease. This study aims to assess the correlation between severity of calcific aortic stenosis and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio. The study retrospectively included 178 patients with a diagnosis of calcific aortic stenosis and 139 age- and gender-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of aortic stenosis: mild-to-moderate and severe. An inverse correlation was discerned between the severity of the aortic stenosis process (mean gradient) and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (r=-0.232, p=0.002). The lymphocyte/monocyte ratio was observed to decrease as the severity of aortic stenosis increased (p<0.001) in the group with severe aortic stenosis compared with the mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis and control groups (p<0.001, p=0.005 respectively), and in the group with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis compared with the control group (p=0.003). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio was independently related to the severity of calcific aortic stenosis (p=0.003). The present study demonstrated the existence of a statistically significant inverse relationship between severity of calcific aortic stenosis and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio. The study also revealed that the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio was significantly related to the severity of the aortic valve stenosis process. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent advances in aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adhami, Ahmed; Al-Attar, Nawwar

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement is no longer an operation that is approached solely through a median sternotomy. Recent advances in the fields of transcatheter valves have expanded the proportion of patients eligible for intervention. Comparisons between transcatheter valves and conventional surgery have shown non-inferiority of transcatheter valve implants in patients with a high or intermediate pre-operative predictive risk. With advances in our understanding of sutureless valves and their applicability to minimally invasive surgery, the invasiveness and trauma of surgery can be reduced with potential improvements in outcome. The strategy of care has radically changed over the last decade. PMID:27803800

  9. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is associated with gray and white matter damage.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Wagner M; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Coan, Ana C; Lima, Fabrício Oliveira; Guimarães, Rachel; Yassuda, Clarissa L; Oliveira, Germano P; Guillaumon, Ana T; Filho, Augusto A; Min, Li L; Cendes, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive deficits in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis have been reported. The ultimate mechanism of cognitive deficits remains unclear and might be related to subtle structural brain damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of subtle white and grey matter abnormalities associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Twenty-five patients with asymptomatic ≥70%/occlusion carotid stenosis and 25 healthy controls, matched for gender and age, underwent 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. Gray and white matter macrostructural abnormalities were evaluated with voxel-based morphometry using spm8 software. White matter microstructural abnormalities were evaluated with diffusion tensor images with the Diffusion Toolbox package and tract-based spatial statistics from FMRIB Software Library. We observed significant macro- and microstructural white matter abnormalities, and these findings were diffuse and symmetrical in both hemispheres. In contrast, gray matter atrophy was observed in the areas corresponding to the anterior circulation of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the carotid stenosis. Patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis have different patterns of gray and white matter abnormalities. While the white matter damage is diffuse, the gray matter atrophy is localized in the territory of anterior circulation ipsilateral to the stenosis. The role of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in the gray matter damage must be further investigated with longitudinal studies and comparison with neuropsychological evaluation. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Genetic Associations with Valvular Calcification and Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Thanassoulis, George; Campbell, Catherine Y.; Owens, David S.; Smith, J. Gustav; Smith, Albert V.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Budoff, Matthew J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Malhotra, Rajeev; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Allison, Matthew A.; Aspelund, Thor; Criqui, Michael H.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Liu, Yongmei; Sjogren, Marketa; van der Pals, Jesper; Kälsch, Hagen; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Caslake, Muriel; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Wong, Quenna; Erbel, Raimund; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease. METHODS We determined genomewide associations with the presence of aorticvalve calcification (among 6942 participants) and mitral annular calcification (among 3795 participants), as detected by computed tomographic (CT) scanning; the study population for this analysis included persons of white European ancestry from three cohorts participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (discovery population). Findings were replicated in independent cohorts of persons with either CT-detected valvular calcification or clinical aortic stenosis. RESULTS One SNP in the lipoprotein(a) (LPA) locus (rs10455872) reached genomewide significance for the presence of aorticvalve calcification (odds ratio per allele, 2.05; P = 9.0×10−10), a finding that was replicated in additional white European, African-American, and Hispanic-American cohorts (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Genetically determined Lp(a) levels, as predicted by LPA genotype, were also associated with aorticvalve calcification, supporting a causal role for Lp(a). In prospective analyses, LPA genotype was associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio per allele, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.15) and aortic-valve replacement (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.27) in a large Swedish cohort; the association with incident aortic stenosis was also replicated in an independent Danish cohort. Two SNPs (rs17659543 and rs13415097) near the proinflammatory gene IL1F9 achieved genomewide significance for mitral annular calcification (P = 1.5×10−8 and P = 1.8×10−8, respectively), but the findings were not replicated consistently. CONCLUSIONS Genetic variation in the LPA locus, mediated by Lp(a) levels, is associated with aorticvalve calcification across multiple ethnic groups and with incident

  11. Lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with aortic valve calcification in asymptomatic patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Vongpromek, R; Bos, S; Ten Kate, G-J R; Yahya, R; Verhoeven, A J M; de Feyter, P J; Kronenberg, F; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Sijbrands, E J G; Mulder, M T

    2015-08-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve calcification (AVC) in the general population. In this study, we determined the association between AVC and both plasma Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] kringle IV repeat polymorphisms in asymptomatic statin-treated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). A total of 129 asymptomatic heterozygous FH patients (age 40-69 years) were included in this study. AVC was detected using computed tomography scanning. Lp(a) concentration and apo(a) kringle IV repeat number were measured using immunoturbidimetry and immunoblotting, respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the association between Lp(a) concentration and the presence of AVC. Aortic valve calcification was present in 38.2% of patients, including three with extensive AVC (>400 Agatston units). Lp(a) concentration was significantly correlated with gender, number of apo(a) kringle IV repeats and the presence and severity of AVC, but not with coronary artery calcification (CAC). AVC was significantly associated with plasma Lp(a) level, age, body mass index, blood pressure, duration of statin use, cholesterol-year score and CAC score. After adjustment for all significant covariables, plasma Lp(a) concentration remained a significant predictor of AVC, with an odds ratio per 10-mg dL(-1) increase in Lp(a) concentration of 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.20, P = 0.03). In asymptomatic statin-treated FH patients, plasma Lp(a) concentration is an independent risk indicator for AVC. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Severe Aortic Coarctation in a 75-Year-Old Woman: Total Simultaneous Repair of Aortic Coarctation and Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Hyun; Song, Sung Gook; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jun; Choo, Ki Seuk; Kim, June Hong; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Aortic coarctation is usually diagnosed and repaired in childhood and early adulthood. Survival of a patient with an uncorrected coarctation to more than 70 years of age is extremely unusual, and management strategies for these cases remain controversial. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with aortic coarctation and severe aortic valve stenosis 5 years ago and who underwent a successful one-stage repair involving valve replacement and insertion of an extra-anatomical bypass graft from the ascending to the descending aorta. PMID:22363387

  13. Percutaneous implantation of the first repositionable aortic valve prosthesis in a patient with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Buellesfeld, Lutz; Gerckens, Ulrich; Grube, Eberhard

    2008-04-01

    Percutaneous aortic valve replacement is a new less-invasive alternative for high-risk surgical candidates with aortic stenosis. However, the clinical experience is still limited, and the currently available 'first-generation devices' revealed technical shortcomings, such as lack of repositionability and presence of paravalvular leakages. We report the first-in-man experience with the new self-expanding Lotus Valve prosthesis composed of a nitinol frame with implemented bovine pericardial leaflets which is designed to address these issues, being repositionable and covered by a flexible membrane to seal paravalvular gaps. We implanted this prosthesis in a 93-year old patient presenting with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (valve area: 0.6 cm(2)). Surgical valve replacement had been declined due to comorbidities. We used a retrograde approach for insertion of the 21-French Lotus catheter loaded with the valve prosthesis via surgical cut-down to the external iliac artery. Positioning of the valve was guided by transesophageal echo and supra-aortic angiograms. The prosthesis was successfully inserted and deployed within the calcified native valve. Echocardiography immediately after device deployment showed a significant reduction of the transaortic mean pressure gradient (32 to 9 mmHg; final valve area 1.7 cm(2)) without evidence of residual aortic regurgitation. The postprocedural clinical status improved from NYHA-IV to NYHA-II. These results remained unchanged up to the 3 month follow-up. Successful percutaneous aortic valve replacement can be performed using the new self-expanding and repositionable Lotus valve for treatment of high-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis. Further studies are mandatory to assess device safety and efficacy in larger patient populations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for paradoxical low-flow low-gradient aortic stenosis patients.

    PubMed

    Debry, Nicolas; Sudre, Arnaud; Amr, Gilles; Delhaye, Cédric; Schurtz, Guillaume; Montaigne, David; Koussa, Mohamad; Modine, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We compared the outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in three different aortic stenosis syndromes: paradoxical low-flow low-gradient aortic stenosis (PLFLG), high-gradient aortic stenosis (HGAS), and low ejection fraction low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LEF-LG). Outcomes for PLFLG patients after TAVI procedure are not well known. Between 2010 and 2013, patients with severe (indexed aortic valve area iAVA≤0.6 cm(2)/m(2)) symptomatic aortic stenosis were consecutively referred to our institution for TAVI because of multiple comorbidities and excessive surgical risk. About 262 patients were split into three groups as following, PLFLG: mean gradient MG≤40 mm Hg, stroke volume index SVI≤35 mL/m(2), ejection fraction EF≥55%, valvuloarterial impedance Zva>4.5 mm Hg/mL/m(2), maximal aortic jet velocity MaxV<4 m/s; MG≤40 mm Hg, MaxV<4 m/s, EF≤50%, SVI≤35 mL/m(2); and HGAS: MaxV>4 m/s, MG>40 mm Hg, EF>55%. The primary endpoint of our study was to evaluate mid-term global and cardiovascular mortalities; secondary endpoints included recommended VARC-2 variables. PLFLG (n = 31) mid-term survival was similar to HGAS (n = 172) (mean follow-up = 13.2 months [4.6-26]). Conversely LEF-LG patients (n = 59) displayed significant higher rates of all-cause (P = 0.01) and cardiovascular mortalities (P = 0.05). Postprocedural outcomes (VARC-2 criteria) were similar in the PLFLG and HGAS groups except regarding major bleeding (P = 0.02), while the LEF-LG group had more congestive heart failure and a higher BNP before discharge (both P < 0.001) than the other groups. 30-days deaths were significantly more frequent in LEF-LG and PLFLG in comparison to HGAS (P = 0.03). As opposed to LEF-LG patients, mid-term prognosis after TAVI procedure in PLFLG patients is similar to HGAS patients despite higher perioperative mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Incidence and prognosis of congenital aortic valve stenosis in Liverpool (1960-1990).

    PubMed Central

    Kitchiner, D J; Jackson, M; Walsh, K; Peart, I; Arnold, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence and prognosis of congenital aortic valve stenosis in the five Health Districts of Liverpool that make up the Merseyside area. DESIGN--The records of the Liverpool Congenital Malformations Registry and the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital identified 239 patients (155 male, 84 female) born with aortic valve stenosis between 1960 and 1990. Patients were traced to assess the severity of stenosis at follow up. Information on the severity at presentation and all subsequent events was obtained. RESULTS--Congenital aortic valve stenosis occurred in 5.7% of patients with congenital heart disease born in the Merseyside area. The median age at presentation was 16 months (range 0-20 years). Stenosis was mild at presentation in 145 patients, moderate in 33, severe in one and critical in 21 and 39 had a bicuspid valve without stenosis. Additional cardiac lesions were significantly more common in children presenting under one year of age and in those with critical stenosis. The median duration of follow up was 9.2 years (range 1-28 years) and seven patients were lost to follow up. 81 operations were performed in 60 patients. The reoperation rate was 28.3% after a median duration of 8.7 years (range 2.5-18 years). 15% of patients who presented with mild stenosis subsequently required operation compared with 67% of those with moderate stenosis. There were no sudden unexpected deaths and no deaths after aortic valvotomy, except in those presenting with critical stenosis. Mortality was 16.7% but patients presenting with critical aortic stenosis had a much worse prognosis. Actuarial and hazard analysis showed that the survival and absence of serious events (aortic valve surgery or balloon dilatation, endocarditis, or death) were significantly better in patients who presented with mild aortic stenosis than in those who presented with moderate aortic stenosis. 75% of patients presenting with mild stenosis had not progressed to moderate stenosis

  16. Cardiac Imaging for Assessing Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Burwash, Ian G; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Up to 40% of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) harbor discordant Doppler-echocardiographic findings, the most common of which is the presence of a small aortic valve area (≤1.0 cm(2)) suggesting severe AS, but a low gradient (<40 mm Hg) suggesting nonsevere AS. The purpose of this paper is to present the role of multimodality imaging in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging entity referred to as low-gradient AS. Doppler-echocardiography is critical to determine the subtype of low-gradient AS: that is, classical low-flow, paradoxical low-flow, or normal-flow. Patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS generally have a worse prognosis compared with patients with high-gradient or with normal-flow, low-gradient AS. Patients with low-gradient AS and evidence of severe AS benefit from aortic valve replacement (AVR). However, confirmation of the presence of severe AS is particularly challenging in these patients and requires a multimodality imaging approach including low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography and aortic valve calcium scoring by multidetector computed tomography. Transcatheter AVR using a transfemoral approach may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS. Further studies are needed to confirm the best valve replacement procedure and prosthetic valve for each category of low-gradient AS and to identify patients with low-gradient AS in whom AVR is likely to be futile.

  17. Measurement of effective aortic valve area using three-dimensional echocardiography in children undergoing aortic balloon valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Tara; Fernandes, Fernanda; Slorach, Cameron; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Pressure gradient is used for timing of balloon aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis (AS) in children, but does not correlate well with outcome and is limited if ventricular function is poor. In adults, effective orifice area (EOA) is used to assess AS severity, but EOA by continuity equation or 2D echo is unreliable in children. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) may reliably assess EOA but has not been studied in children. We assessed measurement of aortic valve EOA by 3DE in children with AS before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty and compared results with change in aortic valve gradient. 3DE was performed at time of catheterization before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Using 3DE multiplanar review mode, valve annulus diameter, area, and EOA were measured and compared with change in aortic gradient and degree of aortic insufficiency. Twenty-four 3DE studies in 12 children (mean age 4.4 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. EOA was measurable in all. Catheter peak gradient decreased from 45 ± 10 to 26 ± 17 mmHg (P = 0.0018). 3DE EOA increased after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (0.59 ± 0.52 cm(2) vs 0.80 ± 0.70 cm(2) ; P = 0.03), without change in valve diameter. EOA change correlated with change in peak (r = 0.77; P = 0.005) and mean (r = 0.60; P = 0.03) aortic valve gradient post balloon aortic valvuloplasty. 3DE facilitates EOA measurement in pediatric AS and correlates with change in aortic valve gradient after balloon valvuloplasty. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis with multiple stenoses of the branches of arcus aorta in a child.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Tayfun; Tutar, Ercan; Atalay, Semra

    2008-01-01

    We give details of a sporadic case with congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis associated with critical stenosis of the left carotid artery, and severe stenosis of the innominate artery at their origins as well as excessive dilatations of both the right and the left coronary arteries.

  19. [Factors facilitating development of degenerative aortic valvular stenosis].

    PubMed

    Andropova, O V; Polubentseva, E I; Anokhin, V N

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine factors of risk and progress of aortal valvular calcinosis (AVC) and aortic ostium stenosis (AOS). The subjects were 85 patients with AVC (42--with aortic valvular stenosis (AVS), and 43--without AOS). The study, which included analysis of the lipid and mineral metabolism, and immunological tests, shows that potential factors of AVC are: age (p < 0. 001), osteoporosis (p < 0.03), mitral ring calcification (p = 0.047), dislipidemia (high serum level of total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins, and apoB, atherogenic shift of apoB/apoA-1 ratio, low level of cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (CHDLP)), disbalance between intecellular matrix synthesis and destruction (high concentration of alkaline phosphatase and its bone fraction, and accelerated deoxypyridinoline excretion), inflammation (high concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). The factors of AOS were: age (p < 0.001), smoking (p < 0.001), osteoporosis (p = 0.004), AVC (p < 0.001), mitral ring calcinosis (p = 0.033), dislipidemia (high levels of cholesterol of low density and very low density lipoproteins, low concentrations of CHDLP, and apoA-1), degradation of extracellular matrix, and inflammation (high concentrations of CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, and IL-8). Thus, atherogenic dislipidemia and mineral dysmetabolism disorder facilitate AVC. The revealed immune status changes imply the role of inflammation in the development and progress of AVS.

  20. Role of circulating osteogenic progenitor cells in calcific aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gössl, Mario; Khosla, Sundeep; Zhang, Xin; Higano, Nara; Jordan, Kyra L; Loeffler, Darrell; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lennon, Ryan J; McGregor, Ulrike; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2012-11-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells with osteoblastic phenotype (EPC-OCN) in human aortic valve calcification (AVC). Recent evidence suggests that rather than passive mineralization, AVC is an active atherosclerotic process with an osteoblastic component resembling coronary calcification. We have recently identified circulating EPCs with osteogenic properties carrying both endothelial progenitor (CD34, KDR) and osteoblastic (osteocalcin [OCN]) cell surface markers. Blood samples from controls (n = 22) and patients with mild to moderate calcific aortic stenosis (mi-moAS, n = 17), severe calcific AS (sAS, n = 26), and both sAS and severe coronary artery disease (sCAD) (n = 33) were collected during diagnostic coronary angiography. By using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed for CD34, KDR, and OCN. Resected normal and calcified aortic valves were analyzed histologically. Patients with mi-moAS and patients with sAS/sCAD had significantly less EPCs (CD34+/KDR+/OCN-) than controls. Patients with sAS showed significantly higher numbers of EPC-OCN (CD34+/KDR+/OCN+) than controls. In addition, the percentage of EPC costaining for OCN was higher in all disease groups compared with controls. A subgroup analysis of younger patients with bicuspid sAS showed a similar pattern of significantly lower EPCs but a high percentage of coexpression of OCN. Immunofluorescence showed colocalization of nuclear factor kappa-B and OCN in diseased and normal valves. CD34+/OCN+ cells were abundant in the endothelial and deeper cell layers of calcific aortic valve tissue but not in normal aortic valve tissue. Circulating EPC-OCN may play a significant role in the pathogenesis and as markers of prognostication of calcific AS. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient-prosthesis mismatch: surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high risk patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Irving L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM. PMID:27867654

  2. Patient-prosthesis mismatch: surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high risk patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L

    2016-10-01

    Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM.

  3. Outcomes of pseudo-severe aortic stenosis under conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Fougères, Emilie; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Monchi, Mehran; Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Baleynaud, Serge; Pasquet, Agnès; Chauvel, Christophe; Metz, Damien; Adams, Catherine; Rusinaru, Dan; Guéret, Pascal; Monin, Jean-Luc

    2012-10-01

    In the setting of low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis (LF/LGAS), outcomes of pseudo-severe aortic stenosis (AS) remain poorly described. This study was aimed to assess the outcome of patients with pseudo-severe AS under conservative treatment. Among 305 patients from the European Registry of LF/LGAS, the outcomes of the 107 patients followed under conservative treatment were analysed. Based on the results of dobutamine echocardiography, patients were divided into group IA [left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve present with true-severe AS, n = 43], group IB [pseudo-severe AS (n = 29) defined as LV contractile reserve with a final aortic valve area ≥1.2 cm(2) and a mean transaortic pressure gradient <40 mmHg at peak dobutamine infusion], or group II (exhausted LV contractile reserve, n = 35). The rate of death within 5 years was significantly lower in the group IB (43 ± 11%, n = 10), when compared with the group IA (91 ± 6%, n = 33; P = 0.001) and the group II (100%, n = 23; P < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model analysis demonstrated that the hazard ratio for death in the group IB remained significantly lower than in the other groups, even after adjustment for currently established risk factors. Furthermore, the 5-year survival of pseudo-severe AS patients was comparable with that of propensity-matched patients with systolic heart failure and no evidence of valve disease. In patients with pseudo-severe AS, the 5-year survival under conservative treatment is better than in true-severe AS and comparable with that of propensity-matched patients with LV systolic dysfunction and no evidence of valve disease. Further studies are needed to define optimal therapeutic management in these patients.

  4. Assessing the risk of aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in the transcatheter valve era.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Verghese; Greason, Kevin L; Suri, Rakesh M; Leon, Martin B; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Mack, Michael J; Rihal, Charanjit S; Holmes, David R

    2014-10-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement had been the only definitive treatment of severe aortic stenosis before the availability of transcatheter valve technology. Historically, many patients with severe aortic stenosis had not been offered surgery, largely related to professional and patient perception regarding the risks of operation relative to anticipated benefits. Such patients have been labeled as "high risk" or "inoperable" with respect to their suitability for surgery. The availability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement affords a new treatment option for patients previously not felt to be optimal candidates for surgical valve replacement and allows for the opportunity to reexamine the methods for assessing operative risk in the context of more than 1 available treatment. Standardized risk assessment can be challenging because of both the imprecision of current risk scoring methods and the variability in ascertaining risk related to operator experience as well as local factors and practice patterns at treating facilities. Operative risk in actuality is not an absolute but represents a spectrum from very low to extreme, and the conventional labels of high risk and inoperable are incomplete with respect to their utility in clinical decision making. Moving forward, the emphasis should be on developing an individual assessment that takes into account procedure risk as well as long-term outcomes evaluated in a multidisciplinary fashion, and incorporating patient preferences and goals in a model of shared decision making.

  5. Do all Critical Aortic Stenosis with Chest Pain Need Aortic Valve Replacement? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Munish; Mascarenhas, Daniel A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains the cornerstone of treatment for symptomatic critical aortic stenosis (AS). It is a Class I indication that symptomatic patients with critical AS undergo either surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We present a patient with critical AS and new angina that was managed successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the Right coronary artery. Physicians should consider that not all patients with critical AS and angina necessarily require AVR. Concomitant pathology leading to the symptoms should be carefully ruled out. This leads to a less invasive, cost effective care plan especially in patients with advanced age and comorbidities for which any type of surgical valvular intervention may pose high risk. PMID:27994841

  6. Fluid-structure interaction modeling of aortic valve stenosis at different heart rates.

    PubMed

    Bahraseman, Hamidreza Ghasemi; Languri, Ehsan Mohseni; Yahyapourjalaly, Niloofar; Espino, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to measure the cardiac output and stroke volume at different aortic stenosis severities using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation at rest and during exercise. The geometry of the aortic valve is generated using echocardiographic imaging. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian mesh was generated in order to perform the FSI simulations. Pressure loads on ventricular and aortic sides were applied as boundary conditions. FSI modeling results for the increment rate of cardiac output and stroke volume to heart rate, were about 58.6% and -14%, respectively, at each different stenosis severity. The mean gradient of curves of cardiac output and stroke volume to stenosis severity were reduced by 57% and 48%, respectively, when stenosis severity varied from healthy to critical stenosis. Results of this paper confirm the promising potential of computational modeling capabilities for clinical diagnosis and measurements to predict stenosed aortic valve parameters including cardiac output and stroke volume at different heart rates.

  7. Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Related Genetic Variants With Aortic Valve Calcium and Incident Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Luk, Kevin; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Engert, James C.; Do, Ron; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Dufresne, Line; Almgren, Peter; Owens, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rich, Stephen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; Thanassoulis, George

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a Mendelian randomization study design, we evaluated whether weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), a measure of the genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids, constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies for plasma lipids, were associated with aortic valve disease. We included community-based cohorts participating in the CHARGE consortium (n = 6942), including the Framingham Heart Study (cohort inception to last follow-up: 1971-2013; n = 1295), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012; n = 2527), Age Gene/Environment Study-Reykjavik (2000-2012; n = 3120), and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, 1991-2010; n = 28 461). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Aortic valve calcium quantified by computed tomography in CHARGE and incident aortic stenosis in the MDCS. RESULTS The prevalence of aortic valve calcium across the 3 CHARGE cohorts was 32% (n = 2245). In the MDCS, over a median follow-up time of 16.1 years, aortic stenosis developed in 17 per 1000 participants (n = 473) and aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis occurred in 7 per 1000 (n = 205). Plasma LDL-C, but not HDL-C or TG, was significantly associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] per mmol/L, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.3% and 2.4% in lowest and highest LDL-C quartiles, respectively). The LDL-C GRS, but not HDL-C or TG GRS, was significantly associated with presence of

  8. Sex differences in aortic valve calcification measured by multidetector computed tomography in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shivani R; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Cueff, Caroline; Malouf, Joseph; Araoz, Philip A; Mankad, Rekha; Michelena, Hector; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is the intrinsic mechanism of valvular obstruction leading to aortic stenosis (AS) and is measurable by multidetector computed tomography. The link between sex and AS is controversial and that with AVC is unknown. We prospectively performed multidetector computed tomography in 665 patients with AS (aortic valve area, 1.05±0.35 cm(2); mean gradient, 39±19 mm Hg) to measure AVC and to assess the impact of sex on the AVC-AS severity link in men and women. AS severity was comparable between women and men (peak aortic jet velocity: 4.05±0.99 versus 3.93±0.91 m/s, P=0.11; aortic valve area index: 0.55±0.20 versus 0.56±0.18 cm(2)/m(2); P=0.46). Conversely, AVC load was lower in women versus men (1703±1321 versus 2694±1628 arbitrary units; P<0.0001) even after adjustment for their smaller body surface area or aortic annular area (both P<0.0001). Thus, odds of high-AVC load were much greater in men than in women (odds ratio, 5.07; P<0.0001). Although AVC showed good associations with hemodynamic AS severity in men and women (all r>0.67; P<0.0001), for any level of AS severity measured by peak aortic jet velocity or aortic valve area index, AVC load, absolute or indexed, was higher in men versus women (all P≤0.01). In this large AS population, women incurred similar AS severity than men for lower AVC loads, even after indexing for their smaller body size. Hence, the relationship between valvular calcification process and AS severity differs in women and men, warranting further pathophysiological inquiry. For AS severity diagnostic purposes, interpretation of AVC load should be different in men and in women.

  9. Lipoprotein(a) in patients with aortic stenosis: Insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S.; Flynn, Paul D.; Raphael, Claire E.; Newsome, Simon; Khan, Tina; Ali, Aamir; Halliday, Brian; Studer Bruengger, Annina; Malley, Tamir; Sharma, Pranev; Selvendran, Subothini; Aggarwal, Nikhil; Sri, Anita; Berry, Helen; Donovan, Jackie; Lam, Willis; Auger, Dominique; Cook, Stuart A.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Prasad, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis is the most common age-related valvular pathology. Patients with aortic stenosis and myocardial fibrosis have worse outcome but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Lipoprotein(a) is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and is elevated in patients with aortic stenosis. Although mechanistic pathways could link Lipoprotein(a) with myocardial fibrosis, whether the two are related has not been previously explored. In this study, we investigated whether elevated Lipoprotein(a) was associated with the presence of myocardial replacement fibrosis. Methods A total of 110 patients with mild, moderate and severe aortic stenosis were assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance to identify fibrosis. Mann Whitney U tests were used to assess for evidence of an association between Lp(a) and the presence or absence of myocardial fibrosis and aortic stenosis severity and compared to controls. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis were undertaken to identify possible predictors of Lp(a). Results Thirty-six patients (32.7%) had no LGE enhancement, 38 (34.6%) had midwall enhancement suggestive of midwall fibrosis and 36 (32.7%) patients had subendocardial myocardial fibrosis, typical of infarction. The aortic stenosis patients had higher Lp(a) values than controls, however, there was no significant difference between the Lp(a) level in mild, moderate or severe aortic stenosis. No association was observed between midwall or infarction pattern fibrosis and Lipoprotein(a), in the mild/moderate stenosis (p = 0.91) or severe stenosis patients (p = 0.42). Conclusion There is no evidence to suggest that higher Lipoprotein(a) leads to increased myocardial midwall or infarction pattern fibrosis in patients with aortic stenosis. PMID:28704465

  10. Lipoprotein(a) in patients with aortic stenosis: Insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Flynn, Paul D; Raphael, Claire E; Newsome, Simon; Khan, Tina; Ali, Aamir; Halliday, Brian; Studer Bruengger, Annina; Malley, Tamir; Sharma, Pranev; Selvendran, Subothini; Aggarwal, Nikhil; Sri, Anita; Berry, Helen; Donovan, Jackie; Lam, Willis; Auger, Dominique; Cook, Stuart A; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common age-related valvular pathology. Patients with aortic stenosis and myocardial fibrosis have worse outcome but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Lipoprotein(a) is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and is elevated in patients with aortic stenosis. Although mechanistic pathways could link Lipoprotein(a) with myocardial fibrosis, whether the two are related has not been previously explored. In this study, we investigated whether elevated Lipoprotein(a) was associated with the presence of myocardial replacement fibrosis. A total of 110 patients with mild, moderate and severe aortic stenosis were assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance to identify fibrosis. Mann Whitney U tests were used to assess for evidence of an association between Lp(a) and the presence or absence of myocardial fibrosis and aortic stenosis severity and compared to controls. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis were undertaken to identify possible predictors of Lp(a). Thirty-six patients (32.7%) had no LGE enhancement, 38 (34.6%) had midwall enhancement suggestive of midwall fibrosis and 36 (32.7%) patients had subendocardial myocardial fibrosis, typical of infarction. The aortic stenosis patients had higher Lp(a) values than controls, however, there was no significant difference between the Lp(a) level in mild, moderate or severe aortic stenosis. No association was observed between midwall or infarction pattern fibrosis and Lipoprotein(a), in the mild/moderate stenosis (p = 0.91) or severe stenosis patients (p = 0.42). There is no evidence to suggest that higher Lipoprotein(a) leads to increased myocardial midwall or infarction pattern fibrosis in patients with aortic stenosis.

  11. Mortality from aortic stenosis: prospective study of serum calcium and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Wald, D S; Bangash, F A; Morris, J K; Wald, N J

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the associations between levels of serum calcium and phosphate and subsequent death from aortic stenosis, and the implications for prevention. A prospective (nested case-control) analysis of serum calcium and phosphate levels was performed in stored samples from the British United Provident Association prospective study of 21 520 men aged 35-64, followed for up to 32 years. There were 49 men without baseline valvular heart disease who subsequently died of aortic stenosis. Each was matched, for age, duration of sample storage and number of freeze-thaw cycles, with four unaffected control subjects. Odds ratios for death from aortic stenosis were estimated by logistic regression. Mean serum calcium concentration was higher in men who died of aortic stenosis than in those who did not (2.44 vs. 2.39 mmol L(-1) ; P = 0.01). The risk of death from aortic stenosis in the highest calcium tertile was 2.87-fold higher than in the lowest tertile (95% confidence interval 1.22-6.76). There was a continuous dose-response relationship; risk of death from aortic stenosis increased by 51% (11-105%) per 0.1 mmol L(-1) increase in serum calcium, equivalent to a 34% (10-52%) lower risk per 0.1 mmol L(-1) decrease. Serum phosphate was not significantly higher in men who died of aortic stenosis than in those who did not (1.0 vs. 0.99 mmol L(-1) ; P = 0.76). The association between serum calcium and subsequent mortality from aortic stenosis is of potential preventive significance. If confirmed quantitatively in other similar cohort studies, the results suggest that a very small reduction in serum calcium (about 5%) could translate into a large (about one-third) reduction in aortic stenosis. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Sara; Meledin, Valery; Bar, Iris; Fabricant, Jacob; Gandelman, Gera; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process sharing similarities with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of AS is notable for three cardinal components: inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Monocytes play a role in each of these processes. The role of circulating monocytes in AS is not clear. The aim of the present study was to study an association between circulating apoptotic and non apoptotic CD14+ monocytes and AS features. Methods We assessed the number of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes in 54 patients with significant AS (aortic valve area 0.74 ± 0.27 cm2) and compared them to 33 patients with similar risk factors and no valvular disease. The level of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Results There was no difference in the risk factor profile and known coronary or peripheral vascular diseases between patients with AS and controls. Patients with AS exhibited increased numbers of CD14+ monocytes as compared to controls (9.9% ± 4.9% vs. 7.7% ± 3.9%, P = 0.03). CD14+ monocyte number was related to age and the presence and severity of AS. In patients with AS, both CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes were inversely related to aortic valve area. Conclusions Patients with significant AS have increased number of circulating CD14+ monocytes and there is an inverse correlation between monocyte count and aortic valve area. These findings may suggest that inflammation is operative not only in early valve injury phase, but also at later developed stages such as calcification when AS is severe. PMID:26918018

  13. Asymptomatic Strut Fracture in DeBakey-Surgitool Aortic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Von Der Emde, Jürgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jürgen

    1990-01-01

    From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2½ years. Larger valves (≥ A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175

  14. Acquired supravalvular aortic stenosis: a late complication of replacement of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Turley, Andrew J; Dark, John; Adams, Philip C

    2008-09-01

    Aortic syndromes are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Ascending aortic dissection is a clinical emergency with most patients requiring open surgery to replace the ascending aorta. Detection through clinical suspicion, improved non-invasive imaging and refined surgical techniques have resulted in an improved survival rate. Acquired supravalvular aortic stenosis is an extremely rare complication of cardiac surgery. We present the case of a patient who, 15 years after undergoing elective replacement of the ascending aorta for aortic dissection, required repeat surgery for symptomatic supravalvular aortic stenosis. This case elegantly highlights the need for a detailed focused assessment in patients where the clinical presentation does not correlate with initial investigations. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of late symptomatic supravalvular aortic stenosis following replacement of the ascending aorta.

  15. A stepwise aortic clamp procedure to treat porcelain aorta associated with aortic valve stenosis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Susumu; Osako, Motohiko; Kimura, Tamizo; Nishimura, Kenji; Yamanaka, Nozomu; Nakamura, Shingo; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was referred for an aortic-valve surgery because of severe aortic stenosis. Thirty years ago, he had undergone a mitral valve commissurotomy and after 9 years, the valve had been replaced by a mechanical valve. He had been undergoing hemodialysis for the past 8 years. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest and abdomen showed a dense circumferential calcification in the wall of the entire thoracic and abdominal aorta, pulmonary artery, and left and right atrium. A conventional aortic-valve replacement was performed. To avoid an embolic event, a "stepwise aortic clamp" procedure was attempted and involved the following: (1) brief circulatory arrest and aortotomy during moderate hypothermia; (2) balloon occlusion at the ascending aorta during low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (3) endoarterectomy by using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator to enable aortic cross-clamping; and (4) a cross-clamp reinforced with felt and full-flow CPB. The patient recovered without any thromboembolic events. Using this procedure to treat a porcelain aorta seemed to reduce the time limit and reduced the risk of brain injury during cardiac surgery.

  16. Long-term Follow-up After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Sánchez-Recalde, Ángel; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; Galeote, Guillermo; López-Fernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Ulises; Riera, Luis; Plaza, Ignacio; Moreno, Isidro; Mesa, José María; López-Sendón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is used as an alternative to surgical valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered high-surgical-risk or inoperable. Two of the main areas of uncertainty in this field are valve durability and long-term survival. This prospective single-center registry study from a tertiary hospital included all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous aortic valve implantation between 2008 and 2012. Clinical follow-up lasted a minimum of 2.5 years and a maximum of 6.5 years. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used. Seventy-nine patients were included, with an immediate success rate of 94.9%. The median survival was 47.6 months (95% confidence intervals, 37.4-57.9 months), ie, 4 years. One quarter of deaths occurred in the first month, and most were of cardiovascular cause. After the first month, most deaths were due to noncardiovascular causes. The mean values of valve gradients did not increase during follow-up. The cumulative rate of prosthetic valve dysfunction was 15.3%, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Half of the patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation were alive 4 years after the procedure. There was a 15.3% prosthetic valve dysfunction rate in cumulative follow-up, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity with Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qain, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. We therefore sought to explore the relationship of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and intracranial arterial stenosis in 834 stroke-free hypertensive patients. Intracranial arterial stenosis was evaluated through computerized tomographic angiography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured by an automated cuff device. The top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with intracranial arterial stenosis (P = .027, odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.10). The patients with the top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity showed 56% higher risk for the presence of intracranial arterial stenosis to the whole population, which was more significant in patients younger than 65 years old. We also found that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity related to both intracranial arterial stenosis and homocysteine. Our study showed the association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis in hypertension patients, especially in relative younger subjects. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity might be a relatively simple and repeatable measurement to detect hypertension patients in high risk of intracranial arterial stenosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Snoring and Severity of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Rebecca H.; Mehta, Ziyah; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Stradling, John R.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea has increasingly been linked to cardiovascular damage. More recently, the snoring component itself has been independently linked to the presence of carotid atheroma, via local arterial trauma. We aimed to identify whether a snoring history is a risk factor for carotid stenosis in individuals presenting with a TIA or ischemic stroke. Methods: Participants in the Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC) were asked about their snoring history as part of an entry questionnaire. In 561 individuals with a recent TIA or stroke, who had both a complete snoring questionnaire and carotid imaging, the relationship between presence and severity of snoring and the degree of carotid artery stenosis in both the symptomatic (culprit) and asymptomatic (non-culprit) sides. Results: Of 561 participants (287 male, mean/SD age = 73.3/11.0 years), 90 (16.0%) had ≥ 50% carotid stenosis, and 154 (27.5%) snored frequently (≥ 1-2 times/week). No significant associations were identified between frequency of self-reported snoring, and the degree of culprit and non-culprit carotid vessel stenosis, or plaque morphology. Conclusions: No significant association could be identified between a history of frequent snoring and the presence of carotid atheroma, degree of stenosis, or plaque type. Citation: Mason RH; Mehta Z; Fonseca AC; Stradling JR; Rothwell PM. Snoring and severity of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a population-based study. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1147-1151. PMID:22851810

  19. The Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Risk of Stroke (ACSRS) study. Aims and results of quality control.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, A; Sabetai, M; Kakkos, S K; Dhanjil, S; Tegos, T; Stevens, J M; Thomas, D J; Francis, S; Griffin, M; Geroulakos, G; Ioannidou, E; Kyriacou, E

    2003-09-01

    The results of the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) study have provided the first scientific evidence that in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 60% carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of stroke from 2% to 1% per year. The implications are that approximately 20 operations need to be performed in order to prevent 1 stroke in 5 years. The aims of the Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Risk of Stroke (ACSRS) study are to identify a subgroup or subgroups at a risk for stroke higher than 4% and a group at a risk for stroke less than 1% per year using systemic and local risk factors (plaque characterization) in addition to the degree of stenosis. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol and the results of the quality control. The ACSRS is a multicentre natural history study of patients with asymptomatic internal carotid diameter stenosis greater than 50% in relation to the bulb. The degree of stenosis is graded using multiple established ultrasonic duplex criteria. In addition, ultrasonic plaque characterization is performed and clinical risk factors and medications are recorded. Training is provided centrally. All carotid ultrasound examinations are recorded on video-tape which together with CT-brain scans and ECG are analysed at the coordinating centre with feedback information to partner centres. The video recordings and analysis of data centrally with feed back information have provided quality control with a significant improvement not only in the completion of data forms but also in the grading of internal carotid stenosis and plaque recordings using ultrasound. The high level of quality of data collected will add credibility to the results of the ACSRS study and may eventually promote the development of international standards of plaque imaging and characterization.

  20. Relation of circulating C-reactive protein to progression of aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Santos, Jose L; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Cruz, Ignacio; Arribas, Antonio; Villacorta, Eduardo; Cascon, Manuel; Palacios, Igor F; Martin-Luengo, Candido

    2006-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation and predicts outcome in apparently healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Systemic inflammation is present in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether CRP levels predict the progression of AS severity. Blood samples for high-sensitivity CRP measurements and echocardiographic data were obtained in 43 patients (70% men; mean age 73 +/- 8 years) with asymptomatic degenerative AS at study entry. On the basis of repeat echocardiographic assessment at 6 months, patients were grouped as (1) slow progressors (a decrease in aortic valve area [AVA] <0.05 cm2 and/or an increase in aortic peak velocity <0.15 m/s) and (2) rapid progressors (a decrease in AVA > or =0.05 cm2 and/or an increase in aortic peak velocity > or =0.15 m/s). Plasma CRP levels were significantly higher in rapid progressors than slow progressors (median 5.1 [range 2.3 to 11.3] vs 2.1 [range 1.0 to 3.1] mg/L, p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, CRP levels >3 mg/L were independently associated with rapid AS progression (odds ratio 9.1, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 37.3). In conclusion, CRP levels are higher in patients with degenerative AS who show rapid valve disease progression. These findings suggest that inflammation may have a pathogenic role in degenerative AS.

  1. Replication of genetic association studies in aortic stenosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathalie; Ducharme, Valérie; Lamontagne, Maxime; Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Mathieu, Patrick; Pibarot, Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2011-11-01

    Only a handful of studies have attempted to unravel the genetic architecture of calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS). The goal of this study was to validate genes previously associated with AS. Seven genes were assessed: APOB, APOE, CTGF, IL10, PTH, TGFB1, and VDR. Each gene was tested for a comprehensive set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs were genotyped in 457 patients who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement, and allele frequencies were compared to 3,294 controls. A missense mutation in the APOB gene was significantly associated with AS (rs1042031, E4181K, p = 0.00001). A second SNP located 5.6 kilobases downstream of the APOB stop codon was also associated with the disease (rs6725189, p = 0.000013). Six SNPs surrounding the IL10 locus were strongly associated with AS (0.02 > p > 6.2 × 10⁻¹¹). The most compelling association for IL10 was found with a promoter polymorphism (rs1800872) well known to regulate the production of the encoded anti-inflammatory cytokine. The frequency of the low-producing allele was greater in cases compared to controls (30% vs 20%, p = 6.2 × 10⁻¹¹). SNPs in PTH, TGFB1, and VDR had nominal p values <0.05 but did not resist Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, this study suggests that subjects carrying specific polymorphisms in the IL10 and APOB genes are at higher risk for developing AS.

  2. Outcomes of Treatment of Nonagenarians With Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mack, Molly Claire; Szerlip, Molly; Herbert, Morley A; Akram, Siddique; Worley, Christina; Kim, Rebeca J; Prince, Brandon A; Harrington, Katherine B; Mack, Michael J; Holper, Elizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    Because nonagenarians with aortic stenosis (AS) often present as frail with more comorbid conditions, long-term outcomes and quality of life are important treatment considerations. The aim of this report is to describe survival and functional outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing treatment for AS by surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This is a retrospective analysis of all patients aged 90 years or more undergoing treatment for AS between 2007 and 2013 at two centers. Outcomes were compared between SAVR and TAVR. Long-term survival was compared with an age- and sex-matched population from the Social Security Actuarial Life Table. In all, 110 patients underwent treatment for isolated AS (20 SAVR and 90 TAVR). Mean age was 91.85 ± 1.80 years, and 50.9% were female. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons mean predicted risk of mortality was 11.11% ± 5.74%. Operative mortality was 10.9% (10.0% SAVR; 11.1% TAVR); 2.7% of patients had a stroke. The TAVR patients were more likely to be discharged home (75.9% versus 55.6% for SAVR, p = 0.032). Mean follow-up was 1.8 ± 1.5 years, with a 1-year and 5-year survival of 78.7% and 45.3%, respectively, which approximated the US actuarial survival. There was a significant improvement in quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire at 1 year compared with baseline. Treatment of AS approximates natural life expectancy in select nonagenarians, with no significant difference in long-term survival between SAVR and TAVR. Importantly, patient quality of life improved at 1 year. With appropriate selection, nonagenarians with severe AS can benefit from treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Coarctation of the Aorta: A Hybrid Approach to Treatment.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Daniel; Caputo, Massimo; Taliotis, Demetris

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid surgery is becoming more popular in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease, particularly small infants and neonates. We report a case of a patient with aortic stenosis (AS) and coarctation of the aorta (CoA).

  4. Prolonged Survival in 2 Nonagenarians with Heart Failure and Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Charles Y.; Alexander, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of severe aortic stenosis is 6% in persons 85 to 86 years of age according to a Finnish population-based report. In the United States, the population over 80 years old is projected to rise from the current 7 million to 25 million by the year 2050. Thus, aortic stenosis in aging adults, and the management questions it poses, will be increasingly common. We report herein the cases of 2 nonagenarian patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who far outlived the natural history of this disease. We suspect that we are seeing a change in the prognosis of senile aortic stenosis as a result of advances in the geriatric care and management of advanced heart failure. Furthermore, the unusual longevity of these patients was made possible by the remarkable holistic care given by a dedicated, altruistic caregiver who had training in psychology, theology, and nursing. PMID:18941592

  5. Aortic valve stenosis after previous coronary bypass: Transcatheter valve implantation or aortic valve replacement?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a prospective comparison between transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI, n = 13) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR, n = 10) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and previous coronary bypass surgery (CABG). All patients had at least bilateral patent internal thoracic arteries bypass without indication of repeat revascularization. After a similar post-procedure outcome, despite one early death in TAVI group, the 1-year survival was 100% in surgical group and in transfemoral TAVI group, and 73% in transapical TAVI group. When previous CABG is the lone surgical risk factor, indications for a TAVI procedure have to be cautious, specially if transfemoral approach is not possible. PMID:22642844

  6. A Prospective Study of Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis in Neurologically Normal Volunteers in a Japanese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Ryukichi; Nakagawa, Tomonori; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic stenosis of major intracranial arteries is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in Asia. However, the long-term prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in healthy volunteers has not been fully examined. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the prognosis of healthy volunteers with asymptomatic ICAS and to determine the risk factors for ICAS, including asymptomatic brain parenchymal lesions. We studied 2,807 healthy Japanese volunteers with no history of stroke (mean age, 62.0 years). They were followed for a mean interval of 64.5 months. The degree of ICAS and the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 166 volunteers (5.9%) at the initial examination. Moderate and mild stenoses were observed in 1.5 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Significant risk factors for ICAS were older age and a history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. During follow-up, ischemic stroke developed in 32 volunteers. Seven strokes occurred in the ICAS group, whose stroke incidence rate was higher than that in the non-ICAS group (0.78 vs. 0.18% per year). According to a Cox regression analysis, asymptomatic ICAS was an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke after adjustment for age. Furthermore, after asymptomatic brain lesions were taken into account, ICAS was still a significant risk factor for stroke onset. In conclusion, even mild to moderate asymptomatic ICAS was a significant risk factor for future stroke, independent of asymptomatic brain lesions, in a healthy Japanese population. Mild to moderate ICAS might be a therapeutic target for stroke prevention. PMID:27047445

  7. Predictors and clinical significance of progression or regression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, Stavros K; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Charalambous, Ioanna; Thomas, Dafydd; Giannopoulos, Argyrios; Naylor, A Ross; Geroulakos, George; Abbott, Anne L

    2014-04-01

    To determine baseline clinical and ultrasonographic plaque factors predictive of progression or regression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis and the predictive value of changes in stenosis severity on risk of first ipsilateral cerebral or retinal ischemic events (including stroke). A total of 1121 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis of 50% to 99% in relation to the bulb diameter (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) underwent six monthly clinical assessments and carotid duplexes for up to 8 years (mean follow-up, 4 years). Progression or regression was considered present if there was a change of at least one grade higher or lower, respectively, persisting for at least two consecutive examinations. Regression occurred in 43 (3.8%), no change in 856 (76.4%), and progression in 222 (19.8%) patients. Younger age, high grades of stenosis, absence of discrete white areas in the plaque, and taking lipid lowering therapy were independent baseline predictors of increased incidence of regression. High serum creatinine, male gender, not taking lipid lowering therapy, low grades of stenosis, and increased plaque area were independent baseline predictors of progression. One hundred and thirty first ipsilateral cerebral or retinal ischemic events, including 59 strokes, occurred. Forty (67.8%) of the strokes occurred in patients whose stenosis was unchanged, 19 (32.2%) in those with progression, and zero in those with regression. For the entire cohort, the 8-year cumulative ipsilateral cerebral ischemic stroke rate was zero in patients with regression, 9% if the stenosis was unchanged, and 16% if there was progression (average annual stroke rates of 0%, 1.1%, and 2.0%, respectively; log-rank, P = .05; relative risk in patients with progression, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.25). For patients with baseline stenosis 70% to 99% in relation to the distal internal carotid (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial [NASCET] method), in the absence

  8. Planimetry of aortic valve area using multiplane transoesophageal echocardiography is not a reliable method for assessing severity of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Y.; Meneveau, N.; Vuillemenot, A.; Magnin, D.; Anguenot, T.; Schiele, F.; Bassand, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of aortic valve area planimetry by multiplane transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in aortic stenosis. DESIGN: Study of the diagnostic value of aortic valve area planimetry using multiplane TOE, compared with catheterisation and the continuity equation, both being considered as criterion standards. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 49 consecutive patients (29 male, 20 female, aged 44 to 82 years, average 66.6 (SD 8.5)), referred for haemodynamic evaluation of an aortic stenosis, were enrolled in a prospective study. From this sample, 37 patients were eligible for the final analysis. METHODS: Transthoracic and multiplane transoesophageal echocardiograms were performed within 24 hours before catheterisation. At transthoracic echo, aortic valve area was calculated by the continuity equation. At TOE, the image of the aortic valve opening was obtained with a 30-65 degrees rotation of the transducer. Numerical dynamic images were stored on optical discs for off-line analysis and were reviewed by two blinded observers. Catheterisation was performed in all cases and aortic valve area was calculated by the Gorlin formula. RESULTS: Feasibility of the method was 92% (48/52). The agreement between aortic valve area measured at TOE (mean 0.88 (SD 0.35) cm2) and at catheterisation (0.79 (0.24) cm2) was very poor. The same discrepancies were found between TOE and the continuity equation (0.72 (0.26) cm2). TOE planimetry overestimated aortic valve area determined by the two other methods. Predictive positive and negative values of planimetry to detect aortic valve area < 0.75 cm2 were 62% (10/16) and 43% (9/21) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Planimetry of aortic valve area by TOE is difficult and less accurate than the continuity equation for assessing the severity of aortic stenosis. Images PMID:9290405

  9. Development of aortic valve sclerosis or stenosis in rabbits: role of cholesterol and calcium.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie-Claude; Couet, Jaques; Arsenault, Marie

    2008-07-01

    Aortic valve sclerosis is fairly common and is currently seen as a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. For unclear reasons only a minority of those sclerotic valves will evolve to become stenotic suggesting that atherogenic factors alone are insufficient to explain the development of valve stenosis. We had reported in a model of cholesterol fed rabbits that a combination of high cholesterol with vitamin D supplementation was necessary to induce valve stenosis and significant calcium deposition whereas high cholesterol alone only induced a sclerosis of the valve. In this study, we further evaluated the role of vitamin D treatment in the development of aortic valve disease (sclerosis or stenosis) in this rabbit model. Rabbits were divided in 4 groups followed for 12 weeks: 1) no treatment; 2) cholesterol-enriched diet, 3) cholesterol-enriched diet + vitamin D2 (VD; 50000IU, daily) 4) VD alone for 12 weeks. Echocardiographic assessment of the aortic valve was done at baseline, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Aortic valve area, maximal and mean transvalvular gradients were recorded and compared over time. Immunohistological study of the valves of AS rabbits was also realized for several classical atherosclerosis markers. Vitamin D2 treated animal did not develop any stenosis of the valve despite increased echogenicity due to diffuse calcium deposits on the leaflets without any atherosclerotic lesions. Only the combination of high cholesterol with VD resulted in a decrease of aortic valve area. Immunohistological analysis of aortic valves from VD rabbits showed the presence of calcium deposits, T-cell infiltration in addition to positive labeling for alpha-smooth muscle cell actin. We did not observe macrophage infiltration in aortic valve leaflets of VD rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia or vitamin D supplements alone could not induce aortic valve stenosis in our animal model whereas the combination resulted in a decreased aortic valve area. These findings support the

  10. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with Core Valve: First Indian experience of three high surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ashok; Rastogi, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Maqbool, Syed; Mustaqueem, Arif; Sekar, V. Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of aortic stenosis is increasing with aging population. However with multiple co-morbidities and prior procedures in this aging population, more and more patients are being declared unfit for the ‘Gold Standard’ treatment i.e. surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Among the patients who are unfit or high risk for aortic valve replacement (AVR) by open heart surgery, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proven to be a valuable alternative improving survival and quality of life. We report first Indian experience of Core Valve (Medtronic Inc.) implantation in three high surgical risk patients performed on 22nd and 23rd February 2012. PMID:23993000

  11. Asymptomatic Interrupted Aortic Arch, Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation, and Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a 76-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Tajdini, Masih; Sardari, Akram; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Baradaran, Abdolvahab; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with a high infancy mortality rate. The principal finding is loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. Because of the high mortality rate in infancy, interrupted aortic arch is very rare among adults. In this report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with asymptomatic interrupted aortic arch, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and bicuspid aortic valve. To our knowledge, she is the oldest patient ever reported with this possibly unique combination of pathologic conditions. In addition to reporting her case, we review the relevant medical literature. PMID:27777532

  12. Direct Transaortic Balloon Valvuloplasty Under Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Neonatal Critical Aortic Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nogi, Shunji; Teraguchi, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Yumiko; Otani, Hajime; Imamura, Hiroji; Kobayashi, Yohnosuke

    1996-09-15

    A 1-day-old male infant with critical aortic valvular stenosis underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) under echocardiographic guidance during cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular function dramatically improved after BAV. This technique combined with a surgical approach was safe and efficient.

  13. The combined effects of balloon valvuloplasty and surgical weight loss in treatment of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tangren, Christopher M; Cripe, Linda; Beekman, Robert H; Wilson, Kimberly; Inge, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    We report a case of a patient with a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve and extreme obesity who developed severe aortic stenosis. She dramatically improved after the combined use of balloon valvuloplasty and Roux en Y gastric bypass. Gastric bypass surgery has promise for patients with congenital cardiac disease whose treatment is complicated by extreme obesity.

  14. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Characteristics in Fetal Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Kevin G.; Schidlow, David; Freud, Lindsay; Escobar-Diaz, Maria; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) has shown promise in averting progression of mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) to hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a subset of patients. Patients who achieve biventricular circulation after FAV frequently have left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD). This study evaluates DD in fetuses with AS by comparing echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function in fetuses undergoing FAV (n=20) to controls (n=40) and evaluates for LV factors associated with DD in FAV patients. We also compared pre- and post-FAV DD variables (n=16). Median gestational age (24 weeks, range 18–29 weeks) and fetal heart rate were similar between FAV and controls. Compared to controls, FAV patients had universally abnormal LV diastolic parameters including fused mitral inflow E and A waves (p=0.008), higher E velocity(p<0.001), shorter mitral inflow time (p=0.001), lower LV lateral annulus E′ (p<0.001), septal E′ (p=0.003) and higher E/E′ (p<0.001) than controls. FAV patients had abnormal right ventricular mechanics with higher tricuspid inflow E velocity (p<0.001), and shorter tricuspid inflow time (p=0.03). Worse LV diastolic function (lower LV E′) was associated with higher endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) grade (r=0.74, p<0.001), large LV volume (r=0.55, p=0.013) and sphericity (r=0.58, P=0.009) and with lower LV pressure by mitral regurgitation jet (r=−0.68, p<0.001). Post-FAV, fewer patients had fused mitral inflow E and A than pre-FAV (p=0.05) and septal E′ was higher (=0.04). In conclusion, fetuses with mid-gestation AS have evidence of marked DD. Worse DD is associated with larger, more spherical LV, with more extensive EFE and lower LV pressure. PMID:24819899

  15. Relation of Aortic Valve Morphologic Characteristics to Aortic Valve Insufficiency and Residual Stenosis in Children With Congenital Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Balloon Valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Petit, Christopher J; Gao, Kevin; Goldstein, Bryan H; Lang, Sean M; Gillespie, Scott E; Kim, Sung-In H; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2016-03-15

    Aortic valve morphology has been invoked as intrinsic to outcomes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic valve stenosis. We sought to use aortic valve morphologic features to discriminate between valves that respond favorably or unfavorably to BAV, using aortic insufficiency (AI) as the primary outcome. All patients who underwent BAV at 2 large-volume pediatric centers from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Morphologic features assessed on pre-BAV echo included valve pattern (unicuspid, functional bicuspid, and true bicuspid), leaflet fusion length, leaflet excursion angle, and aortic valve opening area and on post-BAV echo included leaflet versus commissural tear. Primary end point was increase in AI (AI+) of ≥2°. Eighty-nine patients (median age 0.2 years) were included in the study (39 unicuspid, 41 functional bicuspid, and 9 true bicuspid valves). Unicuspid valves had a lower opening area (p <0.01) and greater fusion length (p = 0.01) compared with functional and true bicuspid valves. Valve gradient pre-BAV and post-BAV were not different among valve patterns. Of the 16 patients (18%) with AI+, 14 had leaflet tears (odds ratio 13.9, 3.8 to 50). True bicuspid valves had the highest rate (33%) of AI+. On multivariate analysis, leaflet tears were associated with AI+, with larger opening area pre-BAV and lower fusion length pre-BAV. AI+ was associated with larger pre-BAV opening area. Gradient relief was associated with reduced angle of excursion. Valve morphology influences outcomes after BAV. Valves with lesser fusion and larger valve openings have higher rates of leaflet tears which in turn are associated with AI.

  16. Mitral annular calcification in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Limited data exis t on clinical relevance of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC), although with similar pathophysiologic basis. We sought to reveal the prevalence of MAC and its clinical features in the patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AVS. We reviewed 106 consecutive patients who underwent isolated AVR from 2004 to 2010. Before AVR, CT scans were performed to identify MAC, whose severity was graded on a scale of 0-4, with grade 0 denoting no MAC and grade 4 indicating severe MAC. Echocardiography was performed before AVR and at follow-up over 2 years after AVR. MAC was identified in 56 patients with grade 1 (30 %), 2 (39 %), 3 (18 %), and 4 (13 %), respectively. Patients with MAC presented older age (72 ± 8 versus 66 ± 11 years), higher rate of dialysis-dependent renal failure (43 versus 4 %), and less frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (9 versus 36 %), when compared to those without MAC. No significant differences were seen in short- and mid-term mortality after AVR between the groups. In patients with MAC, progression of neither mitral regurgitation nor stenosis was observed at follow-up of 53 ± 23 months for 102 survivors, although the transmitral flow velocities were higher than in those without MAC. In conclusion, MAC represented 53 % of the patients undergoing isolated AVR for AVS, usually appeared in dialysis-dependent elder patients with tricuspid AVS. MAC does not affect adversely upon the survival, without progression of mitral valve disease, at least within 2 years after AVR.

  17. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appearance of the AMI. PMID:28405066

  18. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation in Asymptomatic Patients With Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Yingqi; Ma, Hongyin; Jin, Hang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in asymptomatic patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis.Fifty-seven patients with asymptomatic mild, moderate, and severe unilateral MCA stenosis and 8 patients with symptomatic severe unilateral MCA stenosis diagnosed by transcranial Doppler were enrolled. Twenty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. The noninvasive continuous cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial blood pressure were recorded simultaneously from each subject in the supine position. Transfer function analysis was applied to determine the autoregulatory parameters (phase difference [PD] and gain).The PD values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (60.71 ± 18.63°), the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired ipsilaterally (28.94 ± 27.43°, P < 0.001), and the symptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired bilaterally (13.74 ± 19.21°, P < 0.001; 19.68 ± 14.50°, P = 0.006, respectively). The PD values in the mild and moderate stenosis groups were not significantly different than the controls (44.49 ± 27.93°; 48.65 ± 25.49°, respectively). The gain values in the mild and moderate groups were higher than in the controls (1.00 ± 0.58 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, and 1.20 ± 0.59 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, respectively). The gain values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than that in the control group: the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was lower bilaterally (0.56 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P = 0.003; 0.60 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas the symptomatic severe group was lower unilaterally (on the contralateral side) (0.53 ± 0.43 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05).In asymptomatic patients with unilateral MCA stenosis, only the dCA of the severe stenosis was ipsilaterally impaired

  19. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation in Asymptomatic Patients With Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Yingqi; Ma, Hongyin; Jin, Hang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in asymptomatic patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. Fifty-seven patients with asymptomatic mild, moderate, and severe unilateral MCA stenosis and 8 patients with symptomatic severe unilateral MCA stenosis diagnosed by transcranial Doppler were enrolled. Twenty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. The noninvasive continuous cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial blood pressure were recorded simultaneously from each subject in the supine position. Transfer function analysis was applied to determine the autoregulatory parameters (phase difference [PD] and gain). The PD values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (60.71 ± 18.63°), the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired ipsilaterally (28.94 ± 27.43°, P < 0.001), and the symptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired bilaterally (13.74 ± 19.21°, P < 0.001; 19.68 ± 14.50°, P = 0.006, respectively). The PD values in the mild and moderate stenosis groups were not significantly different than the controls (44.49 ± 27.93°; 48.65 ± 25.49°, respectively). The gain values in the mild and moderate groups were higher than in the controls (1.00 ± 0.58 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, and 1.20 ± 0.59 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, respectively). The gain values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than that in the control group: the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was lower bilaterally (0.56 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P = 0.003; 0.60 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas the symptomatic severe group was lower unilaterally (on the contralateral side) (0.53 ± 0.43 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05). In asymptomatic patients with unilateral MCA stenosis, only the dCA of the severe stenosis was ipsilaterally

  20. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Treatment of Aortic Valve Stenosis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, Shayan; Tu, Hong-Anh; Holubowich, Corinne; Higgins, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the gold standard for treating aortic valve stenosis. It is a major operation that requires sternotomy and the use of a heart-lung bypass machine, but in appropriately selected patients with symptomatic, severe aortic valve stenosis, the benefits of SAVR usually outweigh the harms. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive procedure that allows an artificial valve to be implanted over the poorly functioning valve. Methods We identified and analyzed randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of TAVI compared with SAVR or balloon aortic valvuloplasty and were published before September 2015. The quality of the body of evidence for each outcome was examined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. The overall quality was determined to be high, moderate, low, or very low using a step-wise, structural methodology. We also developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of TAVI compared with SAVR over a 5-year time horizon, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Results Rates of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were similar for the TAVI and SAVR groups in all studies except one, which reported significantly lower all-cause mortality in the TAVI group and a higher rate of stroke in the SAVR group. Trials of high-risk patients who were not suitable candidates for SAVR showed significantly better survival with TAVI than with balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Median survival in the TAVI group was 31 months, compared with 11.7 months in the balloon aortic valvuloplasty group. Compared with SAVR, TAVI was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke, major vascular complications, paravalvular aortic regurgitation, and the need for a permanent pacemaker. SAVR was associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Transapical TAVI was associated with higher

  1. Long-term outcome of large artificial patch aortic repair for diffuse stenosis in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Mogi, Kenji; Sakurai, Manabu; Aoki, Chikashi

    2010-10-01

    There have been only a few reports concerning the long-term results of a surgical procedure using a large artificial patch for patients with Williams syndrome. Twelve years have passed since a patient with William's syndrome underwent a surgery with a patch angioplasty for the diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis and deformities of the neck branch arteries. The patient had a well-balanced aortic growth without stenotic or aneurysmal changes, which was confirmed during the time of the second surgery when replacing the mitral valve. This technique of using a large patch has proven to be safe for Williams syndrome patients with diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis in the long term.

  2. Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis: Methods, Models, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a major health problem facing aging societies. The identification of osteoblast-like and osteoclast-like cells in human tissue has led to a major paradigm shift in the field. CAVS was thought to be a passive, degenerative process, whereas now the progression of calcification in CAVS is considered to be actively regulated. Mechanistic studies examining the contributions of true ectopic osteogenesis, non-osseous calcification, and ectopic osteoblast-like cells (that appear to function differently from skeletal osteoblasts) to valvular dysfunction have been facilitated by the development of mouse models of CAVS. Recent studies also suggest that valvular fibrosis, as well as calcification, may play an important role in restricting cusp movement, and CAVS may be more appropriately viewed as a fibrocalcific disease. High resolution echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging have emerged as useful tools for testing the efficacy of pharmacological and genetic interventions in vivo. Key studies in humans and animals are reviewed that have shaped current paradigms in the field of CAVS, and suggest promising future areas for research. PMID:21617136

  3. Aortic stenosis: insights on pathogenesis and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Carità, Patrizia; Coppola, Giuseppe; Novo, Giuseppina; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Guglielmo, Marco; Balasus, Fabio; Novo, Salvatore; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Moscarelli, Marco; Fattouch, Khalil; Corrado, Egle

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valvular heart disease in the Western populations, with an estimated overall prevalence of 3% in adults over 75 years. To understand its patho-biological processes represents a priority. In elderly patients, AS usually involves trileaflet valves and is referred to as degenerative calcific processes. Scientific evidence suggests the involvement of an active “atherosclerosis-like” pathogenesis in the initiation phase of degenerative AS. To the contrary, the progression could be driven by different forces (such as mechanical stress, genetic factors and interaction between inflammation and calcification). The improved understanding presents potentially new therapeutic targets for preventing and inhibiting the development and progression of the disease. Furthermore, in clinical practice the management of AS patients implies the evaluation of generalized atherosclerotic manifestations (i.e., in the coronary and carotid arteries) even for prognostic reasons. In counselling elderly patients, the risk stratification should address individual frailty beyond the generic risk scores. In these regard, the co-morbidities, and in particular those linked to the global atherosclerotic burden, should be carefully investigated in order to define the risk/benefit ratio for invasive treatment strategies. We present a detailed overview of insights in pathogenesis of AS with possible practical implications. PMID:27582763

  4. Low Rate of Prenatal Diagnosis among Neonates with Critical Aortic Stenosis: Insight into the Natural History In Utero (Aortic Stenosis)

    PubMed Central

    Freud, Lindsay R.; Moon-Grady, Anita; Escobar-Diaz, Maria C.; Gotteiner, Nina L.; Young, Luciana T.; McElhinney, Doff B.; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the natural history and spectrum of fetal aortic stenosis (AS), we aimed to 1) determine the prenatal diagnosis rate of neonates with critical AS and a biventricular (BV) outcome; and 2) describe the findings at fetal echocardiography in prenatally diagnosed patients. Methods A multi-center, retrospective study was performed from 2000 to 2013. Neonates with critical AS who were discharged with a BV outcome were included. The prenatal diagnosis rate was compared to that reported for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Fetal echocardiographic findings in prenatally diagnosed patients were reviewed. Results Only 10 of 117 neonates (8.5%) with critical AS and a BV outcome were diagnosed prenatally, a rate significantly lower than that for HLHS in the contemporary era (82%; p<0.0001). Of the 10 patients diagnosed prenatally, all developed LV dysfunction by a median gestational age of 33 weeks (range, 28–35). When present, Doppler abnormalities such as retrograde flow in the aortic arch (n=2), monophasic mitral inflow (n=2), and left to right flow across the foramen ovale (n=8) developed late in gestation (median 33 weeks). Conclusion The prenatal diagnosis rate among neonates with critical AS and a BV outcome is very low, likely due to a relatively normal 4-chamber view in mid-gestation with development of significant obstruction in the 3rd trimester. This natural history contrasts with that of severe mid-gestation AS with evolving HLHS and suggests that the timing in gestation of significant AS has an important impact on subsequent left heart growth in utero. PMID:25251721

  5. Carotid endarterectomy may be required in addition to best medical treatment for some patient subgroups with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Veith, Frank J

    2015-02-01

    Several guidelines recommend carotid endarterectomy for patients with severe asymptomatic carotid stenosis to reduce the risk of a future cerebrovascular event, as long as the perioperative stroke/death rate is <3%. Based on improvements in best medical treatment, it was argued that currently best medical treatment alone should comprise the treatment-of-choice for asymptomatic carotid stenosis patients and that no intervention is warranted in these individuals. While it is true that best medical treatment should be used for the management of all asymptomatic carotid stenosis patients, emerging evidence suggests that best medical treatment alone may not prevent disease progression and the development of symptoms in some asymptomatic carotid stenosis patient subgroups. This article analyzes the results of two recent independent studies demonstrating that medical therapy alone may not be adequate for stroke prevention in some asymptomatic carotid stenosis patient subgroups. These results suggest that besides best medical treatment, additional carotid endarterectomy should be considered for specific asymptomatic carotid stenosis patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With Early- and New-Generation Devices in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Han; Lefèvre, Thierry; Ahn, Jung-Ming; Perlman, Gidon Y; Dvir, Danny; Latib, Azeem; Barbanti, Marco; Deuschl, Florian; De Backer, Ole; Blanke, Philipp; Modine, Thomas; Pache, Gregor; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Ruile, Philipp; Arai, Takahide; Ohno, Yohei; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Tay, Edgar; Schofer, Niklas; Holy, Erik W; Luk, Ngai H V; Yong, Gerald; Lu, Qingsheng; Kong, William K F; Hon, Jimmy; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lee, Michael; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Butter, Christian; Khalique, Omar K; Schaefer, Ulrich; Nietlispach, Fabian; Kodali, Susheel K; Leon, Martin B; Ye, Jian; Chevalier, Bernard; Leipsic, Jonathon; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Tamburino, Corrado; Colombo, Antonio; Søndergaard, Lars; Webb, John G; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-09-13

    Few studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (AS). Particularly, limited data exist comparing the results of TAVR with new-generation devices versus early-generation devices. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TAVR for bicuspid AS with early- and new-generation devices. The Bicuspid TAVR Registry is an international multicenter study enrolling consecutive patients with bicuspid AS undergoing TAVR between April 2005 and May 2015. Of 301 patients, 199 patients (71.1%) were treated with early-generation devices (Sapien XT [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, California]: n = 87; CoreValve [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota]: n = 112) and 102 with new-generation devices (Sapien 3 [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation]: n = 91; Lotus [Boston Scientific Corporation, Marlborough, Massachusetts]: n = 11). The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 4.7 ± 5.2 without significant differences between groups (4.6 ± 5.1 vs. 4.9 ± 5.4; p = 0.57). Overall, all-cause mortality rates were 4.3% at 30 days and 14.4% at 1 year. Moderate or severe paravalvular leak was absent and significantly less frequent with new-generation compared to early-generation devices (0.0% vs. 8.5%; p = 0.002), which resulted in a higher device success rate (92.2% vs. 80.9%; p = 0.01). There were no differences between early- and new-generation devices in stroke (2.5% vs. 2.0%; p > 0.99), life-threatening bleeding (3.5% vs. 2.9%; p > 0.99), major vascular complication (4.5% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.76), stage 2 to 3 acute kidney injury (2.5% vs. 2.9%; p > 0.99), early safety endpoints (15.1% vs. 10.8%; p = 0.30), and 30-day all-cause mortality (4.5% vs. 3.9%; p > 0.99). The clinical outcomes of TAVR in patients with bicuspid AS were favorable. New-generation devices were associated with less paravalvular leak and, hence, a higher device success rate than early

  7. Electrocardiographic associations of right precordial Q waves help to distinguish anterior myocardial infarction from aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Han B; Ramzy, Ihab S; Bowker, Timothy J; Dancy, Mark

    2002-02-01

    Right precordial Q waves are ECG evidence of anterior myocardial infarction and can be present in patients with pathological left ventricular hypertrophy particularly caused by aortic stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the ECG features associated with Q waves in aortic stenosis and those in anterior myocardial infarction. We studied 16 patients with anterior myocardial infarction and 19 patients with aortic stenosis by means of ECG, echocardiography and clinical history. On the ECG, heart rate (70 +/- 20 beats/min vs. 83 +/- 20) and QT interval (380 +/- 65 ms vs. 390 +/- 50) did not differ between the two conditions. PR interval (160 +/- 15 ms vs. 185 +/- 30, P<0.05) and QRS duration (80 +/- 7.0 ms vs. 95 +/- 15, P<0.01) were both longer in patients with aortic stenosis than in those with myocardial infarction. The Q wave voltage in V1 (1.0 +/- 0.55 mV vs. 1.5 +/- 0.60) or V2 (1.3 +/- 0.5 mV vs. 1.8 +/- 0.85) and R wave voltage in V5 (0.7 +/- 0.7 mV vs. 2.1 +/- 0.9) or V6 (0.7 +/- 0.4 mV vs. 1.5 +/- 0.7, all P<0.01) were significantly less in patients with anterior myocardial infarction than in those with aortic stenosis. Q wave voltage over 1.3 mV in V1 or R wave voltage over 1.5 mV in V5 can differentiate aortic stenosis from anterior myocardial infarction with a sensitivity of 79% for each and specificities of 81 and 93.8%, respectively. Though the frontal QRS axis was similar in the two groups (28 +/- 45 degrees vs. 14 +/- 35, P>0.05), the horizontal QRS axis pointed laterally (-30 +/- 20 degrees) in aortic stenosis and posteriorly (-60 +/- 20 degrees, P<0.01) in anterior myocardial infarction. A horizontal QRS axis between zero and -45 degrees detected the presence of aortic stenosis with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 81.3%. On echocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found in most patients (94.7%) with aortic stenosis but not in those (0%) with anterior myocardial infarction. Left ventricular end diastolic dimensions (5

  8. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease. PMID:27579316

  9. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hui; Kong, Xiangqing

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease.

  10. [Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities and risk factor analysis].

    PubMed

    Song, X T; Liu, B; Liu, C W; Ni, L; Zeng, R; Ye, W; Zheng, Y H; Li, Y J

    2016-01-12

    To evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities, and evaluate its effect on the treatment strategies for lower extremity artery lesions. Totally 348 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities who had no cerebrovascular symptoms or events in the past were enrolled from September 2012 to September 2014 in the Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Preoperative color doppler ultrasonography results of carotid arteries and demographic characteristics were retrospectively collected. The peak systolic velocity and the presence of plaque on gray-scale in the internal carotid arteries were used for diagnosing and grading internal carotid artery stenosis. A stenosis ≥50% was diagnosed as carotid artery stenosis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate related risk factors. Treatment strategies for the artery lesions of lower extremities were compared between those with and without asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Seventy-seven (22.1%) patients were found to have carotid artery stenosis. Forty-four (12.6%) patients were found to have a stenosis ≥70% or occlusion. Smoking (OR=2.122, 95% CI: 1.143-3.940), coronary artery disease (OR=1.939, 95% CI: 1.058-3.552) and hypertension (OR=1.882, 95% CI: 1.025-3.457) were found to be related risk factors. In patients combined with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, open surgery with general anesthesia was less frequently used than those without asymptomatic carotid stenosis (6.5% vs 18.1%, χ(2)=6.142, P=0.013). Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is high in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities. Smoking, coronary artery disease and hypertension are related risk factors.

  11. Internal mammary artery dilatation in a patient with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, and coronary disease. Case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio; Lopez, Laura Reija; Quiroga, Juan Sierra; Martinez Comendador, Jose M; Martinez-de-Alegria, Anxo; Martinez Cereijo, Jose M; Dominguez, Cristian Delgado

    2011-04-17

    The ideal surgical approach is unclear in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta that is associated with other cardiovascular pathologies that require intervention. Standard median sternotomy allows simultaneous, coronary revascularization surgery, valve replacement and repair of aortic coarctation. However the collateral circulation and the anatomy of the mammary arteries must be determined, to avoid possible complications. We report a case of a 69 year-old man with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease and internal mammary artery dilatation who underwent concomitant surgical procedures through a median sternotomy.

  12. Patient values and preferences on transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement therapy for aortic stenosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lytvyn, Lyubov; Guyatt, Gordon H; Manja, Veena; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Zhang, Yuan; Agoritsas, Thomas; Vandvik, Per O

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate patients' values and preferences regarding aortic valve replacement therapy for aortic stenosis. Setting Studies published after transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) became available (2002). Participants Adults with aortic stenosis who are considering or have had valve replacement, either TAVI or via surgery (surgical aortic valve replacement, SAVR). Outcome measures We sought quantitative measurements, or qualitative descriptions, of values and preferences. When reported, we examined correlations between preferences and objective (eg, ejection fraction) or subjective (eg, health-related quality of life) measures of health. Results We reviewed 1348 unique citations, of which 2 studies proved eligible. One study of patients with severe aortic stenosis used a standard gamble study to ascertain that the median hypothetical mortality risk patients were willing to tolerate to achieve full health was 25% (IQR 25–50%). However, there was considerable variability; for mortality risk levels defined by current guidelines, 130 participants (30%) were willing to accept low-to-intermediate risk (≤8%), 224 (51%) high risk (>8–50%) and 85 (19%) a risk that guidelines would consider prohibitive (>50%). Study authors did not, however, assess participants' understanding of the exercise, resulting in a potential risk of bias. A second qualitative study of 15 patients identified the following factors that influence patients to undergo assessment for TAVI: symptom burden; expectations; information support; logistical barriers; facilitators; obligations and responsibilities. The study was limited by serious risk of bias due to authors' conflict of interest (5/9 authors industry-funded). Conclusions Current evidence on patient values and preferences of adults with aortic stenosis is very limited, and no studies have enrolled patients deciding between TAVI and SAVR. On the basis of the data available, there is evidence of variability in individual

  13. Carotid revascularization and medical management for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Protocol of the CREST-2 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Howard, Virginia J; Meschia, James F; Lal, Brajesh K; Turan, Tanya N; Roubin, Gary S; Brown, Robert D; Voeks, Jenifer H; Barrett, Kevin M; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Huston, John; Lazar, Ronald M; Moore, Wesley S; Wadley, Virginia G; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Moy, Claudia S; Chimowitz, Marc; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2017-10-01

    Rationale Trials conducted decades ago demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy by skilled surgeons reduced stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Developments in carotid stenting and improvements in medical prevention of stroke caused by atherothrombotic disease challenge understanding of the benefits of revascularization. Aim Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (CREST-2) will test whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus contemporary intensive medical therapy is superior to intensive medical therapy alone in the primary prevention of stroke in patients with high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods and design CREST-2 is two multicenter randomized trials of revascularization plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. One trial randomizes patients to carotid endarterectomy plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone; the other, to carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. The risk factor targets of centrally directed intensive medical therapy are LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl and systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the composite of stroke and death within 44 days following randomization and stroke ipsilateral to the target vessel thereafter, up to four years. Change in cognition and differences in major and minor stroke are secondary outcomes. Sample size Enrollment of 1240 patients in each trial provides 85% power to detect a treatment difference if the event rate in the intensive medical therapy alone arm is 4.8% higher or 2.8% lower than an anticipated 3.6% rate in the revascularization arm. Discussion Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis requires contemporary randomized trials to address whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy is superior in preventing stroke beyond intensive medical therapy alone

  14. Paradoxical low flow aortic valve stenosis: incidence, evaluation, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical low-flow (PLF) aortic stenosis is defined by a stroke volume index <35 ml/m(2) despite the presence of preserved LV ejection fraction (≥ 50 %). This entity is typically characterized by pronounced LV concentric remodeling with small LV cavity, impaired LV filling, increased arterial load, and reduced LV longitudinal shortening. Patients with PLF also have a worse prognosis compared to patients with normal flow. Because of the low flow state, these patients often have a low gradient despite the presence of severe stenosis, thus leading to discordant AS grading (i.e., aortic valve area < 1.0 cm(2) but mean gradient < 40 mmHg) and thus uncertainty about the indication of aortic valve replacement. Stress echocardiography and aortic valve calcium score by computed tomography may be helpful to differentiate true from pseudo severe stenosis and thereby guide therapeutic management in these patients. Aortic valve replacement improves outcomes in patients with PLF low gradient AS having evidence of severe stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement may provide an interesting alternative to surgery in these patients.

  15. Replicating Patient-Specific Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis With Functional 3D Modeling.

    PubMed

    Maragiannis, Dimitrios; Jackson, Matthew S; Igo, Stephen R; Schutt, Robert C; Connell, Patrick; Grande-Allen, Jane; Barker, Colin M; Chang, Su Min; Reardon, Michael J; Zoghbi, William A; Little, Stephen H

    2015-10-01

    3D stereolithographic printing can be used to convert high-resolution computed tomography images into life-size physical models. We sought to apply 3D printing technologies to develop patient-specific models of the anatomic and functional characteristics of severe aortic valve stenosis. Eight patient-specific models of severe aortic stenosis (6 tricuspid and 2 bicuspid) were created using dual-material fused 3D printing. Tissue types were identified and segmented from clinical computed tomography image data. A rigid material was used for printing calcific regions, and a rubber-like material was used for soft tissue structures of the outflow tract, aortic root, and noncalcified valve cusps. Each model was evaluated for its geometric valve orifice area, echocardiographic image quality, and aortic stenosis severity by Doppler and Gorlin methods under 7 different in vitro stroke volume conditions. Fused multimaterial 3D printed models replicated the focal calcific structures of aortic stenosis. Doppler-derived measures of peak and mean transvalvular gradient correlated well with reference standard pressure catheters across a range of flow conditions (r=0.988 and r=0.978 respectively, P<0.001). Aortic valve orifice area by Gorlin and Doppler methods correlated well (r=0.985, P<0.001). Calculated aortic valve area increased a small amount for both methods with increasing flow (P=0.002). By combing the technologies of high-spatial resolution computed tomography, computer-aided design software, and fused dual-material 3D printing, we demonstrate that patient-specific models can replicate both the anatomic and functional properties of severe degenerative aortic valve stenosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The role and clinical implications of diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kampaktsis, Polydoros N; Kokkinidis, Damianos G; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Skubas, Nikolaos J; Devereux, Richard B

    2017-10-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis results primarily from left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis due to chronically elevated left ventricular systolic pressure. Currently, diastolic dysfunction does not have an explicit clinical role in management of patients with aortic stenosis. Studies have shown that improvement in diastolic dysfunction follows left ventricular remodelling after aortic valve replacement and that it occurs gradually or incompletely. Retrospective studies suggest that advanced grades of diastolic dysfunction at baseline are associated with increased mortality and adverse events even after aortic valve replacement. Recent studies have also associated myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of diastolic dysfunction, with worse outcomes. In addition, these results were independent of the degree of aortic stenosis or valve replacement. Indirect evidence of the role of diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis also comes from paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis, where disproportionate left ventricular hypertrophy leads to underfilling of the left ventricle, low-flow state and is associated with worse prognosis. Lastly, a limited number of studies suggest that worse diastolic dysfunction at baseline is detrimental in patients who develop aortic regurgitation after transcatheteraortic valve replacement, due to superimposition of volume overload on a stiff left ventricle. Current major limitations in our understanding of the prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction are the lack of universally accepted classification schemes, its dependence on dynamic loading conditions and the lack of larger prospective studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Five-year follow-up after transcatheter aortic valve implantation for symptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Ralf; Werner, Nicolas; Gerckens, Ulrich; Linke, Axel; Sievert, Horst; Kahlert, Philipp; Hambrecht, Rainer; Sack, Stefan; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Hoffmann, Ellen; Zeymer, Uwe; Schneider, Steffen

    2017-07-06

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been implemented into the care of elderly patients suffering from severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. However, data on long-term follow-up are sparse and predictors of long-term mortality need to be evaluated to better select patients. Therefore, we aimed to analyse predictors of 5-year mortality after TAVI. We analysed data from the German Transcatheter Aortic Valve Interventions-Registry. Each of the 27 participating hospitals agreed to include all consecutive TAVI patients at their institution. Out of 1444 patients treated with TAVI, 1378 patients had a follow-up of at least 4.5 years (completeness 95.4%). Endpoint for this analysis was 5-year survival. Cox regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with this endpoint. Patients who died were compared with survivors. The two groups showed multiple differences in patient characteristics, indications for interventions, preinterventional, as well as interventional characteristics and postinterventional events. Calculated 1-year mortality was 21.8% and 5-year mortality 59.1%. A higher logistic EuroScore was associated with a lower 5-year survival, being 45.5% in patients with a logistic EuroScore of <20%, 34.5% in those with 20% to 40% and 28.4% in patients with a logistic EuroScore >40%. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed the following independent predictors of 5-year mortality: female gender (HR (HR)=0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.77, p<0.0001), renal failure (HR=1.43, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.69, p<0.0001), prior mitral regurgitation ≥II° (HR=1.42, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.65, p<0.0001), residual aortic regurgitation ≥II° (HR=1.52, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.85, p<0.0001), atrial fibrillation (HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.64, p=0.0001), low gradient aortic stenosis (HR=1.48, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.84, p=0.0004), prior decompensation (HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.54, p=0.0006), frailty (HR=1.31, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58, p=0.004), surgical TAVI (HR=1.42, 95%

  18. Impact of Aortic Valve Calcification, as Measured by MDCT, on Survival in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Capoulade, Romain; Malouf, Joseph; Aggarval, Shivani; Araoz, Phillip A.; Michelena, Hector I.; Cueff, Caroline; Larose, Eric; Miller, Jordan D.; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic valve calcification (AVC) load measures lesion severity in aortic stenosis (AS) and is useful for diagnostic purposes. Whether AVC predicts survival after diagnosis, independent of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic AS characteristics, has not been studied. OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the impact of AVC load, absolute and relative to aortic annulus size (AVCdensity), on overall mortality in patients with AS under conservative treatment and without regard to treatment. METHODS In 3 academic centers, we enrolled 794 patients (mean age, 73 ± 12 years; 274 women) diagnosed with AS by Doppler echocardiography who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) within the same episode of care. Absolute AVC load and AVCdensity (ratio of absolute AVC to cross-sectional area of aortic annulus) were measured, and severe AVC was separately defined in men and women. RESULTS During follow-up, there were 440 aortic valve implantations (AVIs) and 194 deaths (115 under medical treatment). Univariate analysis showed strong association of absolute AVC and AVCdensity with survival (both, p < 0.0001) with a spline curve analysis pattern of threshold and plateau of risk. After adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, symptoms, AS severity on hemodynamic assessment, and LV ejection fraction, severe absolute AVC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 2.92; p = 0.03) or severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.37; p = 0.002) independently predicted mortality under medical treatment, with additive model predictive value (all, p ≤ 0.04) and a net reclassification index of 12.5% (p = 0.04). Severe absolute AVC (adjusted HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.62; p = 0.01) and severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.52; p = 0.001) also independently predicted overall mortality, even with adjustment for time-dependent AVI. CONCLUSIONS This large-scale, multicenter outcomes study of

  19. Heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ugur; Ozdemir, Murat; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Balcioglu, Serhat; Cemri, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-12-01

    To study heart rate (HR) variability and HR turbulence parameters in mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and to disclose whether any relationship exists between these parameters and echocardiographic findings. Forty-three asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS (AS group) were studied. Echocardiographic parameters and HR variability and HR turbulence indices obtained over 24 Holter ECG recordings were compared with those of an age and sex matched control population free of cardiovascular disease. Correlation between echocardiographic findings and HR variability and HR turbulence indices was also studied in the AS group. All HR variability parameters except mean RR interval, RMSSD, and pNN50 and one HR turbulence parameter, turbulence onset, were significantly disturbed in the AS group. Echocardiographic findings of diastolic dysfunction had significant correlations with HR variability and HR turbulence parameters in AS patients. Symphatovagal imbalance as shown by disturbed HR variability and HR turbulence parameters was demonstrated for the first time in patients with mild-to-moderate AS. This imbalance, which was shown to be correlated with echocardiographic findings of diastolic dysfunction, may lead to arrhythmic complications in this seemingly low-risk patient population.

  20. Continuous spinal labor analgesia for two deliveries in a parturient with severe subvalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Shunsuke; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Various degrees of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction have been seen in patients with subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS). Regional analgesia during labor for parturients with SAS is relatively contraindicated because it has a potential risk for hemodynamic instability due to sympathetic blockade as a result of vasodilation by local anesthetics. We thought continuous spinal analgesia (CSA) using an opioid and minimal doses of local anesthetic could provide more stable hemodynamic status. We demonstrate the management of a 28-year-old pregnant patient with SAS who received CSA for her two deliveries. For her first delivery (peak pressure gradient (∆P) between LV and aorta was approximately 55 mmHg), intrathecal fentanyl was used as a basal infusion, but we needed a small amount of bupivacaine to provide supplemental intrathecal analgesia as labor progressed. Although there were mild fluctuations in hemodynamics, she was asymptomatic. For her second delivery (∆P between LV and aorta was approximately 90 mmHg), minimal doses of continuous bupivacaine were used as a basal infusion. For her additional analgesic requests, bolus co-administration of fentanyl was effective. There were no fluctuations in her hemodynamics. Although her SAS in her second pregnancy was more severe than in the first, her hemodynamics exhibited less fluctuation during the second delivery with this method. In conclusion, CSA using fentanyl combined with minimal doses of bupivacaine provided satisfactory analgesia and stable hemodynamics in parturient with severe SAS.

  1. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of calcific aortic valve stenosis: anatomical and haemodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Lamy, E; Foucault, J P; Durand, C; Maffei, G; Maiza, D; Khayat, A; Potier, J C

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of elderly patients with calcified aortic stenosis were treated by balloon dilatation. In group 1, the valve was dilated just before surgical replacement of the valve. The valvar and annular changes occurring during dilatation were examined visually. In 20 of the 26 patients in this group there was no change. In the six remaining patients mobilisation of friable calcific deposits (1 case), slight tearing of the commissure (4 cases), or tearing of the aortic ring (1 case) were seen. Dilatation did not appear to alter valvar rigidity. In 14 patients (group 2) the haemodynamic gradient across the aortic valve was measured before and immediately after dilatation and one week after the procedure. Dilatation produced an immediate significant decrease of the aortic mean gradient and a significant increase of the aortic valve area. Eight days later the mean gradient had increased and the aortic valve area had decreased. Nevertheless there was a significant difference between the initial gradient and the gradient eight days after dilatation. The initial aortic valve area was also significantly larger than the area eight days after dilatation. The aortic valve gradient rose significantly in the eight days after dilatation and at follow up the gradients were those of severe aortic stenosis. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:3342163

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a revolution in the therapy of elderly and high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Teoman; Yilmaz, Irem

    2017-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) represents a real revolution in the field of interventional cardiology for the treatment of elderly or high-risk surgical patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Today, TAVI seems to play a key and a reliable role in the treatment of intermediate and maybe low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. TAVI has also evolved from a complex and hazardous procedure into an effective and safe therapy by the development of new generation devices. This article aims to review the background and future of TAVI, clinical trials and registries with old and new generation TAVI devices and to focus on some open issues related to post-procedural outcomes. PMID:28408919

  3. Congenital Aortic Stenosis: Some Observations on the Natural History and Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Gerald B.; Keith, John D.; Evans, John R.

    1964-01-01

    Three hundred patients, 30 years of age or under, with the clinical diagnosis of aortic stenosis were reviewed to provide information on the accuracy of clinical assessment and the natural history of the condition when left untreated. Sudden death was uncommon and occurred only in patients with clinical evidence of severe obstruction. In infants, the early presentation and lethal nature of aortic stenosis appeared to result from the presence of additional cardiac lesions. Correlation of clinical assessment with hemodynamic data in 83 patients indicated that important stenosis was present if the systolic murmur was accompanied by a thrill and associated with an increased left ventricular impulse, decreased brachial artery pulse pressure, or left ventricular hypertrophy on the electrocardiogram. The site of obstruction could not be established with certainty by clinical examination, but an early systolic ejection click was strong evidence against subvalvular stenosis. PMID:14201251

  4. Evaluation of Intravascular Hemolysis With Erythrocyte Creatine in Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tetsuro; Okumiya, Toshika; Kubo, Toru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-27

    Chronic intravascular hemolysis has been identified in patients with cardiac valve prostheses, but only a few case reports have evaluated intravascular hemolysis in patients with native valvular heart disease. To detect intravascular hemolysis in patients with aortic stenosis, erythrocyte creatine was evaluated with hemodynamic indices obtained by echocardiography.Erythrocyte creatine, a marker of erythrocyte age, was assayed in 30 patients with aortic stenosis and 10 aged matched healthy volunteers. Peak flow velocity of the aortic valve was determined by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. Twenty of 30 patients with aortic stenosis had high erythrocyte creatine levels (> 1.8 µmol/g Hb) and erythrocyte creatine was significantly higher as compared with control subjects (1.98 ± 0.49 versus 1.52 ± 0.19 µmol/g Hb, P = 0.007). Peak transvalvular pressure gradient ranged from 46 to 142 mmHg and peak flow velocity ranged from 3.40 to 5.95 m/second. Patients with aortic stenosis had a significantly lower erythrocyte count (387 ± 40 versus 436 ± 42 × 10(4) µL, P = 0.002) and hemoglobin (119 ± 11 versus 135 ± 11 g/L, P < 0.001) as compared with control subjects. Erythrocyte creatine had a fair correlation with peak flow velocity (r = 0.55, P = 0.002).In conclusion, intravascular hemolysis due to destruction of erythrocytes was detected in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and the severity of intravascular hemolysis was related to valvular flow velocity of the aortic valve.

  5. Stress Echocardiography in Aortic Stenosis: Insights into Valve Mechanics and Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Javier; García-Fernández, Miguel A.; Antoranz, J. Carlos; Moreno, M. Mar; Delcán, Juan Luis

    1999-10-01

    Stress interventions have been classically combined with cardiac catheterization recordings to understand the hemodynamic principles of valvular stenosis. Indices of aortic stenosis such as pressure gradient and valve area were based on simple hydraulic principles and have proved to be clinically useful for patient management during a number of decades. With the advent of Doppler echocardiography, these hemodynamic indices can be readily obtained noninvasively. Abundant evidence obtained using exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography has demonstrated that the assumptions of classic hemodynamic models of aortic stenosis were wrong. Consequently, it is recognized that conventional indices may be misleading indicators of aortic stenosis significance in particular clinical situations. To improve diagnostic accuracy, several alternative hemodynamic models have been developed in the past few years, including valve resistance and left ventricular stroke work loss, among others. Nevertheless, these more-accurate indices should be obtainable noninvasively and need to demonstrate greater diagnostic and prognostic power than conventional indices; preliminary data suggest such superiority. Stress echocardiography is well established as the tool of choice for testing hypothesis and physical models of cardiac valve function. Although the final role of alternative indices is not yet well established, the new insights into valvular hemodynamics provided by this technique may change the clinical assessment of aortic stenosis.

  6. Symptomatic obstruction of the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries obscured by aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Grecu, Loreta; Dardik, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery represents an uncommon cause of cerebrovascular insufficiency. We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief. Eventual stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk resolved the patient's symptoms. Our report highlights the diagnostic challenges in this case of bilateral supraaortic vessel disease and shows that equal upper extremity pressures do not rule out brachiocephalic artery obstruction.

  7. Congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis and sudden death associated with anesthesia: what's the mystery?

    PubMed

    Burch, Thomas M; McGowan, Francis X; Kussman, Barry D; Powell, Andrew J; DiNardo, James A

    2008-12-01

    Patients with congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis and associated peripheral pulmonary artery stenoses, the majority of whom have Williams-Beuren syndrome, are inherently at risk for development of myocardial ischemia. This is particularly true in the setting of procedural sedation and anesthesia. The biventricular hypertrophy that accompanies these lesions increases myocardial oxygen consumption and compromises oxygen delivery. In addition, these patients often have direct, multifactorial compromise of coronary blood flow. In this article, we review both the pathophysiology of congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis and the literature regarding sudden death in association with sedation and anesthesia. Recommendations as to preoperative assessment and management of these patients are made based on the best available evidence.

  8. Brachioradial delay: a new clinical indicator of the severity of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Leach, R M; McBrien, D J

    1990-05-19

    During the assessment of patients with severe or symptomatic aortic stenosis, a clinically detectable delay between the brachial and radial pulses was observed. This delay was not present in normal subjects. The timed delay of 53.5 (SE 2.6) ms in severe aortic stenosis was significantly longer than that in normal volunteers 22.6 [1.3] ms) or in patients with low cardiac output. This increased delay was clinically detectable before the occurrence of left ventricular failure and often before the onset of symptoms.

  9. [The thickness/radius ratio of the left ventricle in aortic stenosis. Prognostic and therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, J F; Martínez, C; Huerta, D

    1990-01-01

    Using two-D echocardiography and cardiac catheterization we studied the performance of left ventricle in severe aortic stenosis with normal ventricular function (10 patients), and with heart failure (11 patients). With appropriate hypertrophy increased ventricular function, is found resulting in systolic wall stress normalization. When hypertrophic mechanism is unable to normalize the systolic wall stress; afterload increases with ensuing heart failure (inadequate hypertrophy). Surgical treatment in those cases reduces the afterload and increases de ventricular function. Normalization of systolic wall stress in patients with severe aortic stenosis and heart failure means irreversible myocardial damage.

  10. Evaluation of aortic stenosis: an update--including low-flow States, myocardial mechanics, and stress testing.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Luc A; Dulgheru, Raluca

    2015-06-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases in Western countries. Echocardiography plays a central role in the evaluation and management of patients with AS. To overcome the inherent inconsistencies between the echocardiographic parameters defining severe AS and to unify concepts, a new classification based on the interplay between flow and gradients has recently been adopted. Outcome studies of asymptomatic patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as classified by this new approach, have shown that low-flow (LF) states are associated with poor outcome, that the classical normal-flow/high-gradient pattern has an intermediate outcome, while normal-flow/low-gradient severe AS seems to have an outcome comparable to moderate AS and such patients do not benefit from aortic valve replacement. Patients with LF/low-gradient severe AS with preserved LVEF, also known as "paradoxical LF/low-gradient AS," have the worst outcome and benefit greatly from surgical or percutaneous valve replacement, provided that severity is proven. In patients with LF/low-gradient and depressed LVEF, dobutamine stress echocardiography has an important role to distinguish severe from pseudo-severe AS and to assess surgical risk. Assessment of aortic valve calcium score, as well as computation of projected effective orifice aortic area at normal trans-valvular flow rates, has proved to be very useful to distinguish severe from pseudo-severe AS in LF/low-gradient AS with both reduced and preserved LVEF. Asymptomatic patients with normal flow/gradient should be submitted to an exercise test; exercise echocardiography can identify patients at increased risk when mean gradient increases by >18-20 mmHg and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension develops during exercise.

  11. [Correlation of the transaortic gradient determined with doppler echocardiography versus catheterization in patients with aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Illescas, J; Enciso, R; Vidrio, M; de la Torre, N; Baduí, E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the reliability of a non-invasive estimation of a transaortic gradient in patients with valvular aortic stenosis by doppler echocardiography. We compared the transvalvular gradients obtained by cardiac catheterization (invasive) versus the estimation by non-invasive technique such as continuous-wave doppler in 30 consecutive patients with valvular aortic stenosis. When compared the peak velocity (Vmax) of the aortic jet versus the gradient obtained by cardiac catheterization we found a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.83 and when compared the gradient obtained by both methods we found an r value of 0.85. These results show that the calculations of aortic gradient by echo-doppler, are reliable. Besides this method allowed us to establish the correct diagnosis and to follow up these patients.

  12. In-Graft Endovascular Stenting Repair for Supravalvular Stenosis From Aortic Rupture After Balloon-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Haas, Nikolaus; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    An 81-year-old man with high-grade aortic valve stenosis and status post-coronary artery bypass grafting and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. He was in New York Heart Association class III and had dyspnea. After appropriate screening, we implanted a 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) through a transapical approach because of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Postinterventional aortography revealed correct positioning and function of the valve and free coronary ostia but contrast extravasation in the vicinity of the interposed vascular prosthesis, resulting in severe luminal narrowing. We chose to manage the stenosis with an endovascular stent. After stenting, extravascular compression was markedly reduced, and the pressure gradient disappeared. The patient was discharged home on the 20th postoperative day. Three months later, computed tomography depicted correct positioning of both grafts. The patient's general health is good, and he is now in New York Heart Association class II. This case illustrates a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation specific for patients with an ascending aortic graft. Although stenting may be a good solution, as depicted by this case, self-expanding transcatheter aortic valves should be preferred in patients with ascending aortic grafts to avoid the described complication.

  13. Singleton Merten Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Early Onset Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mungee, Sudhir

    2017-01-01

    Singleton Merten syndrome (SMS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder with variable expression. Its characteristic features include abnormal aortic calcification, abnormal ossification of extremities, and dental anomalies. We present a young man with dyspnea who was noted to have aortic stenosis in the background of glaucoma, psoriasis, dental anomalies, hand and foot deformities, Achilles tendinitis, osteopenia, and nephrolithiasis. The conglomeration of features led to the diagnosis of SMS. His mother had a very similar phenotype. PMID:28321341

  14. PET evaluation of cerebral blood flow reactivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, H.M.; Brass, L.; Rich, D.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use acetazolamide (AZ) enhanced O-15 water PET to evaluate cerebral perfusion reserve in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We hypothesized that impaired vasoreactivity would be associated with symptomatic disease and a higher likelihood of future ischemic events. Twenty-two patients with significant (>75%) carotid artery occlusion underwent cerebral blood flow imaging at baseline and following AZ infusion. Paired O-15 data sets were coregistered and globally normalized. Regions of interest were drawn on baseline blood flow images and superimposed upon (AZ - baseline) difference images to derive a % change in regional blood flow after AZ administration. The results showed a significant difference in cerebral perfusion reserve between symptomatic (n=19) and asymptomatic (n=3) carotid artery disease.

  15. Silent ischemic lesion laterality in asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis relates to reduced cerebral vasoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro; Iihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the relationship between silent ischemic lesions, defined as hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of brain white matter and cerebral hemodynamics (baseline cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasoreactivity). Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2012, 61 patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis were evaluated for asymptomatic silent ischemic lesions, acute infarction, and cerebral hemodynamics. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on silent ischemic lesion distribution; the Symmetry group (n = 34) included patients who showed symmetrical distribution of lesions (or had no lesions), and the Asymmetry group (n = 27) included patients with a greater number of lesions in the ipsilateral than that in the contralateral hemisphere. The Asymmetry group was further divided into Internal (n = 15) and External (n = 12) types. Results: Two External-type patients (17%) showed spotty asymptomatic acute infarction in the ipsilateral hemisphere. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics, histopathological findings, vascular risk factors, or cerebral blood flow values between the groups. The mean cerebral vasoreactivity value in the ipsilateral hemisphere for the Internal type was 13.0 ± 15.2% (range: −11.4% to 41.6%), which was significantly lower than values of the contralateral hemisphere (36.7 ± 20.8%; range: 3.9% to 75.7%; P <.01) and ipsilateral hemispheres of the other groups (P <.01). Conclusions: The finding that increased ipsilateral asymmetrical silent ischemic lesions correlated with cerebral vasoreactivity reduction may help predict the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. PMID:28217385

  16. Integrin β3 inhibition is a therapeutic strategy for supravalvular aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Ashish; Sheikh, Abdul Q.; Kumar, Abhishek; Luo, Jiesi; Zhang, Jiasheng; Hinton, Robert B.; Smoot, Leslie; Kaplan, Paige; Urban, Zsolt; Qyang, Yibing; Tellides, George

    2016-01-01

    The aorta is the largest artery in the body, yet processes underlying aortic pathology are poorly understood. The arterial media consists of circumferential layers of elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and many arterial diseases are characterized by defective lamellae and excess SMCs; however, a mechanism linking these pathological features is lacking. In this study, we use lineage and genetic analysis, pharmacological inhibition, explant cultures, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to investigate supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) patients and/or elastin mutant mice that model SVAS. These experiments demonstrate that multiple preexisting SMCs give rise to excess aortic SMCs in elastin mutants, and these SMCs are hyperproliferative and dedifferentiated. In addition, SVAS iPSC-derived SMCs and the aortic media of elastin mutant mice and SVAS patients have enhanced integrin β3 levels, activation, and downstream signaling, resulting in SMC misalignment and hyperproliferation. Reduced β3 gene dosage in elastin-null mice mitigates pathological aortic muscularization, SMC misorientation, and lumen loss and extends survival, which is unprecedented. Finally, pharmacological β3 inhibition in elastin mutant mice and explants attenuates aortic hypermuscularization and stenosis. Thus, integrin β3–mediated signaling in SMCs links elastin deficiency and pathological stenosis, and inhibiting this pathway is an attractive therapeutic strategy for SVAS. PMID:26858344

  17. A clinical risk score of myocardial fibrosis predicts adverse outcomes in aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Calvin W.L.; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Lefevre, Guillaume; Bailleul, Sophie; Yeung, Emily N.W.; Koo, Maria; Mirsadraee, Saeed; Mathieu, Tiffany; Semple, Scott I.; Mills, Nicholas L.; Vahanian, Alec; Newby, David E.; Dweck, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Midwall myocardial fibrosis on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a marker of early ventricular decompensation and adverse outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to develop and validate a novel clinical score using variables associated with midwall fibrosis. Methods and results One hundred forty-seven patients (peak aortic velocity (Vmax) 3.9 [3.2,4.4] m/s) underwent CMR to determine midwall fibrosis (CMR cohort). Routine clinical variables that demonstrated significant association with midwall fibrosis were included in a multivariate logistic score. We validated the prognostic value of the score in two separate outcome cohorts of asymptomatic patients (internal: n = 127, follow-up 10.3 [5.7,11.2] years; external: n = 289, follow-up 2.6 [1.6,4.5] years). Primary outcome was a composite of AS-related events (cardiovascular death, heart failure, and new angina, dyspnoea, or syncope). The final score consisted of age, sex, Vmax, high-sensitivity troponin I concentration, and electrocardiographic strain pattern [c-statistic 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.78–0.91), P < 0.001; Hosmer–Lemeshow χ2 = 7.33, P = 0.50]. Patients in the outcome cohorts were classified according to the sensitivity and specificity of this score (both at 98%): low risk (probability score <7%), intermediate risk (7–57%), and high risk (>57%). In the internal outcome cohort, AS-related event rates were >10-fold higher in high-risk patients compared with those at low risk (23.9 vs. 2.1 events/100 patient-years, respectively; log rank P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed in the external outcome cohort (31.6 vs. 4.6 events/100 patient-years, respectively; log rank P < 0.001). Conclusion We propose a clinical score that predicts adverse outcomes in asymptomatic AS patients and potentially identifies high-risk patients who may benefit from early valve replacement. PMID:26491110

  18. Incidence of severe coronary stenosis in asymptomatic patients with peripheral arterial disease scheduled for major vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hromadka, Milan; Baxa, Jana; Seidlerova, Jitka; Suchy, David; Sedivy, Jakub; Stepankova, Lucie; Rajdl, Daniel; Rokyta, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has the risk equivalent of coronary heart disease. The biochemical parameters associated with functionally significant coronary artery stenosis were investigated in asymptomatic patients with PAD who were scheduled for major vascular intervention. A total of 50 PAD patients asymptomatic for coronary heart disease were examined using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). A stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) test was performed in patients who exhibited coronary stenosis >40%. In patients with stress-induced perfusion defects, the severity of stenosis was assessed using invasive coronary angiography including fractional flow reserve assessment. The CT findings were correlated with both classical and more recently developed parameters of atherosclerosis. According to the combined CT examination (CTA and stress CT perfusion), 36% of patients exhibited significant coronary stenosis. Stress-induced hypoperfusion was observed in 95.7% of severe stenotic lesions. After adjustment for confounders, the level of high-sensitivity troponin I was associated with severe coronary stenosis (OR 1.260 [95% CI 1.054 to 1.505]). Other biochemical parameters did not correlate with coronary stenosis. The annual mortality rate was 4%. The results of the present study confirm a significant diagnostic contribution of a complex cardiac CT examination in patients scheduled for major vascular surgery. A high prevalence of asymptomatic coronary heart disease was observed in this particular patient group. High-sensitivity measurements of troponin I correlated with the extent of the coronary stenosis.

  19. Sex-Related Discordance Between Aortic Valve Calcification and Hemodynamic Severity of Aortic Stenosis: Is Valvular Fibrosis the Explanation?

    PubMed

    Simard, Louis; Côté, Nancy; Dagenais, François; Mathieu, Patrick; Couture, Christian; Trahan, Sylvain; Bossé, Yohan; Mohammadi, Siamak; Pagé, Sylvain; Joubert, Philippe; Clavel, Marie-Annick

    2017-02-17

    Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is characterized by calcium deposition in valve leaflets. However, women present lower aortic valve calcification loads than men for the same AS hemodynamic severity. We, thus, aimed to assess sex differences in aortic valve fibrocalcific remodeling. One hundred and twenty-five patients underwent Doppler echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography within 3 months before aortic valve replacement. Explanted stenotic tricuspid aortic valves were weighed, and fibrosis degree was determined. Sixty-four men and 39 women were frequency matched for age, body mass index, hypertension, renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and AS severity. Mean age (75±9 years), mean gradient (41±18 mm Hg), and indexed aortic valve area (0.41±0.12 cm(2)/m(2)) were similar between men and women (all P≥0.18). Median aortic valve calcification (1973 [1124-3490] Agatston units) and mean valve weight (2.36±0.99 g) were lower in women compared with men (both P<0.0001). Aortic valve calcification density correlated better with valve weight in men (r(2)=0.57; P<0.0001) than in women (r(2)=0.26; P=0.0008). After adjustment for age, body mass index, aortic valve calcification density, and aortic annulus diameter, female sex was an independent risk factor for higher fibrosis score in AS valves (P=0.003). Picrosirius red staining of explanted valves showed greater amount of collagen fibers (P=0.01), and Masson trichrome staining revealed a greater proportion of dense connective tissue (P=0.02) in women compared with men. In this series of patients with tricuspid aortic valve and similar AS severity, women have less valvular calcification but more fibrosis compared with men. These findings suggest that the pathophysiology of AS and thus potential targets for drug development may be different according to sex. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The effect of statins therapy in aortic stenosis: Meta-analysis comparison data of RCTs and observationals

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Nicoll, Rachel; He, Yi hua; Henein, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis has been shown to share the same risk factors as atherosclerosis which suggested a potential benefit from statins therapy. Fourteen studies which provided the effect of statins treatment on aortic stenosis (AS) were meta-analyzed, including 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 9 observational studies. In the RCTs, statins did not have any influence on peak aortic valve velocity, peak valve gradient, mean valve gradient, aortic valve area and aortic calcification compared to controls. In the observational studies, the peak valve velocity, peak gradient and aortic valve area showed less progression in the statins group compared to controls. This article describes data related article title “The effect of statins on valve function and calcification in aortic stenosis: a meta-analysis” (Zhao et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977437

  1. Exercise stress echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging in risk stratification of mild to moderate aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sonaglioni, Andrea; Lombardo, Michele; Baravelli, Massimo; Trotta, Graziana; Sommese, Carmen; Anzà, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis (AS) seem to have a worse outcome than commonly expected. Early identification of subjects who may develop a rapid disease progression or cardiovascular events is critical in order to apply adequate risk management. Observational prospective single-centre study. To determine the prognostic role of exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) in patients with mild and moderate asymptomatic AS. Ninety consecutive patients (mean age 74 ± 12 years) with isolated mild and moderate AS were enrolled into the study protocol over a 20 months period. Follow-up time was 12 months. A complete echocardiographic study with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was performed at baseline and during semi-supine symptom-limited exercise test to evaluate: (1) the occurrence of symptoms, (2) ST segment changes, (3) transaortic pressure gradient, (4) the E/A ratio, (5) the E/e' ratio and (6) the systolic pulmonary artery pressure. During the 1 year follow-up time, we evaluated the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, defined as any of the following: (1) cardio-vascular hospitalization; (2) requirement for aortic valve replacement; (3) cardiac death. During follow-up, three patients died, 11 underwent aortic valve replacement and 26 had cardiovascular hospitalizations. On univariate analysis, patients who exhibited symptoms during exercise (HR 2.93, p = 0.003); the occurrence of a ≥ 2 mm exercise-induced ST segment depression (HR 3.12, p = 0.001); a ≥ 15 mmHg increase in mean transaortic pressure gradient during exercise (HR 2.77, p = 0.001); a ≥ 50 mmHg exercise-induced increase in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (HR 2.90, p = 0.009); an exercise-induced pseudo-normalization of the E/A ratio (E/A ≥ 1) (HR 7.50, p = 0.0001) and, particularly, a ≥ 15 exercise-induced increase in the E/e' ratio (HR 7.69, p = 0.0001) had a significantly higher risk of cardiac events during the follow-up time. On multivariate analysis, only the latter covariate

  2. Aortic valve stenosis: non-invasive preoperative evaluation using 64-slice CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Ciolina, F; Sedati, P; Zaccagna, F; Galea, N; Noce, V; Miraldi, F; Cavarretta, E; Francone, M; Carbone, I

    2015-10-01

    In patients affected by aortic valve stenosis (AS) it is mandatory to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of retrospectively ECG-gated 64-slice CT angiography (64-SCTA) was assessed in patients with AS referred for surgical valve replacement. Forty-two patients with AS underwent ECG-gated 64-SCTA of thoracic aorta, including the heart and coronary arteries, before surgical valve replacement. Images were evaluated by two independent readers and compared with surgical findings in terms of aortic valve calcification grading, valvular morphology, aortic valve annulus and sino-tubular junction diameters, and valvular area planimetry. Quantitative evaluation of cusps opening was also performed. Finally, the presence of CAD, thoracic aortic aneurysm and left ventricle hypertrophy were assessed. Visualization of the aortic valve without motion artefacts was possible in 38 patients (90.5%). Valvular morphology was correctly assessed in all cases (100%). 64-SCTA correctly determined aortic valve calcification grading and the aortic valve annulus and sinotubular junction diameters in 100% of cases. The aortic valve planimetric area was assessed in 38 cases (90.5%). Ascending aortic aneurysms requiring surgical replacement were detected in 12 patients (28.6%). Significant left ventricle hypertrophy was found in 30 patients (71%). Preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing surgical replacement for AS with 64-SCTA is feasible. 64-SCTA can rule out CAD and evaluate the status of the aortic valve and thoracic aorta in the same examination, obtaining relevant information for surgical planning.

  3. Extended replacement of a calcified ascending aorta in adulthood sporadic, diffuse type, supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Borghetti, Valentino; D'Addario, Giancarlo; Bravi, Ilaria; Pardinia, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    The diffuse variant of supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is one of the most rare congenital vascular pathological conditions of adulthood. Due to its rarity, surgical treatment of this clinical entity is still a matter of debate because of the variable degree of aortic narrowing, presence of multilevel obstruction, and age at presentation, all factors that strongly influence the disease prognosis. We report a case of an adult patient with an extremely calcified diffuse SVAS who underwent successful replacement of the ascending aorta through the interposition of a tubular prosthesis. Six months' follow-up showed complete relief of the aortic gradient and an improvement in clinical performance.

  4. Progression of asymptomatic mild carotid artery stenosis: Implications for frequency of surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Russell D; Shield, Cory E; Laughrun, David

    2017-08-01

    We looked retrospectively at the 3- to 5-year progression of mild, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS). A random sample of 600 patients who had undergone at least two carotid artery duplex ultrasounds between 31 October 2006 and 1 November 2016 with a second duplex ⩾3 and ⩽5 years following the initial one were screened for inclusion. Internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were included if they had 20-49% stenosis on the initial duplex, with 440 carotid arteries meeting this criteria. Analyses were performed utilizing chi-squared and two-tailed t-tests. Twenty-four (5.45%) of the initial 440 carotid arteries progressed to moderate CAS. There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension (68% vs 47%, p=0.022) and diabetes mellitus (44% vs 22%, p=0.008) in patients with carotids that progressed to moderate CAS. There was a decrease in moderate-intensity statin use (32% vs 58%, p=0.005) and an increase in patients not on statins (36% vs 11%, p=0.001) in the group of carotids that progressed to moderate CAS. One carotid artery (0.2%) progressed from mild CAS to severe CAS. If supported by others, our data may lead to a change in the recommendations regarding appropriate follow-up of asymptomatic CAS.

  5. Determinants and prognostic value of Galectin-3 in patients with aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Arangalage, Dimitri; Nguyen, Virginia; Robert, Tiphaine; Melissopoulou, Maria; Mathieu, Tiffany; Estellat, Candice; Codogno, Isabelle; Huart, Virginie; Duval, Xavier; Cimadevilla, Claire; Vahanian, Alec; Dehoux, Monique; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial fibrosis has been proposed as an outcome predictor in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) that may lead to consider prophylactic surgery. It can be detected using MRI but its widespread use is limited and development of substitute biomarkers is highly desirable. We analysed the determinants and prognostic value of galectin-3, one promising biomarker linked to myocardial fibrosis. Patients with at least mild degenerative AS enrolled between 2006 and 2013 in two ongoing studies, COFRASA/GENERAC (COhorte Française de Rétrécissement Aortique du Sujet Agé/GENEtique du Rétrécissement Aortique), aiming at assessing the determinants of AS occurrence and progression, constituted our population. We prospectively enrolled 583 patients. The mean galectin-3 value was 14.3±5.6 ng/mL. There was no association between galectin-3 and functional status (p=0.55) or AS severity (p=0.58). Independent determinants of galectin-3 were age (p=0.0008), female gender (p=0.04), hypertension (p=0.002), diabetes (p=0.02), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.01), diastolic dysfunction (E/e', p=0.02) and creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). Among 330 asymptomatic patients at baseline, galectin-3 was neither predictive of outcome in univariate analysis (p=0.73), nor after adjustment for age, gender, rhythm, creatinine clearance and AS severity (p=0.66). In a prospective cohort of patients with a wide range of AS severity, galectin-3 was not associated with AS severity or functional status. Main determinants of galectin-3 were age, hypertension and renal function. Galectin-3 did not provide prognostic information on the occurrence of AS-related events. Our results do not support the use of galectin-3 in the decision-making process of asymptomatic patients with AS. COFRASA NCT00338676 and GENERAC CT00647088. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. [Urinary levels of angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II in patients with severe aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    López-de la Vega, César; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Lomelí-Estrada, Catalina; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Strengthen knowledge about the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis. Urinary levels of angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II were compared between two samples: A) forty five patients with severe aortic stenosis, without systemic arterial hypertension and with normal kidney and normal left ventricular systolic function; B) control group: twenty one persons without cardiovascular disease. there would be no difference between urinary levels. The average of angiotensin-(1-7) urinary concentration in severe aortic stenosis patients was 2.102 pmol/mL and 5.591 pmol/mL for the control group. The average of Ang II was 0.704 pmol/mL and 0.185 pmol/mL respectively. Using t-Student test, we determine that the difference in urinary concentration of angiotensin-(1-7) [p=0.633] and the difference of angiotensin II (p=0.631), were statistically significant. documented a statistically significant difference in urinary levels angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7) within the group of patients with severe aortic stenosis.

  7. Correlation of echocardiographic wall stress and left ventricular pressure and function in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Iskandrian, A S; Kotler, M N; Hakki, A H; Segal, B L

    1983-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that left ventricular pressure (P) can be predicted in patients with aortic stenosis by the equation P = 235 h/r, where 235 is a constant peak wall stress (sigma), h is end-systolic wall thickness, and r is end-systolic dimension/2; h and r are measured by M-mode echocardiography. In 73 patients with aortic stenosis (valve area less than 0.7 cm2), measured and predicted left ventricular pressure correlated poorly (r = 0.17). The measured wall stress in our patients varied from 120 to 250 mm Hg in patients with normal left ventricular function and from 250 to 550 mm Hg in patients with abnormal function. The correlation between sigma and h was only fair (r = 0.53), because many patients had inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy. There was a statistically significant correlation between ejection fraction and sigma (r = 0.62) and between ejection fraction and end-systolic dimension (r = -0.70), but there was considerable scatter of ejection fractions for any given end-systolic dimension. We conclude that sigma is not constant in aortic stenosis, and the use of a constant sigma to predict left ventricular pressure is unreliable; inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy may explain why sigma is not constant. M-mode echocardiography is not reliable in assessing the severity of aortic stenosis in adults; such assessment requires precise measurements of pressure gradients and flow by cardiac catheterization.

  8. Surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in children with left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Miao, Qi; Liu, Xingrong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is an uncommon genetic disorder of endocardial morphogenesis, which carries a high mortality from heart failure or sudden cardiac death. This condition is often first diagnosed in adults, but it has also been described in children with other cardiac anomalies. We discuss the management of a 10-year-old female with congenital aortic stenosis associated with LVNC.

  9. Should patients with asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis undergo simultaneous carotid and cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Peter; Werner, Raphael; Oertel, Frank; Beyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiovascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether patients with severe asymptomatic carotid and coronary artery diseases should undergo simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 624 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study results of these papers are tabulated. Previous cohort studies showed mixed results, while advocating for the necessity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A recent RCT showed that patients undergoing prophylactic or simultaneous CEA + CABG had lower rates of stroke (0%) compared with delayed CEA 1–3 months after CABG (7.7%), without significant perioperative mortality difference. This study included patients with unilateral severe (>70%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis requiring CABG. An earlier partly randomized trial also showed better outcomes for patients undergoing simultaneous procedures (P = 0.045). Interestingly, systematic reviews previously failed to show compelling evidence supporting prophylactic CEA. This could be partly due to the fact that these reviews collectively analyse different cohort qualities. Neurological studies have, however, shown reduced cognitive and phonetic quality and function in patients with unilateral and bilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Twenty-one RCTs comparing lone carotid artery stenting (CAS) and CEA informed the American Heart Association guidelines, which declared CAS comparable with CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (CS). However, the risk of death/stroke for CAS alone is double that for CEA alone in the acute phase following onset of symptoms, while CEA alone is associated with a doubled risk of myocardial infarction. There is

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) for Treatment of Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Doble, B; Xie, F; Blackhouse, G; Campbell, K; Kaulback, K; Chandra, K; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    , but varied widely for operable patients. Conclusions The findings of the 2-year follow-up with respect to mortality and adverse events were consistent with those of the 1-year follow-up. TAVI was also associated with improvement in quality of life, although results varied by cohort. Consistent with the 2012 report, TAVI may be cost-effective for patients who are not candidates for surgery. Plain Language Summary Narrowing of 1 of the heart valves (called aortic valve stenosis) makes it difficult for the heart to work properly. Often, patients have surgery to replace the narrowed valve, but surgery is too risky for some. In 2012, Health Quality Ontario published a report on a less invasive treatment option called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This report reviews information published since the 2012 report: the results of a 2-year follow-up of TAVI patients, and studies exploring patients’ quality of life. PMID:23837106

  11. Differentiation between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Extraforaminal Stenosis in Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebra: Role of Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Lumbosacral Radiculography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of lumbosacral radiculography using 3-dimentional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) rendering for diagnostic information of symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 18 patients with symptomatic (n = 10) and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis (n = 8) in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Each patient underwent 3D coronal fast-field echo sequences with selective water excitation using the principles of the selective excitation technique (Proset imaging). Morphologic changes of the L5 nerve roots at the symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis were evaluated on 3D MR rendered images of the lumbosacral spine. Results Ten cases with symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. On 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation of the L5 nerve roots was found in two cases, while swelling of the nerve roots was seen in eight cases at the exiting nerve root. Eight cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. Based on 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve roots was not found in any cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Conclusion Results from 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography Indicate the indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve root in symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Based on these findings, 3D MR radiculography may be helpful in the diagnosis of the symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. PMID:22778561

  12. Differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra: role of three-dimensional magnetic resonance lumbosacral radiculography.

    PubMed

    Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Jae Woon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of lumbosacral radiculography using 3-dimentional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) rendering for diagnostic information of symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. The study population consisted of 18 patients with symptomatic (n = 10) and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis (n = 8) in lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Each patient underwent 3D coronal fast-field echo sequences with selective water excitation using the principles of the selective excitation technique (Proset imaging). Morphologic changes of the L5 nerve roots at the symptomatic and asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis were evaluated on 3D MR rendered images of the lumbosacral spine. Ten cases with symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. On 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation of the L5 nerve roots was found in two cases, while swelling of the nerve roots was seen in eight cases at the exiting nerve root. Eight cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis showed hyperplasia and degenerative osteophytes of the sacral ala and/or osteophytes at the lateral margin of the L5 body. Based on 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography, indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve roots was not found in any cases with asymptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Results from 3D MR lumbosacral radiculography Indicate the indentation or swelling of the L5 nerve root in symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis. Based on these findings, 3D MR radiculography may be helpful in the diagnosis of the symptomatic extraforaminal stenosis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  13. Impact of myocardial fibrosis in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Frank; Herrmann, Sebastian; Störk, Stefan; Niemann, Markus; Frantz, Stefan; Lange, Volkmar; Beer, Meinrad; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Strotmann, Jörg M

    2009-08-18

    In this prospective follow-up study, the effect of myocardial fibrosis on myocardial performance in symptomatic severe aortic stenosis was investigated, and the impact of fibrosis on clinical outcome after aortic valve replacement (AVR) was estimated. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with isolated symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent extensive baseline characterization before AVR. Standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (late-enhancement imaging for replacement fibrosis) were performed at baseline and 9 months after AVR. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained intraoperatively to determine the degree of myocardial fibrosis. Patients were analyzed according to the severity of interstitial fibrosis in cardiac biopsies (severe, n=21; mild, n=15; none, n=22). The extent of histologically determined cardiac fibrosis at baseline correlated closely with New York Heart Association functional class and markers of longitudinal systolic function (all P<0.001) but not global ejection fraction or aortic valve area. Nine months after AVR, the degree of late enhancement remained unchanged, implying that AVR failed to reduce the degree of replacement fibrosis. Patients with no fibrosis experienced a marked improvement in New York Heart Association class from 2.8+/-0.4 to 1.4+/-0.5 (P<0.001). Only parameters of longitudinal systolic function predicted this functional improvement. Four patients with severe fibrosis died during follow-up, but no patient from the other groups died. Myocardial fibrosis is an important morphological substrate of postoperative clinical outcome in patients with severe aortic stenosis and was not reversible after AVR over the 9 months of follow-up examined in this study. Because markers of longitudinal systolic function appear to indicate sensitively both the severity of myocardial fibrosis and the clinical outcome, they may prove valuable for preoperative risk assessment in patients with aortic stenosis.

  14. Patient values and preferences on transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement therapy for aortic stenosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, Lyubov; Guyatt, Gordon H; Manja, Veena; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Zhang, Yuan; Agoritsas, Thomas; Vandvik, Per O

    2016-09-29

    To investigate patients' values and preferences regarding aortic valve replacement therapy for aortic stenosis. Studies published after transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) became available (2002). Adults with aortic stenosis who are considering or have had valve replacement, either TAVI or via surgery (surgical aortic valve replacement, SAVR). We sought quantitative measurements, or qualitative descriptions, of values and preferences. When reported, we examined correlations between preferences and objective (eg, ejection fraction) or subjective (eg, health-related quality of life) measures of health. We reviewed 1348 unique citations, of which 2 studies proved eligible. One study of patients with severe aortic stenosis used a standard gamble study to ascertain that the median hypothetical mortality risk patients were willing to tolerate to achieve full health was 25% (IQR 25-50%). However, there was considerable variability; for mortality risk levels defined by current guidelines, 130 participants (30%) were willing to accept low-to-intermediate risk (≤8%), 224 (51%) high risk (>8-50%) and 85 (19%) a risk that guidelines would consider prohibitive (>50%). Study authors did not, however, assess participants' understanding of the exercise, resulting in a potential risk of bias. A second qualitative study of 15 patients identified the following factors that influence patients to undergo assessment for TAVI: symptom burden; expectations; information support; logistical barriers; facilitators; obligations and responsibilities. The study was limited by serious risk of bias due to authors' conflict of interest (5/9 authors industry-funded). Current evidence on patient values and preferences of adults with aortic stenosis is very limited, and no studies have enrolled patients deciding between TAVI and SAVR. On the basis of the data available, there is evidence of variability in individual values and preferences, highlighting the importance of well-informed and

  15. Optimization and Reproducibility of Aortic Valve 18F-Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, Timothy R.G.; Jenkins, William S.A.; Adamson, Philip D.; Robson, Phillip; Lucatelli, Christophe; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Prendergast, Bernard; Denison, Alan R.; Forsyth, Laura; Rudd, James H.F.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Fletcher, Alison; Tuck, Sharon; Newby, David E.; Dweck, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Background— 18F-Fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) can measure disease activity and progression in aortic stenosis. Our objectives were to optimize the methodology, analysis, and scan–rescan reproducibility of aortic valve 18F-fluoride PET-CT imaging. Methods and Results— Fifteen patients with aortic stenosis underwent repeated 18F-fluoride PET-CT. We compared nongated PET and noncontrast CT, with a modified approach that incorporated contrast CT and ECG-gated PET. We explored a range of image analysis techniques, including estimation of blood-pool activity at differing vascular sites and a most diseased segment approach. Contrast-enhanced ECG-gated PET-CT permitted localization of 18F-fluoride uptake to individual valve leaflets. Uptake was most commonly observed at sites of maximal mechanical stress: the leaflet tips and the commissures. Scan–rescan reproducibility was markedly improved using enhanced analysis techniques leading to a reduction in percentage error from ±63% to ±10% (tissue to background ratio MDS mean of 1.55, bias −0.05, limits of agreement −0·20 to +0·11). Conclusions— Optimized 18F-fluoride PET-CT allows reproducible localization of calcification activity to different regions of the aortic valve leaflet and commonly to areas of increased mechanical stress. This technique holds major promise in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis and as a biomarker end point in clinical trials of novel therapies. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02132026. PMID:27733431

  16. [A case report of aortic valvuloplasty by rasping technique for aortic stenosis with small annulus simultaneously performed with mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Taniyasu, N; Kou, E; Hiramatsu, T; Yokoyama, S; Takenaka, A; Ikawa, O

    1997-02-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old woman with aortic stenosis and regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Preoperative cardiac catheterization revealed LV-Ao pressure gradient of 30 mmHg and regurgitation of Sellers III. The aortic annulus was measured less than 19 mm. As operative findings, the aortic annulus seemed to be too small to be replaced with 19 mm prosthetic valve. Aortic valvuloplasty (AVP) with rasping technique was performed for the aortic valve and valve replacement was carried out for the mitral valve. After aortic declamping and occurring her beat, the transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation for AVP was effective. Postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative cardiac catheterization have shown decreased transvalvular pressure gradient up to 10 mmHg and aortic regurgitation of Sellers I.

  17. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Patrick; Erkilet, Gülsüm; Veulemans, Verena; Kröpil, Patric; Schurgers, Leon; Zeus, Tobias; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microparticles (MPs) derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC) as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC) by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc) levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation. Results Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation. Conclusion In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification. PMID:27010400

  18. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem with the aorta or its branches, including: Aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Congenital (present from birth) problems AV ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Congenital (present ...

  19. At sea with SEAS: the first clinical endpoint trial for ezetimibe, treatment of patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, ends with mixed results and more controversy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Kostner, Karam; Colquhoun, David; Woodhouse, Stan

    2009-10-01

    SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) hypothesised that aggressive lipid lowering with simvastatin/ezetimibe reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the need for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The study enrolled from 173 centres in seven European countries 1873 elderly non-diabetics with mild to moderate AS (mean aortic-valve area 1.28+/-0.47 cm(2)), who had no indication for lipid-lowering therapy. Patients were randomised to treatment with either simvastatin/ezetimibe 40/10mg daily or matching placebo after a four-week diet/placebo run-in period. Compared with placebo, LDL cholesterol was reduced by 61% (2.0 mmol/l). There was no difference in the primary endpoint (a combination of AVR, CV death, non-fatal MI, congestive heart failure from AS progression, coronary revascularisation, hospitalised unstable angina and non-haemorrhagic stroke). Compared with placebo, CVD events were reduced by 4.4% from 20.1% to 15.7% in the simvastatin/ezetimibe group (p=0.02). Cancer incidence and cancer deaths were more frequent in the simvastatin/ezetimibe group (9.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.03 and 4.1% vs. 2.5%, p=0.05, respectively). These differences were not related to any form of cancer and did not increase with increased duration of therapy.

  20. The role of routine pre-operative bedside echocardiography in detecting aortic stenosis in patients with a hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Loxdale, S J; Sneyd, J R; Donovan, A; Werrett, G; Viira, D J

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of aortic stenosis in unselected patients admitted with a hip fracture is unknown. Derriford Hospital operates a routine weekday, pre-operative, targeted bedside echocardiography examination on all patients admitted with a hip fracture. We carried out a prospective service evaluation for 13 months from October 2007 on all 501 admissions, of which 374 (75%) underwent pre-operative echocardiography. Of those patients investigated, 8 (2%) had severe, 24 (6%) moderate and 113 (30%) had mild aortic stenosis or aortic sclerosis. Eighty-seven of 278 (31%) patients with no murmur detected clinically on admission had aortic stenosis on echocardiography and of the 96 patients in whom a murmur was heard pre-operatively, 30 (31%) had a normal echocardiogram. Detection of a murmur does not necessarily reflect the presence of underling aortic valve disease. However, if a murmur is heard then the likelihood of the lesion's being moderate or severe aortic stenosis is increased (OR 8.5; 95% CI 3.8-19.5). Forty-four (12%) of our unselected patients with fractured femur had either moderate or severe aortic stenosis (with or without moderate or severe left ventricular failure), or mild stenosis with moderately or severely impaired left ventricular function.

  1. Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study.

    PubMed

    Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Leiballi, Elisa; Capanna, Michele; Burelli, Claudio; Cassin, Matteo; Macor, Franco; Grandis, Umberto; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Patients with aortic stenosis have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, but there is little information about the association of coronary artery disease and carotid artery disease. The study includes 317 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis, who underwent carotid and coronary angiography during the same catheterization before aortic valve replacement. At univariate analysis, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was associated with (1) presence of carotid artery disease (P < .001); (2) angina pectoris as presentation symptom (P < .001); (3) age more than 65 years (P < .05); and (4) hypertension (P < .05). At multivariate analysis, only carotid artery disease, angina, and age emerged as independent predictors of coronary artery disease. The combination of 2 variables (carotid artery disease, angina) allowed the identification of 4 groups, with decreasing prevalence of coronary artery disease: (1) angina+/carotid artery disease+: 85%; (2) angina-/ carotid artery disease+: 50%; (3) angina+/carotid artery disease-: 41%; (4) angina-/carotid artery disease-: 21% (P < .001). In patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis, the presence of significant carotid artery disease is a strong marker of significant coronary artery disease.

  2. Is cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis?

    PubMed

    Wong, Sophia; Spina, Roberto; Toemoe, Sianne; Dhital, Kumud

    2016-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis? Altogether 239 papers were found using the reported search. Only 12 demonstrated the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Nine of these 12 papers found CMR to correlate well with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis. When aortic valve areas were measured with cardiac tomography (CT) or cardiac catheterization (CC), four papers found CMR to be more accurate than TTE. Eight of 12 papers found CMR to have excellent reliability and reproducibility, as demonstrated by the low inter- and intraobserver variability. Four papers did not estimate intra- or interobserver variability. One paper noted a sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 100%, respectively, when using CMR to detect severe aortic stenosis (AS) that had been diagnosed during CC. A second paper noted a lower sensitivity and specificity of 78 and 89%, respectively, but this was still better than the sensitivities and specificities found when using TOE or TTE to detect severe AS, as noted on CC. We conclude that current evidence finds echocardiography and CMR to be equally reliable in assessing aortic stenosis. CMR has better inter- and intraobserver reliability and demonstrates an advantage over echocardiography in the detection of severe AS with greater specificity and sensitivity. The final choice, however, is as likely to be influenced by the availability of magnetic resonance imaging and expertise in interpreting the results as by accuracy and reliability.

  3. Concomitant Lumbar Stenosis and Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Christoph; Niemeier, Thomas E; Neway, William E

    2016-01-01

    Aortic pseudoaneurysm can create a constellation of symptoms that can mimic lumbar back pain. There are rare but well-documented reports of aortic pathology (aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and chronic contained aneurysm ruptures) eroding into the vertebral column causing neural compression. We report a case of a rapidly progressive aortic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with pre-existing lumbar spine pathology which had the potential for catastrophic intraoperative bleeding during a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) technique. Postoperatively, the patient’s radicular pain resolved but her back pain remained. Further workup identified the pseudoaneurysm and the patient subsequently underwent open vascular repair. In this report, we highlight a lesser known mimicker of lumbar back pain. PMID:27882269

  4. The role of statins in aortic stenosis. Myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Moura, Luís M; Zamorano, José; Peréz-Oteyza, C; Rocha-Gonçlves, F; Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of aortic valve disease has improved in the past decade from considering it a degenerative process to the realization that it is an active biologic disease. Aortic valve disease, although it has a similar atherosclerotic pathogenesis to vascular disease, differs in terms of bone calcification. Determining the appropriate timing of statin therapy to slow the progression of bone formation in these lesions is essential for the routine use of these drugs in such patients. Knowledge of the biology of valve lesions will play an important part in understanding this disease and future treatment options for these patients.

  5. Transcatheter repair of Fontan baffle stenosis and fenestration in two patients using Cook Zenith aortic endografts.

    PubMed

    Madan, Nitin; Ellozy, Sharif; Love, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Patients with Fontan baffles for single ventricle may have cyanosis from right-to-left shunt through leaks in the baffle or due to intentionally created fenestrations. Typically this right-to-left shunt may be addressed with catheter-based occlusion devices. However, in narrowing of the Fontan baffle, placement of occluders within the Fontan baffle may additionally narrow the pathway and is therefore undesirable. We describe 2 patients with the combination of Fontan baffle stenosis and patent fenestration treated with a Zenith abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft (Cook Medical). The covered stent graft both occluded the right-to-left shunt and eliminated the baffle stenosis. Both patients have had symptomatic improvement.

  6. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a population-based ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Mineva, P P; Manchev, I C; Hadjiev, D I

    2002-07-01

    The aims of this epidemiological population-based cohort study were to examine the prevalence and outcomes of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) detected by duplex scanning and its relations to other vascular risk factors. A total of 500 volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, without signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, aged 50-79 years, were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of ACS of 50% or greater was 6.4%. Only severe carotid stenosis was detected in 0.4% of the subjects examined. Significant relationships between ACS and coronary heart disease (CHD) [odds ratio (OR)=8.00], peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR=3.66), cigarette smoking in men (OR=4.39) and obesity in women (OR=0.31) were found. The biennial incidence rate of cerebral ischaemic events was 9.4%. A progression of ACS was revealed in 14% and a regression in 6.25% of the subjects. The patients with progressing ACS to more than 70% diameter reduction reached the end-points. Follow-up with repeated duplex scans in patients with advancing ACS of 50% or greater, especially smokers with CHD and PAD, is recommended.

  7. Factors affecting left ventricular remodeling after valve replacement for aortic stenosis. An overview

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Emmanuel; Troise, Giovanni; Cirillo, Marco; Brunelli, Federico; Tomba, Margherita Dalla; Mhagna, Zen; Tasca, Giordano; Quaini, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Although a small percentage of patients with critical aortic stenosis do not develop left ventricle hypertrophy, increased ventricular mass is widely observed in conditions of increased afterload. There is growing epidemiological evidence that hypertrophy is associated with excess cardiac mortality and morbidity not only in patients with arterial hypertension, but also in those undergoing aortic valve replacement. Valve replacement surgery relieves the aortic obstruction and prolongs the life of many patients, but favorable or adverse left ventricular remodeling is affected by a large number of factors whose specific roles are still a subject of debate. Age, gender, hemodynamic factors, prosthetic valve types, myocyte alterations, interstitial structures, blood pressure control and ethnicity can all influence the process of left ventricle mass regression, and myocardial metabolism and coronary artery circulation are also involved in the changes occurring after aortic valve replacement. The aim of this overview is to analyze these factors in the light of our experience, elucidate the important question of prosthesis-patient mismatch by considering the method of effective orifice area, and discuss surgical timings and techniques that can improve the management of patients with aortic valve stenosis and maximize the probability of mass regression. PMID:16803632

  8. Simultaneous transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement and transcatheter mitral valve replacement for native valvular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Elkharbotly, Ali; Delago, Augustin; El-Hajjar, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is well established for patients who cannot undergo surgery (Leon et al., N Engl J Med 2010;363:1597) or are high risk for surgery (Smith et al., N Engl J Med 2011;364:2187-2198). Experience with the TAVR procedure has led to recent reports of successful transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures (Cheung et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:1814; Seiffert et al., J Am Coll Cardiol Interv 2012;5:341-349) separately or simultaneously with the TAVR. However, these reports were of simultaneous valve-in-valve procedures (Cheung Anson, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:1759-1766). A recent report from Portugal also reported simultaneous transpical implantation of an inverted transcatheter aortic valve-in-ring in the mitral position and transcatheter aortic valve (Hasan et al., Circulation 2013;128:e74-e76). There has been an experience of TMVR only in native mitral valve for mitral valve stenosis, but none in both aortic and mitral valves. We report the first in human case of simultaneous transapical TAVR and TMVR in native valves secondary to valvular stenosis. Our patient was not a candidate for percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty secondary to a high Wilkins Score. Sizing of the aortic valve was based on the transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), whereas sizing of the mitral valve was based on TEE measurements and balloon inflation during left ventriculography. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Asymptomatic Extracranial Artery Stenosis and the Risk of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Cheng; Ji, Ruijun; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic extracranial artery stenosis (ECAS) is a well-known risk factor for stroke events, but it remains unclear whether it has the same role in predicting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in China. We investigated the potential associations between ECAS, carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the study. Out of 5440 study participants, 364 showed an asymptomatic ECAS at baseline, and 185 had come up to the final vascular events (brain infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, coronary heart disease and death due to the vascular diseases). During the follow- up. ECAS, carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have associated with vascular events significantly (P < 0.05). After adjusting relevant vascular risk factors, ECAS still has a strong relationship with the new occurrence of vascular events, especially the brain infarction (HR: 2.101; 95% CI: 1.027–4.298; P = 0.042). We observed a clear relationship between ECAS and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, especially the brain infarction event. Carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have all relevant with the occurrence of vascular events. Our findings provide direct evidence for the importance of ECAS in vascular events occurrence. PMID:27650877

  10. Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Coarctation of the Aorta: A Hybrid Approach to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Daniel; Caputo, Massimo; Taliotis, Demetris

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid surgery is becoming more popular in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease, particularly small infants and neonates. We report a case of a patient with aortic stenosis (AS) and coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Case: a 1-month-old baby presented with severe AS and CoA. The decision was made to perform a hybrid surgical procedure. The patient underwent a lateral thoracotomy for repair of the CoA and carotid cutdown for aortic balloon valvuloplasty (AoVP). PMID:28367436

  11. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation with Hemoconcentration in a Hypervolemic Patient with Critical Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gregoric, Igor D.; Kar, Biswajit; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Sanjay; Crane, Terry; Nathan, Sriram; Loyalka, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we describe the case of a 60-year-old man with severe nonischemic cardiomyopathy and hypervolemia. By means of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at the bedside, along with hemoconcentration, the patient was resuscitated from severe cardiogenic shock and normal blood volume was restored. Within 24 hours, he was able to undergo a high-risk aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis, with a successful outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which hemoconcentration with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used to support a patient with severe hypervolemia. PMID:22163137

  12. Decision analysis in clinical cardiology: When is coronary angiography required in aortic stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeson, S.; Meyer, K.B.; Pauker, S.G. )

    1990-03-15

    Decision analysis offers a reproducible, explicit approach to complex clinical decisions. It consists of developing a model, typically a decision tree, that separates choices from chances and that specifies and assigns relative values to outcomes. Sensitivity analysis allows exploration of alternative assumptions. Cost-effectiveness analysis shows the relation between dollars spent and improved health outcomes achieved. In a tutorial format, this approach is applied to the decision whether to perform coronary angiography in a patient who requires aortic valve replacement for critical aortic stenosis.

  13. Impact of associated significant aortic regurgitation on left ventricular remodeling and hemodynamic impairment in severe aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Andreea Catarina; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Enache, Roxana; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi; Piazza, Rita; Faggiano, Pompilio; Cassin, Matteo; Dimulescu, Doina; Ginghină, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    The left ventricular (LV) response to combined pressure and volume overload [aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR)] versus pressure overload (isolated AS)has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess LV remodeling, functional and hemodynamic consequences inpatients with mixed aortic valve disease versus patients with isolated AS. We enrolled 181 patients (67 ± 9 years,109 men) with severe AS (aortic valve area indexed to body surface area <0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ) who underwent preoperative cardiac catheterization and a complete echocardiogram. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured. One hundred and ten patients (group A)had isolated severe AS (AR 0–1) and 71 patients (group B)had mixed aortic valve disease (severe AS plus AR 2–3). Patients in group B were younger and in a higher New York Heart Association class (p < 0.01). Severity of AS was similar in both groups. Patients in group B had a higher indexed LV mass, a lower LV ejection fraction, and higher PCWP, LVED Pand PAP (all p ≤ 0.01). Patients with severe AS and significant AR are more symptomatic than patients with isolated severe AS. The increased burden due to the combined lesion induces pronounced LV remodeling and more severe hemodynamic consequences.

  14. Endothelial adaptations in aortic stenosis. Correlation with flow parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Zand, T.; Nunnari, J. J.; Hoffman, A. H.; Savilonis, B. J.; MacWilliams, B.; Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1988-01-01

    A 69 +/- 5% stenosis was produced in the rat aorta, with the purpose of correlating endothelial changes with local flow patterns and with levels of shear stress; the hydrodynamic data were obtained from a scaled-up model of the stenosed aorta. In the throat of the stenosis, where shear stress values were 15-25 times normal, the endothelium was stripped off within 1 hour. It regenerated at half the rate of controls but modulated into a cell type that could withstand the increased shear stress. Adaptations included changes in cell orientation, number, length, width, thickness, stress fibers, and anchoring structures, as well as changes in the length, argyrophilia, and permeability of the junctions. Areas of either elongated or "polygonal" cells consistently developed at the same sites in relation to the stenosis, but the hydrodynamic data showed that they did not always correspond (as had been anticipated) to high and low shear, respectively. It is concluded that endothelial cell shape in the living artery must be determined by some other factor(s) in addition to shear stress. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3189514

  15. [New aspects in aortic valve disease].

    PubMed

    Tornos, P

    2001-01-01

    Renewed interest for aortic valve disease has evolved in recent years. Aortic valve replacement has become the second most frequent cause of cardiac surgery, following coronary bypass surgery. In addition, the etiologic and physiopathologic knowledge of this disorder has improved. In the present paper we analyze three aspects of the disease which are, at present, the subject of study and controversy: first, we discuss the possible relationship between degenerative aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis; second, the involvement of the aortic root in cases of bicuspid aortic valve; and third, the surgical indications in asymptomatic patients with either aortic stenosis or regurgitation.

  16. [Correlation between left ventricular stroke work loss index and aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Arrieta, Gustavo; Zamorano-Velázquez, Noé Fernando; Hernández-Martínez, José Gustavo; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Arenas-Fonseca, Jorge Guillermo; Mendoza-Carmona, Alicia Haydeé; Téllez-Bautista, Margarita; Contreras-Rodríguez, Alicia; Martínez-Baca-López, Francisco; Espinosa-Caleti, Beda; Mendoza-Hernández, María Elsa; Sánchez-Velázquez, Luis David

    2009-01-01

    In echocardiographic evaluation of patients with aortic stenosis (AS), prospective studies have demonstrated that left ventricular stoke work loss index (LVSWLI) provide a more clinical efficacy than calculate of aortic valve area (AVA) by continuity equation to estimate severity of stenosis. The aim of this study was assess in our population of patients with AS the correlation between LVSWLI and AVA in regard to severity. Forty nine patients with moderate and severe AS were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Grades of AS were assessed by transaortic flow velocity (Vmax) and mean aortic transvalvular gradient (deltaP). AVA and LVSWLI were calculated and Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients between both methods were assessed. Significance level was set at <0.05. The age of the patients was 66 +/- 13 (31-84 years). Thirty four (69%) patients had severe AS and 15 (31%) moderate AS. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between LVSWLI and AVA was 0.79 (p<0.04) and between LVSWLI and deltaP was 0.90 (p<0.03). The Spearman's correlation coefficient between LVSWLI and symptomatic status was 0.70 (rho = 0.70, p < 0.003). In patients with moderate and severe AS, the correlation between LVSWLI and deltaP is higher than correlation between LVSWLI and AVA. Moreover LVSWLI has a higher correlation with presence of symptoms than AVA.

  17. Impact of Mean Transaortic Pressure Gradient on Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, Yohann; Kowalski, Cedric; Rusinaru, Dan; Ringle, Anne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Mean transaortic pressure gradient (MTPG) has never been validated as a predictor of mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis. We sought to determine the value of MTPG to predict mortality in a large prospective cohort of severe aortic stenosis patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and to investigate the cutoff of 60 mm Hg, proposed in American guidelines. A total of 1143 patients with severe aortic stenosis defined by aortic valve area ≤1 cm(2) and MTPG ≥40 mm Hg were included. The population was divided into 3 groups according to MTPG: between 40 and 49 mm Hg, between 50 and 59 mm Hg, and ≥60 mm Hg. The end point was all-cause mortality. MTPG was ≥60 mm Hg in 392 patients. Patients with MTPG ≥60 mm Hg had a significantly increase risk of mortality compared with patients with MTPG <60 mm Hg (hazard ratio [HR]=1.62 [1.27-2.05] P<0.001), even for the subgroup of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients (HR=1.56 [1.04-2.34] P=0.032). After adjustment for established outcome predictors, patients with MTPG ≥60 mm Hg had a significantly higher risk of mortality than patients with MTPG <60 mm Hg (HR=1.71 [1.33-2.20] P<0.001), even after adjusting for surgery as a time-dependent variable (HR=1.71 [1.43-2.11] P<0.001). Similar results were observed for the subgroup of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients (HR=1.70 [1.10-2.32] P=0.018 and HR=1.68 [1.20-2.36] P=0.003, respectively). This study shows the negative prognostic impact of high MTPG (≥60 mm Hg), on long-term outcome of patients with severe aortic stenosis with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, irrespective of symptoms. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. High left ventricular outflow tract gradient: Aortic stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or both?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Inês; Caetano, Francisca; Trigo, Joana; Mota, Paula; Marques, António Leitão

    2015-05-01

    The authors report the case of a patient diagnosed with both hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and aortic stenosis. Due to clinical deterioration, additional investigation was performed, and a high left ventricular outflow tract gradient was identified. Correct identification of the condition causing the symptoms was challenging, and involved several imaging techniques, the contribution of transesophageal echocardiography being crucial. The final diagnosis of severe aortic stenosis led to successful valve replacement surgery. The presence of these two conditions in the same patient has been documented, although it is uncommon. This association poses particular diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, which are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis can be argued by greater day-by-day blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Shinichi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Fujita, Suwako; Ito, Asahiro; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Hanatani, Akihisa; Takagi, Masahiko; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2015-07-01

    Although it is well known that the prevalence of aortic arch plaques, one of the risk factors for ischemic stroke, is high in patients with severe aortic stenosis, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Increased day-by-day blood pressure (BP) variability is also known to be associated with stroke; however, little is known on the association between day-by-bay BP variability and aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with aortic stenosis. Our objective was to clarify the association between day-by-day BP variables (average values and variability) and aortic arch atherosclerosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The study population consisted of 104 consecutive patients (mean age 75 ± 8 years) with severe aortic stenosis who were scheduled for aortic valve replacement. BP was measured in the morning in at least 4 consecutive days (mean 6.8 days) prior to the day of surgery. Large (≥4 mm), ulcerated, or mobile plaques were defined as complex plaques using transesophageal echocardiography. Cigarette smoking and all systolic BP variables were associated with the presence of complex plaques (p < 0.05), whereas diastolic BP variables were not. Multiple regression analysis indicated that day-by-day mean systolic BP and day-by-day systolic BP variability remained independently associated with the presence of complex plaques (p < 0.05) after adjustment for age, male sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. These findings suggest that higher day-by-day mean systolic BP and day-by-day systolic BP variability are associated with complex plaques in the aortic arch and consequently stroke risk in patients with aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Circulating collagen metabolites, myocardial fibrosis and heart failure in aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kupari, Markku; Laine, Mika; Turto, Heikki; Lommi, Jyri; Werkkala, Kalervo

    2013-03-01

    Myocardial fibrosis predisposes to heart failure in aortic valve stenosis. The study aim was to determine the value of: (i) circulating collagen metabolites as biomarkers of left ventricular fibrosis and heart failure in aortic stenosis; and (ii) myocardial fibrosis as a predictor of postoperative outcome. Among a total of 132 patients (mean age 68 +/- 10 years) with severe aortic stenosis, measurements were made of circulating N-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CITP) and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen III (PIIINP). Cardiac catheterization, echocardiography and a 6-min walk test were also performed. The aorta-to-coronary sinus concentration gradients of collagen metabolites were determined in 45 patients. Patients free from coronary artery disease (n = 85) underwent left ventricular biopsies for the assessment of myocardial fibrosis, one-year postoperative echocardiography and a 6-min walk test, and a long-term follow up for mortality. Neither peripheral collagen metabolites nor their transcardiac concentration gradients correlated with the extent of myocardial fibrosis. PIIINP demonstrated a net release from the heart, while PINP and CITP showed consistent falls in transcardiac concentrations that suggested extraction rather than release by the heart. Peripheral PIIINP correlated directly with the pulmonary wedge pressure (r = 0.50, p < 0.001) and inversely with the left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.40, p = 0.00001) and 6-min walk (r = -0.29, p = 0.001). Similar associations with heart failure were found for CITP, but not for PINP. One-year postoperative changes in exercise capacity and left ventricular mass and function were independent of myocardial fibrosis, as was mortality over a median of 8.8 years. Circulating collagen metabolites are not reliable surrogate measures of myocardial fibrosis in aortic stenosis, despite CITP and PIIINP being associated strongly with heart failure and left

  1. Neonatal Aortic Stenosis is a Surgical Disease: An Interventional Cardiologist View.

    PubMed

    Benson, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The application of balloon valvotomy as primary treatment for neonatal congenital aortic stenosis is contentious. In this debate, we discuss data comparing outcomes of a percutaneous and surgical strategy between two tertiary centers that have adopted opposite therapeutic strategies. The outcomes with surgical and balloon therapies appear comparable. These contemporaneous data validate the empiric switch to primary balloon valvotomy in the modern era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Severity of asymptomatic carotid stenosis and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric ischaemic events: results from the ACSRS study.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, A N; Kakkos, S K; Griffin, M; Sabetai, M; Dhanjil, S; Tegos, T; Thomas, D J; Giannoukas, A; Geroulakos, G; Georgiou, N; Francis, S; Ioannidou, E; Doré, C J

    2005-09-01

    This study determines the risk of ipsilateral ischaemic neurological events in relation to the degree of asymptomatic carotid stenosis and other risk factors. Patients (n=1115) with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis greater than 50% in relation to the bulb diameter were followed up for a period of 6-84 (mean 37.1) months. Stenosis was graded using duplex, and clinical and biochemical risk factors were recorded. The relationship between ICA stenosis and event rate is linear when stenosis is expressed by the ECST method, but S-shaped if expressed by the NASCET method. In addition to the ECST grade of stenosis (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.21-2.15), history of contralateral TIAs (RR 3.0; 95% CI 1.90-4.73) and creatinine in excess of 85 micromol/L (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.23-3.65) were independent risk predictors. The combination of these three risk factors can identify a high-risk group (7.3% annual event rate and 4.3% annual stroke rate) and a low risk group (2.3% annual event rate and 0.7% annual stroke rate). Linearity between ECST per cent stenosis and risk makes this method for grading stenosis more amenable to risk prediction without any transformation not only in clinical practice but also when multivariable analysis is to be used. Identification of additional risk factors provides a new approach to risk stratification and should help refine the indications for carotid endarterectomy.

  3. Association between aortic valve calcification and myocardial ischemia, especially in asymptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazato, Ryo; Yamamoto, Hideya; Tadehara, Futoshi; Teragawa, Hiroki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Ken; Kunita, Eiji; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Oka, Toshiharu; Kihara, Yasuki

    2012-08-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is recognized as a manifestation of systemic arteriosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether AVC is associated with myocardial ischemia. Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is widely used for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. However, routine MPS is not recommended, particularly in asymptomatic patients. Accordingly, we investigated the hypothesis that the presence of AVC is strongly associated with inducible myocardial ischemia, even among asymptomatic patients. We investigated 669 consecutive patients who underwent both adenosine stress (201)Tl MPS and echocardiography. We evaluated the extent and severity of myocardial ischemia by the summed difference score (SDS). We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as SDS ≥ 3 and moderate to severe ischemia as SDS ≥ 8. We classified the severity of AVC according to the number of affected aortic leaflets. We also compared the mean SDS and the prevalence of SDS ≥ 3 and SDS ≥ 8 among patients stratified by the severity of AVC. The presence of AVC was significantly associated with myocardial ischemia (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23; P = 0.013) and moderate to severe ischemia (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.26-3.80; P = 0.0061). In 311 asymptomatic patients, AVC was strongly associated with moderate to severe ischemia (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.67-12.8; P = 0.0043). However, the SDS value and the prevalence of SDS ≥ 3 and SDS ≥ 8 did not increase with increasing number of affected aortic leaflets. The presence of AVC may be associated with the presence of myocardial ischemia, particularly in asymptomatic patients. However, we found no association between the extent of AVC and inducible myocardial ischemia. The presence of AVC may be a useful anatomic marker to help identify patients at high risk of myocardial ischemia, particularly asymptomatic patients.

  4. Circulating Levels of miR‐133a Predict the Regression Potential of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy After Valve Replacement Surgery in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Raquel; Villar, Ana V.; Cobo, Manuel; Llano, Miguel; Martín‐Durán, Rafael; Hurlé, María A.; Francisco Nistal, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Myocardial microRNA‐133a (miR‐133a) is directly related to reverse remodeling after pressure overload release in aortic stenosis patients. Herein, we assessed the significance of plasma miR‐133a as an accessible biomarker with prognostic value in predicting the reversibility potential of LV hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients. Methods and Results The expressions of miR‐133a and its targets were measured in LV biopsies from 74 aortic stenosis patients. Circulating miR‐133a was measured in peripheral and coronary sinus blood. LV mass reduction was determined echocardiographically. Myocardial and plasma levels of miR‐133a correlated directly (r=0.46, P<0.001) supporting the myocardium as a relevant source of plasma miR‐133a. Accordingly, a significant gradient of miR‐133a was found between coronary and systemic venous blood. The preoperative plasma level of miR‐133a was higher in the patients who normalized LV mass 1 year after AVR than in those exhibiting residual hypertrophy. Logistic regression analysis identified plasma miR‐133a as a positive predictor of the hypertrophy reversibility after surgery. The discrimination of the model yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.89 (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed plasma miR‐133a and its myocardial target Wolf‐Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 2/Negative elongation factor A as opposite predictors of the LV mass loss (g) after AVR. Conclusions Preoperative plasma levels of miR‐133a reflect their myocardial expression and predict the regression potential of LV hypertrophy after AVR. The value of this bedside information for the surgical timing, particularly in asymptomatic aortic stenosis patients, deserves confirmation in further clinical studies. PMID:23948643

  5. Asymptomatic aortic aneurysm causing right vocal cord palsy and hoarseness: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, M M; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Jain, Anuj; Sarkar, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord palsy (VCP) presenting as hoarseness of voice can be the first symptom of very serious and sinister common pathologies. But vocal cord palsy resulting from aortic aneurysm is a rare entity and still rarer is the right cord palsy due to aortic aneurysm. We are reporting a rare case in which a 52-year old male smoking for last 30 years having asymptomatic aortic aneurysm presented to us with hoarseness of voice. On Panendoscopy, no local pathology was found and CECT from base of skull to T12 was advised. CECT showed a large aneurysm involving ascending aorta and extending upto abdominal aorta with compression of the bilateral bronchi. CTVS consultation was sought and they advised for regular follow-up only. We are reporting this case to warn both the anaesthetist and the surgeon about the catastrophic complications if they are not alert in handling such cases.

  6. [Antianginal efficacy of ivabradine in a very old patient with aortic stenosis: effects on cardiac output and transvalvular aortic gradients].

    PubMed

    Nervo, Elisabetta; Menditto, Elena; Taglieri, Camillo; Lombardo, Enrico; Piccolo, Salvatore; Feola, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Ivabradine is a selective I(f) current inhibitor in the sinus node that decreases heart rate without negative inotropic effects. We report the case of an 88-year-old diabetic patient with arterial hypertension and peripheral arterial disease who experienced an antero-lateral non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction following post-surgical anemia. After admission, the patient complained of anginal pain at rest with ischemic alterations of ST-T at the ECG and mild increase in troponin T levels. According to the clinical status, the association of ivabradine with beta-blockers was started. The addition of ivabradine reduced heart rate, improved symptoms (CCS class I-II) without modifying the main hemodynamic (non-invasively measured cardiac output, stroke volume and cardiac index) and echocardiographic parameters (left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic transvalvular gradients). In conclusion, the antianginal effect of ivabradine seems to be sure in very old ischemic patients with aortic stenosis.

  7. A novel mouse model of aortic valve stenosis induced by direct wire injury.

    PubMed

    Honda, Shintaro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Tetsu; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Otaki, Yoichiro; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Netsu, Shunsuke; Funayama, Akira; Ishino, Mitsunori; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyashita, Takehiko; Kubota, Isao

    2014-02-01

    The response-to-tissue-injury theory is currently the favorite paradigm to investigate valve pathology. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently no in vivo valve injury models. There are few calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS) models that develop hemodynamically significant stenosis. Here, we investigated the effect of direct mechanical injury on aortic valves in vivo and developed a novel mouse model of calcific AVS. Aortic valve injury was created by inserting and moving a spring guidewire under echocardiographic guidance into the left ventricle of male C57/BL6 mice via right common carotid artery. Serial echocardiographic measurements revealed that aortic velocity was increased 1 week after injury and persistently increased until 16 weeks after injury. AVS mice showed a higher heart weight/body weight ratio and decreased left ventricular fractioning shortening 4 weeks after injury, compared with sham mice. We found remarkable proliferation of valve leaflets 4 weeks after injury. Proliferative valves showed increased production of reactive oxygen species and expression of inflammatory cytokines and osteochondrogenic factors. Alizarin red staining showed valvular calcification 12 weeks after injury. We report a novel calcific AVS model to support the response-to-tissue-injury theory. This model may be a valuable tool for analyzing the mechanism of AVS and assessing therapeutic options.

  8. Computational Modeling of Aortic Valvular Stenosis to Asses the Range of Validity of Gorlin Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, Emanuel; Agarwal, Ramesh; Rifkin, Robert; Wendl, Mike

    2003-11-01

    It is well known from clinical observations that the underestimation errors occur with the use of Gorlin formula (1) for the calculation of valve area of the stenotic aortic valve in patients with low cardiac output, that is in low flow states. Since 1951, empirical modifications to Gorlin formula have been proposed in the literaure by many researchers. In this paper, we study the mild to severe aortic valve stenosis for low to high flow rates by employing a simplified model of aortic valve. The aortic valve stenosis is modeled by a circular orifice in a flat plate embedded in the cross-section of a rigid tube (aorta). Experimental results are available for this configuration for the validation of a CFD solver "FLUENT". The numerical data base generated for this model for various degrees of stenoses and flow rates is employed to asses the range of validity of Gorlin's equation. Modifications to Gorlin formula are suggested to make it valid for all flow rates to determine the valve area for clinical use. (1) R. Gorlin and S. Gorlin," Hydraulic Formula for Calculation of the Area of Stenotic Mitral Valve, Other Cardiac Valves and Central Circulatory Shunts," Am. Heart Journal, Vol. 41, 1951, pp. 1-29.

  9. Evaluation of the congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis by different imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Guner, Ahmet; Havan, Nuri; Gunduz, Sabahattin; Akgun, Taylan; Guvendi, Busra; Kahveci, Gokhan

    2017-07-06

    A 36-year-old female was admitted to hospital exhibiting chest pain, dyspnea, and a heart murmur on the right upper sternal border, radiating to both carotid arteries. The blood pressure of the patient's right arm exceeded the pressure in the left by 25 mm Hg (Coanda effect). In spite of laboratory results that did not fall outside the expected range, the left ventricle was revealed to be hypertrophic following electrocardiography. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a severe supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) with a peak Doppler velocity of 6.04 cm/s and an estimated mean pressure gradient of 89 mm Hg, with moderate aortic and mitral regurgitation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CCT) indicated a partial hourglass-shaped narrowing of the ascending aorta. Lesions associated with supravalvular stenosis of the pulmonary artery, patent ductus arteriosus, and aortic coarctation were ruled out by the CCT. Congenital SVAS is a rare heart condition, and three anatomically distinct forms have been described. The most common type is the "hourglass," which produces a marked thickening and disorganization of the aortic tissue, producing a constricting annular ridge at the superior margin of the sinuses of Valsalva. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. No reflow leading to catastrophic hemodynamic collapse in a patient with severe aortic stenosis and its management.

    PubMed

    Singh Rao, Ravinder; Shapiro, Robert L; Lasala, John M

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of an 87-year-old female who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction while she was being worked up for transcatheter aortic valve procedure. Hemodynamic compromise occurred during the PCI, which could only be mitigated by doing a balloon aortic valvuloplasty and Impella™ insertion. This case report will help in preparedness for any untoward events in patients with aortic stenosis and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Acute regional improvement of myocardial function after interventional transfemoral aortic valve replacement in aortic stenosis: a speckle tracking echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Schattke, Sebastian; Baldenhofer, Gerd; Prauka, Ines; Zhang, Kun; Laule, Michael; Stangl, Verena; Sanad, Wasiem; Spethmann, Sebastian; Borges, Adrian C; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Knebel, Fabian

    2012-03-26

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a promising therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high perioperative risk. New echocardiographic methods, including 2D Strain analysis, allow the more accurate measurement of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The goal of this study was to describe the course of LV reverse remodelling immediately after TAVI in a broad spectrum of patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Thirty consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and preserved LVEF underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation. We performed echocardiography at baseline and one week after TAVI. Echocardiography included standard 2D and Doppler analysis of global systolic and diastolic function as well as 2D Strain measurements of longitudinal, radial and circumferential LV motion and Tissue Doppler echocardiography. The baseline biplane LVEF was 57 ± 8.2%, the mean pressure gradient was 46.8 ± 17.2 mmHg and the mean valve area was 0.73 ± 0.27 cm(2). The average global longitudinal 2D strain of the left ventricle improved significantly from -15.1 (± 3.0) to -17.5 (± 2.4) % (p < .001). This was reflected mainly in improvement in the basal and medial segments while strain in the apex did not change significantly [-11.6 (± 5.2) % to -15.1 (± 5.5) % (p < .001), -13.9 (± 5.1) % to -16.8 (± 5.6) % (p < .001) and -19.2 (± 7.0) % to -20.0 (± 7.2) % (p = .481) respectively]. While circumferential strain [-18.1 (± 5.1) % vs. -18.9 (± 4.2) %, p = .607], radial strain [36.5 (± 13.7) % vs. 39.7 (± 17.2) %, p = .458] and the LVEF remained unchanged after one week [57.0 (± 8.2) % vs. 59.1 (± 8.1) %, p = .116]. There is an acute improvement of myocardial longitudinal systolic function of the basal and medial segments measured by 2D Strain analysis immediately after TAVI. The radial, circumferential strain and LVEF does not change significantly in all patients acutely after TAVI. These data suggest

  12. [Wild-type transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis and degenerative aortic stenosis: Two inter-related pathologies in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Calero Núñez, Sofía; Tercero Martínez, Antonia; García López, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Mazuecos, Jesús

    2016-06-09

    Wild-type transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) and degenerative aortic stenosis share a common demographic and clinical profile. It was recently suggested that some of the complications arising during and after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) could be due to a co-existing cardiac amyloidosis. In a series of autopsies of patients who had undergone TAVR, researchers found ATTR amyloidosis in one third of the cases. A report is presented on two patients with aortic stenosis who were diagnosed with ATTRwt when they were about to undergo a TAVI. ATTRwt is a slowly progressing disease so we need to review the decisions on the therapeutic approach in these patients.

  13. The hemodynamic effects of acute aortic regurgitation into a stiffened left ventricle resulting from chronic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ikechukwu; Raghav, Vrishank; Midha, Prem; Kumar, Gautam; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic regurgitation (AR) post-chronic aortic stenosis is a prevalent phenomenon occurring in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) surgery. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of left ventricular diastolic stiffness (LVDS) and AR severity on LV performance. Three LVDS models were inserted into a physiological left heart simulator. AR severity was parametrically varied through four levels (ranging from trace to moderate) and compared with a competent aortic valve. Hemodynamic metrics such as average diastolic pressures (DP) and reduction in transmitral flow were measured. AR index was calculated as a function of AR severity and LVDS, and the work required to make up for lost volume due to AR was estimated. In the presence of trace AR, higher LVDS had up to a threefold reduction in transmitral flow (13% compared with 3.5%) and a significant increase in DP (2-fold). The AR index ranged from ∼42 to 16 (no AR to moderate AR), with stiffer LVs having lower values. To compensate for lost volume due to AR, the low, medium, and high LVDS models were found to require 5.1, 5.5, and 6.6 times more work, respectively. This work shows that the LVDS has a significant effect on the LV performance in the presence of AR. Therefore, the LVDS of potential TAVR patients should be assessed to gain an initial indication of their ability to tolerate post-procedural AR.

  14. Aortic coarctation associated with aortic valve stenosis and mitral regurgitation in an adult patient: a two-stage approach using a large-diameter stent graft.

    PubMed

    Novosel, Luka; Perkov, Dražen; Dobrota, Savko; Ćorić, Vedran; Štern Padovan, Ranka

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a staged surgical and endovascular management in a 62-year-old woman with aortic coarctation associated with aortic valve stenosis and mitral regurgitation. The patient was admitted for severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve incompetence. During hospitalization and preoperative imaging, a previously undiagnosed aortic coarctation was discovered. The patient underwent a 2-stage approach that combined a Bentall procedure and mitral valve replacement in the first stage, followed by correction of the aortic coarctation by percutaneous placement of an Advanta V12 large-diameter stent graft (Atrium, Mijdrecht, The Netherlands) which to our knowledge has not been used in an adult patient with this combination of additional cardiac comorbidities. A staged approach combining surgical treatment first and endovascular placement of an Advanta V12 stent graft in the second stage can be effective and safe in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta and additional cardiac comorbidities.

  15. Use of the Konno procedure in an 80-year-old woman with aortic stenosis, a narrow left ventricular outflow tract, and a small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Hiroyasu; Katayama, Yukihiro; Takaji, Kentaro; Oshitomi, Takashi; Uesugi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Touitsu; Takeuchi, Takamasa

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a technique for repairing an aortic stenosis in an elderly patient with a small aortic annulus and a narrow left ventricular outflow tract. Preoperative echocardiography in an 80-year-old woman showed severe aortic stenosis with a narrow outflow tract: the aortic valve area was 0.48 cm(2), the aortic annular diameter was 14 mm, and the left ventricular outflow tract diameter was 14 mm. The Konno procedure was used to enlarge both the small aortic annulus and the left ventricular outflow tract, and a 19-mm Carpentier-Edwards bioprosthetic valve was implanted. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. The left ventricular mass decreased from a preoperative value of 236 g to 96 g, 3 years after surgery. Only a few reports have described the use of the Konno operation in adult patients. In the present case, the Konno operation was demonstrated to be a good option for aortic stenosis accompanied by a small aortic annulus and a narrow left ventricular outflow tract, even in an elderly patient.

  16. Aortic Valve Replacement for Moderate Aortic Stenosis with Severe Calcification and Left Ventricualr Dysfunction—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Nikhil; Lang, Roberto M.; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Hofmann Bowman, Marion A.

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with a history of erosive, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and interstitial lung disease presented with shortness of breath. Echocardiography showed new-onset severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15% and moderately increased mean aortic valve gradient of 20 mmHg in a trileaflet aortic valve with severe sclero-calcific degeneration. Coronary angiography revealed no significant obstructive coronary disease. Invasive hemodynamic studies and dobutamine stress echocardiography were consistent with moderate aortic stenosis. Guideline directed medical therapy for heart failure with reduced EF was initiated; however, diuretics and neurohormonal blockade (beta-blocker and angiotensin receptor blocker) provided minimal improvement, and the patient remained functionally limited. Of interest, echocardiography performed 1 year prior to his presentation showed normal LV EF and mild aortic leaflet calcification with moderate stenosis, suggesting a rapid progressing of calcific aortic valve disease. Subsequently, the patient underwent surgical aortic valve replacement and demonstrated excellent postsurgical recovery of LV EF (55%). Calcific aortic valve disease is commonly associated with aging, bicuspid aortic valve, and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanism for valvular calcification is incompletely understood but include osteogenic transformation of valvular interstitial cells mediated by local and systemic inflammatory processes. Several rheumatologic diseases including RA are associated with premature atherosclerosis and arterial calcification, and we speculated a similar role of RA accelerating calcific aortic valve disease. We present a case of accelerated aortic valve calcification with (only) moderate stenosis, complicated by a rapid decline in LV systolic performance. Guidelines for AVR in moderate stenosis without concomitant cardiac surgery are not well established, although it should be

  17. Exercise capacity and peak oxygen consumption in asymptomatic patients with chronic aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Broch, Kaspar; Urheim, Stig; Massey, Richard; Stueflotten, Wenche; Fosså, Kristian; Hopp, Einar; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-11-15

    In patients with chronic, hemodynamically significant aortic regurgitation (AR), a long period of left ventricular remodeling usually occurs prior to the development of symptoms or left ventricular dysfunction. The value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with asymptomatic AR is not established. Sixty-six asymptomatic patients aged 44±14 years with hemodynamically significant, chronic AR and no indication for aortic valve replacement were evaluated by echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and exercise testing with measurement of peak oxygen consumption. The average left ventricular end diastolic volume was 244±62ml and the aortic regurgitant fraction 34±13%. At an average of 35.8±8.9ml/kg/min, peak oxygen consumption was well preserved. As in healthy individuals, a high peak oxygen consumption was associated with a relatively large LV end diastolic volume (r=0.51; p<0.001) and a low resting heart rate (r=-0.37; p=0.002). The aortic regurgitant fraction was not predictive of maximum oxygen consumption. Higher levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were independently associated with poorer exercise capacity and oxygen uptake (adjusted β -0.35; p=0.003). Our results suggest that in asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe AR and moderately dilated left ventricles, remodeling is primarily adaptive. An increased level of NT-proBNP is associated with a reduced capacity for work and reduced oxygen consumption, possibly heralding the onset of adverse remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of aortic stenosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with established routine clinical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kupfahl, C; Honold, M; Meinhardt, G; Vogelsberg, H; Wagner, A; Mahrholdt, H; Sechtem, U

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether direct planimetry of aortic valve area (AVA) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a reliable tool for determining the severity of aortic stenosis compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), and cardiac catheterisation. Methods: 44 symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis were studied. By cardiac catheterisation AVA was calculated by the Gorlin equation. AVA was measured with CMR from steady state free precession (true fast imaging with steady state precession) by planimetry. AVA was also determined from TOE images by planimetry and from TTE images by the continuity equation. Results: Bland-Altman analysis evaluating intraobserver and interobserver variability showed a very small bias for both (−0.016 and 0.019, respectively; n  =  20). Bias and limits of agreement between CMR and TTE were 0.05 (−0.35, 0.44) cm2 (n  =  37), between CMR and TOE 0.02 (−0.39, 0.42) cm2 (n  =  32), and between CMR and cardiac catheterisation 0.09 (−0.30, 0.47) cm2 (n  =  36). The sensitivity and specificity of CMR to detect AVA ⩽ 0.80 cm2 measured by cardiac catheterisation was 78% and 89%, of TOE 70% and 70%, and of TTE 74% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: CMR planimetry is highly reliable and reproducible. Further, CMR planimetry had the best sensitivity and specificity of all non-invasive methods for detecting severe aortic stenosis in comparison with cardiac catheterisation. Therefore, CMR planimetry of AVA with steady state free precession is a new powerful diagnostic tool, particularly for patients with uncertain or discrepant findings by other modalities. PMID:15253962

  19. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  20. Presence of B cells within aortic valves in patients with aortic stenosis: Relation to severity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Natorska, Joanna; Marek, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) shares several similarities with atherosclerosis. Recent reports showed that B cells are implicated in atherosclerosis progression through macrophage-B cells bidirectional interaction. We aimed to study the in loco presence of B cells within aortic valves and to determine its modulators. Thirty-seven patients with severe AS were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed on valve leaflets using antibodies against CD20, B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family receptor (BAFF-R) and CD68. Plasma inflammatory markers were also determined. The B cells were detected within aortic leaflets from 5 to 31/mm(2) (17.9±11.6/mm(2)). Double-staining showed that 27±13.5% of B cells express BAFF-R. There were positive correlations between the number of B cells and macrophages (r=0.45, p=0.018), and between macrophages and B cell-associated BAFF-R expression (r=0.66, p=0.002). The number of B cells was associated with the valve calcification (r=0.41, p=0.039), and with the maximum transvalvular gradient (r=0.63, p=0.02). The BAFF-R expression was positively correlated with maximum transvalvular gradient (r=0.39, p=0.031) and negatively with aortic valve area (r=-0.41, p=0.048). There were no correlations between the number of B cells and plasma markers. It might be hypothesized that, like in atherosclerosis, increasing number of B cells within aortic valves may accelerate inflammation and thus potentiate the progression of AS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of gender on cardiovascular system calcification in very elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Luckmini; Lee, Nam Ju; Cook, Tessa; Herrmann, Howard C; Jagasia, Dinesh; Litt, Harold; Han, Yuchi

    2016-01-01

    There is an established sex difference in cardiovascular disease among pre-menopausal women and age-matched men, with men having greater susceptibility to cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular calcification may be linked to the atherosclerotic process and resulting disease, but the sex difference regarding coronary artery disease susceptibility and calcification is incompletely understood. We thought to measure calcium volume in different chest vascular beds in very elderly men and women with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Computed tomography scans of 94 patients with severe AS were calcium volume scored on Aquarius iNtuition Terarecon (Terarecon Inc., CA, USA) work stations. Coronary beds, aortic valve, mitral valve apparatus, and the thoracic aorta were examined. A significant sex difference in the mean total calcium volume of the coronary arteries was found in elderly (p = 0.001), with men having greater levels of calcification. There is also a significant sex difference in the amount of aortic valve calcium (p = 0.003). Furthermore, aortic and coronary calcification was independently correlated with sex. This study demonstrates a significant sex impact on calcification in the coronary beds and aortic valve in elderly patients with severe AS.

  2. Ramipril retards development of aortic valve stenosis in a rabbit model: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Doan TM; Stafford, Irene; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Qi, Weier; Wuttke, Ronald D; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Weedon, Helen; Smith, Malcolm D; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic modality has been shown to be effective in retarding AVS progression. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with ramipril on disease progression in a recently developed rabbit model of AVS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of 8 weeks of treatment with either vitamin D2 at 25 000 IU for 4 days a week alone or in combination with ramipril (0.5 mg·kg−1) on aortic valve structure and function were examined in New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AVBS) and aortic valve : outflow tract flow velocity ratio were utilized to quantify changes in valve structure and function. KEY RESULTS Treatment with ramipril significantly reduced AVBS and improved aortic valve : outflow tract flow velocity ratio. The intravalvular content of the pro-oxidant thioredoxin-interacting protein was decreased significantly with ramipril treatment. Endothelial function, as measured by asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and vascular responses to ACh, was improved significantly with ramipril treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ramipril retards the development of AVS, reduces valvular thioredoxin-interacting protein accumulation and limits endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of AVS development and an impetus for future human studies of AVS retardation using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. PMID:20958293

  3. Ramipril retards development of aortic valve stenosis in a rabbit model: mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Doan Tm; Stafford, Irene; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Qi, Weier; Wuttke, Ronald D; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Weedon, Helen; Smith, Malcolm D; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2011-02-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic modality has been shown to be effective in retarding AVS progression. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with ramipril on disease progression in a recently developed rabbit model of AVS. The effects of 8 weeks of treatment with either vitamin D₂ at 25,000 IU for 4 days a week alone or in combination with ramipril (0.5 mg·kg⁻¹) on aortic valve structure and function were examined in New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AV(BS)) and aortic valve:outflow tract flow velocity ratio were utilized to quantify changes in valve structure and function. Treatment with ramipril significantly reduced AV(BS) and improved aortic valve :outflow tract flow velocity ratio. The intravalvular content of the pro-oxidant thioredoxin-interacting protein was decreased significantly with ramipril treatment. Endothelial function, as measured by asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and vascular responses to ACh, was improved significantly with ramipril treatment. Ramipril retards the development of AVS, reduces valvular thioredoxin-interacting protein accumulation and limits endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of AVS development and an impetus for future human studies of AVS retardation using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Quantification of Aortic Valve Calcifications Detected During Lung Cancer-Screening CT Helps Stratify Subjects Necessitating Echocardiography for Aortic Stenosis Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Young; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Myung Jin; Cho, Hyoun; Jung, Jung Im; Jang, Hye Won; Jung, Sin-Ho; Goo, Juna

    2016-05-01

    No study has been published on aortic valve calcification (AVC) extent at lung cancer screening low-dose CT (LDCT) and its relationship with aortic stenosis (AS). The purpose of this study was to estimate the cutoff value of AVC on LDCT for detecting AS in asymptomatic Asian subjects. Six thousand three hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age, 55.9 years ± 8.6) self-referred to health-promotion center underwent LDCT, coronary calcium scoring CT (CSCT), and echocardiography. AVC was quantified using Agatston methods on CT. AVC extent on LDCT was compared with that on CSCT, and AVC threshold for diagnosing AS was calculated. Clinical factors associated with AS and AVC were sought.AVC was observed in 403 subjects (64.9 years ± 8.7) on LDCT (6.4%), and AVC score measured from LDCT showed strong positive correlation with that from CSCT (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001). Of 403 subjects, 40 (10%) were identified to have AS on echocardiography. Cutoff value of AVC score for detecting AS was 138.37 with sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity 83.2%. On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.09-1.12) and hypertension (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10-1.76) were associated with the presence of AVC, whereas AVC extent at LDCT (OR = 104.32, 95% CI: 16.16-673.70) was the only significant clinical factor associated with AS; AVC extent on LDCT (OR = 104.32, 95% CI: 16.16-673.70) was the significant clinical factor associated with AS.The AVC extent on LDCT is significantly related to the presence of AS, and we recommend echocardiography for screening AS based on quantified AVC values on LDCT.

  5. Usefulness of global left ventricular longitudinal strain for risk stratification in low ejection fraction, low-gradient aortic stenosis: results from the multicenter True or Pseudo-Severe Aortic Stenosis study.

    PubMed

    Dahou, Abdellaziz; Bartko, Philipp Emanuel; Capoulade, Romain; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Mundigler, Gerald; Grondin, Samuel Larue; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Burwash, Ian; Dumesnil, Jean G; Sénéchal, Mario; O'Connor, Kim; Baumgartner, Helmut; Pibarot, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured at rest and at dobutamine stress echocardiography on the outcome of patients with low LV ejection fraction and low-gradient aortic stenosis. Among the 202 patients with low LV ejection fraction (≤40%), low-gradient aortic stenosis (mean transvalvular gradient <40 mm Hg and indexed aortic valve area ≤0.6 cm(2)/m(2)) prospectively enrolled in the multicenter True or Pseudo-Severe Aortic Stenosis study, 126 patients with resting GLS and 73 patients with stress GLS available were included in this substudy. Three-year survival rate was 49% in patients with rest GLS <|9|% compared with 68% in patients with GLS >|9|% (P=0.02). In a multivariable Cox model adjusted for age, coronary artery disease, projected aortic valve area at a normal flow rate and type of treatment (aortic valve replacement versus conservative), rest GLS <|9|% (hazard ratio, 2.18; P=0.015) remained independently associated with all-cause mortality. GLS <|10|% measured during dobutamine stress echocardiography was also independently associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 2.67; P=0.01). In the subset of patients with stress GLS (n=73), the χ(2) of the multivariable model to predict all-causes mortality was 21.96 for stress GLS versus 17.78 for rest GLS. GLS is independently associated with mortality in patients with low LV ejection fraction, low-gradient aortic stenosis. Stress GLS measured during dobutamine stress echocardiography may provide incremental prognostic value beyond GLS measured at rest. Hence, measurement of GLS at rest and during dobutamine stress echocardiography may be helpful to enhance risk stratification in low LV ejection fraction, low-gradient aortic stenosis. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01835028. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  7. Impairments in Brain Perfusion, Metabolites, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients: An Integrated MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as “asymptomatic.” However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that “asymptomatic” carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function. By utilizing an integrated MRI including pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) MRI, Proton MR Spectroscopy (MRS), and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI), we also found that aCAS patients suffered decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) mainly in the Left Frontal Gyrus and had decreased NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus and decreased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the anterior part of default mode network (DMN). PMID:28255464

  8. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the assessment of severe aortic stenosis and in post-procedural evaluation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Tarique Al; Plein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the western world with a prevalence expected to double within the next 50 years. International guidelines advocate the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative tool, both to guide diagnosis and to direct optimal treatment. CMR is the reference standard for quantifying both left and right ventricular volumes and mass, which is essential to assess the impact of AS upon global cardiac function. Given the ability to image any structure in any plane, CMR offers many other diagnostic strengths including full visualisation of valvular morphology, direct planimetry of orifice area, the quantification of stenotic jets and in particular, accurate quantification of valvular regurgitation. In addition, CMR permits reliable and accurate measurements of the aortic root and arch which can be fundamental to appropriate patient management. There is a growing evidence base to indicate tissue characterisation using CMR provides prognostic information, both in asymptomatic AS patients and those undergoing intervention. Furthermore, a number of current clinical trials will likely raise the importance of CMR in routine patient management. This article will focus on the incremental value of CMR in the assessment of severe AS and the insights it offers following valve replacement. PMID:27429910

  9. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the assessment of severe aortic stenosis and in post-procedural evaluation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Musa, Tarique Al; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2016-06-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the western world with a prevalence expected to double within the next 50 years. International guidelines advocate the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative tool, both to guide diagnosis and to direct optimal treatment. CMR is the reference standard for quantifying both left and right ventricular volumes and mass, which is essential to assess the impact of AS upon global cardiac function. Given the ability to image any structure in any plane, CMR offers many other diagnostic strengths including full visualisation of valvular morphology, direct planimetry of orifice area, the quantification of stenotic jets and in particular, accurate quantification of valvular regurgitation. In addition, CMR permits reliable and accurate measurements of the aortic root and arch which can be fundamental to appropriate patient management. There is a growing evidence base to indicate tissue characterisation using CMR provides prognostic information, both in asymptomatic AS patients and those undergoing intervention. Furthermore, a number of current clinical trials will likely raise the importance of CMR in routine patient management. This article will focus on the incremental value of CMR in the assessment of severe AS and the insights it offers following valve replacement.

  10. Exercise Hemodynamics and Quality of Life after Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis in the Elderly Using the Hancock II Bioprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Theodore; Lopez, Becky M.; Berberian, Christopher; Cunningham, Mark J.; Starnes, Vaughn A.; Cohen, Robbin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. While aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis can be performed safely in elderly patients, there is a need for hemodynamic and quality of life evaluation to determine the value of aortic valve replacement in older patients who may have age-related activity limitation. Materials and Methods. We conducted a prospective evaluation of patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with the Hancock II porcine bioprosthesis. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and completed the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results. From 2004 to 2007, 33 patients were enrolled with an average age of 75.3 ± 5.3 years (24 men and 9 women). Preoperatively, 27/33 (82%) were New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification 3, and postoperatively 27/33 (82%) were NYHA Functional Classification 1. Patients had a mean predicted maximum VO2 (mL/kg/min) of 19.5 ± 4.3 and an actual max VO2 of 15.5 ± 3.9, which was 80% of the predicted VO2. Patients were found to have significant improvements (P ≤ 0.01) in six of the nine SF-36 health parameters. Conclusions. In our sample of elderly patients with aortic stenosis, replacing the aortic valve with a Hancock II bioprosthesis resulted in improved hemodynamics and quality of life. PMID:25544931

  11. Systolic hypertension and progression of aortic valve calcification in patients with aortic stenosis: results from the PROGRESSA study.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Lionel; Capoulade, Romain; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Larose, Éric; Shen, Mylène; Dahou, Abdellaziz; Arsenault, Marie; Mathieu, Patrick; Bédard, Élisabeth; Dumesnil, Jean G; Tremblay, Alexe; Bossé, Yohan; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and is associated with worse outcomes. The current prospective study assessed the impact of systolic hypertension (SHPT) on the progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC) measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with AS. The present analysis includes the first series of 101 patients with AS prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA study. Patients underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and MDCT exams at baseline and after 2-year follow-up. AVC and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were measured using the Agatston method. Patients with SHPT at baseline (i.e. systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg; n = 37, 37%) had faster 2-year AVC progression compared with those without SHPT (i.e. systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg) (AVC median [25th percentile-75th percentile]: +370 [126-824] vs. +157 [58-303] AU; P = 0.007, respectively). Similar results were obtained with the analysis of AVC progression divided by the cross-sectional area of the aortic annulus (AVCdensity: +96 [34-218] vs. +45 [14-82] AU/cm(2), P = 0.01, respectively). In multivariable analysis, SHPT remained significantly associated with faster progression of AVC or AVCdensity (all P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to progression of CAC (+39 [3-199] vs. +41 [0-156] AU, P = 0.88). This prospective study shows for the first time that SHPT is associated with faster AVC progression but not with CAC progression in AS patients. These findings provide further support for the elaboration of randomized clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antihypertensive medication to slow the stenosis progression in patients with AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cardiac amyloidosis mimicking severe aortic valve stenosis - a case report demonstrating diagnostic pitfalls and role of dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Salinger, Tim; Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Herrmann, Sebastian; Lorenz, Kristina; Ertl, Georg; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-03-22

    Aortic valve stenosis is a common finding diagnosed with high sensitivity in transthoracic echocardiography, but the examiner often finds himself confronted with uncertain results in patients with moderate pressure gradients and concomitant systolic heart failure. While patients with true-severe low-gradient aortic valve stenosis with either reduced or preserved left ventricular systolic function are primarily candidates for valve replacement, there is a relevant proportion of patients with pseudo-severe aortic valve stenosis anticipated not to benefit but actually rather deteriorate by interventional therapy or surgery. In this article we present a case report of a male patient with pseudo-severe aortic valve stenosis due to cardiac amyloidosis highlighting the diagnostic schedule. The patient underwent stress echocardiography because of discrepant findings in transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac catheterization regarding the severity of aortic valve stenosis. After evaluation of the results, it became clear that he had a need for optimum heart failure medication and implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator. Due to the pitfalls in conventional as well as invasive diagnostics at rest, Stress echocardiography should be considered part of the standard optimum diagnostic spectrum in all unclear or borderline cases in order to confirm the correct diagnosis and constitute optimal therapy.

  13. Dilation of the ascending aorta after balloon valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis during infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Doff B; Lacro, Ronald V; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; O'Brien, Cheryl M; Yaroglu Kazanci, Selcen; Vogel, Melanie; Emani, Sitaram; Brown, David W

    2012-09-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta (AA) is common in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve. The natural history of the aortic root and AA and the risk factors for dilation have not been characterized in patients with congenital aortic stenosis (AS) treated with balloon valvuloplasty during childhood. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of aortic dilation in patients with congenital AS before and up to 20 years after balloon valvuloplasty performed during childhood. In patients who underwent balloon valvuloplasty for AS at age ≤ 18 years from 1984 to 2005, the aortic diameter measurements before intervention and at 5-year intervals afterward were recorded and the Z scores calculated. Among 156 patients (median age 1.5 years at valvuloplasty), the AA Z scores were significantly larger than normal before intervention (median Z score 1.5) and at all follow-up points (all p <0.001). Using mixed modeling, with time as a categorical variable (before intervention, 5-year window, 10-year window, and so forth), the mean AA Z score was greater at all postvalvuloplasty points than before the intervention, with mean Z score increases of 1.20 at 5 years and 2.11 at 20 years (p <0.001). Moderate or greater aortic regurgitation early after valvuloplasty was associated with greater AA Z scores than mild or less aortic regurgitation, with a progressive difference over time. More significant residual AS after valvuloplasty was associated with lower AA Z scores over time. In conclusion, AA dilation is common in children with congenital AS and continues to progress over many years after balloon valvuloplasty.

  14. Prognostic value of myocardial fibrosis in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Milano, Aldo Domenico; Faggian, Giuseppe; Dodonov, Mikhail; Golia, Giorgio; Tomezzoli, Anna; Bortolotti, Uberto; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate whether myocardial fibrosis influences left ventricular performance in severe aortic stenosis and to assess its effect on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated in biopsy specimens taken from the interventricular septum in 99 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement because of severe or prevalent aortic stenosis. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed at a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 3.0 years. The patients were classified according to the myocardial fibrosis severity (none or mild in 28, moderate in 52, and severe in 19). Patients with severe myocardial fibrosis had a dilated left ventricle and positive association between the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (R = 0.77, P < .001), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (R = 0.78, P < .001), left ventricular end-systolic wall stress (R = 0.74, P < .001) and the degree of myocardial fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis was inversely related to left ventricular fractional shortening (R = -0.64, P < .001), left ventricular ejection fraction (R = -0.53, P < .001), and left ventricular relative wall thickness (R = -0.70, P < .001). Patients with a higher grade of myocardial fibrosis had a significantly lower freedom from cardiac death at 10 years (42% ± 19% vs 89% ± 6%, P = .002), with congestive heart failure the most common cause of death. At Cox regression analysis, patient age (P = .012), low preoperative transvalvular gradient less than 40 mm Hg (P = .040), preoperative end-systolic wall stress (P = .046), and preoperative myocardial fibrosis grade (P = .034) emerged as the strongest independent predictors of mortality. In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, the amount of myocardial fibrosis appears to have significant effect on clinical status and long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. From these results, we believe that new strategies for the earlier detection of myocardial

  15. Survival after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradients and severe left ventricular dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Jeremy J.; Lauer, Michael S.; Bashir, Mohammad; Afridi, Imran; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Stewart, William J.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.; Asher, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a low transvalvular gradient (TVG) is associated with improved survival. BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with severe AS with severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG remains controversial. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1998, we evaluated 68 patients who underwent AVR at our institution (AVR group) and 89 patients who did not undergo AVR (control group), with an aortic valve area < or = 0.75 cm(2), LV ejection fraction < or = 35% and mean gradient < or = 30 mm Hg. Using propensity analysis, survival was compared between a cohort of 39 patients in the AVR group and 56 patients in the control group. RESULTS: Despite well-matched baseline characteristics among propensity-matched patients, the one- and four-year survival rates were markedly improved in patients in the AVR group (82% and 78%), as compared with patients in the control group (41% and 15%; p < 0.0001). By multivariable analysis, the main predictor of improved survival was AVR (adjusted risk ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.39; p < 0.0001). The only other predictors of mortality were age and the serum creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Among select patients with severe AS, severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG, AVR was associated with significantly improved survival.

  16. Survival after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradients and severe left ventricular dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Jeremy J.; Lauer, Michael S.; Bashir, Mohammad; Afridi, Imran; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Stewart, William J.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.; Asher, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a low transvalvular gradient (TVG) is associated with improved survival. BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with severe AS with severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG remains controversial. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1998, we evaluated 68 patients who underwent AVR at our institution (AVR group) and 89 patients who did not undergo AVR (control group), with an aortic valve area < or = 0.75 cm(2), LV ejection fraction < or = 35% and mean gradient < or = 30 mm Hg. Using propensity analysis, survival was compared between a cohort of 39 patients in the AVR group and 56 patients in the control group. RESULTS: Despite well-matched baseline characteristics among propensity-matched patients, the one- and four-year survival rates were markedly improved in patients in the AVR group (82% and 78%), as compared with patients in the control group (41% and 15%; p < 0.0001). By multivariable analysis, the main predictor of improved survival was AVR (adjusted risk ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.39; p < 0.0001). The only other predictors of mortality were age and the serum creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Among select patients with severe AS, severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG, AVR was associated with significantly improved survival.

  17. Myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in aortic stenosis: hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of patients with and without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Nadell, R; DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S; Morganroth, J

    1983-08-01

    Angina pectoris is a common symptom in patients with aortic stenosis without coronary artery disease. To investigate the correlates of angina pectoris, echocardiographic and hemodynamic data from 44 patients with aortic stenosis and no coronary artery disease (mean age 56 +/- 10 years) were analyzed. Twenty-three patients had no angina pectoris and 21 patients had angina pectoris. The ratio of the diastolic pressure-time index (area between the aortic and left ventricular pressure curves during diastole) to the systolic pressure-time index (area under the left ventricular pressure curve during systole), an index of the oxygen supply/demand ratio, was not different in patients with or without angina pectoris. There were no differences between patients with and without angina pectoris in echocardiographically determined wall thickness, chamber size, systolic and diastolic wall stress and left ventricular mass; in electrocardiographically defined voltage; and in hemodynamically defined aortic valve area, transaortic gradient and stroke work index. Thus, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements at rest are not significantly different in the presence or absence of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis. Dynamic data appear to be essential for evaluation of the mechanisms of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis.

  18. Continuous spinal anaesthesia with minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring for surgical hip repair in two patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    López, María Mercedes; Guasch, Emilia; Schiraldi, Renato; Maggi, Genaro; Alonso, Eduardo; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis increases perioperative morbidity and mortality, perioperative invasive monitoring is advised for patients with an aortic valve area <1.0 cm(2) or a mean aortic valve gradient >30 mmHg and it is important to avoid hypotension and arrhythmias. We report the anaesthetic management with continuous spinal anaesthesia and minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring of two patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing surgical hip repair. Two women with severe aortic stenosis were scheduled for hip fracture repair. Continuous spinal anaesthesia with minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring was used for anaesthetic management of both. Surgery was performed successfully after two consecutive doses of 2mg of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% in one of them and four consecutive doses in the other. Haemodynamic conditions remained stable throughout the intervention. Vital signs and haemodynamic parameters remained stable throughout the two interventions. Our report illustrates the use of continuous spinal anaesthesia with minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring as a valid alternative to general or epidural anaesthesia in two patients with severe aortic stenosis who are undergoing lower limb surgery. However, controlled clinical trials would be required to establish that this technique is safe and effective in these type or patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardioprotection of exogenous erythropoietin in mice with ligature-induced aortic stenosis: effects on maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Xu, J; Qiu, W; Liu, X; Zhao, C-M; Chen, D; Chen, Y

    2010-02-01

    Pre-operative treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin may improve aortic stenosis patients' condition, including anemia and/or cardiac dysfunction, for subjecting to aortic valve replacement. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of aortic stenosis. Adult male mice were subjected to either aortic stenosis created by aortic ligature or sham operation. Aortic stenosis for 4 weeks caused cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion and left ventricular dysfunction. It was associated with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum and myocardium, and reduced levels of interleukin-10 in myocardium but not in serum. Myocyte apoptosis rate, level of cleaved caspase 3, activity of nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of p38-MAPK pathway were also elevated. Erythropoietin treatment increased hematocrit but did not prevent the development of cardiac hypertrophy. It, however, reduced the apoptosis, prevented the increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of p38, and attenuated the increases in lung weight, the decreases in LVEF and LVFS, and the increases in LVDd and LVDs. In conclusion recombinant human erythropoietin has cardioprotective effects in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB activation, phosphorylation of p38-MAPK pathway, and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, together leading to a reduced apoptosis.

  20. Lipid deposition and intimal stress and strain. A study in rats with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zand, T.; Majno, G.; Nunnari, J. J.; Hoffman, A. H.; Savilonis, B. J.; MacWilliams, B.; Joris, I.

    1991-01-01

    These experiments were designed to study the topography of lipid deposition in the stenotic aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats, and to correlate it with flow conditions and intimal stresses and strains studied in a scale biophysical model and in a computer model. A 69% +/- 5% stenosis was produced with a U-shaped metal clip. One month to 8 months later, the aorta was studied en face by light microscopy after fixation and lipid staining. The intima in the throat of the stenosis was almost completely free of lipid, whereas symmetric lipid deposits occurred as bands just above and especially just below the stenosis; elsewhere lipid deposits appeared to be random. The flow data obtained from the scale model showed that the intima in the throat of the stenosis was subjected to an increase of as much as 20 times in shear stress, whereas the lipid deposits just above and just below the stenosis were associated with asymmetric flow conditions: the proximal area corresponded to a region of rapidly increasing shear stress, the distal area to a region of low to normal shear stress and separated flow. A finite element computer model based on the aortic deformations indicated that the endothelium at the inlet and outlet of the stenosis is subjected to a symmetric pattern of elevated stresses and strains. These results indicate that 1) the pattern of lipid deposition can not be adequately explained by a hypothesis based solely on flow conditions, and 2) lipid deposits can develop in areas of increased fluid shear stress, decreased fluid shear stress, and increased intimal strains. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1853927

  1. Depressed Systemic Arterial Compliance is Associated with the Severity of Heart Failure Symptoms in Moderate-to-Severe Aortic Stenosis: a Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chmiela, Mark; Bobrowska, Beata; Świerszcz, Jolanta; Bhagavatula, Seetha; Bednarek, Jacek; Surdacki, Andrzej; Nessler, Jadwiga; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) may develop heart failure even in the absence of severe valve stenosis. Our aim was to assess the contribution of systemic arterial properties and the global left ventricular afterload to graded heart failure symptoms in AS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 157 consecutive subjects (mean age, 71±10 years; 79 women and 78 men) hospitalized owing to moderate-to-severe degenerative AS. Exclusion criteria included more than mild aortic insufficiency or disease of another valve, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, severe respiratory disease or anemia. Heart failure symptoms were graded by NYHA class at admission. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC) and valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva) were derived from routine echocardiography and blood pressure. Results: Sixty-one patients were asymptomatic, 49 presented mild (NYHA II) and 47 moderate-to-severe (NYHA III-IV) heart failure symptoms. Mild symptoms were associated with lower SAC and transvalvular gradients, while more severe exercise intolerance coincided with older age, lower systolic blood pressure, smaller aortic valve area and depressed ejection fraction. By multiple ordinal logistic regression, the severity of heart failure symptoms was related to older age, depressed ejection fraction and lower SAC. Each decrease in SAC by 0.1 ml/m² per mmHg was associated with an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) of a patient being in one higher category of heart failure symptoms graded as no symptoms, mild exercise intolerance and advanced exercise intolerance (OR: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.01-1.35], P=0.045). Conclusions: Depressed SAC may enhance exercise intolerance irrespective of stenosis severity or left ventricular systolic function in moderate-to-severe AS. This finding supports the importance of non-valvular factors for symptomatic status in AS. PMID:26180511

  2. Severe left main coronary artery stenosis with abnormal branching pattern in a patient with mild supravalvar aortic stenosis and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pieles, Guido E; Ofoe, Victor; Morgan, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystem genetic disorder comprising of craniofacial, developmental, and cardiac malformations. The most common cardiac defects found are supravalvar aortic stenosis and peripheral pulmonary stenosis. However, WBS should be regarded as a general arteriopathy consisting of stenoses of medium- and large-sized arteries including the coronary arteries. Cardiac manifestations are often the initial reason for referral and careful cardiovascular assessment is important as coronary artery involvement confers a significant anesthetic risk and may be associated with ischemia and resultant ventricular dysfunction. Here we review the literature and describe a 2-year-old boy with evolving clinical features of WBS. He presented to our pediatric cardiology department for a routine assessment of peripheral pulmonary branch stenosis. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed changes consistent with left ventricular ischemia and a two-dimensional echocardiogram showed reduced left ventricular function and mild supravalvar aortic stenosis. Subsequent cardiac catheterization diagnosed severe left main coronary artery stenosis. Deteriorating ventricular function secondary to acute ischemia postcatheterization required intensive care treatment from which the patient did not recover. This case report highlights the necessity of careful cardiology assessment without delay in patients with a suspicion of WBS. Isolated coronary stenosis though rare in WBS should be considered in the presence of ischemia or reduced ventricular function. Larger case series are needed to further characterize the correlation between WBS and acute coronary events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Aortic Valve Replacement after Balloon Valvuloplasty for Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Dialysis Patient with Cardiogenic Shock;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Masanori; Hirotani, Takashi; Ohtsubo, Satoshi; Saito, Sumikatsu; Takeuchi, Shigeyuki; Hasegawa, Tasuku; Endo, Ayaka; Yamasaki, Yu; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    A 67-year-old man on chronic hemodialysis was admitted with worsening congestive heart failure due to critical aortic stenosis. Echocardiography showed severe aortic stenosis with a valve area of 0.67 cm2 and an ejection fraction of 0.31. Cardiac catheterization revealed severe pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary artery pressures of 62/32 mmHg. In the middle of cardiac catheterization, the systolic pressure declined to 60 mmHg due to cardiogenic shock. Dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride infusions were necessary to maintain a systolic pressure greater than 80 mmHg. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty was urgently performed. The patient's symptoms rapidly resolved except for angina on exertion. One month later, elective aortic valve replacement was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the he was discharged on the 60th postoperative day. A follow-up echocardiogram 6 months postoperatively revealed normal prosthetic valve function and an ejection fraction of 0.6.

  4. The Impact of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cerebral Perfusion, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Mei, Bin; Li, Huagang; Zhang, Shengming; Zhang, Junjian

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis can lead to not only stroke but also cognition impairment. Although it has been proven that carotid artery stenting (CAS) can reduce the risk of future strokes, the effect of CAS on cognition is conflicting. In recent years, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) MRI and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) have been employed in cognitive impairment studies. For the present study, cognition is evaluated in severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing CAS, and the mechanisms underlying the cognitive change are explored by pASL MRI and R-fMRI. We prospectively enrolled 24 asymptomatic, severe (≥70%), unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis patients, who were expecting the intervention of CAS. Cognition assessment (including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Minimum Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Verbal Memory Test) and an integrated MRI program (pASL MRI, and R-fMRI) were administered 7 days before and 3 months after CAS. 16 subjects completed the follow-up study. After stenting, significant improvement in the scores of the MMSE, the Verbal Memory test, and the delayed recall was found. No significant difference was found in the scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Digit Symbol Test, and the immediate recall. After CAS treatment, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients showed increased perfusion in the left frontal gyrus, increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the right precentral gyrus, and increased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the right supra frontal gyrus. However, no significant correlations were found between these imaging changes and cognition assessments. Successful CAS can partly improve cognition in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients. The cognition improvement may be partly attributed to the increased perfusion in the

  5. High-pressure balloon dilation in a dog with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Pinkos, A; Stauthammer, C; Rittenberg, R; Barncord, K

    2017-02-01

    A 6-month-old female intact Goldendoodle was presented for diagnostic work up of a grade IV/VI left basilar systolic heart murmur. An echocardiogram was performed and revealed a ridge of tissue distal to the aortic valve leaflets at the sinotubular junction causing an instantaneous pressure gradient of 62 mmHg across the supravalvular aortic stenosis and moderate concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Intervention with a high-pressure balloon dilation catheter was pursued and significantly decreased the pressure gradient to 34 mmHg. No complications were encountered. The patient returned in 5 months for re-evaluation and static long-term reduction in the pressure gradient was noted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Measurement of fractional flow reserve in patients with severe aortic stenosis: A valid test?

    PubMed

    Kikoïne, J; Lebon, M; Gouffran, G; Millischer, D; Cattan, S; Nallet, O

    2016-11-01

    A 54-year-old woman was hospitalized for an acute pulmonary oedema revealing a severe aortic stenosis (AS) associated with an aortic aneurysm and a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The coronary angiography found an equivocal left main lesion. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) showed hemodynamic significance (FFR=0.78) and optical coherence tomography confirmed this result with a minimal lumen area of 4.9mm(2). FFR-guided percutaneous intervention is reported to improve outcome in patients with stable coronary disease. However, only few data are available in cases of AS. In this condition, secondary LVH is associated with microcirculatory dysfunction, which interferes with optimal hyperemia. An elevated right atrial pressure could also modify FFR measurement. This risk of underestimation of a coronary lesion in patients with severe AS has to be taken into consideration in clinical practice.

  7. [Non-cardiac aspects of aortic stenosis in the elderly: A review].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Baldomero; Formiga, Francesç; de Mora-Martín, Manuel; Calleja, Fernando; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valve disease in the elderly population Treatment is valve replacement either by open surgery, or in the case of patients at high surgical risk, by TAVI (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation). However, almost 40% of patients who have undergone TAVI show poor health outcomes, either due to death or because their clinical status does not improved. This review examines the non-cardiac aspects of patients with AS, which may help answer three key questions in order to evaluate this condition pre-surgically: 1) Are the symptoms presented by the patient exclusively explained by the AS, or are there other factors or comorbidities that could justify or increase them?, 2) What possibilities for improvement of health status and quality of life has the patient after the valve replacement?, and 3) How can we reduce the risk of a futile valve replacement?

  8. First-in-man transcatheter aortic valve implantation of a 20-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve: one step forward for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis and small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Rodés-Cabau, Josep; DeLarochellière, Robert; Dumont, Eric

    2012-04-01

    We present the case of an 85-year-old woman diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, porcelain aorta, and a small aortic annulus (17.3 mm), who underwent successful transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with a 20-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve using the NovaFlex+ delivery system. At 1-month follow-up the patient was in NYHA functional class I, and Doppler echocardiography showed a mean residual gradient of 15 mm Hg and trivial paravalvular aortic regurgitation. This case, which shows for the first time the feasibility of TAVI with a 20-mm valve, opens a new avenue for the challenging treatment of patients with aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Measurement of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the Estimation of Irreversible Pressure Loss in Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Hope, Michael D.; Tseng, Elaine E.; Saloner, David

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The authors sought to measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the ascending aorta of patients with aortic stenosis and to assess its relationship to irreversible pressure loss. BACKGROUND Irreversible pressure loss caused by energy dissipation in post-stenotic flow is an important determinant of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. The simplified Bernoulli equation used to estimate pressure gradients often misclassifies the ventricular overload caused by aortic stenosis. The current gold standard for estimation of irreversible pressure loss is catheterization, but this method is rarely used due to its invasiveness. Post-stenotic pressure loss is largely caused by dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into heat. Recent developments in magnetic resonance flow imaging permit noninvasive estimation of TKE. METHODS The study was approved by the local ethics review board and all subjects gave written informed consent. Three-dimensional cine magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to measure TKE in 18 subjects (4 normal volunteers, 14 patients with aortic stenosis with and without dilation). For each subject, the peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was compared with a pressure loss index. The pressure loss index was based on a previously validated theory relating pressure loss to measures obtainable by echocardiography. RESULTS The total TKE did not appear to be related to global flow patterns visualized based on magnetic resonance–measured velocity fields. The TKE was significantly higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in normal volunteers (p < 0.001). The peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was strongly correlated to index pressure loss (R2 = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS Peak total TKE in the ascending aorta correlated strongly with irreversible pressure loss estimated by a well-established method. Direct measurement of TKE by magnetic resonance flow imaging may, with further validation, be used to estimate irreversible pressure loss

  10. NOTCH1 Mutations in Aortic Stenosis: Association with Osteoprotegerin/RANK/RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Zhiduleva, Ekaterina; Freylikhman, Olga; Rotar, Oxana; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana; Kostareva, Anna; Moiseeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Background. The NOTCH pathway is known to be important in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease, possibly through regulators of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL) system. The purpose of the present study was to search for possible associations between NOTCH1 gene mutations and circulating levels of OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Methods. The study was performed on 61 patients with AS including 31 with bicuspid and 30 with tricuspid aortic valves. We applied a strategy of targeted mutation screening for 10 out of 34 exons of the NOTCH1 gene by direct sequencing. Serum OPG and sRANKL levels were assessed. Results. In total, 6 genetic variants of the NOTCH1 gene including two new mutations were identified in the study group. In an age- and arterial hypertension-adjusted multivariable regression analysis, the serum OPG levels and the OPG/sRANKL ratio were correlated with NOTCH1 missense variants. All studied missense variants in NOTCH1 gene were found in Ca(2+)-binding EGF motif of the NOTCH extracellular domain bound to Delta-like 4. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the OPG/RANKL/RANK system might be directly influenced by genetic variants of NOTCH1 in aortic valve calcification. PMID:28246602

  11. Does treatment assignment influence the prognosis of patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis?

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Giovanni; Tomasi, Cesare; Rossi, Andrea; Nistri, Stefano; Tarantini, Luigi; Faden, Giacomo; Mazzone, Carmine; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Ettori, Federica; Stefenelli, Carlo; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2015-01-09

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the standard therapy in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). In high surgical risk patients, alternative therapeutic options to medical treatment (MT) such as trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) have been proposed. In this study we evaluated whether treatment assignment influences per se the prognosis of these subjects. Criteria for treatment assignment were based on patient's clinical conditions, Logistic EuroSCORE and other co-morbidities ignored by EuroSCORE. Due to baseline clinical differences between patients with diverse treatment assignment, we used propensity score matching to achieve balance. 368 patients were studied: 141 underwent AVR, 127 TAVI, 49 BAV and 51 MT. 84 events (deaths for all causes) occurred during 14 months of follow-up: 11 AVR (8%), 26 TAVI (20%), 18 MT (35%), 29 BAV group (59%). Traditional Cox analysis identified treatment assignment as independent predictor of events (HR 1.82 [CI 1.10-3.25]) together with lower left ventricular ejection fraction, impaired renal function and history of heart failure. Matched Cox analysis by propensity score confirmed treatment assignment as an independent prognosticator of events (HR 1.90 [CI 1.27-2.85]), and showed similar rate events in TAVI and AVR patients, while it was significantly increased in BAV and MT patients. Treatment assignment may influence outcome of symptomatic patients with AS.

  12. Alterations in cholesterol homeostasis are associated with coronary heart disease in patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Weingärtner, Nadja; Scheller, Bruno; Lütjohann, Dieter; Gräber, Stefan; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2009-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for aortic stenosis (AS) and for coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum cholesterol concentrations are determined by intestinal cholesterol absorption and endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Vascular effects of differences in cholesterol metabolism in patients with AS are so far unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in cholesterol metabolism in relation to vascular diseases in this subset of patients. In addition to identifying conventional coronary risk factors, we determined plant sterols (indicators of cholesterol absorption) and lathosterol (indicator of cholesterol synthesis) levels in 40 consecutive men and women with AS. Coronary angiograms before the aortic valve replacement determined the extent of CAD. Patients with a positive history of cardiovascular disease exhibited an increased campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio in plasma (P<0.005) and in aortic valve cusps (P<0.05). The plasma campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio increased with CAD severity (zero, single, two, three-vessel disease; P<0.05). Coronary vessel score strongly correlated with the campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio in plasma (r = 0.52; P<0.001) and in aortic valve cusps (r = 0.33; P<0.03). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratio of campesterol-to-lathosterol was the sole predictor of CAD among coronary risk factors tested (P<0.01). Enhanced absorption and reduced synthesis of cholesterol is related to a positive family history of cardiovascular diseases and the development of concomitant CAD in patients with AS.

  13. Mid-term outcome after surgical repair of congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis by extended aortoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Farhad; Amer, Mohammed; Etz, Christian D.; Dähnert, Ingo; Wilhelm Mohr, Friedrich; Bellinghausen, Wilfried; Kostelka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a rare arteriopathy associated with the Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) and other elastin gene deletions. Our objective was to review the mid-term outcomes of SVAS repair with extended aortoplasty. METHODS Congenital SVAS repairs from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The follow-up records, reintervention and reoperation data and most recent echocardiograms were obtained. RESULTS From 2001 to 2010, 21 patients (15 males) underwent surgical repair of SVAS by extended aortoplasty with autologous pretreated pericardium, which is a modification of the Doty technique. The mean age was 3.1 ± 4.2 years. WBS was diagnosed in 14 of the patients. There was no early mortality, but one late death was observed. At the latest follow-up (mean follow-up, 4.3 ± 2.9 years; range, 1–108 months), echocardiograms revealed a peak Doppler gradient across the aortic outflow tract of 15 ± 8 mmHg. The majority of the patients had minimal to mild aortic insufficiency. No reoperation or reintervention was required. CONCLUSIONS Extended aortoplasty provides excellent mid-term relief of SVAS and, in addition, reshapes the aortic root geometry to a much more favourable anatomical configuration. It can be performed without any increase in operative risks. The mid-term results are excellent. PMID:23793710

  14. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus sutureless aortic valve replacement (SUAVR) for aortic stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of matched studies

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Chin; Niles, Natasha; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.; Phan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background With improving technologies and an increasingly elderly populations, there have been an increasing number of therapeutic options available for patients requiring aortic valve replacement. Recent evidence suggests that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is one suitable option for high risk inoperable patients, as well as high risk operable patients. Sutureless valve technology has also been developed concurrently, with facilitates surgical aortic valve replacement (SUAVR) by allow resection and replacement of the native aortic valve with minimal sutures and prosthesis anchoring required. For patients amenable for both TAVI and SUAVR, the evidence is unclear with regards to the benefits and risks of either approach. The objectives are to compare the perioperative outcomes and intermediate-term survival rates of TAVI and SUAVR in matched or propensity score matched studies. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to include all matched or propensity score matched studies comparing SUAVR versus TAVI for severe aortic stenosis. A meta-analysis with odds ratios (OR) and mean differences were performed to compare key outcomes including paravalvular regurgitation and short and intermediate term mortality. Results Six studies met our inclusion criteria giving a total of 741 patients in both the SUAVR and TAVI arm of the study. Compared to TAVI, SUAVR had a lower incidence of paravalvular leak (OR =0.06; 95% CI: 0.03–0.12, P<0.01). There was no difference in perioperative mortality, however SUAVR patients had significantly better survival rates at 1 (OR =2.40; 95% CI: 1.40–4.11, P<0.01) and 2 years (OR =4.62; 95% CI: 2.62–8.12, P<0.01). Conclusions The present study supports the use of minimally invasive SUAVR as an alternative to TAVI in high risk patients requiring aortic replacement. The presented results require further validation in prospective, randomized controlled studies. PMID:28066608

  15. Intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte predicts severe coronary stenosis and extensive plaque involvement in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Ching-Yi; Lee, Bai-Chin

    2017-02-26

    Circulating leukocyte subtypes and monocyte subsets are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that an increased leukocyte subtype would predict severe coronary stenosis and extensive plaque involvement. We retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory, and coronary CT data in a total of 588 asymptomatic adults (69% men; mean age, 57 ± 9 years) undergoing a general health check-up. Intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count had the strongest association with mixed and calcified plaque scores, whereas the numbers of neutrophils and classical CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes were significantly associated with non-calcified plaque score. Only high CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count (>12 cells/μL) significantly predicted extensive plaque involvement [odds ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 1.84-5.43), P < 0.001; quartile 4 vs. 1-3] and severe coronary stenosis [3.67 (1.84-7.33), P < 0.001; quartile 4 vs. 1-3] after adjustments for Framingham Risk Score (FRS), metabolic syndrome, and C-reactive protein. The CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count, when added to FRS, significantly reclassified 30.4 and 26.7% of the overall and 50.2 and 36.2% of the intermediate-risk population (FRS 6-20%) for predicting extensive plaque involvement and severe coronary stenosis, respectively. Thus, in asymptomatic individuals, intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte could independently predict severe CAD and improve risk stratification.

  16. [Cerebral vasoreactivity: Concordance of breath holding test and acetazolamide injection in current practice: 20 cases of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    De Bortoli, M; Maillet, A; Skopinski, S; Sassoust, G; Constans, J; Boulon, C

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) is the ability of the brain's vascular system to keep cerebral blood inflow stable. Impaired CVR is a risk marker of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The gold standard to assess CVR with transcranial ultrasound is acetazolamide (ACTZ) injection. The breath holding test (BHT) might be easier to perform. CVR proved to be efficient in laboratory conditions but not in routine practice. To study the validity of BHT versus ACTZ in routine practice in a vascular exploration unit in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Study of concordance of BHT and ACTZ, to assess CVR in patients consecutively explored on the same day. Eighteen patients with 20 carotid stenosis were included. The temporal window was missing in 20% of cases. Only 11 out of the 20 procedures were analyzed. Concordance was low between BHT and ACTZ to assess CVR (k=0.3714). BHT cannot replace ACTZ injection. It might be a first-step test so that ACTZ injection might be avoided if CVR is normal. Our present results must be confirmed by further study enrolling many more patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-Stage Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm through a Median Sternotomy in a Patient with Pseudocoarctation of the Aorta and Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Yoshitaka; Morimoto, Hironobu; Mukai, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a rare anomaly and considered a benign condition. Pseudocoarctation of the aorta has been associated with aneurysm formation in the thoracic aorta, which may cause sudden rupture or dissection. Thus, the presence of an aneurysm in combination with pseudocoarctation of the aorta is thought to be an indication for surgery. We present a case of pseudocoarctation of the aorta associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and severe aortic valve stenosis with a bicuspid aortic valve. In our case, single-stage repair was performed through a median sternotomy using our "pleural-window approach."

  18. Effects of increasing flow rate on aortic stenotic indices: evidence from percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. M.; Su, S. F.; Chen, M. F.; Liau, C. S.; Lee, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of transvalvar flow rate on aortic valve resistance and valve area after percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in a homogeneous group of patients with rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis who had undergone balloon dilatation of the mitral valve over a period of 9 years. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Twelve (8 women, 4 men; mean (SD) age 37 (9) of 227 consecutive patients with critical mitral stenosis undergoing transvenous balloon dilation of the mitral valve in the centre also had aortic stenosis, defined as a transaortic pressure gradient of more than 25 mm Hg measured at a catheterisation study before valvuloplasty. INTERVENTIONS: Echocardiographic variables (mitral valve area measured by the pressure half-time method and planimetry, and the aortic valve area derived from the continuity equation) and haemodynamic measurements (cardiac output, left ventricular mean systolic pressure, aortic mean pressure, transaortic valve pressure gradient, mitral valve and aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula, and aortic valve resistance) were assessed before and after transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Follow up catheterisation to measure haemodynamic variables was performed one week after mitral valvuloplasty. RESULTS: Mean transaortic flow rate increased 33% after mitral valvuloplasty (from 198 (68) to 254 (41) ml/s, P = 0.002). Aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula were significantly increased from 0.57 (0.12) to 0.73 (0.14) cm2 (P = 0.006) after mitral valvuloplasty. However, aortic valve area and valve resistance derived from the continuity equation were independent of the increase in flow rate after mitral valvuloplasty (from 1.29 (0.35) to 1.30 (0.29) cm2 and from 317 (65) to 259 (75) dyn.s.cm-5, both P = NS). CONCLUSION: The Gorlin-derived aortic valve area tends to be flow

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by red blood cell scintigraphy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case of Heyde syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Patrícia L; Felix, Renata C M; Azevedo, Jader C; Silva, Paulo R D; Oliveira, Amarino C; Cortes, Denise; Dohmann, Hans F R; Mesquita, Cláudio T

    2005-04-01

    The authors report a case of small bowel bleeding diagnosed by Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy during the postoperative period after aortic valve replacement. There is a relationship between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients, called Heyde syndrome. The described patient had chronic anemia that worsened after surgery. RBC scintigraphy localized the source of bleeding from jejunal angiodysplasia confirmed by mesenteric angiography. This case illustrates the diagnostic information provided by RBC scintigraphy in this syndrome.

  20. Exertional dyspnea as a symptom of infrarenal aortic occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Schott, Stacey L; Carreiro, Fernanda Porto; Harkness, James R; Malas, Mahmoud B; Sozio, Stephen M; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-06-01

    Advanced atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause severe ischemia in the kidneys, refractory hypertension, and claudication. However, no previous reports have clearly associated infrarenal aortic stenosis with shortness of breath. A 77-year-old woman with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presented with exertional dyspnea. Despite extensive testing and observation, no apparent cause for this patient's dyspnea was found. Images revealed severe infrarenal aortic stenosis. After the patient underwent stenting of the aortic occlusion, she had immediate symptomatic improvement and complete resolution of her dyspnea within one month. Twelve months after vascular intervention, the patient remained asymptomatic. In view of the distinct and lasting elimination of dyspnea after angioplasty and stenting of a nearly occluded infrarenal aortic lesion, we hypothesize that infrarenal aortic stenosis might be a treatable cause of exertional dyspnea. Clinicians should consider infrarenal aortic stenosis as a possible cause of dyspnea. Treatment of the stenosis might relieve symptoms.

  1. Prevalence of middle cerebral artery stenosis in asymptomatic subjects of more than 40 years age group: a transcranial Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Sada, Sujay; Reddy, Yugandhar; Rao, Sampath; Alladi, Suvarna; Kaul, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) disease is the most common vascular lesion in stroke. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is a non-invasive bedside screening method for assessing cerebral blood flow. To investigate the prevalence of MCA stenosis in asymptomatic but high-risk individuals for stroke. Prospective study between December 2011 and December 2013. Vascular risk factors considered included: hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hypercholesterolemia and obesity. TCD was performed with portable machine through the temporal windows by use of a standardized protocol. Of the 427 subjects, 374 were analyzed; males 264 (70.6%) and females 110 (29.4%). Mean age was 54.2 ± 7.6 years. The frequency of the risk factors was: HTN 287 (76.7%), diabetes 220 (58.8%), CAD 120 (32.1%), hypercholesterolemia 181 (48.4%), smoking 147 (39.3%), alcohol 99 (26.5%), obesity 198 (52.9%) and PVD 8 (2.1%). Of the 374 subjects, 27 (7.2%) had intracranial arterial stenosis and the rest had normal intracranial arteries. On univariate analysis, subjects with higher age, HTN, CAD, smoking and hypercholesterolemia had higher risk of having intracranial arterial stenosis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed HTN and CAD are independent risk factors for intracranial arterial stenosis. Overall prevalence of intracranial arterial stenosis is 7.2% in high-risk population sample from Hyderabad in South India. HTN and CAD are independent risk factors for the development of intracranial arterial stenosis.

  2. Stress echocardiography in differentiation of fixed vs. low flow-low gradient and pseudo severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Mundigler, G; Naser, Nabil

    2010-01-01

    To present the importance of stress echocardiography in diagnosis of low flow-low gradient aortic stenosis (AS). Two patients were tested, one male patient, aged 62, weight 72 kg, height 172 cm, and BSA 1.86 cm2, and the other one was female, aged 59, weight 83 kg, height 168 cm and BSA, were found to have at least moderate ASs with low flow and low gradients at rest. Dobutamine stress test was performed using standard protocol starting at 2.5 mcg/kg/min at rest as continuous infusion and increasing every five minutes intervals with stepwise increase up to 20 mcg/kg/min. Monitoring with 12-lead ECG and blood pressure measurements at each step was performed. After completing the test, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed in male patient increasing in transvalvular flow and gradients across aortic valve and ejection fraction (EF) measured by Simpson method increased from 33% at rest up to 40% following Dobutamine administration. EOA (effective aortic valve area) from 0.8 cm2 at rest increased insignificantly to 0.85 cm, (0.425 m2) afterwards. Final diagnosis therefore was severe aortic stenosis with preserved contractile reserve. The patient was scheduled for surgical valve replacement. In female patient after DST, the area of aortic valve increased significantly from 0.75 cm2 up to 1.05 cm2, while all transvalvular gradients remained almost unchanged. Pseudo-Aortic Stenosis and surgical valve replacement had not been indicated at this time.

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation after transcatheter versus surgical prosthetic valve implantation for aortic stenosis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Russo, Nicola; Compostella, Leonida; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Setzu, Tiziana; Napodano, Massimo; Bottio, Tomaso; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Isabella, Gianbattista; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation plays a leading role in the management of aortic stenosis in patients with comorbidities but no data are available about cardiac rehabilitation in these subjects. This study aimed to compare safety and efficacy of an early, exercise-based, cardiac rehabilitation programme in octogenarians after a traditional surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Seventy-eight consecutive transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients were studied in order to evaluate the effect of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme in comparison to 80 of a similar age having surgical aortic valve replacement. Functional capacity was assessed by a 6 min walking test on admission and at the end of the programme. When possible, a cardiopulmonary exercise test was also performed before discharge. The two groups were similar in terms of gender and length of stay in cardiac rehabilitation; as expected, the transcatheter aortic valve implantation group had more comorbidities but no major complications occurred in either group during rehabilitation. All patients enhanced autonomy and mobility and were able to walk at least with the assistance of a stick. In those patients who were able to perform the 6 min walking test, the distance walked at discharge did not significantly differ between the groups (272.7 ± 108 vs. 294.2 ± 101 m, p = 0.42), neither did the exercise capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise test (peak-VO2 12.5 ± 3.6 vs. 13.9 ± 2.7 ml/kg/min, p = 0.16). Cardiac rehabilitation is feasible, safe and effective in octogenarian patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation as well as after traditional surgery. An early cardiac rehabilitation programme enhances independence, mobility and functional capacity and should be highly encouraged. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Association between circulating oxidised low-density lipoprotein and fibrocalcific remodelling of the aortic valve in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Côté, C; Pibarot, P; Després, J-P; Mohty, D; Cartier, A; Arsenault, B J; Couture, C; Mathieu, P

    2008-09-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease in westernized societies. AS is a disease process akin to atherosclerosis in which calcification and tissue remodelling play a crucial role. In patients with moderate/severe AS, we sought to determine whether the remodelling process would be in relationship with transvalvular gradients and circulating oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels. In 105 patients with AS, the aortic valve and blood plasma were collected at the time of valve replacement surgery. The degree of valve tissue remodelling was assessed using a scoring system (Score: 1-4) and the amount of calcium within the valve cusps was determined. The standard plasma lipid profile, the size of LDL particles and the plasma level of circulating ox-LDL (4E6 antibody) were determined. After adjustment for covariables, aortic remodelling score was significantly related to transvalvular gradients measured by Doppler echocardiography before surgery. Patients with higher valve remodelling score had higher circulating ox-LDL levels (score 2: 27.3 (SEM 2.6) U/l; score 3: 32.2 (SEM 2.3) U/l; score 4: 38.3 (SEM 2.3) U/l; p = 0.02). After correction for age, gender, hypertension and HDL-C, the plasma level of ox-LDL remained significantly associated with the aortic valve remodelling score (p<0.001). The plasma level of ox-LDL was significantly associated with LDL-C (r = 0.41; p<0.001), apoB (r = 0.59; p<0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.39; p<0.001), Apo A-I (r = 0.23; p = 0.01) and cholesterol in small (<255 A) LDL particles (r = 0.22; p = 0.02). After correction for covariables, circulating ox-LDL levels remained significantly associated with apoB (p<0.001) and triglyceride (p = 0.01) levels. Increased level of circulating ox-LDL is associated with worse fibrocalcific remodelling of valvular tissue in AS. It remains to be determined whether circulating ox-LDL is a risk marker for a highly atherogenic profile and/or a circulating molecule which is

  5. Autoradiography screening of potential positron emission tomography tracers for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Sergio; Hall, Håkan; Wanhainen, Anders; Björck, Martin; Sörensen, Jens; Antoni, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aetiology and early pathophysiological mechanisms of aortic aneurysm formation are still unknown and challenging to study in vivo. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potentially valuable instrument for non-invasive in vivo pathophysiological studies. No specific tracer to identify the pathophysiological process of aneurysmal dilatation is yet available, however. The aim of this study was to explore if different PET tracers could be useful to image aneurysmal disease. Methods and results Human aneurysmal aortic tissue, collected during elective resection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of asymptomatic patients, was investigated in vitro by means of autoradiography with [68Ga]CRP-binder targeting C-reactive protein, [11C]DAA1106 targeting translocator protein (18 kDa), [11C]D-deprenyl with unknown target receptor, [11C]deuterium-L-deprenyl targeting astrocytes, [18F]fluciclatide targeting integrin αVβ3, [68Ga]IMP461 and bi-specific antibody TF2 052107 targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, [18F]F-metomidate targeting mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 species in the adrenal cortex, and [18F]vorozole targeting aromatase. Of the investigated tracers, only [18F]fluciclatide exhibited specific binding, whereas the other PET tracers failed to show specific uptake in the investigated tissue and are probably not useful for the intended purpose. Conclusion It seems likely that αVβ3 integrin expression in AAA can be visualized with PET and that the αVβ3 selective tracer, [18F]fluciclatide, may be suitable for in vivo molecular imaging of asymptomatic AAA. Additional evaluation of [18F]fluciclatide and αVβ3 integrin expression in AAA will be performed in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24555564

  6. Progression of isolated aortic stenosis: analysis of 29 patients having more than 1 cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Nestico, P F; DePace, N L; Kimbiris, D; Hakki, A H; Khanderia, B; Iskandrian, A S; Segal, B

    1983-11-01

    Factors related to progression of nonrheumatic aortic stenosis (AS) were analyzed in 29 adult patients who underwent serial hemodynamic studies over a mean of 71 months. AS was congenital in 8 patients and degenerative in 21. The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the change in aortic valve area between the 2 studies. Twelve patients had a greater than or equal to 25% reduction in aortic valve area (Group I) and 17 patients had less than 25% decrease in aortic valve area (Group II). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, interval between studies, cardiac output, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular peak systolic pressure and origin of AS (congenital or degenerative). Group I patients had significantly larger initial aortic valve areas than did Group II patients (1.3 +/- 0.9 cm2 versus 0.8 +/- 0.4 cm2, p = 0.02). Also, the initial peak transaortic pressure gradients were lower in Group I than in Group II (27 +/- 19 versus 58 +/- 38 mm Hg, p = 0.01). Group I patients had a significantly greater increase in pressure gradient and a greater reduction in cardiac output than did Group II patients (24 +/- 21 mm Hg in Group I versus -0.1 +/- 24.5 mm Hg in Group II, p = 0.01, and -1.0 +/- 1.3 liters/min in Group I versus 0.10 +/- 1.4 liters/min in Group II, p = 0.03). Thus, AS progressed in 41% of a selected group of patients who underwent repeated cardiac catheterization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Percutaneous Implantation of the self-expanding valve Prosthesis a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia severe aortic stenosis and porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Levent; Asil, Serkan; Kaya, Ergün Baris; Ozer, Necla; Aytemir, Kudret

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or inappropriate for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have porcelain aorta and familial hypercholesterolemia, due to the potential complications of aortic root and aortic annulus. In this case report, we present a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, previous coronary artery bypass grafting and porcelain aorta, who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve.

  8. Arterial pulse wave dynamics after percutaneous aortic valve replacement: fall in coronary diastolic suction with increasing heart rate as a basis for angina symptoms in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin E; Sen, Sayan; Broyd, Chris; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Baksi, John; Francis, Darrel P; Foale, Rodney A; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Casula, Roberto; Malik, Iqbal S; Mikhail, Ghada W; Mayet, Jamil

    2011-10-04

    Aortic stenosis causes angina despite unobstructed arteries. Measurement of conventional coronary hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing valvular surgery has failed to explain these symptoms. With the advent of percutaneous aortic valve replacement (PAVR) and developments in coronary pulse wave analysis, it is now possible to instantaneously abolish the valvular stenosis and to measure the resulting changes in waves that direct coronary flow. Intracoronary pressure and flow velocity were measured immediately before and after PAVR in 11 patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. Using coronary pulse wave analysis, we calculated the intracoronary diastolic suction wave (the principal accelerator of coronary blood flow). To test physiological reserve to increased myocardial demand, we measured at resting heart rate and during pacing at 90 and 120 bpm. Before PAVR, the basal myocardial suction wave intensity was 1.9±0.3×10(-5) W · m(-2) · s(-2), and this increased in magnitude with increasing severity of aortic stenosis (r=0.59, P=0.05). This wave decreased markedly with increasing heart rate (β coefficient=-0.16×10(-4) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P<0.001). After PAVR, despite a fall in basal suction wave (1.9±0.3 versus 1.1±0.1×10(-5) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P=0.02), there was an immediate improvement in coronary physiological reserve with increasing heart rate (β coefficient=0.9×10(-3) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P=0.014). In aortic stenosis, the coronary physiological reserve is impaired. Instead of increasing when heart rate rises, the coronary diastolic suction wave decreases. Immediately after PAVR, physiological reserve returns to a normal positive pattern. This may explain how aortic stenosis can induce anginal symptoms and their prompt relief after PAVR. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01118442.

  9. Impact of Valvuloarterial Impedance on Concentric Remodeling in Aortic Stenosis and Its Regression after Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Yoon; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricle (LV) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) faces a double hemodynamic load incorporating both valvular stenosis and reduced systemic arterial compliance (SAC). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of global LV afterload on LV hypertrophy (LVH) before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods The study cohort included 453 patients (247 males; mean age, 64 ± 11 years) who underwent AVR. Pre- and post-AVR echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analyzed including an index of valvuloarterial impedance (ZVA) and LV mass index/LV end-diastolic volume index (LVMI/LVEDVI) as a parameter of LVH. Results Pre-AVR LVMI/LVEDVI was 2.7 ± 0.9 g/mL with an aortic valve area (AVA) of 0.6 ± 0.2 cm2. ZVA was 5.9 ± 1.9 mm Hg/mL/m2 and showed a stronger correlation (β = 0.601, p < 0.001) with pre-AVR LVMI/LVEDVI than indexed AVA (β = 0.061, p = 0.19), transvalvular peak velocity (β = 0.211, p < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, patients had a 18.8 ± 10.4% decrease in the LV geometry index with a decrease in SAC from 1.20 ± 0.48 to 1.00 ± 0.38 mL/m2/mm Hg (p < 0.001). Pre-AVR LV ejection fraction (r = 0.284, p < 0.001) and ZVA (r = 0.523, p < 0.001) were independent factors associated with LVH regression in 322 patients with follow-up duration >1 year after AVR. Conclusion ZVA is a major determinant of concentric remodeling in AS before AVR and LVH regression after AVR, which should be incorporated in routine evaluation of AS. PMID:27721950

  10. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Anthony G.; Relle, Margaret A.; Lombardi, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2–9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287

  11. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Anthony G; Relle, Margaret A; Lombardi, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2-9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in aortic valve stenosis: links with inflammation and calcification.

    PubMed

    Natorska, J; Undas, A

    2015-08-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) increasingly afflicts our aging population. However, the pathobiology of the disease is still poorly understood and there is no effective pharmacotherapy for treating those at risk for clinical progression. The progression of AS involves complex inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes that resemble to some extent atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that several coagulation proteins and its inhibitors, including tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, prothrombin, factor XIII, von Willebrand factor, display increased expression within aortic stenotic valves, predominantly on macrophages and myofibroblasts around calcified areas. Systemic impaired fibrinolysis, along with increased plasma and valvular expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, has also been observed in patients with AS in association with the severity of the disease. There is an extensive cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in stenotic valve tissue which contributes to the calcification and mineralisation of the aortic valve leaflets. This review summarises the available data on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in AS with the emphasis on their interactions with inflammation and calcification.

  13. Impact of Afterload on the Assessment of Severity of Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic stenosis (AS) is increasingly diagnosed in current aging society. Echocardiography is the most important tool in the assessment of AS and its severity. However, load-dependency of Doppler measurement could affect the accuracy of AS severity assessment. We tried to evaluate the impact of afterload on the assessment of AS severity by modification of afterload using pneumatic compression (Pcom). METHODS Forty patients diagnosed as moderate or severe AS [effective orifice area of aortic valve (EOAAV) by continuity equation of < 1.5 cm2] were consecutively enrolled. Patients with severely uncontrolled hypertension, severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and other significant valve disease were excluded. Comprehensive echocardiography was performed at baseline to assess AS severity. Then, pneumatic compression of the lower extremities by 100 mmHg was applied to increase LV afterload. After 3 minutes, echocardiography was repeated to assess AS severity. RESULTS Mean blood pressure was significantly increased under Pcom (p < 0.001), while heart rate remained unchanged. Peak aortic valve velocity (Vmax) was slightly, but significantly decreased under Pcom (p = 0.03). However, Doppler velocity index and EOAAV by continuity equation were not affected by Pcom. CONCLUSION AS severity assessment by echocardiography was not dependent on the change of LV afterload imposed by Pcom. AV Vmax was slightly decreased with LV afterload increment, but these changes were too small to alter treatment plan of AS patients. EOAAV and Doppler velocity index are more stable parameters for AS severity assessment. PMID:22787524

  14. Aortic stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ... Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, ...

  15. A single codon insertion in PICALM is associated with development of familial subvalvular aortic stenosis in Newfoundland dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Familial subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common congenital heart defects in dogs and is an inherited defect of Newfoundlands, golden retrievers and human children. Although SAS is known to be inherited, specific genes involved in Newfoundlands with SAS have not been defined. We ...

  16. Hemodynamics of the Aortic Jet and Implications for Detection of Aortic Stenosis Murmurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chi; Seo, Junghee; Bakhshaee, Hani; Mittal, Rajat

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac auscultation with a stethoscope has served as the primary method for qualitative screening of cardiovascular conditions for over a hundred years. However, a lack of quantitative understanding of the flow mechanism(s) responsible for the generation of the murmurs, as well as the effect of intervening tissue on the propagation of these murmurs has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of automated cardiac auscultation. In this study, a multiphysics computational modeling approach is used to investigate these issues. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to explore the fluid dynamics of the jets formed at the aortic valve and the pressure fluctuations generated by the interaction of this jet with the aortic wall. Subsequently, structural wave propagation in the tissue is resolved by a high-order, linear viscoelastic wave solver in order to explore the propagation of the murmurs through a tissue-like material. The implications of these results for cardiac auscultation are discussed. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grants IIS-1344772, CBET-1511200, and computational resource by XSEDE NSF Grant TG-CTS100002.

  17. Open Heart Surgery Does Not Increase the Incidence of Ipsilateral Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Asymptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, John E; Yacoub, Hussam A; Li, Yuebing; Kincaid, Hope; Jenny, Donna

    2017-06-13

    We evaluated the incidence of perioperative stroke following the institution's 2007 practice change of discontinuing combined carotid endarterectomy and open heart surgery (OHS) for patients with severe carotid stenosis. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared 113 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, or both from 2007 to 2011 with data collected from 2001 to 2006 from a similar group of patients. Our aim was to assess whether the practice change led to a greater incidence of stroke. A total of 7350 consecutive patients undergoing OHS during the specified time period were screened. Of these, 3030 had OHS between 2007 and 2011 but none were combined with carotid artery surgery (new cohort). The remaining 4320 had OHS before 2007 and 44 had combined procedures (old cohort). Of patients undergoing OHS during the 10-year period of observation, 230 had severe (>80%) carotid stenosis. In the old cohort (before 2007), carotid stenosis was associated with perioperative stroke in 2.5% of cases. None of the 113 patients having cardiac procedures after 2007 received combined carotid artery surgery; only 1 of these patients harboring severe carotid stenosis had an ischemic stroke (.9%) during the perioperative period. The difference in stroke incidence between the 2 cohorts was statistically significant (P = .002). The incidence of stroke in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis undergoing OHS was lower after combined surgery was discontinued. Combined carotid and OHS itself seems to be an important risk factor for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-related differences in calcific aortic stenosis: correlating clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and computed tomography aortic valve calcium score to excised aortic valve weight.

    PubMed

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Suri, Rakesh M; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Soderberg, Daniel J; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pislaru, Sorin V; Malouf, Joseph F; Foley, Thomas A; Oh, Jae K; Miller, Jordan D; Edwards, William D; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2016-02-21

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) is purportedly associated with less calcium burden in women than in men. We sought to examine sex-related differences and correlates of surgically excised aortic valve weight (AVW) in pure AS. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 888 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for severe AS were correlated to AVW, and in 126 patients, AVW was also correlated to computed tomography aortic valve calcium (AVC) score. Women and men had similar indexed valve area (0.42 ± 0.09 vs. 0.42 ± 0.07 cm (2)/m(2), P = 0.95) and mean systolic gradient (53 ± 15 vs. 52 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.11), but women had higher New York Heart Association class (2.63 ± 0.70 vs. 2.50 ± 0.70, P = 0.01) and less prevalent coronary artery disease (38 vs. 52%, P < 0.0001). Aortic valve weight was lower in women (1.94 ± 0.88 vs. 3.08 ± 1.32 g, P < 0.0001) even when indexed to body surface area (1.09 ± 0.48 vs. 1.48 ± 0.62 g/m(2), P < 0.0001) or left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) area (0.54 ± 0.23 vs. 0.71 ± 0.29 g/cm(2), P < 0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, male sex (P < 0.0001), bicuspid valve (P < 0.0001), and larger LVOT area (P < 0.0001) were the major determinants of increased AVW, along with current cigarette smoking (P = 0.007). Diabetes (P = 0.004) and hypertension (P = 0.03) were independently associated with lower AVW. Aortic valve calcium correlated well with AVW (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001) and was lower in women than in men (2520 ± 1199 vs. 3606 ± 1632 arbitrary units, P < 0.0001). Despite the same degree of AS severity, women have less AVC and lower AVW compared with men, irrespective of valve morphology. Aortic valve calcium is correlated to excised AVW. Hypertension, diabetes, and current cigarette smoking were independently associated with AVW. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Influence of increased heart rate and aortic pressure on resting indices of functional coronary stenosis severity.

    PubMed

    Casadonte, Lorena; Verhoeff, Bart-Jan; Piek, Jan J; VanBavel, Ed; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Baseline assessment of functional stenosis severity has been proposed as a practical alternative to hyperemic indices. However, intact autoregulation mechanisms may affect intracoronary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in aortic pressure (Pa) and heart rate (HR) on baseline coronary hemodynamics and functional stenosis assessment. In 15 patients (55 ± 3% diameter stenosis) Pa, intracoronary pressure (Pd) and flow velocity were obtained at control, and during atrial pacing at 120 bpm, increased Pa (+30 mmHg) with intravenous phenylephrine (PE), and elevated Pa while pacing at sinus heart rate (PE + sHR). We derived rate pressure product (RPP = systolic Pa × HR), baseline microvascular resistance (BMR = Pd/velocity), and stenosis resistance [BSR = (Pa - Pd)/velocity] as well as whole-cycle Pd/Pa. Tachycardia (120 ± 1 bpm) raised RPP by 74% vs. Accordingly, BMR decreased by 27% (p < 0.01) and velocity increased by 36% (p < 0.05), while Pd/Pa decreased by 0.05 ± 0.02 (p < 0.05) and BSR remained similar to control. Raising Pa to 121 ± 3 mmHg (PE) with concomitant reflex bradycardia increased BMR by 26% (p < 0.001) at essentially unchanged RPP and velocity. Consequently, BSR and Pd/Pa were only marginally affected. During PE + sHR, velocity increased by 21% (p < 0.01) attributable to a 46% higher RPP (p < 0.001). However, BMR, BSR, and Pd/Pa remained statistically unaffected. Nonetheless, the interventions tended to increase functional stenosis severity, causing Pd/Pa and BSR of borderline lesions to cross the diagnostic threshold. In conclusion, coronary microvascular adaptation to physiological conditions affecting metabolic demand at rest influences intracoronary hemodynamics, which may lead to altered basal stenosis indices used for clinical decision-making.

  20. A Preoperative Assessment of Significant Coronary Stenosis Based on a Semiquantitative Analysis of Coronary Artery Calcification on Noncontrast Computed Tomography in Aortic Stenosis Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Won; Kim, Sung Mok; Park, Sung-Ji; Cho, Eun Jeong; Lee, Sans-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is the recommended assessment for coronary artery disease in patients undergoing elective aortic valve replacement (AVR). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating lung lesions and calcifications at the cannulation site of the ascending aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of noncontrast CT in the visual assessment of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients undergoing AVR. We retrospectively identified patients with significant aortic stenosis (AS) who were referred for AVR between January 2006 and December 2013. Among these, we included 386 patients (53.6% males, 69.2 ± 8.4 years) who underwent both noncontrast CT and ICA. Significant coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in the ICA was defined as luminal stenosis ≥70%. The 4 main coronary arteries were visually assessed on noncontrast CT and were scored based on the Weston score as follows: 0, no visually detected calcium; 1, a single high-density pixel detected; 3, calcium was dense enough to create a blooming artifact; and 2, calcium in between 1 and 3. Four groups were reclassified by the sum of the Weston scores from each vessel, as follows: noncalcification (0); mild calcification (1–4); moderate calcification (5–8); and severe calcification (9–12). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was generated to identify the cutoff Weston score values for predicting significant CAS. Diagnostic estimates were calculated based on these cutoffs. In the ICA analysis, 62 of the 386 patients (16.1%) had significant CAS. All patients were divided into 4 groups. The noncalcification group had 97 subjects (Weston score 0), the mild degree group had 100 (2.6 ± 1.0), the moderate calcification group had 114 (6.6 ± 1.1), and the severe calcification group had 75 (10.7 ± 1.1). The prevalence of significant CAS in the noncalcification, mild, moderate, and severe groups was 1% (1/97), 5% (5/100), 24% (27

  1. Recurrent discrete subaortic stenosis and small aortic annulus successfully repaired by the Konno procedure in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Ichiro; Ueda, Toshihiko; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Taguchi, Shinichi; Inoue, Yoshito; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2006-10-01

    A 24-year-old woman who had undergone excision of the membrane for discrete subaortic stenosis when 6 years old displayed recurrent subaortic stenosis and had a small aortic annulus, with a peak pressure gradient of 60mmHg. We chose to perform the Konno operation with a mechanical valve. This released the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction adequately, and she recovered uneventfully with New York Heart Association functional class I. In our experience, an aggressive strategy such as myectomy is an appropriate initial procedure for preventing recurrence when the geometry of the problem may lead to recurrence in the left ventricular outflow tract. The Konno operation is a good option for recurrent subaortic stenosis with small aortic annulus.

  2. Aortic root, not valve, calcification correlates with coronary artery calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis: A two-center study.

    PubMed

    Henein, Michael; Hällgren, Peter; Holmgren, Anders; Sörensen, Karen; Ibrahimi, Pranvera; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Hassager, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The underlying pathology in aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) is similar including atherosclerosis and calcification. We hypothesize that coronary artery calcification (CAC) is likely to correlate with aortic root calcification (ARC) rather than with aortic valve calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue. We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector cardiac CT preoperatively. CAC, AVC and ARC were quantified using Agatston scoring. Correlations were tested by Spearman's test and Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing different subgroups; bicuspid (BAV) vs tricuspid (TAV) aortic valve. CAC was present in 92%, AVC in 100% and ARC in 82% of patients. CAC correlated with ARC (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001) but not with AVC. The number of calcified coronary arteries correlated with ARC (rho = 0.45, p < 0.001) but not with AVC. 29/152 patients had echocardiographic evidence of BAV and 123 TAV, who were older (p < 0.001) but CAC was associated with TAV even after adjusting for age (p = 0.01). AVC score was associated with BAV after adjusting for age (p = 0.03) but ARC was not. Of the total cohort, 82 patients (39%) had significant coronary stenosis (>50%), but these were not different in the pattern of calcification from those without CAS. CAC was consistently higher in patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis compared to those without. The observed relationship between coronary and aortic root calcification suggests a diffuse arterial disease. The lack of relationship between coronary and aortic valve calcification suggests a different pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress echocardiography to assess stenosis severity and predict outcome in patients with paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis and preserved LVEF.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Dumesnil, Jean G; Capoulade, Romain; Hachicha, Zeineb; Mathieu, Patrick; Bellouin, Annaïk; Bergeron, Sébastien; Meimoun, Patrick; Arsenault, Marie; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Pasquet, Agnès; Couture, Christian; Pibarot, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the value of stress-echocardiography in patients with paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient (PLFLG) aortic stenosis (AS). The projected aortic valve area (AVAProj) at a normal flow rate was calculated in 55 patients with PLFLG AS. In the subset of patients (n = 13) who underwent an aortic valve replacement within 3 months after stress echocardiography, AVA(Proj) correlated better with the valve weight compared to traditional resting and stress echocardiographic parameters of AS severity (AVA(Proj): r = -0.78 vs. other parameters: r = 0.46 to 0.56). In the whole group (N = 55), 18 (33%) patients had an AVA(Proj) >1.0 cm(2), being consistent with the presence of pseudo severe AS. The AVA(Proj) was also superior to traditional parameters of stenosis severity for predicting outcomes (hazard ratio: 1.32/0.1 cm(2) decrease in AVA(Proj)). In patients with PLFLG AS, the measurement of AVA(proj) derived from stress echocardiography is helpful to determine the actual severity of the stenosis and predict risk of adverse events. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of 1-Year Outcome in Patients With Severe Aorta Stenosis Treated Conservatively or by Aortic Valve Replacement or by Percutaneous Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (Data from a Multicenter Spanish Registry).

    PubMed

    González-Saldivar, Hugo; Rodriguez-Pascual, Carlos; de la Morena, Gonzalo; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Amorós, Carmen; Alonso, Mario Baquero; Dolz, Luis Martínez; Solé, Albert Ariza; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Jiménez, Antonio Arribas; Fuentes, María Eugenia; Gay, Laura Galian; Ortiz, Martin Ruiz; Avanzas, Pablo; Abu-Assi, Emad; Ripoll-Vera, Tomás; Díaz-Castro, Oscar; Osinalde, Eduardo P; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel

    2016-07-15

    The factors that influence decision making in severe aortic stenosis (AS) are unknown. Our aim was to assess, in patients with severe AS, the determinants of management and prognosis in a multicenter registry that enrolled all consecutive adults with severe AS during a 1-month period. One-year follow-up was obtained in all patients and included vital status and aortic valve intervention (aortic valve replacement [AVR] and transcatheter aortic valve implantation [TAVI]). A total of 726 patients were included, mean age was 77.3 ± 10.6 years, and 377 were women (51.8%). The most common management was conservative therapy in 468 (64.5%) followed by AVR in 199 (27.4%) and TAVI in 59 (8.1%). The strongest association with aortic valve intervention was patient management in a tertiary hospital with cardiac surgery (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 4.1, p <0.001). The 2 main reasons to choose conservative management were the absence of significant symptoms (136% to 29.1%) and the presence of co-morbidity (128% to 27.4%). During 1-year follow-up, 132 patients died (18.2%). The main causes of death were heart failure (60% to 45.5%) and noncardiac diseases (46% to 34.9%). One-year survival for patients treated conservatively, with TAVI, and with AVR was 76.3%, 94.9%, and 92.5%, respectively, p <0.001. One-year survival of patients treated conservatively in the absence of significant symptoms was 97.1%. In conclusion, most patients with severe AS are treated conservatively. The outcome in asymptomatic patients managed conservatively was acceptable. Management in tertiary hospitals is associated with valve intervention. One-year survival was similar with both interventional strategies.

  5. Mast Cells Might Have a Protective Role against the Development of Calcification and Hyalinisation in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, A; Petrovič, D; Zorc, M; Vraspir Porenta, O; Arko, M; Pleskovič, A; Alibegovic, A; Zorc-Pleskovic, R

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is characterized by inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of mast cells on the occurrence of histopathological changes of aortic valves in patients with severe grade, non-rheumatic degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Valve specimens were obtained from 38 patients undergoing valve replacement. The role of mast cells was analysed by dividing the specimens into two groups, characterized by the presence (group A, N = 13) or absence of mast cells (group B, N = 25). There were no significant differences in clinical data between the two groups. In group A, T cells and macrophages were present in all aortic valves, as compared to a significantly lower proportion of valves with T cells and macrophages in group B. Valves in group A were less often calcified and hyaline-degenerated than valves in group B. There were no changes in fibrosis between the two groups. We found a positive correlation between the presence of mast cells and macrophages/T cells, a negative correlation between the presence of mast cells and calcification/ hyaline degeneration, and no correlation between the presence of mast cells and fibrosis. There was also a negative correlation between the presence of macrophages/T cells and calcification. The linear regression model identified only the presence of mast cells as an independent negative prediction value for calcification. In conclusion, mast cells might have a protective role against the development of calcification and hyaline degeneration in severe grade, non-rheumatic aortic valve stenosis.

  6. Values of osteoprotegerin in aortic valve tissue in patients with significant aortic stenosis depend on the existence of concomitant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fojt, Richard; Pirk, Jan; Kamenický, Peter; Karpíšek, Michal; Straka, Zbyněk; Malý, Marek; Moťovská, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a serious clinical problem. The strongest predictor of CAVS progression is the amount of calcium in the aortic valve. The pathogenesis of CAVS is largely consistent with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, about 50% of patients with CAVS do not exhibit significant atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular calcification is currently considered an actively regulated process, in which the important role is attributed to the RANKL/RANK/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/RANK/osteoprotegerin) axis. We measured OPG levels in the tissue of calcified, stenotic aortic valves in relation to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Aortic valve samples were collected from 105 patients with calcified, mainly severe aortic stenosis, who were divided into two groups according to the presence of CAD. In Group A (n=44), there were normal coronary artery findings, while in Group B (n=61), there was angiographically demonstrated >50% stenosis of at least one coronary artery. The control Group C (n=21) consisted of patients without aortic stenosis and with normal angiographic findings on coronary arteries. The highest tissue concentrations of OPG [median (pmol/L), 25th-75th percentile] were found in Group A [6.95, 3.96-18.37], which was significantly different compared to the other two groups (P=.026 and .001, respectively). The levels of OPG in Group B [4.15, 2.47-9.16] and in Group C [2.25, 1.01-5.08] did not differ significantly (P=.078); however, the lowest concentrations of OPG were found in Group C. Neither age nor gender in our study had effect on tissue levels of OPG (P=.994 for gender; P=.848 for age). Calcified and narrowed aortic valves, compared to the normal valves, were accompanied by a change in tissue concentrations of OPG, which is, in addition, dependent on the presence or absence of CAD. The highest tissue concentrations of OPG in our work were found in patients with significant aortic

  7. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using a self-expanding bioprosthesis in patients with severe aortic stenosis at extreme risk for surgery.

    PubMed

    Popma, Jeffrey J; Adams, David H; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Kleiman, Neal S; Heimansohn, David; Hermiller, James; Hughes, G Chad; Harrison, J Kevin; Coselli, Joseph; Diez, Jose; Kafi, Ali; Schreiber, Theodore; Gleason, Thomas G; Conte, John; Buchbinder, Maurice; Deeb, G Michael; Carabello, Blasé; Serruys, Patrick W; Chenoweth, Sharla; Oh, Jae K

    2014-05-20

    This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the CoreValve transcatheter heart valve (THV) for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at extreme risk for surgery. Untreated severe aortic stenosis is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is a potentially effective therapy. We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized investigation evaluating the safety and efficacy of self-expanding TAVR in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis with prohibitive risks for surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 12 months, which was compared with a pre-specified objective performance goal (OPG). A total of 41 sites in the United States recruited 506 patients, of whom 489 underwent attempted treatment with the CoreValve THV. The rate of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 12 months was 26.0% (upper 2-sided 95% confidence bound: 29.9%) versus 43.0% with the OPG (p < 0.0001). Individual 30-day and 12-month events included all-cause mortality (8.4% and 24.3%, respectively) and major stroke (2.3% and 4.3%, respectively). Procedural events at 30 days included life-threatening/disabling bleeding (12.7%), major vascular complications (8.2%), and need for permanent pacemaker placement (21.6%). The frequency of moderate or severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation was lower 12 months after self-expanding TAVR (4.2%) than at discharge (10.7%; p = 0.004 for paired analysis). TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis was safe and effective in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at prohibitive risk for surgical valve replacement. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve System in the Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis in High Risk and Very High Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement; NCT01240902). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  8. Experimental Animal Models Evaluating the Causal Role of Lipoprotein(a) in Atherosclerosis and Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yeang, Calvin; Cotter, Bruno; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], comprised of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and a low-density lipoprotein-like particle, is a genetically determined, causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp(a) is the major plasma lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids, is pro-inflammatory, inhibits plasminogen activation, and promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation, as defined mostly through in vitro studies. Although Lp(a) is not expressed in commonly studied laboratory animals, mouse and rabbit models transgenic for Lp(a) and apo(a) have been developed to address their pathogenicity in vivo. These models have provided significant insights into the pathophysiology of Lp(a), particularly in understanding the mechanisms of Lp(a) in mediating atherosclerosis. Studies in Lp(a)-transgenic mouse models have demonstrated that apo(a) is retained in atheromas and suggest that it promotes fatty streak formation. Furthermore, rabbit models have shown that Lp(a) promotes atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, many of these models have limitations. Mouse models need to be transgenic for both apo(a) and human apolipoprotein B-100 since apo(a) does not covalently associated with mouse apoB to form Lp(a). In established mouse and rabbit models of atherosclerosis, Lp(a) levels are low, generally < 20 mg/dL, which is considered to be within the normal range in humans. Furthermore, only one apo(a) isoform can be expressed in a given model whereas over 40 isoforms exist in humans. Mouse models should also ideally be studied in an LDL receptor negative background for atherosclerosis studies, as mice don't develop sufficiently elevated plasma cholesterol to study atherosclerosis in detail. With recent data that cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis is causally mediated by the LPA gene, development of optimized Lp(a)-transgenic animal models will provide an opportunity to further understand the mechanistic role of Lp(a) in

  9. Balloon valvuloplasty as destination therapy in elderly with severe aortic stenosis: a cardiac catheterization study

    PubMed Central

    Kamperidis, Vasileios; Hadjimiltiades, Stavros; Ziakas, Antonios; Sianos, Georgios; Kazinakis, Georgios; Giannakoulas, George; Mouratoglou, Sophia-Anastasia; Sarafidou, Athanasia; Ventoulis, Ioannis; Efthimiadis, Georgios K; Parcharidis, Georgios; Karvounis, Haralambos

    2015-01-01

    Background In the current era of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, there is renewed interest in balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) and invasive hemodynamic evaluation of aortic stenosis (AS). The current report aimed to study the invasive hemodynamics of severe AS patients treated with BAV as destination therapy and to identify factors associated with better hemodynamic outcome and prognosis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 63 high risk elderly patients were treated with BAV as destination therapy for symptomatic severe AS and were all prospectively included in the study. Their hemodynamics were invasively evaluated during catheterization, pre- and post-BAV at the same session. All Post-BAV patients were regularly followed-up. Results The patients (82 ± 6 years, 52% male) had post-BAV aortic valve area index (AVAi) significantly increased and mean pressure gradient (MPG) significantly reduced. During the follow-up of 0.9 (maximum 3.3) years, those with post-BAV AVAi < 0.6 cm2/m2 compared with the AVAi ≥ 0.6 cm2/m2 group had significantly higher mortality (60% vs. 28%, log-rank P = 0.02), even after adjusting for age, gender, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and EuroSCORE [HR: 5.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62−19.20, P = 0.006]. The only independent predictor of moderate AS post-BAV was the pre-BAV AVAi increase by 0.1cm2/m2 (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.33−10.89, P = 0.01). Pre-BAV AVAi ≥ 0.39 cm2/m2 could predict with sensitivity 84% and specificity 70% the post-BAV hemodynamic outcome. Conclusions BAV as destination therapy for severe AS offered immediate and significant hemodynamic improvement. The survival was significantly better when a moderate degree of AS was present. PMID:26089844

  10. Fetal critical aortic stenosis with natural improvement of hydrops fetalis due to spontaneous relief of severe restrictive atrial communication.

    PubMed

    Ide, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Takekazu; Kitano, Masataka; Kurosaki, Ken-ichi; Yoshimatsu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    We describe a rare case of fetal critical aortic stenosis with spontaneous relief of severe restrictive atrial communication, resulting in complete resolution of hydrops fetalis in utero. Fetal ultrasonography showed hydrops fetalis caused by critical aortic stenosis with a severely restrictive foramen ovale and severe mitral regurgitation at 23 weeks of gestation. Hydrops fetalis, however, spontaneously resolved, showing an obvious increase of flow through the foramen ovale and pulmonary vein at 26 weeks of gestation. The neonate required balloon dilation of the aortic valve and balloon atrioseptostomy immediately after birth and also received bilateral pulmonary artery banding and arterial duct stenting 1 week later. The patient was in good condition after conversion to biventricular circulation via Ross procedure at 8 months old. The present case suggests that atrioseptostomy as a fetal intervention may improve outcome in even a hydropic condition.

  11. Quantification of Aortic Valve Calcifications Detected During Lung Cancer-Screening CT Helps Stratify Subjects Necessitating Echocardiography for Aortic Stenosis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Young; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Myung Jin; Cho, Hyoun; Jung, Jung Im; Jang, Hye Won; Jung, Sin-Ho; Goo, Juna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No study has been published on aortic valve calcification (AVC) extent at lung cancer screening low-dose CT (LDCT) and its relationship with aortic stenosis (AS). The purpose of this study was to estimate the cutoff value of AVC on LDCT for detecting AS in asymptomatic Asian subjects. Six thousand three hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age, 55.9 years ± 8.6) self-referred to health-promotion center underwent LDCT, coronary calcium scoring CT (CSCT), and echocardiography. AVC was quantified using Agatston methods on CT. AVC extent on LDCT was compared with that on CSCT, and AVC threshold for diagnosing AS was calculated. Clinical factors associated with AS and AVC were sought. AVC was observed in 403 subjects (64.9 years ± 8.7) on LDCT (6.4%), and AVC score measured from LDCT showed strong positive correlation with that from CSCT (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001). Of 403 subjects, 40 (10%) were identified to have AS on echocardiography. Cutoff value of AVC score for detecting AS was 138.37 with sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity 83.2%. On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.09–1.12) and hypertension (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76) were associated with the presence of AVC, whereas AVC extent at LDCT (OR = 104.32, 95% CI: 16.16–673.70) was the only significant clinical factor associated with AS; AVC extent on LDCT (OR = 104.32, 95% CI: 16.16–673.70) was the significant clinical factor associated with AS. The AVC extent on LDCT is significantly related to the presence of AS, and we recommend echocardiography for screening AS based on quantified AVC values on LDCT. PMID:27175713

  12. Validation of the Valve Academic Research Consortium Bleeding Definition in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G; Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Praz, Fabien; Luterbacher, Fabienne; Piccolo, Raffaele; Khattab, Ahmed A; Räber, Lorenz; Langhammer, Bettina; Huber, Christoph; Meier, Bernhard; Jüni, Peter; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-09-25

    The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) has proposed a standardized definition of bleeding in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve interventions (TAVI). The VARC bleeding definition has not been validated or compared to other established bleeding definitions so far. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of bleeding and compare the predictivity of VARC bleeding events with established bleeding definitions. Between August 2007 and April 2012, 489 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis were included into the Bern-TAVI-Registry. Every bleeding complication was adjudicated according to the definitions of VARC, BARC, TIMI, and GUSTO. Periprocedural blood loss was added to the definition of VARC, providing a modified VARC definition. A total of 152 bleeding events were observed during the index hospitalization. Bleeding severity according to VARC was associated with a gradual increase in mortality, which was comparable to the BARC, TIMI, GUSTO, and the modified VARC classifications. The predictive precision of a multivariable model for mortality at 30 days was significantly improved by adding the most serious bleeding of VARC (area under the curve [AUC], 0.773; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.706 to 0.839), BARC (AUC, 0.776; 95% CI, 0.694 to 0.857), TIMI (AUC, 0.768; 95% CI, 0.692 to 0.844), and GUSTO (AUC, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.714 to 0.869), with the modified VARC definition resulting in the best predictivity (AUC, 0.814; 95% CI, 0.759 to 0.870). The VARC bleeding definition offers a severity stratification that is associated with a gradual increase in mortality and prognostic information comparable to established bleeding definitions. Adding the information of periprocedural blood loss to VARC may increase the sensitivity and the predictive power of this classification. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Quality-of-life in elderly patients one year after transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ussia, Gian Paolo; Barbanti, Marco; Cammalleri, Valeria; Scarabelli, Marilena; Mulè, Massimiliano; Aruta, Patrizia; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Immè, Sebastiano; Capodanno, Davide; Sarkar, Kunal; Gulino, Simona; Tamburino, Corrado

    2011-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging alternative to medical therapy reserved to a limited population with severe aortic stenosis. Quality-of-life (QoL) is a critical measure of effectiveness of TAVI in this patient population. In this prospective study, we sought to assess one year changes in QoL in patients who underwent TAVI. From June 2007 to July 2010, 149 consecutive patients underwent TAVI using the 18 Fr CoreValve (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) or the Edwards SAPIEN XT heart valve (Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA, USA) at our institution. Of these, 143 patients with successful prosthesis implantation comprised the study population. The SF-12v2 Health-Survey questionnaire provides scales for physical (physical component summary [PCS]) and mental (mental component summary [MCS]) health. Among patients included in the present analysis, device success was obtained in 138 patients (96.5%). Mean preprocedural SF-12v2 scores showed an important upgrading after TAVI: PCS improved from 28.3 to 44.0 at five months and 42.4 at 12 months (p<0.001). MCS increased from 38.0 to 47.3 at five months and 48.2 at 12 months (p<0.001). Both the physical and mental score summaries at follow-up of these post-TAVI patients were not significantly different from the anticipated thresholds of the general Italian population over the age of 75 years. NYHA functional class improvement was reported in all patients. Our results showed a marked mid-term improvement in functional status and physical and mental health in patients who underwent TAVI.

  14. Protective Effect of Aortic Stenosis on the Coronary Arteries. Hypothetic Considerations to an Old Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Arcêncio, Livia; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Schmidt, André

    2016-01-01

    A literature overview of angiographic studies has shown that the prevalence of significant coronary disease in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) varies from 20 to 60%. Early necropsy studies suggested that patients with AS had a lower than expected incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), originating the concept of a protective effect of AS on the coronary arteries. The myth of AS protection against CAD would be better explained as endothelium-myocardial interaction (crosstalk) protection triggered by left ventricular overload. Therefore, the cGMP/NO pathway induced by the AS overload pressure would explain the low incidence of CAD, which is compatible with the amazing natural long-term evolution of this cardiac valve disease. PMID:27142794

  15. [Angiodysplasia of the right colon and aortic stenosis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, G; De Domenico, C; Battaglia, E; Bordignon, E; Asmundo, G O; Zingali, C; Longhitano, A; Cuscunà, S; Gurgone, E; Vigo, G; Ossino, A M; Di Mauro, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the case of a female patient who came to our observation for a severe enterorrhage. Following colonoscopic examination and color-Doppler M-B Mode echocardiography we made the following diagnosis: "angiodysplasia of the right colon in females with aortic stenosis". It was possible to ascertain whether there were similar lesions in other parts of the gastro-intestinal tract because the patient opposed firmly. In agreement with other authors, we believe that colonoscopic examination is the appropriate method to diagnose gastro-intestinal angiodysplasia. The advanced age and the clinical conditions of the patient did not allow surgical treatment, so we treated her with antihaemorrhagic drugs and elevated doses of ascorbic acid (4 g/die). The disappearance of enterorrhagies, the rapid clinical recovery and the normalization of red blood cell (RBC) count allowed us to discontinue antihaemorrhagic treatment and to continue the administration of elevated doses of ascorbic acid. Eight days later, the patient was discharged in good clinical condition and ascorbic acid was prescribed to be continued at home. A good clinical and haemodynamic balance was observed at the six-month follow-up. In conclusion we think that the clinical case we observed, characterized by the association angiodysplasia of the right colon-aortic stenosis, may be included in the diction Heyde's syndrome. In aging patients with severe concomitant diseases, ineligible for surgical interventions, the enterorrhage caused by a non complicated angiodysplastic lesion of the gastro-intestinal tract may benefit from the acute administration of ascorbic acid as the therapeutic agent of first choice capable to loose and/or stop the haemorragic complication and, in chronic administration, to reduce the number of relapses.

  16. Visceral adiposity and left ventricular mass and function in patients with aortic stenosis: the PROGRESSA study.

    PubMed

    Capoulade, Romain; Larose, Eric; Mathieu, Patrick; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Dahou, Abdellaziz; Arsenault, Marie; Bédard, Elisabeth; Larue-Grondin, Samuel; Le Ven, Florent; Dumesnil, Jean G; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have reported that obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes are associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and dysfunction in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount and distribution of body fat and LVH and systolic dysfunction in AS patients. One hundred twenty-four patients with AS were prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA (Metabolic Determinants of the Progression of Aortic Stenosis) study and underwent Doppler echocardiography and computed tomography scan. Presence and severity of LVH was assessed according to LV mass indexed for height(2.7) and LV dysfunction according to global longitudinal strain (GLS). Computed tomography was used to quantify abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue (TAT). Body mass index (BMI) correlated strongly with TAT (r = 0.85), moderately with VAT (r = 0.70), and SAT (r = 0.69), and weakly with the proportion of VAT (VAT/TAT ratio: r = 0.19). In univariate analysis, greater BMI, TAT, VAT, SAT, and VAT/TAT were associated with increased LV mass index and greater VAT and VAT/TAT ratio were associated with reduced GLS. Multivariate analysis revealed that larger BMI (P < 0.0001) and greater VAT/TAT ratio (P = 0.01) were independently associated with higher prevalence of LVH, and only the VAT/TAT ratio (P = 0.03) was independently associated with reduced GLS. The results of this study suggest that total and visceral adiposity are independently associated with LVH in patients with AS. Furthermore, impairment of LV systolic function does not appear to be influenced by total obesity but is rather related to excess visceral adiposity. These findings provide impetus for elaboration of interventional studies aiming at visceral adiposity in the AS population. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coronary Physiology During Exercise and Vasodilation in the Healthy Heart and in Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Matthew; Williams, Rupert; Asrress, Kaleab N; Arri, Satpal; Briceno, Natalia; Ellis, Howard; Rajani, Ronak; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J; Clapp, Brian; Redwood, Simon R; Marber, Michael S; Chambers, John B; Perera, Divaka

    2016-08-16

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) can manifest as exertional angina even in the presence of unobstructed coronary arteries. The authors describe coronary physiological changes during exercise and hyperemia in the healthy heart and in patients with severe AS. Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and flow velocity recordings were made in unobstructed coronary arteries of 22 patients with severe AS (mean effective orifice area 0.7 cm(2)) and 38 controls, at rest, during supine bicycle exercise, and during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography was performed to estimate myocardial work. Wave intensity analysis was used to quantify waves that accelerate and decelerate coronary blood flow (CBF). Despite a greater myocardial workload in AS patients compared with controls at rest (12,721 vs. 9,707 mm Hg/min(-1); p = 0.003) and during exercise (27,467 vs. 20,841 mm Hg/min(-1); p = 0.02), CBF was similar in both groups. Hyperemic CBF was less in AS compared with controls (2,170 vs. 2,716 cm/min(-1); p = 0.05). Diastolic time fraction was greater in AS compared with controls, but minimum microvascular resistance was similar. With exercise and hyperemia, efficiency of perfusion improved in the healthy heart, demonstrated by an increase in the relative contribution of accelerating waves. By contrast, in AS, perfusion efficiency decreased due to augmentation of early systolic deceleration and an attenuated rise in systolic acceleration waves. Invasive coronary physiological evaluation can be safely performed during exercise and hyperemia in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Ischemia in AS is not related to microvascular disease; rather, it is driven by abnormal cardiac-coronary coupling. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of serum high density lipoprotein levels and functions in calcific aortic valve stenosis progression.

    PubMed

    Olgun Küçük, Hilal; Küçük, Uğur; Demirtaş, Canan; Özdemir, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data well defines the role of atherosclerotic risk factors in pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. Especially dyslipidemia with elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels exerts certain histopathological changes on calcified valve tissue. Exact role of HDL in this process is not known. To evaluate the lipid profiles of patients with mild aortic valve stenosis with special focus on HDL; HDL subspecies, serum apoA1 levels, HDL related PON1 and PAF-AH enzyme activities and to correlate this with disease progression rates. 42 patients (26 female; 16 male), with calcific aortic valve stenosis were enrolled in the study. Serum fasting lipid parameters, HDL subspecies (HDL2, HDL3), serum apoA1 levels and HDL related PON1 and PAF-AH enzyme activities were determined. All participants underwent detailed follow-up transthoracic echocardiography examination. Among 42 study participants mean serum total cholesterol level was 195 ± 27.3 mg/dl, LDL-c level was 123 ± 19.1 mg/dl, HDL-c level was 44 ± 10.3 mg/dl and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio was 4.64 ± 1.13. Basal peak aortic jet velocity (Vmax2) was 2.67 ± 0.39 m/sec, mean pressure gradient (Pmean2) was 15.6 ± 5.5 mmhg. Annual progression rate in peak aortic jet velocity (Vmax) was 0.23 ± 0.17 m/sec, in mean pressure gradient (Pmean) was 3 ± 2.1 mmhg. Annual progression rate in Pmean was most strongly correlated with serum HDL-c level and total/HDL-c ratio (r=-0.528 and 0.505; <0.001 and 0.001 respectively). Progression in Vmax values was positively correlated with serum LDL-c level and total/HDL-c ratio while negatively correlated with serum HDL-c levels (r=0.328, 0.499 and -0.464; P=0.034, 0.001 and 0.002 respectively). Among HDL subspecies HDL2 was the predominant type. HDL2 levels were found to be positively correlated with progression rates. There was no significant correlation between apolipoprotein A1 level and annual progression rate. Serum PON1 activity level was determined to be

  19. Aortic valve surgery and survival in patients with moderate or severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Vora, Amit N; Dunning, Allison; Schulte, Phillip J; Shaw, Linda K; Al-Enezi, Fawaz; Ersboll, Mads; McGarrah, Robert W; Vavalle, John P; Shah, Svati H; Kisslo, Joseph; Glower, Donald; Harrison, J Kevin; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-07-21

    We aimed to determine the frequency of aortic valve surgery (AVR) with or without coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), among patients with moderate/severe aortic stenosis (AS) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), and its relationship with survival. The Duke Echocardiographic Database (N = 132 804) was queried for patients with mean gradient ≥25 mmHg and/or peak velocity ≥3 m/s and LVSD (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%) from 1 January 1995-28 February 2014. For analyses purposes, AS was defined both by mean gradient and calculated aortic valve area (AVA) criteria. Time-dependent indicators of AVR in multivariable Cox models were used to assess the relationship of AVR and all-cause mortality. A total of 1634 patients had moderate (N = 1090, 67%) or severe (N = 544, 33%) AS by mean gradient criteria. Overall, 287 (26%) patients with moderate AS and 263 (48%) patients with severe AS underwent AVR within 5 years of the qualifying echo. There were 863 (53%) deaths observed up to 5 years following index echo. After multivariable adjustment in an inverse probability weighted regression model, AVR was associated with higher 5-year survival amongst patients with moderate AS and severe AS whether classified by AVA or mean gradient criteria. Over all, AVR ± CABG compared with medical therapy was associated with significantly lower mortality [hazard ratio, HR = 0.49 (0.38, 0.62), P < 0.0001]. Compared with CABG alone, CABG + AVR was associated with better survival [HR = 0.18 (0.12, 0.27), P < 0.0001]. In patients with moderate/severe AS and LVSD, mortality is substantial and amongst those selected for surgery, AVR with or without CABG is associated with higher survival. Research is required to understand factors contributing to current practice patterns and the possible utility of transcatheter approaches in this high-risk cohort. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions

  20. [Anesthesia for total and descending aorta replacement and aortic valve replacement for post-repair aneurysm of coarctation of aorta and aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Yuko; Shimizu, Jun; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2012-04-01

    We experienced anesthesia for total arch and descending aorta replacement and aortic valve replacement for post-repair aneurysm of coarctation of aorta and aortic stenosis. Because there was possibility that post coarctectomy syndrome would occur after repair of coarctation of aorta, administration of depressor that acts on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and careful observation were needed postoperatively. In consideration of the development of collateral vessels, preoperative imaging evaluation was added and operative method in cardiopulmonary bypass was adjusted. Careful preoperative evaluation is very important in cardiac anesthesia.

  1. Does body mass index affect outcomes for aortic valve replacement surgery for aortic stenosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Herbert, Morley A; Dewey, Todd M; Brinkman, William T; Prince, Syma L; Ryan, William H; Mack, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide healthcare concern, and its association with several chronic diseases is well documented. However, the effect obesity may have on the acute care delivery is not well understood, and in cardiac surgery, reports are conflicting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of obesity in an isolated aortic valve replacement population. The hypothesis is that increasing body mass index (BMI) will portend worse long-term outcomes and greater short-term resource utilization secondary to perioperative complications but will not affect perioperative mortality. Data were collected on 1,066 patients undergoing isolated AVR between January 2000 and December 2010. All definitions follow The Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. Body mass indexes were calculated and used both as a continuous independent variable and to categorize patients into three BMI groups. Long-term mortality follow-up was by Social Security Death Index search. Standard bivariate and multivariate comparisons were performed with hierarchical models used for odds ratios. When controlling for standard covariates that negatively impact outcome (sex, age, renal failure needing dialysis, diabetes mellitus, and current smoker), BMI was not predictive for either operative mortality or a composite morbidity-mortality outcome. When divided into three equal-sized groups, there was again no statistical difference among groups for mortality or for the composite variable. Separate analyses for females and males yielded the same lack of correlation. Long-term follow-up out to 12 years shows that the low BMI group has statistically worse survival than the moderate or high BMI groups. Increasing BMI has no independent association with worsened outcomes in the short or long term, and overweight patients have a survival benefit after surgery. Patients who are at the lower end of the BMI scale, however, are at increased risk for poor long-term survival. Copyright © 2012 The Society of

  2. The Homeostatic Chemokine CCL21 Predicts Mortality in Aortic Stenosis Patients and Modulates Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Finsen, Alexandra Vanessa; Ueland, Thor; Sjaastad, Ivar; Ranheim, Trine; Ahmed, Mohammed S.; Dahl, Christen P.; Askevold, Erik T.; Aakhus, Svend; Husberg, Cathrine; Fiane, Arnt E.; Lipp, Martin; Gullestad, Lars; Christensen, Geir; Aukrust, Pål; Yndestad, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Background CCL21 acting through CCR7, is termed a homeostatic chemokine. Based on its role in concerting immunological responses and its proposed involvement in tissue remodeling, we hypothesized that this chemokine could play a role in myocardial remodeling during left ventricular (LV) pressure overload. Methods and Results Our main findings were: (i) Serum levels of CCL21 were markedly raised in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS, n = 136) as compared with healthy controls (n = 20). (ii) A CCL21 level in the highest tertile was independently associated with all-cause mortality in these patients. (iii) Immunostaining suggested the presence of CCR7 on macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts within calcified human aortic valves. (iv). Mice exposed to LV pressure overload showed enhanced myocardial expression of CCL21 and CCR7 mRNA, and increased CCL21 protein levels. (v) CCR7−/− mice subjected to three weeks of LV pressure overload had similar heart weights compared to wild type mice, but increased LV dilatation and reduced wall thickness. Conclusions Our studies, combining experiments in clinical and experimental LV pressure overload, suggest that CCL21/CCR7 interactions might be involved in the response to pressure overload secondary to AS. PMID:25398010

  3. Temporal relationship between instantaneous pressure gradients and peak-to-peak systolic ejection gradient in congenital aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Boe, Brian A; Norris, Mark D; Zampi, Jeffrey D; Rocchini, Albert P; Ensing, Gregory J

    2017-07-12

    We sought to identify a time during cardiac ejection when the instantaneous pressure gradient (IPG) correlated best, and near unity, with peak-to-peak systolic ejection gradient (PPSG) in patients with congenital aortic stenosis. Noninvasive echocardiographic measurement of IPG has limited correlation with cardiac catheterization measured PPSG across the spectrum of disease severity of congenital aortic stenosis. A major contributor is the observation that these measures are inherently different with a variable relationship dependent on the degree of stenosis. Hemodynamic data from cardiac catheterizations utilizing simultaneous pressure measurements from the left ventricle (LV) and ascending aorta (AAo) in patients with congenital valvar aortic stenosis was retrospectively reviewed over the past 5 years. The cardiac cycle was standardized for all patients using the percentage of total LV ejection time (ET). Instantaneous gradient at 5% intervals of ET were compared to PPSG using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. A total of 22 patients underwent catheterization at a median age of 13.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 10.3-18.0) and median weight of 51.1 kg (IQR 34.2-71.6). The PPSG was 46.5 ± 12.6 mm Hg (mean ± SD) and correlated suboptimally with the maximum and mean IPG. The midsystolic IPG (occurring at 50% of ET) had the strongest correlation with the PPSG ( PPSG = 0.97(IPG50%)-1.12, R(2)  = 0.88), while the IPG at 55% of ET was closest to unity ( PPSG = 0.997(IPG55%)-1.17, R(2)  = 0.87). The commonly measured maximum and mean IPG are suboptimal estimates of the PPSG in congenital aortic stenosis. Using catheter-based data, IPG at 50%-55% of ejection correlates well with PPSG. This may allow for a more accurate estimation of PPSG via noninvasive assessment of IPG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Myocardial blood flow in patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis: differences between true and pseudo-severe aortic stenosis. Results from the multicentre TOPAS (Truly or Pseudo-Severe Aortic Stenosis) study.

    PubMed

    Burwash, I G; Lortie, M; Pibarot, P; de Kemp, R A; Graf, S; Mundigler, G; Khorsand, A; Blais, C; Baumgartner, H; Dumesnil, J G; Hachicha, Z; DaSilva, J; Beanlands, R S B

    2008-12-01

    Impairment of myocardial flow reserve (MFR) in aortic stenosis (AS) with normal left ventricular function relates to the haemodynamic severity. To investigate whether myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MFR differ in low-flow, low-gradient AS depending on whether there is underlying true-severe AS (TSAS) or pseudo-severe AS (PSAS). In 36 patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS, dynamic [13N]ammonia PET perfusion imaging was performed at rest (n = 36) and during dipyridamole stress (n = 20) to quantify MBF and MFR. Dobutamine echocardiography was used to classify patients as TSAS (n = 18) or PSAS (n = 18) based on the indexed projected effective orifice area (EOA) at a normal flow rate of 250 ml/s (EOAI(proj )0.55 cm(2)/m(2)). Compared with healthy controls (n = 14), patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS had higher resting mean (SD) MBF (0.83 (0.21) vs 0.69 (0.09) ml/min/g, p = 0.001), reduced hyperaemic MBF (1.16 (0.31) vs 2.71 (0.50) ml/min/g, p<0.001) and impaired MFR (1.44 (0.44) vs 4.00 (0.91), p<0.001). Resting MBF and MFR correlated with indices of AS severity in low-flow, low-gradient AS with the strongest relationship observed for EOAI(proj) (r(s) = -0.50, p = 0.002 and r(s) = 0.61, p = 0.004, respectively). Compared with PSAS, TSAS had a trend to a higher resting MBF (0.90 (0.19) vs 0.77 (0.21) ml/min/g, p = 0.06), similar hyperaemic MBF (1.16 (0.31) vs 1.17 (0.32) ml/min/g, p = NS), but a significantly smaller MFR (1.19 (0.26) vs 1.76 (0.41), p = 0.003). An MFR <1.8 had an accuracy of 85% for distinguishing TSAS from PSAS. Low-flow, low-gradient AS is characterised by higher resting MBF and reduced MFR that relates to the AS severity. The degree of MFR impairment differs between TSAS and PSAS and may be of value for distinguishing these entities.

  5. Homocysteine and Its Relationship to Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis in a Chinese Community Population

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jiaokun; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Jing; Wu, Jianwei; Yan, Xiujuan; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Shengyun; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the association between homocysteine (Hcy) and asymptomatic CAS in the healthy population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS in a Chinese community population. The current study included 5393 participants who were age of 40 years or older, and free of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and coronary artery disease. Demographic and clinical variables were investigated, and the presence of CAS was assessed by Color Doppler Ultrasound. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS. 361 (6.69%) participants were diagnosed with asymptomatic CAS, who had higher Hcy levels compared with those without (p-value for trend = 0.0001). After adjusting other possible risk factors, Hcy > 19.3μmol/L was considered as an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.05–2.23; p-value for trend = 0.0265), but with a difference between participants with diabetes and without [OR (95%CI): 2.89(1.02–8.22) vs. 1.42(0.95–2.12); P interaction < 0.05]. In this large-population, community-based study, Hcy is an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS, especially in patients with diabetes. PMID:27869211

  6. Carbonic anhydrase XII in valve interstitial cells promotes the regression of calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bouchareb, Rihab; Côté, Nancy; Marie-Chloé-Boulanger; Le Quang, Khai; El Husseini, Diala; Asselin, Jérémie; Hadji, Fayez; Lachance, Dominic; Shayhidin, Elnur Elyar; Mahmut, Ablajan; Pibarot, Philippe; Bossé, Yohan; Messaddeq, Younes; Boudreau, Denis; Marette, André; Mathieu, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most common heart valve disease. In the present work we sought to determine the reversibility of mineralization in the aortic valve. By using in vitro analyses we found that valve interstitial cells (VICs) have the ability to resorb minerals. We documented that agonist of P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) promoted the expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) at the cell membrane of VICs, whereby minerals are resorbed. P2Y2R-mediated mineral resorption was corroborated by using mouse VICs isolated from wild type and P2Y2R(-/-) mice. Measurements of extracellular pH (pHe) by using core-shell nanosensors revealed that P2Y2R-mediated CAXII export to the cell membrane led to an acidification of extracellular space, whereby minerals are resorbed. In vivo, we next treated LDLR(-/-)/ApoB(100/100)/IGF2 mice, which had developed CAVS under a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 8 months, with 2-thioUTP (a P2Y2R agonist) or saline for the next 2 months. The administration of 2-thioUTP (2mg/kg/day i.p.) reduced the mineral volume in the aortic valve measured with serial microCT analyses, which improved hemodynamics and reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Examination of leaflets at necropsy confirmed a lower level of mineralization and fibrosis along with higher levels of CAXII in mice under 2-thioUTP. In another series of experiment, the administration of acetazolamide (a CA inhibitor) prevented the acidification of leaflets and the regression of CAVS induced by 2-thioUTP in LDLR(-/-)/ApoB(100/100)/IGF2 mice. P2Y2R-mediated expression of CAXII by VICs acidifies the extracellular space and promotes the regression of CAVS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Molecular Mechanism of Retrograde Aortic Arch Stenosis in the Hybrid Approach to Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, Narutoshi; Cismowski, Mary J.; Lilly, Brenda J.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Cheatham, John P.; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Galantowicz, Mark E.; Trask, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The hybrid palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) has emerged as an alternative approach to the Norwood procedure. The development of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in-stent stenosis can cause retrograde aortic arch stenosis (RAAS), leading to significant morbidity. This study aimed to identify potential mechanisms of PDA in-stent stenosis contributing to RAAS. METHODS Tissues from stented PDA were collected from 17 patients undergoing comprehensive stage 2 repair between 2009 and 2014. Patients requiring RAAS intervention based on cardiology–surgery consensus were defined as RAAS (+) (n=10), whereas patients without any RAAS intervention were defined as RAAS (−) (n=7). Tissues were examined by qPCR analysis for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation and proliferation markers. RESULTS Patient characteristics were: HLHS with aortic atresia: 6; HLHS with aortic stenosis: 3; unbalanced AVC: 3; DILV/TGA: 3; DORV: 2. VSMC differentiation markers (β–actin, SM22, and calponin) and signaling pathways for VSMC modulation (TGFβ1, Notch, and PDGF-BB) were significantly higher in the RAAS (+) than in RAAS (−). The proliferation marker Ki67 was increased in RAAS (+). Cell cycle markers were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION Increased VSMC differentiation and proliferation markers suggest a mechanism for inward neointima formation of the PDA in RAAS. The apparent lack of change in cell cycle markers is contrary to coronary artery in-stent stenosis, suggesting further targets should be examined. Combined primary in vitro PDA cell culture and proteomics can be strong tools to elucidate targets to reduce PDA in-stent stenosis for RAAS in the future. PMID:26163359

  8. Sex Differences in the Utilization and Outcomes of Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Zakeih; Badhwar, Vinay; Alqahtani, Fahad; Aljohani, Sami; Zack, Chad J; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Alkhouli, Mohamad

    2017-09-21

    Studies assessing the differential impact of sex on outcomes of aortic valve replacement (AVR) yielded conflicting results. We sought to investigate sex-related differences in AVR utilization, patient risk profile, and in-hospital outcomes using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. In total, 166 809 patients (63% male and 37% female) who underwent AVR between 2003 and 2014 were identified, and 48.5% had a concomitant cardiac surgery procedure. Compared with men, women were older and had more nonatherosclerotic comorbid conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and anemia but fewer incidences of coronary and peripheral arterial disease and prior sternotomies. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in women (5.6% versus 4%, P<0.001). Propensity matching was performed to assess the impact of sex on the outcomes of isolated AVR and yielded 28 237 matched pairs of male and female participants. In the propensity-matched groups, in-hospital mortality was higher in women (3.3% versus 2.9%, P<0.001). Along with vascular complications and blood transfusion (6% versus 5.6%, P=0.027 and 40.4% versus 33.9%, P<0.001, respectively). Rates of stroke, permanent pacemaker implantation, and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis were similar (2.4% versus 2.4%, P=0.99; 6% versus 6.3%, P=0.15; and 1.4% versus 1.3%, P=0.14, respectively). Length of stay median and interquartile range were both similar between groups (7±6 days). Rates of nonhome discharge were higher among women (27.9% versus 19.6%, P<0.001). Women have worse in-hospital mortality following AVR compared with men. Coupled with the accumulating evidence suggesting higher magnitude of benefit of transcatheter AVR over AVR in women, women should perhaps be offered transcatheter AVR over AVR at a lower threshold than men. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Secondary stroke prevention: patent foramen ovale, aortic plaque, and carotid stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Bernhard; Frank, Benedikt; Wahl, Andreas; Diener, Hans C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the most debilitating cardiovascular event. It has a variety of causes that may be present simultaneously. In young or otherwise healthy people, the search for a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has become standard. In stroke of the elderly, atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation are in the foreground but the PFO should not be ignored. The risk of a PFO-related stroke over time is controversial and so is its prevention by device closure. The association of proximal aortic plaques in arteries subtending the brain and stroke is considered strong, ignoring that it is as putative as that of the PFO. Statins can prevent progression of such plaques. Antiplatelet agents in asymptomatic and surgical endarterectomy in symptomatic patients or highly ulcerated lesions are the treatment of choice. Stenting with protection devices was shown competitive in selected patients. PMID:22422912

  10. Increased plant sterol deposition in vascular tissue characterizes patients with severe aortic stenosis and concomitant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luister, Alexandra; Schött, Hans Frieder; Husche, Constanze; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Böhm, Michael; Plat, Jogchum; Gräber, Stefan; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich; Weingärtner, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between phytosterols, oxyphytosterols, and other markers of cholesterol metabolism and concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with severe aortic stenosis who were scheduled for elective aortic valve replacement. Markers of cholesterol metabolism (plant sterols and cholestanol as markers of cholesterol absorption and lathosterol as an indicator of cholesterol synthesis) and oxyphytosterols were determined in plasma and aortic valve tissue from 104 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (n=68 statin treatment; n=36 no statin treatment) using gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry. The extent of CAD was determined by coronary angiography prior to aortic valve replacement. Patients treated with statins were characterized by lower plasma cholesterol, cholestanol, and lathosterol concentrations. However, statin treatment did not affect the sterol concentrations in cardiovascular tissue. The ratio of campesterol-to-cholesterol was increased by 0.46±0.34μg/mg (26.0%) in plasma of patients with CAD. The absolute values for the cholesterol absorption markers sitosterol and campesterol were increased by 18.18±11.59ng/mg (38.8%) and 11.40±8.69ng/mg (30.4%) in the tissues from patients with documented CAD compared to those without concomitant CAD. Campesterol oxides were increased by 0.06±0.02ng/mg (17.1%) in the aortic valve cusps and oxidized sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios were up-regulated by 0.35±0.2ng/mg (22.7%) in the plasma of patients with CAD. Of note, neither cholestanol nor the ratio of cholestanol-to-cholesterol was associated with CAD. Patients with concomitant CAD are characterized by increased deposition of plant sterols, but not cholestanol in aortic valve tissue. Moreover, patients with concomitant CAD were characterized by increased oxyphytosterol concentrations in plasma and aortic valve cusps.

  11. 18F-sodium fluoride uptake is a marker of active calcification and disease progression in patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Marc R; Jenkins, William S A; Vesey, Alex T; Pringle, Mark A H; Chin, Calvin W L; Malley, Tamir S; Cowie, William J A; Tsampasian, Vasiliki; Richardson, Hamish; Fletcher, Alison; Wallace, William A; Pessotto, Renzo; van Beek, Edwin J R; Boon, Nicholas A; Rudd, James H F; Newby, David E

    2014-03-01

    18F-Sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) are promising novel biomarkers of disease activity in aortic stenosis. We compared 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG uptake with histological characterization of the aortic valve and assessed whether they predicted disease progression. Thirty patients with aortic stenosis underwent combined positron emission and computed tomography using 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG radiotracers. In 12 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery (10 for each tracer), radiotracer uptake (mean tissue/ =0.65; P=0.04) and osteocalcin (r=0.68; P=0.03) immunohistochemistry. There was no significant correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and CD68 staining (r=-0.43; P=0.22). After 1 year, aortic valve calcification increased from 314 (193-540) to 365 (207-934) AU (P<0.01). Baseline 18F-NaF uptake correlated closely with the change in calcium score (r=0.66; P<0.01), and this improved further (r=0.75; P<0.01) when 18F-NaF uptake overlying computed tomography-defined macrocalcification was excluded. No significant correlation was noted between valvular 18F-FDG uptake and change in calcium score (r=-0.11; P=0.66). 18F-NaF uptake identifies active tissue calcification and predicts disease progression in patients with calcific aortic stenosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01358513.

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and large aortic annulus, using the self-expanding 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis: first clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Nijhoff, Freek; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Amrane, Hafid; Latib, Azeem; Testa, Luca; Oreglia, Jacopo A; De Marco, Federico; Samim, Mariam; Bedogni, Francesco; Maisano, Francesco; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Antonio; Van Boven, Ad J; Stella, Pieter R

    2014-08-01

    With the introduction of the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis, patients with large aortic annulus have become eligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and large aortic annulus. Five institutions in the Netherlands and Italy participated in a retrospective multicenter registry. Clinical, procedural, and imaging data of patients treated with the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve were retrospectively collected in accordance with the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Between August 2011 and November 2012, 47 patients (44 men, mean age 77.6 ± 8.9 years) received the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis for severe aortic stenosis. Device success (correct positioning of a single valve with intended performance and no all-cause 30-day mortality) was achieved in 31 patients (66.0%). Reasons for failing the device success criteria were significant prosthetic aortic regurgitation in 3 patients (6.4%), second valve implantation in 10 patients (21.2%) (8 cases of malpositioning with high-grade aortic regurgitation, 1 acute valve dislocation, and 1 delayed valve dislocation), 1 of whom died intrahospital, and in-hospital mortality in a further 3 patients (6.4%). Peak and mean transaortic gradients decreased significantly (P < .01). The rate of new pacemaker implantations was 41.7%. In this retrospective multicenter registry, transcatheter treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis with the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve seemed to be challenging, even in experienced hands. If the prosthesis is properly implanted, it offers adequate valve hemodynamics and proper functioning. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Walking Performance and Walking Capacity in People with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Low Back Pain and Asymptomatic Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tomkins-Lane, Christy C.; Holz, Sara Christensen; Yamakawa, KS; Phalke, Vaishali V.; Quint, Doug J.; Miner, Jennifer; Haig, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine predictors of community walking performance and walking capacity in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), compared to individuals with low back pain and asymptomatic controls. Design Retrospective analysis. Setting University Spine Program. Participants 126 participants (50 LSS, 44 low back pain and 32 asymptomatic controls), aged 55–80 yrs. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) 7-day community walking distance measured by pedometer (walking performance) and a 15 minute walking test (walking capacity). All participants had a lumbosacral MRI, electrodiagnostic testing, and a history and physical examination including history of pain and neurologic symptoms, straight leg raise test, tests for directional symptoms, reflexes, strength, and nerve tension signs. The study questionnaire included demographic information, history of back/leg pain, questions about walking, exercise frequency, and pain level, as well as the standardized Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale. Results BMI, pain, age and female sex predicted walking performance (r2 = 0.41) and walking capacity (r2=0.41). The diagnosis of LSS itself had no clear relationship with either walking variable. Compared to the asymptomatic group, LSS participants had significantly lower values for all walking parameters, with the exception of stride length, while there was no significant difference between the LSS and low back pain groups. Conclusions BMI, pain, female sex, and age predict walking performance and capacity in people with LSS, low back pain, and asymptomatic controls. While pain was the strongest predictor of walking capacity, BMI was the strongest predictor of walking performance. Average pain, rather than leg pain was predictive of walking. Obesity and pain are modifiable predictors of walking deficits that could be targets for future intervention studies aimed at increasing walking performance and capacity in both the low back pain and LSS populations. PMID:22365377

  14. High-sensitivity troponin I concentrations are a marker of an advanced hypertrophic response and adverse outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Calvin W. L.; Shah, Anoop S. V.; McAllister, David A.; Joanna Cowell, S.; Alam, Shirjel; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Strachan, Fiona E.; Hunter, Amanda L.; Maria Choy, Anna; Lang, Chim C.; Walker, Simon; Boon, Nicholas A.; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.; Dweck, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assays hold promise in detecting the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure in aortic stenosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism for troponin release in patients with aortic stenosis and whether plasma cTnI concentrations are associated with long-term outcome. Methods and results Plasma cTnI concentrations were measured in two patient cohorts using a high-sensitivity assay. First, in the Mechanism Cohort, 122 patients with aortic stenosis (median age 71, 67% male, aortic valve area 1.0 ± 0.4 cm2) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography to assess left ventricular (LV) myocardial mass, function, and fibrosis. The indexed LV mass and measures of replacement fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement) were associated with cTnI concentrations independent of age, sex, coronary artery disease, aortic stenosis severity, and diastolic function. In the separate Outcome Cohort, 131 patients originally recruited into the Scottish Aortic Stenosis and Lipid Lowering Trial, Impact of REgression (SALTIRE) study, had long-term follow-up for the occurrence of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular deaths. Over a median follow-up of 10.6 years (1178 patient-years), 24 patients died from a cardiovascular cause and 60 patients had an AVR. Plasma cTnI concentrations were associated with AVR or cardiovascular death HR 1.77 (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.55) independent of age, sex, systolic ejection fraction, and aortic stenosis severity. Conclusions In patients with aortic stenosis, plasma cTnI concentration is associated with advanced hypertrophy and replacement myocardial fibrosis as well as AVR or cardiovascular death. PMID:24829362

  15. Intraoperative Treatment of Fetal Asystole After Endovascular Repair of Aortic Coarctation in a Pregnant Woman with Mitral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Laleh; Delgado Upegui, Carlos; Ferreira, Renata; Simmons, Lavonne; Ciliberto, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    A G1P0 woman with aortic coarctation and mitral valve stenosis underwent endovascular aortic repair with continuous fetal monitoring during the 20th week of pregnancy. On tracheal extubation, an episode of fetal asystole followed by fetal bradycardia was identified. Ephedrine, nitroglycerin, and terbutaline were administered for intrauterine fetal resuscitation. Subsequently, the patient developed hypertension and pulmonary edema, which were treated with furosemide and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The fetal heart rate normalized. We conclude that intraoperative monitoring of a previable fetus may aid in optimizing maternal hemodynamics. Before performing interventional procedures in pregnant women, a multidisciplinary team should discuss the goals of neonatal care should adverse fetal events be detected.

  16. Comparison of Frequency of Ischemic Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Aortic Stenosis With Versus Without Asymmetric Septal Hypertrophy (from the SEAS Trial).

    PubMed

    Einarsen, Eigir; Cramariuc, Dana; Lønnebakken, Mai T; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Chambers, John B; Gerdts, Eva

    2017-04-01

    Asymmetric interventricular septum hypertrophy (ASH) has been associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve stenosis (AS). Less is known about the prognostic impact of ASH during progression of AS. Clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome data from 1,691 patients with initially asymptomatic, mostly moderate AS, participating in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study was used. ASH was considered present if interventricular septum/posterior wall thickness ratio in end-diastole ≥1.5. The associations of ASH with hazard rate of ischemic cardiovascular events were tested in time-dependent Cox regression analyses. Based on the presence of ASH at study echocardiograms, the study population was grouped in to a no-ASH, nonpersistent ASH, persistent ASH, and new-onset ASH groups. During a median of 4.3 years of follow-up, ASH persisted or developed in 17% of patients. Persistent or new-onset ASH was characterized by higher left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction at baseline (both p <0.05) but not with female gender or hypertension. In time-varying Cox regression analyses adjusting for these confounders, persistent or new-onset ASH was associated with higher hazard rate of ischemic cardiovascular events (hazard rate 1.45; 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.91, p = 0.01), in particular coronary artery bypass grafting (hazard rate 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.47; p = 0.006), whereas no association with increased mortality was found. In conclusion, in patients with AS without diabetes or known renal or cardiovascular disease participating in the SEAS study, persistent or new-onset ASH during progression of AS was associated with higher rate of ischemic cardiovascular events.

  17. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Ramipril In Aortic Stenosis (RIAS trial).

    PubMed

    Bull, Sacha; Loudon, Margaret; Francis, Jane M; Joseph, Jubin; Gerry, Stephen; Karamitsos, Theodoros D; Prendergast, Bernard D; Banning, Adrian P; Neubauer, Stefan; Myerson, Saul G

    2015-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve left ventricular (LV) remodelling and outcome in heart failure and hypertensive heart disease. They may be similarly beneficial in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), but historical safety concerns have limited their use, and no prospective clinical trials exist. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 100 patients with moderate or severe asymptomatic AS to examine the physiological effects of ramipril, particularly LV mass (LVM) regression. Subjects were randomized to ramipril 10 mg daily (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 1 year, and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and exercise testing at 0, 6, and 12 months, with follow-up data available in 77 patients. There was a modest but progressive reduction in LVM (the primary end point) in the ramipril group vs. the placebo group (mean change -3.9 vs. +4.5 g, respectively, P = 0.0057). There were also trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology: the ramipril group showed preserved tissue Doppler systolic velocity compared with placebo (+0.0 vs. -0.5 cm/s, P = 0.04), and a slower rate of progression of the AS (valve area 0.0 cm(2) in the ramipril group vs. -0.2 cm(2) in the placebo arm, P = 0.067). There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events. ACE inhibition leads to a modest, but progressive reduction in LVM in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe AS compared with placebo, with trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology and slower progression of valvular stenosis. A larger clinical outcome trial to confirm these findings and explore their clinical relevance is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  18. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Ramipril In Aortic Stenosis (RIAS trial)

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Sacha; Loudon, Margaret; Francis, Jane M.; Joseph, Jubin; Gerry, Stephen; Karamitsos, Theodoros D.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Banning, Adrian P.; Neubauer, Stefan; Myerson, Saul G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve left ventricular (LV) remodelling and outcome in heart failure and hypertensive heart disease. They may be similarly beneficial in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), but historical safety concerns have limited their use, and no prospective clinical trials exist. Methods and results We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 100 patients with moderate or severe asymptomatic AS to examine the physiological effects of ramipril, particularly LV mass (LVM) regression. Subjects were randomized to ramipril 10 mg daily (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 1 year, and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and exercise testing at 0, 6, and 12 months, with follow-up data available in 77 patients. There was a modest but progressive reduction in LVM (the primary end point) in the ramipril group vs. the placebo group (mean change −3.9 vs. +4.5 g, respectively, P = 0.0057). There were also trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology: the ramipril group showed preserved tissue Doppler systolic velocity compared with placebo (+0.0 vs. −0.5 cm/s, P = 0.04), and a slower rate of progression of the AS (valve area 0.0 cm2 in the ramipril group vs. −0.2 cm2 in the placebo arm, P = 0.067). There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events. Conclusion ACE inhibition leads to a modest, but progressive reduction in LVM in asymptomatic patients with moderate–severe AS compared with placebo, with trends towards improvements in myocardial physiology and slower progression of valvular stenosis. A larger clinical outcome trial to confirm these findings and explore their clinical relevance is required. PMID:25796267

  19. High- Versus Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis: Demographics, Clinical Outcomes, and Effects of the Initial Aortic Valve Replacement Strategy on Long-Term Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Kanamori, Norio; Murata, Koichiro; Kitai, Takeshi; Kawase, Yuichi; Izumi, Chisato; Miyake, Makoto; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Kato, Masashi; Hirano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shintaro; Inada, Tsukasa; Nagao, Kazuya; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yasuyo; Yamane, Keiichiro; Toyofuku, Mamoru; Ishii, Mitsuru; Minamino-Muta, Eri; Kato, Takao; Inoko, Moriaki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Komasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Hotta, Kozo; Higashitani, Nobuya; Kato, Yoshihiro; Inuzuka, Yasutaka; Maeda, Chiyo; Jinnai, Toshikazu; Morikami, Yuko; Saito, Naritatsu; Minatoya, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable debate on the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LG-AS), defined as aortic valve area <1 cm(2) with peak aortic jet velocity ≤4.0 m/s, and mean aortic pressure gradient ≤40 mm Hg. In the CURRENT AS registry (Contemporary Outcomes After Surgery and Medical Treatment in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis), there were 2097 patients (initial aortic valve replacement [AVR] strategy: n=977, and conservative strategy: n=1120) with high-gradient severe aortic stenosis (HG-AS) and 1712 patients (initial AVR strategy: n=219, and conservative strategy: n=1493) with LG-AS. AVR was more frequently performed in HG-AS patients than in LG-AS patients (60% versus 28%) during the entire follow-up. In the comparison between the initial AVR and conservative groups, the propensity score-matched cohorts were developed in both HG-AS (n=887 for each group) and LG-AS (n=218 for each group) strata. The initial AVR strategy when compared with the conservative strategy was associated with markedly lower risk for a composite of aortic valve-related death or heart failure hospitalization in both HG-AS and LG-AS strata (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.37; P<0.001 and hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.67; P<0.001, respectively). Among 1358 patients with LG-AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, the initial AVR strategy was associated with a better outcome than the conservative strategy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.59; P<0.001). The initial AVR strategy was associated with better outcomes than the conservative strategy in both HG-AS and LG-AS patients, although AVR was less frequently performed in LG-AS patients than in HG-AS patients. The favorable effect of initial AVR strategy was also seen in patients with LG-AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm. Unique identifier: UMIN000012140. © 2017

  20. The Roberts syndrome: a case report of an infant with valvular aortic stenosis and mutation in ESCO2.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mustafa; Firinci, Fatih; Balci, Yasemin Isik; Zeybek, Selcan; Ozgürler, Funda; Erdogan, Ilkay; Varan, Birgül; Semerci, Cavidan Nur

    2014-04-01

    Roberts syndrome, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive group of disorders, is a rare syndrome characterized with symmetrical extremity defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Here, we present a case of Roberts Syndrome brought to the clinic with diarrhoea and multiple abnormalities, that had tetra phocomelia, growth and developmental retardation, abnormality of complete cleft lip-palate accompanied with Aortic stenosis and PDA, and in which cytogenetic analysis identified premature centromere separation. Mutation analysis of ESCO2 revealed a splice site mutation [c.1131+1G>A] in intron 6 in homozygous status in the patient and heterozygous status in the parents. Our case is the first Robert- Syndrome with valvular aortic stenosis in the literature, to the best of our knowledge.

  1. Left ventricular mass index as a prognostic factor in patients with severe aortic stenosis and ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Rafael García; Montero Argudo, José A; Albarova, Oscar Gil; Hornero Sos, Fernando; Cánovas López, Sergio; Bueno Codoñer, María; Buendía Miñano, José A; Rodríguez Albarran, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Ventricular dysfunction and high hypertrophy may influence surgical outcome in aortic stenosis. Our aim was to determine whether an excessive left ventricular mass index (LVMI) discriminates different risk profiles in aortic stenosis with low ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Three hundred and thirty-nine patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent valve replacement (Mar-1994 and Nov-2001). LVMI values over the superior quartile were considered increased. Mortality models were constructed in global and LVEFaortic stenosis and low LVEF might discern two different situations: an advanced cardiomyopathy with excessive hypertrophy (high LVMI-low LVEF) with poor prognosis, and an inadequate adaptive hypertrophy (low LVMI-low LVEF) in patients with afterload mismatch and more favorable outcome.

  2. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a bridge-to-decision in high risk patients with aortic stenosis: a new paradigm for the heart team decision making

    PubMed Central

    Saia, Francesco; Moretti, Carolina; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Ciuca, Cristina; Taglieri, Nevio; Berardini, Alessandra; Gallo, Pamela; Cannizzo, Marina; Chiarabelli, Matteo; Ramponi, Niccolò; Taffani, Linda; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Marrozzini, Cinzia; Rapezzi, Claudio; Marzocchi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whilst the majority of the patients with severe aortic stenosis can be directly addressed to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), in some instances additional information may be needed to complete the diagnostic workout. We evaluated the role of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as a bridge-to-decision (BTD) in selected high-risk patients. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, the heart team in our Institution required BTD BAV in 202 patients. Very low left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral regurgitation grade ≥ 3, frailty, hemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity, or a combination of these factors were the main drivers for this strategy. We evaluated how BAV influenced the final treatment strategy in the whole patient group and in each specific subgroup. Results Mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was 23.5% ± 15.3%, age 81 ± 7 years. In-hospital mortality was 4.5%, cerebrovascular accident 1% and overall vascular complications 4% (0.5% major; 3.5% minor). Of the 193 patients with BTD BAV who survived and received a second heart team evaluation, 72.6% were finally deemed eligible for definitive treatment (25.4% for AVR; 47.2% for TAVI): 96.7% of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction recovery; 70.5% of patients with mitral regurgitation reduction; 75.7% of patients who underwent BAV in clinical hemodynamic instability; 69.2% of frail patients and 68% of patients who presented serious comorbidities. Conclusions Balloon aortic valvuloplasty can be considered as bridge-to-decision in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who cannot be immediate candidates for definitive transcatheter or surgical treatment. PMID:27582761

  3. Osteopontin Controls Endothelial Cell Migration In Vitro and in Excised Human Valvular Tissue from Patients with Calcific Aortic Stenosis and Controls

    PubMed Central

    POGGIO, PAOLO; GRAU, JUAN B.; FIELD, BENJAMIN C.; SAINGER, RACHANA; SEEFRIED, WILLIAM F.; RIZZOLIO, FLAVIO; FERRARI, GIOVANNI

    2012-01-01

    Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is a pathological condition of the aortic valve characterized by dystrophic calcification of the valve leaflets. Despite the high prevalence and mortality associated with CAS, little is known about its pathogenetic mechanisms. Characterized by progressive dystrophic calcification of the valve leaflets, the early stages of aortic valve degeneration are similar to the active inflammatory process of atherosclerosis including endothelial disruption, inflammatory cell infiltration, lipid deposition, neo-vascularization and calcification. In the vascular system, the endothelium is an important regulator of physiological and pathological conditions; however, the contribution of endothelial dysfunction to valvular degeneration at the cellular and molecular level has received little attention. Endothelial cell (EC) activation and neo-vascularization of the cusps characterizes all stages of aortic valvular degeneration from aortic sclerosis to aortic stenosis. Here we reported the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the regulation of EC activation in vitro and in excised tissue from CAS patients and controls. OPN is an important pro-angiogenic factor in several pathologies. High levels of OPN have been demonstrated in both tissue and plasma of patients with aortic valve sclerosis and stenosis. The characterization of valvular ECs as a cellular target for OPN will help us uncover the pathogenesis of aortic valve degeneration and stenosis, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy of this prevalent disease. PMID:21520066

  4. Differences in Aortic Valve and Left Ventricular Parameters Related to the Severity of Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inyoung; Ko, Sung Min; Yi, Jeong Geun; Chee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Jun Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the morphological and functional characteristics of the aortic valve and the left ventricular (LV) systolic functional parameters and myocardial mass related to the severity of myocardial fibrosis (MF) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively enrolled 81 patients (48 men; mean age: 59±12 years) with severe AS who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), cardiac computed tomography (CCT), and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) within 1 month and subsequent aortic valve surgery. Degree of MF was determined on delayed contrast-enhanced CMR with visual sub-segmental analysis-based quantification and was classified into three groups (no, mild, and severe) for identifying the differences in LV function and characteristics of the aortic valve. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare variables of the three groups. Univariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the severity of MF and variables on imaging modalities. Results Of 81 patients, 34 (42%) had MF (mild, n = 18; severe, n = 16). Aortic valve calcium volume score on CCT, aortic valve area, LV mass index, LV end-diastolic volume index on CMR, presence of mild aortic regurgitation (AR), transaortic mean pressure gradient, and peak velocity on TTE were significantly different among the three groups and were associated with severity of MF on a univariate multinomial logistic regression analysis. Aortic valve calcium grade was different (p = 0.008) among the three groups but not associated with severity of MF (p = 0.375). Conclusions A multi-imaging approach shows that severe AS with MF is significantly associated with more severe calcific AS, higher LV end-diastolic volume, higher LV mass, and higher prevalence of mild AR. PMID:28129367

  5. Invasive assessment of doubtful aortic stenosis by measuring simultaneous transaortic gradient with a pressure wire.

    PubMed

    Chopard, Romain; Meneveau, Nicolas; Plastaras, Philoktimon; Janin, Sebastien; Seronde, Marie-France; Ecarnot, Fiona; Schiele, Francois

    2013-06-15

    Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) is the reference technique for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) but may be unreliable in some cases. We aimed to assess whether the use of a pressure wire to measure simultaneous transaortic gradient and aortic valve area (AVA) could be helpful in patients in whom initial noninvasive evaluations were considered doubtful for AS. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 76 years; 39 men) underwent cardiac catheterization with single arterial access for assessment of AVA with the Gorlin and Gorlin formula. Transaortic pressure was obtained by 2 invasive methods: (1) conventional pullback method (PM) from the left ventricle toward the aorta and (2) simultaneous method (SM) with transaortic pressure simultaneously recorded with a 0.014-inch pressure wire introduced into the left ventricle and with a diagnostic catheter placed in the ascending aorta. Reasons for inaccurate assessment by 2D-TTE were low flow states (88%) and/or atrial fibrillation (79%). Agreement for severe AS defined by AVA <0.6 cm²/m² between SM and 2D-TTE and between SM and PM was fair, with kappa coefficients of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.75) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.7) respectively; agreement was poor between 2D-TTE and PM (kappa: 0.23; 95% CI 0.002-0.36). SM led to a reclassification of the severity of AS in 9 patients (15.8%) compared with 2D-TTE and in 11 patients (19.3%) compared with PM. In conclusion, invasive evaluation of doubtful AS by measuring simultaneous transaortic gradient using a pressure wire may provide an attractive method that can lead to a change in therapeutic strategy in a substantial proportion of patients.

  6. Integrated microRNA and messenger RNA analysis in aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sean; Williams, Michael J. A.; Phillips, L. Vicky; Galvin, Ivor F.; Bunton, Richard W.; Jones, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with no effective medical therapies. Investigation into the underlying biology of AS in humans is limited by difficulties in obtaining healthy valvular tissue for use as a control group. However, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are stable in post-mortem tissue. We compared valve specimens from patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for AS to non-diseased cadaveric valves. We found 106 differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons) on microarray analysis, with highly correlated expression among up- and down-regulated miRNAs. Integrated miRNA/gene expression analysis validated the microarray results as a whole, while quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed downregulation of miR-122-5p, miR-625-5p, miR-30e-5p and upregulation of miR-21-5p and miR-221-3p. Pathway analysis of the integrated miRNA/mRNA network identified pathways predominantly involved in extracellular matrix function. A number of currently available therapies target products of upregulated genes in the integrated miRNA/mRNA network, with these genes being predominantly more peripheral members of the network. The identification of a group of tissue miRNA associated with AS may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to AS. This study highlights the importance of systems biology-based approaches to complex diseases. PMID:27876829

  7. Integrated microRNA and messenger RNA analysis in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sean; Williams, Michael J A; Phillips, L Vicky; Galvin, Ivor F; Bunton, Richard W; Jones, Gregory T

    2016-11-23

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with no effective medical therapies. Investigation into the underlying biology of AS in humans is limited by difficulties in obtaining healthy valvular tissue for use as a control group. However, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are stable in post-mortem tissue. We compared valve specimens from patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for AS to non-diseased cadaveric valves. We found 106 differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons) on microarray analysis, with highly correlated expression among up- and down-regulated miRNAs. Integrated miRNA/gene expression analysis validated the microarray results as a whole, while quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed downregulation of miR-122-5p, miR-625-5p, miR-30e-5p and upregulation of miR-21-5p and miR-221-3p. Pathway analysis of the integrated miRNA/mRNA network identified pathways predominantly involved in extracellular matrix function. A number of currently available therapies target products of upregulated genes in the integrated miRNA/mRNA network, with these genes being predominantly more peripheral members of the network. The identification of a group of tissue miRNA associated with AS may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to AS. This study highlights the importance of systems biology-based approaches to complex diseases.

  8. Prevalence and Impact of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Markus; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Ghanem, Alexander; Kozhuppakalam, Finny J.; Fistéra, Rebecca; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Pizarro, Carmen; Grube, Eberhard; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Unlike the well-established association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and chronic heart failure, the relationship between SDB and severe aortic stenosis (AS) is not well investigated. Given the increasing prevalence of AS, and the improving prognosis of high risk AS patients attributable to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the prevalence and impact of SDB needs to be better understood. Methods and Results In this study, 140 patients with severe AS underwent polygraphy prior to TAVI. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Patients were followed for 573±405 days. We found that 99/140 patients (71%) had SDB with a mean apnoea-hypopnoea-index of 24±17/h. SDB was mild in 27%, moderate in 23% and severe in 21% of patients. In addition, 35 patients (25%) had obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), whereas 64 patients (46%) had central sleep apnoea (CSA). Patients with OSA had predominantly mild SDB (20/38 pts.), and patients with CSA mostly had severe SDB (24/29 pts.). The prevalence and distribution of OSA and CSA were independent of left ventricular function. Overall, 1 and 2 year survival rates (74% and 71%, resp.) did not differ significantly between patients without SDB or those with OSA and CSA (p=0.81). Conclusions SDB, with a preponderance of CSA, was found to be highly prevalent in patients with high-grade AS scheduled for TAVI. SDB prevalence was independent of left ventricular function. Mortality after TAVI was not influenced by the type or severity of SDB. PMID:26214183

  9. Role of Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Diagnosis of Paradoxical Low Flow, Low Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Abudiab, Muaz M.; Pandit, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prior studies indicate that up to 35% of cases of severe aortic stenosis (AS) have paradoxical low flow, low gradient despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, error in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) diameter may lead to misclassification. Herein, we determined whether measurement of LVOT diameter by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) results in reclassification of cases to non-severe AS. Subjects and Methods Patients with severe AS with aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm2 by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) within 6 months were studied. Paradoxical low flow, low gradient was defined as mean Doppler gradient (MG) <40 mm Hg and stroke volume index (SVI) ≤35 mL/m2. Preserved LVEF was defined as ≥0.50. Results Among 108 patients, 12 (15%) had paradoxical low flow, low gradient severe AS despite preserved LVEF based on TTE measurement. When LVOT diameter by TEE in 2D was used, only 5 (6.3%) patients had low flow, low gradient severe AS (p<0.001). Coefficients of variability for intraobserver and interobserver measurement of LVOT were <10%. However, the limits of agreement between TTE and TEE measurement of LVOT ranged from 0.43 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36 to 0.5) to -0.31 cm (95% CI: -0.38 to -0.23). Conclusion TEE measured LVOT diameter may result in reclassification to moderate AS in some patients due to low prevalence of true paradoxical low flow, low gradient (PLFLG) severe AS. PMID:28154595

  10. Anaemia in patients with aortic stenosis: influence on long-term prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Arnold C T; Kong, William K F; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Bertini, Matteo; Antoni, M Louisa; Leung, Dominic Y; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic implications of anaemia in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) remain unclear. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of anaemia in AS patients before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR). A total of 856 AS patients (age 71 ± 12 years, 60.2% male, 47.4% severe AS) were included. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) level was 13.2 ± 1.8 g/dL, and the prevalence of anaemia (Hb <13.0 g/dL for men, <12.0 g/dL for women) was 32.0%. The prevalence of anaemia rose with increasing severity of AS (28.9% and 35.6% in moderate and severe AS, respectively, P = 0.048) and was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality in severe AS patients whilst under medical therapy [hazard ratio (HR) 2.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.97, P = 0.005). Similarly, each 1.0 g/dL decrease in Hb was independently associated with increased mortality risk at follow-up (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.47, P = 0.006). However, after AVR surgery, severe AS patients who had anaemia had similar long-term survival as patients with normal Hb (log rank P = 0.19). When all AS patients were included and AVR surgery entered as a covariate, anaemia was still independently associated with increased all-cause mortality irrespective of the severity of AS. A high prevalence of anaemia in moderate and severe AS patients was observed, and its presence was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality. However, after AVR surgery, anaemic patients had similar survival rates as patients with normal Hb. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Supravalvular aortic stenosis associated to infectious endocarditis and cerebral vascular disease in a patient with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Rubens Figueroa, Jesús; Marhx, Alfonso; López Terrazas, Javier; Palacios Macedo, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by: (a) typical facial features; (b) psychomotor retardation with a specific neurocognitive profile; (c) cardiovascular condition and (d) likely transient hypocalcemia in infancy. The objective of this study was to describe the clinic evolution and diagnosis of patient with this syndrome that was associated with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus parasanguis in the ascending aorta and an aneurism located in the fronto-temporal area, which produced a parenchymal hematoma in the left lobe, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was treated with ceftriaxone and dicloxacillin. Then we proceeded to correct the aneurysm and perform vegetation resection in aortic arteries with supravalvular aortic stenosis correction. The evolution after one year has been favorable and is currently without neurologic sequelae. A 5-year-old male patient presented a diagnosis of supravalvular aortic stenosis. After cardiac catheterization was performed, he presented a fever and right side paresis. The echocardiogram showed multiple vegetations in the ascendant aortic arch and the supraortic arteries. The blood cultures reported S. parasanguis. The magnetic resonance showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with an aneurysm and a hematoma. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective registry of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in octogenarians: a need for intervention.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sellés, M; Gómez Doblas, J J; Carro Hevia, A; García de la Villa, B; Ferreira-González, I; Alonso Tello, A; Andión Ogando, R; Ripoll Vera, T; Arribas Jiménez, A; Carrillo, P; Rodríguez Pascual, C; Casares i Romeva, M; Borras, X; Cornide, L; López-Palop, R

    2014-06-01

    To study the factors associated with choice of therapy and prognosis in octogenarians with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Prospective, observational, multicenter registry. Centralized follow-up included survival status and, if possible, mode of death and Katz index. Transnational registry in Spain. We included 928 patients aged ≥80 years with severe symptomatic AS. Aortic-valve replacement (AVR), transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) or conservative therapy. All-cause death. Mean age was 84.2 ± 3.5 years, and only 49.0% were independent (Katz index A). The most frequent planned management was conservative therapy in 423 (46%) patients, followed by TAVI in 261 (28%) and AVR in 244 (26%). The main reason against recommending AVR in 684 patients was high surgical risk [322 (47.1%)], other medical motives [193 (28.2%)], patient refusal [134 (19.6%)] and family refusal in the case of incompetent patients [35 (5.1%)]. The mean time from treatment decision to AVR was 4.8 ± 4.6 months and to TAVI 2.1 ± 3.2 months, P < 0.001. During follow-up (11.2-38.9 months), 357 patients (38.5%) died. Survival rates at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months were 81.8%, 72.6%, 64.1% and 57.3%, respectively. Planned intervention, adjusted for multiple propensity score, was associated with lower mortality when compared with planned conservative treatment: TAVI Hazard ratio (HR) 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.93; P = 0.016) and AVR HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.39-0.8; P = 0.002). Octogenarians with symptomatic severe AS are frequently managed conservatively. Planned conservative management is associated with a poor prognosis. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. A multicentre European registry to evaluate the Direct Flow Medical transcatheter aortic valve system for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Naber, Christoph K; Pyxaras, Stylianos A; Ince, Hüseyin; Frambach, Peter; Colombo, Antonio; Butter, Christian; Gatto, Fernando; Hink, Ulrich; Nickenig, Georg; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Brueren, Guus; Tchétché, Didier; Den Heijer, Peter; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Scholtz, Smita; Van der Heyden, Jan; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gilard, Martine; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Schofer, Joachim; Divchev, Dimitar; Baumgartner, Helmut; Asch, Federico; Wagner, Daniel; Latib, Azeem; De Marco, Federico; Kische, Stephan

    2016-12-10

    Our aim was to assess the clinical outcomes of the Direct Flow Medical Transcatheter Aortic Valve System (DFM-TAVS), when used in routine clinical practice. This is a prospective, open-label, multicentre, post-market registry of patients treated with DFM-TAVS according to approved commercial indications. Echocardiographic and angiographic data were evaluated by an independent core laboratory and adverse events were adjudicated and classified according to VARC-2 criteria by an independent clinical events committee. The primary endpoint was freedom from all-cause mortality at 30 days post procedure. Secondary endpoints included procedural, early safety and efficacy endpoints at 30 days. Two hundred and fifty patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the DFM-TAVS were enrolled in 21 European centres. The primary endpoint, freedom from all-cause mortality at 30 days, was met in 98% (245/250) of patients. Device success was 83.8%. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation was reported in 3% of patients, and none/trace regurgitation in 73% of patients. Post-procedural permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in 30 patients (12.0%). The DFM-TAVS was associated with good short-term outcomes in this real-world registry. The low pacemaker and aortic regurgitation rates confirm the advantages of this next-generation transcatheter heart valve (THV).

  14. Cardiac Fibrosis in Aortic Stenosis and Hypertensive Heart Disease Assessed by Magnetic Resonance T1 Mapping.

    PubMed

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Prothmann, Marcel; Hennig, Pierre; Dieringer, Matthias A; Schmacht, Luisa; Greiser, Andreas; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-09-01

    Continuous pressure overload may lead to subclinical myocardial tissue changes in patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and aortic stenosis (AS). The study aim was to detect interstitial fibrosis using quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Fifteen patients with HHD (arterial hypertension + septal wall thickness ≥13 mm), 33 with AS (eight mild, 15 moderate, 10 severe), and 60 healthy controls were enrolled. Native T1 maps (modified Look-Locker inversion recovery) were obtained in a basal, mid-ventricular, and apical shortaxis slice of the left ventricle to assess cardiac fibrosis. Focal fibrosis was assessed with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Patients with HHD and controls did not differ regarding the native myocardial T1 values, both per slice and per segment. In AS patients, apical native T1 values were lower than in controls, and there was a trend towards higher T1 values in the septum in severe AS (1172.6 ± 62.0 ms versus 1152.9 ± 43.9 ms). Five HHD patients and 11 AS patients had non-ischemic fibrosis in LGE images. Native T1 times did not differ between LGE-positive and LGEnegative groups (both with inclusion and exclusion of segments with LGE). T1 mapping did not reveal any evidence of abnormal interstitial fibrosis in HHD subjects with mild hypertrophy. In severe AS, a trend towards more interstitial fibrosis was present, but absolute differences were small for decision making.

  15. Simulation of exercise-induced syncope in a heart model with severe aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sever, Matjaž; Ribarič, Samo; Kordaš, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Severe aortic valve stenosis (AVS) can cause an exercise-induced reflex syncope (RS). The precise mechanism of this syncope is not known. The changes in hemodynamics are variable, including arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia, and one of the few consistent changes is a sudden fall in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures (suggesting a reduced vascular resistance) followed by a decline in heart rate. The contribution of the cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor components of the RS to hemodynamics was evaluated by a computer model. This lumped-parameter computer simulation was based on equivalent electronic circuits (EECs) that reflect the hemodynamic conditions of a heart with severe AVS and a concomitantly decreased contractility as a long-term detrimental consequence of compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, the EECs model simulated the resetting of the sympathetic nervous tone in the heart and systemic circuit during exercise and exercise-induced syncope, the fluctuating intra-thoracic pressure during respiration, and the passive relaxation of ventricle during diastole. The results of this simulation were consistent with the published case reports of exertional syncope in patients with AVS. The value of the EEC model is its ability to quantify the effect of a selective and gradable change in heart rate, ventricular contractility, or systemic vascular resistance on the hemodynamics during an exertional syncope in patients with severe AVS.

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of individuals with Williams syndrome and supravalvar aortic stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.B.; Lacro, R.V.; Kunkel, L.M.; Pober, B.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations at the elastin locus (chromosome 7q11.23) have been demonstrated in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and familial supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS). Relationships between elastin mutations and vascular and/or neurodevelopmental pathology have yet to be defined. In determining phenotype-genotype correlations in WS/SVAS, we examined 35 individuals with sporadic WS, families with SVAS affecting multiple members, and sporadic cases of isolated obstructive vascular disease. Full length elastin cDNA was used to probe a human genomic library from which multiple elastin genomic clones have been isolated and ordered relative to the elastin gene, covering a minimum of 35 kb. (Additional genomic clones are being obtained by {open_quote}walking{close_quote} 5{prime} and 3{prime} to elastin.) Elastin genomic clones were used as probes in fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes from WS/SVAS patients. Preliminary analysis confirms elastin deletions in WS patients, but have not yet been demonstrated in patients with isolated vascular disease using this technique. Results of deletional analysis in individuals representing a wide spectrum of phenotypes will be presented.

  17. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio May Predict the Severity of Calcific Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Asker, Muntecep; Duz, Ramazan; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an emerging inflammatory indicator which is closely associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between PLR and the severity of calcific aortic stenosis (AS). Material/Methods The study was designed as a retrospective study. A total of 86 consecutive patients with calcific AS were divided into two groups as mild-to-moderate AS and severe AS according to the transaortic mean pressure gradient. PLR levels were calculated from the complete blood count (CBC). Results Platelet to lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in severe and mild-to-moderate AS groups when compared to the control subjects (151±31.2, p<0.001, 138±28.8 vs. 126±26.5, p=0.008, respectively). In the subgroup analysis of AS patients, PLR was found to be higher in the severe AS group compared to mild-to-moderate group (p<0.001). A significant correlation was found between PLR and transaortic mean pressure gradient in patients with AS (r=0.421, p<0.001). Conclusions Our study results demonstrated that increased PLR correlates with the severity of calcific AS. PMID:26544152

  18. Deficient coacervation of two forms of human tropoelastin associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Weiss, A S

    1999-11-01

    Human tropoelastin associates by coacervation and is subsequently cross-linked to make elastin. In Williams syndrome, defective elastin deposition is associated with hemizygous deletion of the tropoelastin gene in supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). Remarkably, point-mutation forms of SVAS correspond to incomplete forms of tropoelastin which include in-frame termination by nonsense mutations, yet the resulting phenotype of these disorders is not explained because expression variably occurs from both normal and mutant alleles. Proteins corresponding to two truncated tropoelastin mutants were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Coacervation of these proteins occurred as expected with increasing temperature, but substantially contrasted with that of the performance of a normal tropoelastin. Significantly, association by coacervation of the truncated SVAS tropoelastin molecules was negligible at 37 degrees C, which contrasted with the substantial coacervation seen for normal tropoelastin. Furthermore their midpoints of coacervation increased and correlated with the extent of deletion, in accord with the loss of hydrophobic regions required for tropoelastin association. Their secondary structures are similar, as evidenced by CD studies. We propose a model for point-mutation SVAS in which aberrant tropoelastin molecules are incompetent and are mainly excluded from participation in coacervation and consequently in elastogenesis. These forms of SVAS may consequently be considered functionally similar to a hemizygous deletion, and mark point-mutation SVAS as a disorder of defective coacervation.

  19. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS)

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS. PMID:27152866

  20. Structural and Histochemical Alterations in the Aortic Valves of Elderly Patients: A Comparative Study of Aortic Stenosis, Aortic Regurgitation, and Normal Valves

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis (AS) and regurgitation (AR) by comparing differences in mechanical and biochemical alterations. We applied scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) to measure the speed of sound (SOS) through valves to estimate the elasticity and monitor sensitivity to protease treatment, as the SOS is correlated with the stiffness of materials, which is reduced after digestion by proteases. The fibrosa of both the AS and AR groups were stiffer than the fibrosa of the normal group. The AR group displayed significantly stiffer fibrosa than the AS group, with the exception of calcified areas. The AS group showed significantly decreased SOS values following protease digestion, whereas the AR showed little reduction. The AS group presented type III collagen in the fibrosa and the ventricularis. In the AR group, both type I collagen and type III collagen coexisted in the fibrosa and the ventricularis. Upon immunostaining for advanced glycation end-products, the AS group showed sparse, weak staining, whereas the AR group presented a strong, band-like positive reaction in the fibrosa. In conclusion, tissue remodelling associated with damage and repair is associated with AS pathogenesis, whereas static chemical alterations with slow collagen turnover induce AR. PMID:27747234

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation for severe bioprosthetic stenosis after Bentall operation using a homograft in a patient with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Soon Jun; Yu, Cheol Woong

    2015-03-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with severe aortic stenosis. Eight years previously, he had undergone primary surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic regurgitation, but one year later developed cardiac arrest and complete atrioventricular block as a result of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis with severe valvular dehiscence. Following the diagnosis of prosthetic valve failure caused by Behçet's disease, the patient underwent a Bentall operation using 23 mm aortic homograft with permanent pacemaker implantation and coronary artery bypass grafting. Subsequently, he was stable with steroid administration and azathioprine for seven years after the second operation, but recently suffered from severe dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiography revealed the development of severe aortic stenosis. A preprocedural evaluation demonstrated a porcelain aorta with severe calcification in the previous homograft valve on computed tomography, and critical stenosis at the ostium of the left circumflex artery on coronary angiography. After percutaneous coronary intervention for the ostium of the left circumflex artery, a transcatheter AVR was successfully performed using a 26 mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve. The patient recovered without any complications after the procedure. This is the first report of a successful transcatheter aortic valve-in valve implantation for severe homograft aortic stenosis after a Bentall operation, using a homograft, in a patient with Behçet's disease.

  2. Primary Mitral Valve Regurgitation Outcome in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis 1 Year After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Echocardiographic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Thiago Marinho; Bihan, David Le; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha; Cedro, Alexandre Vianna; Corrêa, Amably Pessoa; Santos, Alexandre Roginski Mendes Dos; Souza, Alexandre Costa; Bignoto, Tiago Costa; Sousa, José Eduardo Moraes Rego; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego

    2017-07-10

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR), present in up to 74% of the patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), can be a negative prognostic factor when moderate or severe. The outcome of MR after percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and predictors associated with that outcome have not been well established in the literature. To assess the outcome of primary MR in patients submitted to TAVI and to identify associated factors. Observational study of patients with symptomatic severe AS submitted to TAVI from January 2009 to April 2015 at two specialized centers. Echocardiographic outcome was assessed with data collected before and 1 year after TAVI. Of the 91 patients with MR submitted to TAVI and followed up for at least 12 months, 67 (73.6%) had minimum/mild MR before the procedure and 24 (26.4%) had moderate/severe MR. Of those with minimum/mild MR, 62 (92.5%) had no change in the MR grade (p < 0.001), while 5 (7.5%) showed worsening. Of those with moderate/severe MR, 8 (33.3%) maintained the same grade and 16 (66.7%) improved it (p = 0.076). Patients with moderate/severe MR who improved MR grade had lower EuroSCORE II (p = 0.023) and STS morbidity (p = 0.027) scores, as compared to those who maintained the MR grade. MR grades change after TAVI. This study suggests a trend towards improvement in moderate/severe MR after TAVI, which was associated with lower preoperative risk scores. A insuficiência valvar mitral (IM), presente em até 74% dos pacientes com estenose aórtica (EA) grave, pode representar um fator prognóstico negativo quando moderada ou importante. A evolução da IM após implante percutâneo de valva aórtica transcateter (TAVI) e preditores associados a essa evolução não estão bem estabelecidos na literatura. Avaliar a evolução da IM primária em pacientes submetidos ao TAVI e identificar fatores associados a essa evolução. Realizou-se um estudo observacional em pacientes com EA grave sintomática, submetidos ao TAVI no

  3. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  4. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis using a repositionable valve system: 30-day primary endpoint results from the REPRISE II study.

    PubMed

    Meredith Am, Ian T; Walters, Darren L; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Worthley, Stephen G; Tchétché, Didier; Manoharan, Ganesh; Blackman, Daniel J; Rioufol, Gilles; Hildick-Smith, David; Whitbourn, Robert J; Lefèvre, Thierry; Lange, Rüdiger; Müller, Ralf; Redwood, Simon; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2014-09-30

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement provides results comparable to those of surgery in patients at high surgical risk, but complications can impact long-term outcomes. The Lotus valve, designed to improve upon earlier devices, is fully repositionable and retrievable, with a unique seal to minimize paravalvular regurgitation (PVR). The prospective, single-arm, multicenter REPRISE II study (REpositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System: Evaluation of Safety and Performance) evaluated the transcatheter valve system for treatment of severe symptomatic calcific aortic valve stenosis. Patients (n = 120; aortic annulus 19 to 27 mm) considered by a multidisciplinary heart team to be at high surgical risk received the valve transfemorally. The primary device performance endpoint, 30-day mean pressure gradient, was assessed by an independent echocardiographic core laboratory and compared with a pre-specified performance goal. The primary safety endpoint was 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints included safety/effectiveness metrics per Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria. Mean age was 84.4 years, 57% of the patients were female, and 76% were New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. Mean aortic valve area was 0.7 ± 0.2 cm(2). The valve was successfully implanted in all patients, with no cases of valve embolization, ectopic valve deployment, or additional valve implantation. All repositioning (n = 26) and retrieval (n = 6) attempts were successful; 34 patients (28.6%) received a permanent pacemaker. The primary device performance endpoint was met, because the mean gradient improved from 46.4 ± 15.0 mm Hg to 11.5 ± 5.2 mm Hg. At 30 days, the mortality rate was 4.2%, and the rate of disabling stroke was 1.7%; 1 (1.0%) patient had moderate PVR, whereas none had severe PVR. REPRISE II demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the Lotus valve in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at

  5. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis in children with williams syndrome: a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Tyson A; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Wheaton, Gavin; Weintraub, Robert G; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2015-04-01

    Williams syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) in childhood. We reviewed outcomes of children with Williams syndrome who underwent repair of SVAS during a 30-year period at a single institution. Between 1982 and 2012, 28 patients with Williams syndrome were operated on for SVAS. Mean age at operation was 5.2 years (range, 3 months to 13 years), and mean weight at operation was 18.6 kg (range, 4.1 to 72.4 kg). Associated cardiac lesions in 11 patients (39.3%) were repaired at the time of the SVAS repair. The most common associated cardiac lesion was main pulmonary artery stenosis (8 of 28 [28%]). A 3-patch repair was performed in 10 patients, a Doty repair in 17, and a McGoon repair in 1 (3.6%). There were no early deaths. Follow-up was 96% complete (27 of 28). Overall mean follow-up was 11.2 years (range, 1 month to 27.3 years). Mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 1 month to 14.3 years) for the 3-patch repair patients and 14.7 years (range, 6 weeks to 27 years) for the Doty repair patients. Of the 17 Doty patients, there were 4 (24%) late deaths, occurring at 6 weeks, 3.5 years, 4 years, and 16 years after the initial operation. There were no late deaths in the 3-patch repair patients. Overall survival was 86% at 5, 10, and 15 years after repair. Survival was 82% at 5, 10 and 15 years for the Doty repair patients. Overall, 6 of 27 patients (22%) patients required late reoperation at a mean of 11.2 years (range, 3.6 to 23 years). No 3-patch repair patients required reoperation. Overall freedom from reoperation was 91% at 5 years and 73% at 10 and 15 years. Freedom from reoperation for the Doty repair patients was 93% at 5 years and 71% at 10 and 15 years. Surgical repair of SVAS in children Williams syndrome has excellent early results. However, significant late mortality and morbidity warrants close follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Prognostication of valvular aortic stenosis using tissue Doppler echocardiography: underappreciated importance of late diastolic mitral annular velocity.

    PubMed

    Poh, Kian-Keong; Chan, Mark Yan-Yee; Yang, Hong; Yong, Quek-Wei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Ling, Lieng H

    2008-05-01

    Intact left atrial booster pump function helps maintain cardiac compensation in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Because late diastolic mitral annular (A') velocity reflects left atrial systolic function, we hypothesized that A' velocity correlates with plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level and clinical outcome in AS. We prospectively enrolled 53 consecutive patients (median age 74 years) with variable degrees of AS, in sinus rhythm, and left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 50%. Indices of valvular stenosis, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and mitral annular motion were correlated with plasma NT-proBNP and a composite clinical end point comprising cardiac death and symptom-driven aortic valve replacement. Tissue Doppler echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic (E') velocity and A' velocity and ratio of early diastolic transmitral (E) to E' velocity (E/E') at the annular septum correlated better with NT-proBNP levels than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Eighteen patients had the composite end point, which was univariately predicted by body surface area-indexed aortic valve area, NT-proBNP, and all tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices. This outcome was most strongly predicted by the combination of septal A' velocity and E/E' ratio in bivariate Cox modeling. Septal annular A' velocity less than 9.6 cm/s was associated with significantly reduced event-free survival (Kaplan Meier log rank = 27.3, P < .0001) and predicted the end point with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. In patients with AS and normal ejection fraction, annular tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices may better reflect the physiologic consequences of afterload burden on the left ventricle than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Lower A' velocity is a predictor of cardiac death and need for valve surgery, suggesting an important role for compensatory left atrial

  7. Clinical Outcome of Patients with Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease Not Treated According to Current Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Pellicano, Mariano; Toth, Gabor G; Casselman, Filip; Adjedj, Julien; Van Praet, Frank; Stockman, Bernard; Degrieck, Ivan; Trimarco, Bruno; Wijns, William; De Bruyne, Bernard; Barbato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the clinical outcome of patients with moderate/severe aortic stenosis and significant coronary disease not treated according to guidelines, recommending combined aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). From 2002 to 2010, we assessed death up to 5 years in 650 patients with moderate/severe aortic stenosis and at least one coronary lesion (>50 %): 23 % were treated conservatively (MT), 17 % with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 11 % with AVR, and 49 % with combined CABG and AVR. At a median follow-up of 58 months, overall death decreased over the groups (MT, 68 % vs. PCI, 44 % vs. AVR, 34 % vs. CABG and AVR, 23 %, p < 0.01). Compared to the MT group, Cox regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed significantly reduced mortality in the PCI, AVR, and CABG and AVR groups. When combined CABG and AVR is not feasible, PCI or AVR alone still improves significantly long-term survival as compared with MT alone.

  8. Myocardial strain and symptom severity in severe aortic stenosis: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Al Musa, Tarique; Uddin, Akhlaque; Swoboda, Peter P.; Garg, Pankaj; Fairbairn, Timothy A.; Dobson, Laura E.; Steadman, Christopher D.; Singh, Anvesha; Erhayiem, Bara; Plein, Sven; McCann, Gerald P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a class I indication for replacement in patients when left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is preserved. However, symptom reporting is often equivocal and decision making can be challenging. We aimed to quantify myocardial deformation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients classified by symptom severity. Methods Forty-two patients with severe AS referred to heart valve clinic were studied using tagged CMR imaging. All had preserved LVEF. Patients were grouped by symptoms as either “none/mild” (n=21, NYHA class I, II) or “significant” (n=21, NYHA class III, IV, angina, syncope) but were comparable for age (72.8±5.4 vs. 71.0±6.8 years old, P=0.345), surgical risk (EuroSCORE II: 1.90±1.7 vs. 1.31±0.4, P=0.302) and haemodynamics (peak aortic gradient: 55.1±20.8 vs. 50.4±15.6, P=0.450). Thirteen controls matched in age and LVEF were also studied. LV circumferential strain was calculated using inTag© software and longitudinal strain using feature tracking analysis. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with severe AS had significantly worse longitudinal and circumferential strain, regardless of symptom status. Patients with “significant” symptoms had significantly worse peak longitudinal systolic strain rates (−83.352±24.802%/s vs. −106.301±43.276%/s, P=0.048) than those with “no/mild” symptoms, with comparable peak longitudinal strain (PLS), peak circumferential strain and systolic and diastolic strain rates. Conclusions Patients with severe AS who have no or only mild symptoms exhibit comparable reduction in circumferential and longitudinal fibre function to those with significant symptoms, in whom AVR is clearly indicated. Given these findings of equivalent subclinical dysfunction, reportedly borderline symptoms should be handled cautiously to avoid potentially adverse delays in intervention. PMID:28275558

  9. [Prognostic value of aortic stenosis in patients after acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chumakova, O S; Selezneva, N D; Evdokimova, M A; Osmolovskaia, B S; Kochkina, M S; Aseĭcheva, O Iu; Minushkina, L O; Baklanova, T N; Talyzin, P A; Tereshchenko, S N; Dzhaiani, N A; Akatova, E V; Glezer, M G; Galiavich, A S; Zakirova, V B; Koziolova, N A; Polianskaia, E A; Iagoda, A V; Boeva, O I; Khorolets, E V; Shlyk, S V; Volkova, E G; Rodicheva, O A; Levashov, S Iu; Konstantinov, V O; Kalishevich, N B; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p < 0.001), more often had history of chronic heart failure (CHF) (81.3 vs. 53.2%, p = 0.021) and lowered renal function (66.7 vs. 34.0%, p < 0.041). At multifactorial analysis independent prognostic value in relation to development of serious events showed age > 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p < 0.001), left ventricular diastolic dimention (1.023 [1.005-1.041], p = 0.012), left atrial diameter (1.024 [1.001-1.047], p = 0.037) and presence of AS (3.211 [1.742-.,916], p < 0.001). Prevalence of preexisting AS among patients who have had MI/UA is 1.9% what is similar to data of European Heart Survey ACS-II (1.8%). Presence of AS of any severity in a survivor of ACS worsens prognosis independently of other known risk factors.

  10. Treatment of aortic stenosis with a self-expanding transcatheter valve: the International Multi-centre ADVANCE Study.

    PubMed

    Linke, Axel; Wenaweser, Peter; Gerckens, Ulrich; Tamburino, Corrado; Bosmans, Johan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Blackman, Daniel; Schäfer, Ulrich; Müller, Ralf; Sievert, Horst; Søndergaard, Lars; Klugmann, Silvio; Hoffmann, Rainer; Tchétché, Didier; Colombo, Antonio; Legrand, Victor M; Bedogni, Francesco; lePrince, Pascal; Schuler, Gerhard; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Eftychiou, Christos; Frerker, Christian; Boekstegers, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Woitek, Felix; Lange, Rüdiger; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brecker, Stephen

    2014-10-07

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following implantation of a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve system in a fully monitored, multi-centre 'real-world' patient population in highly experienced centres. Patients with severe aortic stenosis at a higher surgical risk in whom implantation of the CoreValve System was decided by the Heart Team were included. Endpoints were a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reintervention) and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Endpoint-related events were independently adjudicated based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 1015 patients [mean logistic EuroSCORE 19.4 ± 12.3% [median (Q1,Q3), 16.0% (10.3, 25.3%)], age 81 ± 6 years] were enrolled. Implantation of the CoreValve System led to a significant improvement in haemodynamics and an increase in the effective aortic valve orifice area. At 30 days, the MACCE rate was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3-9.7%), all-cause mortality was 4.5% (3.2-5.8%), cardiovascular mortality was 3.4% (2.3-4.6%), and the rate of stroke was 3.0% (2.0-4.1%). The life-threatening or disabling bleeding rate was 4.0% (2.8-6.3%). The 12-month rates of MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke were 21.2% (18.4-24.1%), 17.9% (15.2-20.5%), 11.7% (9.4-14.1%), and 4.5% (2.9-6.1%), respectively. The 12-month rates of all-cause mortality were 11.1, 16.5, and 23.6% among patients with a logistic EuroSCORE ≤10%, EuroSCORE 10-20%, and EuroSCORE >20% (P< 0.05), respectively. The ADVANCE study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the CoreValve System with low mortality and stroke rates in higher risk real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance evaluation of aortic stenosis severity using single plane measurement of effective orifice area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the standard method for the evaluation of the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). Valve effective orifice area (EOA) measured by the continuity equation is one of the most frequently used stenotic indices. However, TTE measurement of aortic valve EOA is not feasible or not reliable in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative to evaluate EOA using velocity measurements. The objectives of this study were: 1) to validate a new CMR method using jet shear layer detection (JSLD) based on acoustical source term (AST) concept to estimate the valve EOA; 2) to introduce a simplified JSLD method not requiring vorticity field derivation. Methods and results We performed an in vitro study where EOA was measured by CMR in 4 fixed stenoses (EOA = 0.48, 1.00, 1.38 and 2.11 cm2) under the same steady flow conditions (4-20 L/min). The in vivo study included eight (8) healthy subjects and 37 patients with mild to severe AS (0.72 cm2 ≤ EOA ≤ 1.71 cm2). All subjects underwent TTE and CMR examinations. EOA was determinated by TTE with the use of continuity equation method (TTECONT). For CMR estimation of EOA, we used 3 methods: 1) Continuity equation (CMRCONT); 2) Shear layer detection (CMRJSLD), which was computed from the velocity field of a single CMR velocity profile at the peak systolic phase; 3) Single plane velocity truncation (CMRSPVT), which is a simplified version of CMRJSLD method. There was a good agreement between the EOAs obtained in vitro by the different CMR methods and the EOA predicted from the potential flow theory. In the in vivo study, there was good correlation and concordance between the EOA measured by the TTECONT method versus those measured by each of the CMR methods: CMRCONT (r = 0.88), CMRJSLD (r = 0.93) and CMRSPVT (r = 0.93). The intra- and inter- observer variability of EOA measurements was 5 ± 5% and 9 ± 5% for TTECONT, 2

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy in ascending aortic stenosis mice: anoikis and the progression to early failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, B.; Price, R. L.; Goldsmith, E. C.; Borg, T. K.; Yan, X.; Douglas, P. S.; Weinberg, E. O.; Bartunek, J.; Thielen, T.; Didenko, V. V.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.

  13. Echocardiographic and Histologic Correlations in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis: Influence of Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fritche-Salazar, Juan Francisco; Vázquez-Castro, Nelva Marina; Rivera-Lara, Pedro; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Martínez-Herrera, Humberto; Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Aranda-Frausto, Alberto; Herrera-Bello, Héctor; Luna-Luna, María; Arias Godínez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe aortic stenosis (AS), leads to pathological left ventricular remodeling that may worsen with concomitant overweight and obesity (OW/O). Methods We aimed to prospectively analyze the impact of OW/O on ventricular remodeling in severe AS, by evaluating the percentage of intraendomyocardial fibrosis (PIEF) and the percentage of infiltrating intraendocardial lipid vacuoles (PIELV) and its relationship to global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with OW/O. Results 44 patients with severe AS were included, 13 non-obese (29%) and 31 OW/O (71%), all of them with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 55%. GLS was evaluated with 2D speckle tracking. During valve replacement, an endocardial biopsy was obtained, where PIEF and PIELV were analyzed. Patients with higher PIEF and PIELV had greater body mass index (p < 0.0001) and worse GLS (p < 0.0053). A GLS cut-off point < -14% had a sensitivity of 75%, and a specificity of 92.8% to detect important PIEF (AUC: 0.928, 95% confidence interval: 0.798–1.00). On multivariate analysis, OW/O and PIELV were independently associated to the PIEF, and OW/O and PIEF were independently associated to GLS. A high correlation between the amount of PIELV and PIEF were found. Conclusion Patients with severe AS and OW/O have greater PIEF and PIELV, suggesting more pathological remodeling. GLS is useful to detect subclinical myocardial injury and is potentially useful for endomyocardial fibrosis detection. The presence of higher PIELF may be a trigger factor for the development of intraendomyocardial fibrosis. PMID:28090258

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy in ascending aortic stenosis mice: anoikis and the progression to early failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, B.; Price, R. L.; Goldsmith, E. C.; Borg, T. K.; Yan, X.; Douglas, P. S.; Weinberg, E. O.; Bartunek, J.; Thielen, T.; Didenko, V. V.; hide

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.

  15. Myocardial hypertrophy is associated with inflammation and activation of endocannabinoid system in patients with aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Georg D; Heinemann, Jan C; Dunkel, Silke; Zimmer, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Lerner, Raissa; Roell, Wilhelm; Mellert, Fritz; Probst, Chris; Esmailzadeh, Bahman; Welz, Armin; Dewald, Oliver

    2013-05-30

    Endocannabinoids and their receptors have been associated with cardiac adaptation to injury, inflammation and fibrosis. Experimental studies suggested a role for inflammatory reaction and active remodeling in myocardial hypertrophy, but they have not been shown in human hypertrophy. We investigated the association of the endocannabinoid system with myocardial hypertrophy in patients with aortic stenosis. Myocardial biopsies were collected from patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and atrial myxoma as controls during surgery. Histological and molecular analysis of endocannabinoids and their receptors, inflammatory and remodeling-related cells and mediators was performed. Myocardial hypertrophy was confirmed with significantly higher cardiomyocyte diameter in AS than in myxoma patients, which had normal cell size. AS patients presented compensated myocardial adaptation to pressure overload. AS patients had significantly higher: concentration of endocannabinoid anandamide, expression of its degrading enzyme FAAH, and of cannabinoid receptor CB2, being predominantly located on cardiomyocytes. Cell density of macrophages and newly recruited leukocytes were higher in AS group, which together with increased expression of chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CXCL8, and suppression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 indicates persistent inflammatory reaction. We found higher myofibroblast density and stronger tenascin C staining along with mRNA induction of tenascin C and CTGF in AS patients showing active myocardial remodeling. Our study shows for the first time activation of the endocannabinoid system and predominant expression of its receptor CB2 on cardiomyocytes being associated with persistent inflammation and active remodeling in hypertrophic myocardium of patients with aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography brain scans and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric events in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, Stavros K; Sabetai, Michael; Tegos, Thomas; Stevens, John; Thomas, Dafydd; Griffin, Maura; Geroulakos, George; Nicolaides, Andrew N

    2009-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography (CT) brain scans can predict ipsilateral neurologic hemispheric events and stroke in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. In a prospective multicenter natural history study, 821 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis graded with duplex scanning who had CT brain scans were monitored every 6 months for a maximum of 8 years. Duplex scans were reported centrally, and stenosis was expressed as a percentage in relation to the normal distal internal carotid criteria used by the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists. CT brain scans were reported centrally by a neuroradiologist. In 146 patients (17.8%), 8 large cortical, 15 small cortical, 72 discrete subcortical, and 51 basal ganglia ipsilateral infarcts were present; these were considered likely to be embolic and were classified as such. Other infarct types, lacunes (n = 15), watershed (n = 9), and the presence of diffuse white matter changes (n = 95) were not considered to be embolic. During a mean follow-up of 44.6 months (range, 6 months-8 years), 102 ipsilateral hemispheric neurologic events (amaurosis fugax in 16, 38 transient ischemic attacks [TIAs], and 47 strokes) occurred, 138 patients died, and 24 were lost to follow-up. In 462 patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative event-free rate at 8 years was 0.81 (2.4% annual event rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.63 (4.6% annual event rate) when present (log-rank P = .032). In 359 patients with <60% stenosis, embolic infarcts were not associated with increased risk (log-rank P = .65). In patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative stroke-free rate was 0.92 (1.0% annual stroke rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.71 (3.6% annual stroke rate) when present (log-rank P = .002). In the subgroup of 216 with moderate 60% to 79% stenosis, the cumulative TIA or stroke-free rate in the absence and presence of

  17. Prognosis after surgical replacement with a bioprosthetic aortic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis: systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Farid; Guyatt, Gordon H; O'Brien, Kathleen; Bain, Eva; Stein, Madeleine; Bhagra, Sai; Sit, Daegan; Kamran, Rakhshan; Chang, Yaping; Devji, Tahira; Mir, Hassan; Manja, Veena; Schofield, Toni; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Agoritsas, Thomas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Otto, Catherine M; Vandvik, Per O

    2016-09-28

     To determine the frequency of survival, stroke, atrial fibrillation, structural valve deterioration, and length of hospital stay after surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) with a bioprosthetic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis.  Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.  Medline, Embase, PubMed (non-Medline records only), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2002 to June 2016.  Eligible observational studies followed patients after SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve for at least two years.  Reviewers, independently and in duplicate, evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias for patient important outcomes. We used the GRADE system to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. Published survival curves provided data for survival and freedom from structural valve deterioration, and random effect models provided the framework for estimates of pooled incidence rates of stroke, atrial fibrillation, and length of hospital stay.  In patients undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve, median survival was 16 years in those aged 65 or less, 12 years in those aged 65 to 75, seven years in those aged 75 to 85, and six years in those aged more than 85. The incidence rate of stroke was 0.25 per 100 patient years (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.54) and atrial fibrillation 2.90 per 100 patient years (1.78 to 4.79). Post-SAVR, freedom from structural valve deterioration was 94.0% at 10 years, 81.7% at 15 years, and 52% at 20 years, and mean length of hospital stay was 12 days (95% confidence interval 9 to 15).  Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve can expect only slightly lower survival than those without aortic stenosis, and a low incidence of stroke and, up to 10 years, of structural valve deterioration. The rate of deterioration increases rapidly after 10 years, and particularly after 15 years

  18. Prognosis after surgical replacement with a bioprosthetic aortic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis: systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Gordon H; O’Brien, Kathleen; Bain, Eva; Stein, Madeleine; Bhagra, Sai; Sit, Daegan; Kamran, Rakhshan; Chang, Yaping; Devji, Tahira; Mir, Hassan; Manja, Veena; Schofield, Toni; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Agoritsas, Thomas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Otto, Catherine M; Vandvik, Per O

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of survival, stroke, atrial fibrillation, structural valve deterioration, and length of hospital stay after surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) with a bioprosthetic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, PubMed (non-Medline records only), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2002 to June 2016. Study selection Eligible observational studies followed patients after SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve for at least two years. Methods Reviewers, independently and in duplicate, evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias for patient important outcomes. We used the GRADE system to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. Published survival curves provided data for survival and freedom from structural valve deterioration, and random effect models provided the framework for estimates of pooled incidence rates of stroke, atrial fibrillation, and length of hospital stay. Results In patients undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve, median survival was 16 years in those aged 65 or less, 12 years in those aged 65 to 75, seven years in those aged 75 to 85, and six years in those aged more than 85. The incidence rate of stroke was 0.25 per 100 patient years (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.54) and atrial fibrillation 2.90 per 100 patient years (1.78 to 4.79). Post-SAVR, freedom from structural valve deterioration was 94.0% at 10 years, 81.7% at 15 years, and 52% at 20 years, and mean length of hospital stay was 12 days (95% confidence interval 9 to 15). Conclusion Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve can expect only slightly lower survival than those without aortic stenosis, and a low incidence of stroke and, up to 10 years, of structural valve deterioration. The rate of deterioration

  19. Collagen mineralization in human aortic valve stenosis: a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Davoli, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Calcific aortic stenosis is a slowly progressive disorder characterized by an important extracellular matrix remodeling with fibrosis and massive deposition of minerals (primarily calcium) in the valve leaflet. The main structural components of human aortic valve are the large, thick collagen bundles that withstand the diastolic loading. Collagen has been studied in a number of reports that aim to clarify the mechanisms underlying the structural deterioration of heart valve substitutes, however to date, little is known regarding the morphological interaction between collagen and mineral crystals in the calcifying tissue of native aortic valve. Here, we have analyzed a total of 12 calcified native aortic valves by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) to depict the morphological appearance of mineralized collagen and to determine the location of calcium phosphate minerals in the collagen matrix of the valve cusp. Our results demonstrate that crystals probably nucleate and grow in the interior of the collagen fibers in the absence of surface events.

  20. Influence of St. Jude medical valve in patients with aortic stenosis and small aortic annulus on cardiac function and late survival result.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masafumi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi; Okazaki, Yukio; Takarabe, Kyoumi; Furukawa, Koujirou; Rikitake, Kazuhisa; Ohtubo, Satoshi

    2002-10-01

    This clinical study analyzes our experience of postoperative cardiac function and long-term survival rate in patients with aortic stenosis and small-size St. Jude Medical (SJM) valve. Sixty-eight patients who underwent aortic valve replacement by SJM valve were divided into two groups by preoperative aortic annulus diameter. Group 1 consisted of 44 patients with small aortic annulus and small-size SJM valve (19 mm or 21 mm). In Group 1, small SJM standard valves were implanted in 16 patients, and small SJM Hemodynamic Plus (HP) valves were implanted in 28 patients. Group 2 consisted of 24 patients with large-size SJM standard valve (23 mm or larger). Preoperative left ventricular mass index, left ventricular dimension, the dimension of ascending aorta, and body surface area were significantly smaller in Group 1 than in Group 2. Average age at surgery was older in Group 1 than in Group 2. Effective orifice area index of the SJM valve measured by the manufacturer's data was smaller in Group 1 than in Group 2. Postoperative left ventricular mass indexes of Group 1 (standard valve or HP valve) and Group 2 significantly decreased in comparison with the preoperative mass indexes. Postoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and the peak ejection rate of Group 1 were not different from those of Group 2. The 10 year survival rate of Group 1 was 79%, and the rate of Group 2 was 77%. At 10 years after surgery, freedom from valve-related complication of Group 1 was 80%, and freedom from complication of Group 2 was 81%. Our results demonstrated that small-size SJM valve afforded satisfactory long-term survival rate and valve-related event-free rate for elderly patients with small body surface area and small aortic annulus.

  1. Comparison of Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Longitudinal Study of Echo Parameters in Cohort A of the PARTNER Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Rebecca T.; Pibarot, Philippe; Stewart, William J.; Weissman, Neil J.; Gopalakrishnan, Deepika; Keane, Martin G.; Anwaruddin, Saif; Wang, Zueyue; Bilsker, Martin; Lindman, Brian R.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Kodali, Susheel K.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Svensson, Lars G.; Akin, Jodi J.; Anderson, William N.; Leon, Martin; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare echocardiographic findings in patients with critical aortic stenosis following surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR Background The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves trial randomized patients 1:1 to SAVR or TAVR Methods Echocardiograms were obtained at baseline, discharge, 30 days, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years post procedure and analyzed in a core laboratory. For the analysis of post-implant variables, the first interpretable study (≤ 6 mos) was used. Results Both groups showed a decrease in aortic valve gradients and increase in effective orifice area (EOA) (p < 0.0001) which remained stable over 2 years. Compared to SAVR, TAVR resulted in: larger indexed EOA (p = 0.038), less prosthesis-patient mismatch (p = 0.019), and more total and paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) (p < 0.0001). Baseline echocardiographic univariate predictors of death were: lower peak transaortic gradient in TAVR patients; low left ventricular diastolic volume (LVDV), low stroke volume, and greater severity of mitral regurgitation in SAVR patients. Post-implantation echocardiographic univariate predictors of death were: larger LVDV, systolic volume (LVSV) and EOA, decreased ejection fraction, and greater AR in TAVR patients; smaller LVSV and LVDV, low stroke volume, smaller EOA and prosthesis-patient mismatch in SAVR patients. Conclusions Patients randomized to either SAVR or TAVR experience enduring, significant reductions in transaortic gradients and increase in EOA. Compared to SAVR, TAVR patients had higher indexed EOA, lower prosthesis-patient mismatch and more AR. Univariate predictors of death for the TAVR group and SAVR groups differed and may allow future refinement in patient selection. PMID:23623915

  2. Significant Prognostic Value of Acute Preload Stress Echocardiography Using Leg-Positive Pressure Maneuver for Patients With Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis Awaiting Aortic Valve Intervention.

    PubMed

    Matsuzoe, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hatani, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Keiko; Shimoura, Hiroyuki; Ooka, Junichi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ryo-Koriyama, Keiko; Shinke, Toshiro; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Okita, Yutaka; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2017-06-28

    Although aortic valve intervention is recommended for virtually all symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS), how urgently the intervention should be performed remains controversial. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether the preload reserve in response to leg-positive pressure (LPP) maneuver could serve for decision-making for AS patients awaiting aortic valve intervention.Methods and Results:Sixty-eight patients with symptomatic AS, who were referred for aortic valve intervention, were recruited. Stroke volume (SV) was assessed by means of pulsed-wave Doppler, and the ratio between transmitral E wave and mitral annular velocity (e') was calculated to estimate ventricular filling pressure. While waiting for intervention, 11 patients experienced preoperative cardiac events. During acute preload stress, forward SV for patients without cardiac events increased significantly (from 43±9 to 49±10 mL/m(2), P<0.01) along with a minimal change in filling pressure (E/e': from 20±8 to 21±9, NS). For patients with cardiac events, the Frank-Starling mechanism was significantly impaired (SVi: from 40±9 to 38±7 mL/m(2), NS), while filling pressure increased to the critical level (E/e': from 24±8 to 31±8, P<0.001). Both the patients without flow reserve (∆SVi <4.5 mL/m(2)) and those without diastolic reserve (∆E/e' ≥2.9) exhibited significantly worse event-free survival than the others (P<0.05, respectively). Assessment of preload reserve during LPP stress could facilitate risk stratification of patients with severe AS waiting for aortic valve intervention.

  3. Change in amplitude distributions of Doppler spectrograms recorded below the aortic valve in patients with a valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, G; Lemire, F; Durand, L G; Latour, Y; Jarry, M; Solignac, A; Langlois, Y E

    1991-01-01

    Amplitude distributions of Doppler spectrograms were characterized in a group of 22 patients having no aortic pressure gradient and another group of 26 patients having a stenotic aortic valve. Specifically, for each patient, the ratios of the mean amplitude in three normalized frequency bands (low, middle and high) to the mean amplitude of the Doppler spectrogram computed in selected portions of the systolic period were considered. Pulsed-wave Doppler spectrograms were recorded by positioning the sample volume in the left ventricular outflow tract, approximately 1 cm below the aortic valve. Statistically significant differences were found between the middle (p = 0.041) and high (p = 0.028) frequency bands of Doppler signals recorded from the two groups of patients. The differences observed are believed to be attributed to blood flow eddies generated below the stenotic aortic heart valve and to changes in blood flow orientation.

  4. Mathematical, numerical and experimental study in the human aorta with coexisting models of bicuspid aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Z; Garcia, J; Kadem, L

    2011-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is an obstruction of the aorta and is usually associated with other concomitant cardiovascular abnormalities especially with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The objectives of this study are, (1) to investigate the effects of coarctation on the hemodynamics in the aorta to gain a better understanding of the cause of certain post-surgical coarctation problems, (2) to develop and introduce a new lumped parameter model, mainly based on non-invasive data, allowing the description of the interaction between left ventricle, coarctation of the aorta, aortic valve stenosis, and the arterial system.

  5. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis treated with medical therapy alone: temporal trends and implications for risk assessment and the design of future studies.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Nira; Raman, Gowri; Moorthy, Denish; O'Donnell, Thomas F; Thaler, David E; Feldmann, Edward; Lau, Joseph; Kitsios, Georgios D; Dahabreh, Issa J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of adverse clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone can be used to guide clinical decision-making and to inform future research. We aimed to investigate temporal changes in the incidence rate of clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone and to explore the implications of these changes for the design of future comparative studies. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, US Food and Drug Administration documents, and reference lists of included studies (last search: December 31, 2012). We selected prospective cohort studies of medical therapy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and we extracted information on study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes. We performed meta-analyses to estimate summary incidence rates, meta-regressions to assess trends over time, and simulations to explore sample size requirements for the design of future studies comparing new treatments against medical therapy. The main outcomes of interest were ipsilateral stroke, any stroke, cardiovascular death, death, and myocardial infarction. We identified 41 studies of medical therapy for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (last recruitment year: 1978-2009). The summary incidence rate of ipsilateral carotid territory stroke (25 studies) was 1.7 per 100 person-years. This incidence rate was significantly lower in recent studies (last recruitment year from 2000 onwards) as compared to studies that ended recruitment earlier (1.0 vs. 2.3 events per 100 person-years; p < 0.001). The incidence rates of any territory stroke (17 studies), cardiovascular death (6 studies), death (13 studies), and myocardial infarction (5 studies) were 2.7, 4.1, 4.6, and 1.8 per 100 person-years, respectively. Simulations showed that future studies would need to enroll large numbers of patients with a relatively high incidence rate under medical

  6. Effect of Randomized Lipid Lowering With Simvastatin and Ezetimibe on Cataract Development (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study).

    PubMed

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; La Cour, Morten; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Ray, Simon; Pedersen, Terje; Rossebø, Anne; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-12-15

    Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on statin initiation on the basis of total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk argue that the preventive effect of statins on cardiovascular events outweigh the side effects, although this is controversial. Studies indicate a possible effect of statin therapy on reducing risk of lens opacities. However, the results are conflicting. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study (NCT00092677) enrolled 1,873 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and no history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or other serious co-morbidities were randomized (1:1) to double-blind 40 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe versus placebo. The primary end point in this substudy was incident cataract. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to analyze: (1) if the active treatment reduced the risk of the primary end point and (2) if time-varying low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol lowering (annually assessed) was associated with less incident cataract per se. During an average follow-up of 4.3 years, 65 patients (3.5%) developed cataract. Mean age at baseline was 68 years and 39% were women. In Cox multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, prednisolone treatment, smoking, baseline LDL cholesterol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein; simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo was associated with 44% lower risk of cataract development (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.96, p = 0.034). In a parallel analysis substituting time-varying LDL-cholesterol with randomized treatment, lower intreatment LDL-cholesterol was in itself associated with lower risk of incident cataract (hazard ratio 0.78 per 1 mmol/ml lower total cholesterol, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93, p = 0.008). In conclusion, randomized treatment with simvastatin plus ezetimibe was associated with a 44% lower risk of incident cataract development. This effect should perhaps be considered

  7. Health Status After Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis at Increased Surgical Risk: Results From the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Reynolds, Matthew R; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Baron, Suzanne J; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Reardon, Michael J; Tadros, Peter N; Zorn, George L; Maini, Brij; Mumtaz, Mubashir A; Brown, John M; Kipperman, Robert M; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Cohen, David J

    2015-08-17

    This study sought to compare the health status outcomes for patients treated with either self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). In patients at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is associated with improved 1-year survival compared with AVR. However, elderly patients may be just as concerned with quality-of-life improvement as with prolonged survival as a goal of treatment. Between 2011 and 2012, 795 patients with severe aortic stenosis at increased surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or AVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 Questionnaire, and EuroQOL 5-dimension questionnaire; growth curve models were used to examine changes over time. Over the 1-year follow-up period, disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially for both treatment groups. At 1 month, there was a significant interaction between the benefit of TAVR over AVR and access site. Among surviving patients eligible for iliofemoral (IF) access, there was a clinically relevant early benefit with TAVR across all disease-specific and generic health status measures. Among the non-IF cohort, however, most health status measures were similar for TAVR and AVR, although there was a trend toward early benefit with TAVR on the Short-Form 12 Questionnaire's physical health scale. There were no consistent differences in health status between TAVR and AVR at the later time points. Health status improved substantially in surviving patients with increased surgical risk who were treated with either self-expanding TAVR or AVR. TAVR via the IF route was associated with better early health status compared with AVR, but there was no early health status benefit with non-IF TAVR compared with AVR. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic Core

  8. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wypasek, Ewa; Potaczek, Daniel P; Undas, Anetta

    2015-10-09

    Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51-3.96) vs. 1.68 (0.98-2.90) mg/L, p<0.001) and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p=0.01) compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression.

  9. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wypasek, Ewa; Potaczek, Daniel P.; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP) rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51–3.96) vs. 1.68 (0.98–2.90) mg/L, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.01) compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression. PMID:26473826

  10. Co-existence of severe coarctation of the aorta and aortic valve stenosis in a 65-year-old woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Onohara, Daisuke; Sato, Aiko; Tasaki, Yuichi; Yamada, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is usually diagnosed and corrected early in life. Survival to more than 60 years of age of a patient with unrepaired coarctation of the aorta is extremely unusual, and the optimal management strategies for such patients are controversial. We describe the case of a woman who was first diagnosed as having coarctation of the aorta and aortic valve stenosis at the age of 65 years and underwent successful aortic valve replacement.

  11. Aortic valve area, stroke volume, left ventricular hypertrophy, remodeling, and fibrosis in aortic stenosis assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between high and low gradient and normal and low flow aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Piérard, Sophie; Seldrum, Stéphanie; de Meester de Ravenstein, Christophe; Melchior, Julie; Maes, Frédéric; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Vancraeynest, David; Pasquet, Agnes; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2013-11-01

    Recent works using echocardiography suggested that low gradient (LG), low flow (LF) aortic stenosis (AS) has more pronounced left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling, smaller LV cavity size, and more interstitial fibrosis compared with high gradient (HG) normal flow (NF) AS. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of echocardiographic measurements and compared remodeling and fibrosis in different types of AS by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). A total of 128 patients (73±11 years of age; 75 men) with aortic valve area (AVA) <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) and ejection fraction >50% by echocardiography underwent CMR to measure planimetric AVA, phase-contrast indexed stroke volume, LV mass, and focal fibrosis. Using <40 mm Hg and indexed stroke volume <35 mL/m(2) by echocardiography as criteria for LG and LF, 69 (54%) patients were HG/NF, 28 (22%) HG/LF, 17 (13%) LG/NF, and 14 (11%) LG/LF AS. LV outflow tract area, indexed stroke volume, and AVA correlated well between echocardiography and CMR (r=0.7, 0.61, and 0.65, respectively; P<0.001 for all). By CMR, however, planimetric AVA was larger in LF/LG (0.54±0.08 cm(2)/m(2)) and LG/NF (0.61±0.08 cm(2)/m(2)) than in HG/LF (0.46±0.07 cm(2)/m(2); P<0.05) AS, and indexed LV mass was lower in LG/LF (75±12 g/m(2)) and LG/NF (81±18 g/m(2)) than in HG/LF (100±27 g/m(2); P<0.05) AS. All groups of AS had similar LV volumes, predominantly concentric hypertrophy remodeling, and similar amounts of focal fibrosis. CMR confirmed overall accuracy of echocardiographic classification of AS but demonstrated that LG/LF and LG/NF AS have larger AVA, less LV hypertrophy, and similar focal fibrosis compared with HG/LF AS. This challenges the view that LG/LF AS is a more advanced state of AS.

  12. Early detection of subclinical ventricular deterioration in aortic stenosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction are known to have worse outcome. We aimed to investigate whether LGE on CMR would be useful in early detection of subclinical LV structural and functional derangements in AS patients. Methods 118 patients with moderate to severe AS were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography and CMR images were taken and the patients were divided into groups according to the presence/absence of LGE and of LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction (EF) <50%). The stiffness of LV was calculated based on Doppler and CMR measurements. Results Patients were grouped into either group 1, no LGE and normal LVEF, group 2, LGE but normal LVEF and group 3, LGE with depressed LVEF. There was a significant trend towards increasing LV volumes, worsening of LV diastolic function (E/e’, diastolic elastance), systolic function (end-systolic elastance) and LV hypertrophy between the three groups, which coincided with worsening functional capacity (all p-value < 0.001 for trend). Also, significant differences in the above parameters were noted between group 1 and 2 (E/e’, 14.6 ± 4.3 (mean ± standard deviation) in group 1 vs. 18.2 ± 9.4 in group 2; end-systolic elastance, 3.24 ± 2.31 in group 1 vs. 2.38 ± 1.16 in group 2, all p-value < 0.05). The amount of myocardial fibrosis on CMR correlated with parameters of diastolic (diastolic elastance, Spearman’s ρ = 0.256, p-value = 0.005) and systolic function (end-systolic elastance, Spearman’s ρ = -0.359, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the usefulness of CMR for early detection of subclinical LV structural and functional deterioration in AS patients. PMID:23984681

  13. Quantification of aortic valve stenosis in MRI-comparison of steady-state free precession and fast low-angle shot sequences.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Thomas; Malyar, Nasser; Jochims, Markus; Breuckmann, Frank; Hunold, Peter; Bruder, Oliver; Erbel, Raimund; Barkhausen, Jörg

    2007-05-01

    We compared two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences [steady-state free precession (SSFP) and gradient echo fast low-angle shot (FLASH)] for the assessment of aortic valve areas in aortic stenosis using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the standard of reference. Thirty-two patients with known aortic stenosis underwent MR (1.5 T) using a cine SSFP sequence and a cine FLASH sequence. Planimetry was performed in cross-sectional images and compared to the results of the TEE. In seven patients the grade of stenosis was additionally assessed by invasive cardiac catheterization (ICC). The mean aortic valve area measured by TEE was 0.97+/-0.19 mm(2), 1.00+/-0.25 mm(2) for SSFP and 1.25+/-0.23 mm(2) based on FLASH images. The mean difference between the valve areas assessed based on SSFP and TEE images was 0.15+/-0.13 cm(2) (FLASH vs TEE: 0.29+/-0.17 cm(2)). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that measurements using FLASH images overestimated the aortic valve area compared to TEE. Comparing ICC with MRI and TEE, only a weak to moderate correlation was found (ICC vs TEE: R=0.52, p=0.22; ICC vs SSFP: R=0.20, p=0.65; ICC vs FLASH: R=0.16, p=0.70). Measurements of the aortic valve area based on SSFP images correlate better with TEE compared to FLASH images.

  14. Dysregulation of ossification-related miRNAs in circulating osteogenic progenitor cells obtained from patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kan; Takahashi, Yuji; Osaki, Takuya; Nasu, Takahito; Tamada, Makiko; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Morino, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    CAVD (calcific aortic valve disease) is the defining feature of AS (aortic stenosis). The present study aimed to determine whether expression of ossification-related miRNAs is related to differentiation intro COPCs (circulating osteogenic progenitor cells) in patients with CAVD. The present study included 46 patients with AS and 46 controls. Twenty-nine patients underwent surgical AVR (aortic valve replacement) and 17 underwent TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation). The number of COPCs was higher in the AS group than in the controls (P<0.01). Levels of miR-30c were higher in the AS group than in the controls (P<0.01), whereas levels of miR-106a, miR-148a, miR-204, miR-211, miR-31 and miR-424 were lower in the AS group than in the controls (P<0.01). The number of COPCs and levels of osteocalcin protein in COPCs were positively correlated with levels of miR-30a and negatively correlated with levels of the remaining miRNAs (all P<0.05). The degree of aortic valve calcification was weakly positively correlated with the number of COPCs and miR-30c levels. The number of COPCs and miR-30c levels were decreased after surgery, whereas levels of the remaining miRNAs were increased (all P<0.05). Changes in these levels were greater after AVR than after TAVI (all P<0.05). In vitro study using cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells transfected with each ossification-related miRNA showed that these miRNAs controlled levels of osteocalcin protein. In conclusion, dysregulation of ossification-related miRNAs may be related to the differentiation into COPCs and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of CAVD. PMID:27129184

  15. Increased transcript level of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in human tricuspid compared with bicuspid aortic valves correlates with the stenosis severity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Edit; Caidahl, Kenneth; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Baeck, Magnus

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathomechanism of calcific aortic valve stenosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the transcript levels for PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), acts as a DNA damage nick sensor in stenotic valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early stage of diseased tricuspid valves exhibited higher mRNA levels for PARP-1 compared to bicuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mRNA levels for PARP-1 inversely correlated with the clinical stenosis severity in tricuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data demonstrated that DNA damage pathways might be associated with stenosis severity only in tricuspid valves. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress may contribute to the hemodynamic progression of aortic valve stenosis, and is associated with activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1. The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptional profile and the topological distribution of PARP-1 in human aortic valves, and its relation to the stenosis severity. Human stenotic aortic valves were obtained from 46 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery and used for mRNA extraction followed by quantitative real-time PCR to correlate the PARP-1 expression levels with the non invasive hemodynamic parameters quantifying the stenosis severity. Primary isolated valvular interstitial cells (VICs) were used to explore the effects of cytokines and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) on valvular PARP-1 expression. The thickened areas of stenotic valves with tricuspid morphology expressed significantly higher levels of PARP-1 mRNA compared with the corresponding part of bicuspid valves (0.501 vs 0.243, P = 0.01). Furthermore, the quantitative gene expression levels of PARP-1 were inversely correlated with the aortic valve area (AVA) (r = -0.46, P = 0.0469) and AVA indexed for body surface area (BSA) (r = -0.498; P = 0.0298) only in tricuspid aortic valves

  16. Observed and predicted reduction of ischemic cardiovascular events in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis trial.

    PubMed

    Holme, Ingar; Boman, Kurt; Brudi, Philippe; Egstrup, Kenneth; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Malbecq, William; Rossebø, Anne B; Wachtell, Kristian; Willenheimer, Ronnie; Pedersen, Terje R

    2010-06-15

    In the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) trial, combined ezetimibe (10 mg) and simvastatin (40 mg) decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 50% and ischemic cardiovascular event (ICE) risk by 22% compared to placebo. A larger decrease in ICE risk might have been expected for the degree of lipid-lowering observed. This analysis investigated relations between changes in lipoprotein components (LCs), and ICE risk decrease in the SEAS trial in all patients, by severity of aortic stenosis (AS), and compared to results of other clinical trials. A total of 1,570 patients with baseline aortic jet velocity (JV) data, baseline and 1-year low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, and no ICEs during the first year were included in the analysis. Relations between on-treatment measurements of 1-year LCs and time-to-ICE occurrence were assessed in all patients and in JV tertiles (<2.8, 2.8 to 3.3, and >3.3 m/s). Observed and predicted ICE risk decreases were compared by Cox model. Decreases in LCs after 1 year of ezetimibe plus simvastatin were associated with decreased ICE risk in all patients and in the 2 lower JV tertiles (p <0.05 to <0.001) but not in tertile 3. In JV tertiles 1 and 2, ICE risk decreased by 47% and 36%, respectively, was reasonably well predicted by all LCs, and was consistent with findings from meta-regression analyses in other populations. In conclusion, the degree of lipid lowering by ezetimibe plus simvastatin may predict the extent of ICE risk decrease in patients with mild AS, but ICE risk prediction in patients with more severe AS is confounded by AS-associated cardiovascular events and a shorter interval of exposure to lipid lowering.

  17. Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...

  18. Normalization of Diffuse ST-Depression with aVR Elevation After Rehydration in a Patient with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin R; Patel, Vikas J; Clark, Brittany; Rust, George

    2017-05-22

    BACKGROUND Isolated ST elevation in lead aVR in combination with global ST depression with normalization after rehydration is a unique electrocardiographic pattern that is associated with a broad range of diagnoses. Its association with left main coronary artery disease and other acute coronary syndromes suggest the need for early and aggressive cardiac evaluation. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old man presented with altered mental status and loss of consciousness. He was unresponsive, hypotensive, tachycardiac, and diaphoretic. An initial ECG showed diffuse ST depression with isolated ST elevation in lead aVR, and initial troponin levels were negative. After rehydration, a repeat ECG showed sinus rhythm without ischemic changes. An emergent echocardiogram showed severe aortic stenosis and global hypokinesis. Repeat troponin results were elevated. The patient had 2 subsequent cardiac arrests. Emergent cardiac catheterization showed an occluded right coronary artery with collaterals and complete occlusion of the LAD. Urgent intra-aortic balloon pump was placed, followed by coronary artery bypass graft, aortic valve replacement, and a placement of a left ventricular assist device. Despite maximal hemodynamic support, the patient died after cardiac arrest due to massive myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS Normalization of diffuse ST depression with isolated aVR ST elevation on electrocardiography with improvement in clinical and hemodynamic status through fluid resuscitation can mask a stuttering myocardial infarction given its association with left main coronary artery disease and partial right coronary artery occlusion.

  19. The JUPITER registry: 1-year results of transapical aortic valve implantation using a second-generation transcatheter heart valve in patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Silaschi, Miriam; Treede, Hendrik; Rastan, Ardawan J; Baumbach, Hardy; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kappert, Utz; Eichinger, Walter; Rüter, Florian; de Kroon, Thomas L; Lange, Rüdiger; Ensminger, Stephan; Wendler, Olaf

    2016-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established therapy for patients with aortic stenosis (AS) at high surgical risk. The JenaValve™ is a second-generation, self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV), implanted through transapical access (TA). During stent deployment, a specific 'clipping-mechanism' engages native aortic valve cusps for fixation. We present 1-year outcomes of the JUPITER registry, a post-market registry of the JenaValve for TA-TAVR. The JUPITER registry is a prospective, multicentre, uncontrolled and observational European study to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of the Conformité Européenne-marked JenaValve THV. A total of 180 patients with AS were enrolled between 2012 and 2014. End-points were adjudicated in accordance with the valve academic research consortium document no. 1 definitions. The mean age was 80.4 ± 5.9 years and the mean logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation I 21.2 ± 14.7%. The procedure was successful in 95.0% (171/180), implantation of a second THV (valve-in-valve) was performed in 2.2% (4/180) and conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) was necessary in 2.8% (5/180). No annular rupture or coronary ostia obstruction occurred. Two patients required SAVR after the day of index procedure (1.1%). All-cause mortality at 30 days was 11.1% (20/180), being cardiovascular in 7.2% (13/180). A major stroke occurred in 1.1% (2/180) at 30 days, no additional major strokes were observed during 1 year. All-cause mortality after 30 days was 13.1% (21/160) and combined efficacy at 1 year was 80.8% (122/151). At 1-year follow-up, no patient presented with more than moderate paravalvular leakage, while 2 patients (3.2%) showed moderate, 12 (19.0%) mild and 49 (82.4%) trace/none paravalvular regurgitation. In a high-risk cohort of patients undergoing TA-TAVR for AS, the use of the JenaValve THV is safe and effective. In patients at higher risk for coronary ostia

  20. One-Year Clinical Outcomes With SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in High-Risk and Inoperable Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Howard C; Thourani, Vinod H; Kodali, Susheel K; Makkar, Raj R; Szeto, Wilson Y; Anwaruddin, Saif; Desai, Nimesh; Lim, Scott; Malaisrie, S Chris; Kereiakes, Dean J; Ramee, Steven; Greason, Kevin L; Kapadia, Samir; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Hahn, Rebecca T; Pibarot, Philippe; Weissman, Neil J; Leipsic, Jonathon; Whisenant, Brian K; Webb, John G; Mack, Michael J; Leon, Martin B

    2016-07-12

    days, the incidence of moderate paravalvular aortic regurgitation did not increase, and no association between mild paravalvular leak and 1-year mortality was observed, although a small increase in disabling stroke occurred. These results, which likely reflect device iteration and procedural evolution, support the use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement as the preferred therapy in HR and inoperable patients with aortic stenosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01314313. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effect of aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis on flow dynamics in an abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shivam; Usmani, Abdullah Y.; Muralidhar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Physiological flows in rigid diseased arterial flow phantoms emulating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) under rest conditions with aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis are examined in vitro through 2D PIV measurements. Flow characteristics are first established in the model resembling a symmetric AAA with a straight outlet tube. The influence of aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis on AAA flow dynamics is then explored through a comparison of the nature of flow patterns, vorticity evolution, vortex core trajectory and hemodynamic factors against the reference configuration. Specifically, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index in the bulge portion of the models are of interest. The results of this investigation indicate overall phenomenological similarity in AAA flow patterns across the models. The pattern is characterized by a central jet and wall-bounded vortices whose strength increases during the deceleration phase as it moves forward. The central jet impacts the wall of AAA at its distal end. In the presence of an aorto-iliac bifurcation as well as iliac stenosis, the flow patterns show diminished strength, expanse and speed of propagation of the primary vortices. The positions of the instantaneous vortex cores, determined using the Q-function, correlate with flow separation in the bulge, flow resistance due to a bifurcation, and the break in symmetry introduced by a stenosis in one of the legs of the model. Time-averaged WSS in a healthy aorta is around 0.70 N m-2 and is lowered to the range ±0.2 N m-2 in the presence of the downstream bifurcation with a stenosed common iliac artery. The consequence of changes in the flow pattern within the aneurysm on disease progression is discussed.

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of major depression in a 100-year-old patient with severe aortic stenosis: a 5-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    O'Reardon, John P; Cristancho, Mario A; Ryley, Barbara; Patel, Kajal R; Haber, Howard L

    2011-09-01

    Although there is no specific age cutoff for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and no absolute contraindication to its use, very old age and the presence of cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis are factors that may negatively affect the physician's decision to administer ECT in individual cases. We report our follow-up of a 100-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis who has received ECT safely for 5 years now. No cardiac complications have emerged during this period. Her prior unipolar depressive episode with catatonic features remains in remission with a single prophylactic ECT session every 3 months. We have observed from our experience with this unique case that periodic multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the evolving risk-benefit profile of ECT is essential along with the inclusion of family members in this dialogue. Our patient's course illustrates that neither advanced age nor severe aortic stenosis is an absolute contraindication to ECT even over an extended period of time. Each case needs to be evaluated on its merits. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature where ECT has been administered safely for such an extended period in the setting of severe aortic stenosis.

  3. Electroconvulsive Therapy for Treatment of Major Depression in a 100-Year-Old Patient with Severe Aortic Stenosis: A 5-year follow up report

    PubMed Central

    O'Reardon, John P.; Cristancho, Mario A.; Ryley, Barbara; Patel, Kajal R.; Haber, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is no specific age cut-off for ECT and no absolute contraindication to its use, very old age as well as the presence of cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis are factors that may negatively impact the clinician's decision to administer ECT in the individual case. We report our follow-up of a 100 year old female with severe aortic stenosis who has now received ECT safely for a period of 5 years. No cardiac complications have emerged during this period. Her prior unipolar depressive episode with catatonic features remains in remission with a single prophylactic ECT session every 3 months. We have observed from our experience with this unique case that periodic multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the evolving risk-benefit profile of ECT is essential along with the inclusion of family members in this dialogue. Our patient course illustrates that neither advanced age nor severe aortic stenosis are absolute contraindications to ECT even over an extended period of time. Each case needs to be evaluated on its merits. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature where ECT has been administered safely for such an extended period in the setting of severe aortic stenosis. PMID:21865959

  4. Examination of periodontal pathogens in stenotic valve specimens and in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, L; Santangelo, R; Falchetti, P; Galluccio, F; Luciani, N; Anselmi, A; Nowzari, H; Verdugo, F; Fadda, G; D'Addona, A

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The influence of periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular diseases needs further investigation. Therefore, the aims of this clinical study are: to test the presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in aortic valves and to assess the concomitant presence of the same periodontal bacteria DNA in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis. Nineteen consecutive patients (12 males and 7 females, age: 49-85 years) were enrolled in this study after having been subjected to a complete periodontal evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. All patients were scheduled for aortic valve replacement surgery. After clinical and microbial periodontal examination, the aortic valve tissue specimens were obtained by excision during valve replacement surgery and the patients were subjected to the whole blood sampling before the surgery. The polymerase chain reaction technology was used to detect the putative periodontal pathogens Tannerella forshytia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola. Neither the 19 aortic valve specimens nor the blood samples were positive for the genoma of the selected periodontal pathogens. The selected periodontal pathogens did not colonize the aortic valve of patients affected by stenosis and bacterial genoma was not present in whole blood samples. A high blood pressure at the aortic valve may prevent the adhesion and proliferation of bacterial colonies.

  5. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  6. Analysis of geographic variations in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aortic stenosis in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, John P; Phillips, Harry R; Holleran, Sara A; Wang, Andrew; O'Connor, Christopher M; Smith, Peter K; Hughes, G Chad; Harrison, J Kevin; Patel, Manesh R

    2014-06-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of aortic stenosis (AS), many patients with AS remain untreated. Barriers to accessing cardiovascular surgical care may play a role in this undertreatment. We sought to examine whether there are geographic variations in the treatment of AS within North Carolina that may reflect differential access to care. Hospital discharge data from North Carolina hospitals during federal fiscal year 2010 were analyzed from the Thomson Reuters database. Patients hospitalized with AS were identified using International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes. ICD-9 procedure codes were used to identify patients who had aortic valve replacement and other cardiac procedures. The rates of hospitalizations for AS and aortic valve replacement were calculated per county in North Carolina. In fiscal year 2010, there were 12,111 patients who were discharged from a North Carolina hospital with AS listed as one of the ICD-9 discharge diagnosis codes. The median age for this population was 79 (twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth), with approximately 1/3 patients (28.9%) being at least 85 years of age and >1/2 being female (53.8%). Of them, 1,608 patients underwent valvular surgery with an in-hospital mortality rate of 3.3%. The highest rates, corrected for county population, of hospitalizations where AS was listed as the primary diagnosis were in the most rural segments of North Carolina while those same areas had the lowest rates of valvular surgery. In conclusion, there are significant geographic variations in the rates of hospitalization for AS and for valvular surgery within North Carolina. The most rural segments of the state have the highest rates of hospitalization while also having the lowest rates of surgery. This suggests geographic treatment disparities as a result of access to surgical care that must be considered as new therapies for AS, such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement, are deployed.

  7. Severe aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease--implications for management in the transcatheter aortic valve replacement era: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sachin S; Ige, Mobolaji; Tuzcu, E Murat; Ellis, Stephen G; Stewart, William J; Svensson, Lars G; Lytle, Bruce W; Kapadia, Samir R

    2013-07-02

    Management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is posing challenges. Due to limited and heterogeneous data on the prevalence and clinical impact of CAD on the outcomes of TAVR and the management strategies for CAD in patients undergoing TAVR, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature. Significant CAD is present in 40% to 75% of patients undergoing TAVR. The impact of CAD on outcomes after TAVR remains understudied. Based on existing data, not all patients require revascularization before TAVR. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) should be considered for severely stenotic lesions in proximal coronaries that subtend a large area of myocardium at risk. Ongoing studies randomizing patients to surgical or percutaneous management strategies for severe AS will help provide valuable data regarding the impact of CAD on TAVR outcomes, the role of PCI, and its timing in relation to TAVR. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of aortic valve calcification, as measured by MDCT, on survival in patients with aortic stenosis: results of an international registry study.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pibarot, Philippe; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Capoulade, Romain; Malouf, Joseph; Aggarval, Shivani; Araoz, Phillip A; Michelena, Hector I; Cueff, Caroline; Larose, Eric; Miller, Jordan D; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2014-09-23

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) load measures lesion severity in aortic stenosis (AS) and is useful for diagnostic purposes. Whether AVC predicts survival after diagnosis, independent of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic AS characteristics, has not been studied. This study evaluated the impact of AVC load, absolute and relative to aortic annulus size (AVCdensity), on overall mortality in patients with AS under conservative treatment and without regard to treatment. In 3 academic centers, we enrolled 794 patients (mean age, 73 ± 12 years; 274 women) diagnosed with AS by Doppler echocardiography who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) within the same episode of care. Absolute AVC load and AVCdensity (ratio of absolute AVC to cross-sectional area of aortic annulus) were measured, and severe AVC was separately defined in men and women. During follow-up, there were 440 aortic valve implantations (AVIs) and 194 deaths (115 under medical treatment). Univariate analysis showed strong association of absolute AVC and AVCdensity with survival (both, p < 0.0001) with a spline curve analysis pattern of threshold and plateau of risk. After adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, symptoms, AS severity on hemodynamic assessment, and LV ejection fraction, severe absolute AVC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 2.92; p = 0.03) or severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.37; p = 0.002) independently predicted mortality under medical treatment, with additive model predictive value (all, p ≤ 0.04) and a net reclassification index of 12.5% (p = 0.04). Severe absolute AVC (adjusted HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.62; p = 0.01) and severe AVCdensity (adjusted HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.52; p = 0.001) also independently predicted overall mortality, even with adjustment for time-dependent AVI. This large-scale, multicenter outcomes study of quantitative Doppler echocardiographic and MDCT

  9. Implementing a Continuous Quality Improvement Program in a High-Volume Clinical Echocardiography Laboratory: Improving Care for Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Minter, Stephanie; Armour, Alicia; Tinnemore, Amanda; Sivak, Joseph A; Sedberry, Brenda; Strub, Karen; Horan, Seanna M; Harrison, J Kevin; Kisslo, Joseph; Douglas, Pamela S; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The management of aortic stenosis rests on accurate echocardiographic diagnosis. Hence, it was chosen as a test case to examine the utility of continuous quality improvement (CQI) approaches to increase echocardiographic data accuracy and reliability. A novel, multistep CQI program was designed and prospectively used to investigate whether it could minimize the difference in aortic valve mean gradients reported by echocardiography when compared with cardiac catheterization. The Duke Echo Laboratory compiled a multidisciplinary CQI team including 4 senior sonographers and MD faculty to develop a mapped CQI process that incorporated Intersocietal Accreditation Commission standards. Quarterly, the CQI team reviewed all moderate- or greater-severity aortic stenosis echocardiography studies with concomitant catheterization data, and deidentified individual and group results were shared at meetings attended by cardiologists and sonographers. After review of 2011 data, the CQI team proposed specific amendments implemented over 2012: the use of nontraditional imaging and Doppler windows as well as evaluation of aortic gradients by a second sonographer. The primary outcome measure was agreement between catheterization- and echocardiography-derived mean gradients calculated by using the coverage probability index with a prespecified acceptable echocardiography-catheterization difference of <10 mm Hg in mean gradient. Between January 2011 and January 2014, 2093 echocardiograms reported moderate or greater aortic stenosis. Among cases with available catheterization data pre- and post-CQI, the coverage probability index increased from 54% to 70% (P=0.03; 98 cases, year 2011; 70 cases, year 2013). The proportion of patients referred for invasive valve hemodynamics decreased from 47% pre-CQI to 19% post-CQI (P<0.001). A laboratory practice pattern that was amenable to reform was identified, and a multistep modification was designed and implemented that produced clinically

  10. Association between aortic valve calcification measured on non-contrast computed tomography and aortic valve stenosis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Niels Herluf; Carlsen, Bjarke Bønløkke; Dahl, Jordi Sanchez; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Christensen, Nicolaj Lyhne; Khurrami, Lida; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Lindholt, Jes Sandal; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) measured on non-contrast computed tomography (CT) has shown correlation to severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS) and mortality in patients with known AS. The aim of this study was to determine the association of CT verified AVC and subclinical AS in a general population undergoing CT. CT scans from 566 randomly selected male participants (age 65-74) in the Danish cardiovascular screening study (DANCAVAS) were analyzed for AVC. All participants with a moderately or severely increased AVC score (≥300 arbitrary units (AU)) and a matched control group were invited for a supplementary echocardiography. AS was graded by indexed aortic valve area (AVAi) on echocardiography as moderate 0.6-0.85 cm(2)/m(2) and severe < 0.6 cm(2)/m(2), respectively. ROC- and regression analyses were performed. Due to prior valve surgery, and artifacts from ICD leads 16 individuals were excluded from the AVC scoring. Moderate or severe increased AVC was observed in 10.7% (95% CI: 8.4-13.7). Echocardiography was performed in 101 individuals; 32.7% (95% CI: 21.8 to 46.0) with moderate or high AVC score had moderate or severe AS, while none with no or low AVC. A ROC analysis defined an AVC score ≥588 AU to be suggestive of moderate or severe AS (AUC 0.89 ± 0.04, sensitivity 83% and specificity 87%). In the univariate analyses, AVC was the only variable significantly associated with AS. This study indicates an association between CT verified AVC and subclinical AS. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of aortic valve calcification using multislice computed tomography: correlation with haemodynamic severity of aortic stenosis and clinical implication for patients with low ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Cueff, Caroline; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Cimadevilla, Claire; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Himbert, Dominique; Tubach, Florence; Duval, Xavier; Iung, Bernard; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of the degree of aortic valve calcification (AVC) using electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is an accurate and complementary method to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). Whether threshold values of AVC obtained with EBCT could be extrapolated to multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was unclear and AVC diagnostic value in patients with low ejection fraction (EF) has never been specifically evaluated. Patients with mild to severe AS underwent prospectively within 1 week MSCT and TTE. Severe AS was defined as an aortic valve area (AVA) of less than 1 cm(2). In 179 patients with EF greater than 40% (validation set), the relationship between AVC and AVA was evaluated. The best threshold of AVC for the diagnosis of severe AS was then evaluated in a second subset (testing set) of 49 patients with low EF (≤40%). In this subgroup, AS severity was defined based on mean gradient, natural history or dobutamine stress echocardiography. Correlation between AVC and AVA was good (r=-0.63, p<0.0001). A threshold of 1651 arbitrary units (AU) provided 82% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 88% negative-predictive value and 70% positive-predictive value. In the testing set (patients with low EF), this threshold correctly differentiated patients with severe AS from non-severe AS in all but three cases. These three patients had an AVC score close to the threshold (1206, 1436 and 1797 AU). In this large series of patients with a wide range of AS, AVC was shown to be well correlated to AVA and may be a useful adjunct for the evaluation of AS severity especially in difficult cases such as patients with low EF.

  12. Causes of death and predictors of survival after aortic valve replacement in low flow vs. normal flow severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Eleid, Mackram F.; Michelena, Hector I.; Nkomo, Vuyisile T.; Nishimura, Rick A.; Malouf, Joseph F.; Scott, Christopher G.; Pellikka, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts Aims Reduced stroke volume index (SVI) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) is associated with adverse outcomes even after aortic valve replacement (AVR), although specific reasons for impaired survival in this group are unknown. We investigated predictors of post-AVR survival and specific cause of death in patients with AS according to SVI. Methods and results Among 1120 consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area <1.0 cm2) and preserved EF (≥50%) using 2-D and Doppler echocardiography who had AVR, 61 (5%) patients had reduced SVI [<35 mL/m2 (low flow, LF)] and 1059 (95%) had normal SVI [≥35 mL/m2 (normal flow, NF)]. Survival post-AVR was lower in patients with LF compared with NF [3-year survival in LF group 76% (95% CI 70–82) vs. 89% (95% CI 88–90%), P = 0.03] primarily due to higher cardiac mortality [3-year event rate 13% (95% CI 8–18%) in LF vs. 5% (95% CI 5–7%) in NF, P = 0.02]. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause of cardiac death in the LF group (57% of post-AVR cardiac deaths) and was a more frequent cause of death in LF compared with NF (3-year risk 7 vs. 2%, P = 0.008). Multivariable predictors of post-AVR mortality included age, creatinine, haemoglobin, right ventricular systolic pressure, SVI, and cognitive impairment. Conclusion Reduced SVI is associated with higher cardiac mortality after AVR. CHF is the predominant cause of cardiac mortality after AVR in patients with LF, suggesting the presence of persistent myocardial impairment in this population. PMID:25896358

  13. Predictive Value of the Mehran Score for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients with Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zungur, Mustafa; Gul, Ilker; Tastan, Ahmet; Damar, Ertan; Tavli, Talat

    2016-08-01

    The Mehran risk score (MS) was adopted to predict the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and includes clinical and procedural variables. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the value of MS in the prediction of CIN development after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Ninety-three patients (47 females; mean age, 77.2 ± 7.6 years) who underwent aortic valve replacement with TAVI for severe aortic stenosis in our center between June 2013 and November 2014 were included in the study. Patients were categorized into four risk groups based on MS: low (≤5), moderate (6-10), high (11-15), and very high (≥16). CIN was recorded in 24 patients after TAVI (25.8%). The amount of contrast medium was significantly higher in the CIN+ group (p = 0.029), and total mortality was higher in the CIN+ group than in the CIN- group (20.1 vs. 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.024). In univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, ejection fraction, baseline creatinine, baseline glomerular filtration rate, contrast medium volume, and MS were found to be significant risk factors for CIN (p < 0.05 for all). The receiver operating characteristic analysis of the significant variables in multivariate regression analysis revealed that the cutoff MS to predict the development of CIN was 13.0 (area under the curve, 0.654; 95% confidence interval, 0.495-0.758; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 68%). MS is a predictor of CIN development after TAVI. We think that the use of MS in clinical practice may decrease renal complications after TAVI.

  14. Predictive Value of the Mehran Score for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zungur, Mustafa; Gul, Ilker; Tastan, Ahmet; Damar, Ertan; Tavli, Talat

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The Mehran risk score (MS) was adopted to predict the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and includes clinical and procedural variables. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the value of MS in the prediction of CIN development after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods Ninety-three patients (47 females; mean age, 77.2 ± 7.6 years) who underwent aortic valve replacement with TAVI for severe aortic stenosis in our center between June 2013 and November 2014 were included in the study. Patients were categorized into four risk groups based on MS: low (≤5), moderate (6-10), high (11-15), and very high (≥16). Results CIN was recorded in 24 patients after TAVI (25.8%). The amount of contrast medium was significantly higher in the CIN+ group (p = 0.029), and total mortality was higher in the CIN+ group than in the CIN- group (20.1 vs. 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.024). In univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, ejection fraction, baseline creatinine, baseline glomerular filtration rate, contrast medium volume, and MS were found to be significant risk factors for CIN (p < 0.05 for all). The receiver operating characteristic analysis of the significant variables in multivariate regression analysis revealed that the cutoff MS to predict the development of CIN was 13.0 (area under the curve, 0.654; 95% confidence interval, 0.495-0.758; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 68%). Conclusion MS is a predictor of CIN development after TAVI. We think that the use of MS in clinical practice may decrease renal complications after TAVI. PMID:27648009

  15. Health Status after Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Severe Aorti