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Sample records for asymptomatic brca2 mutation

  1. Clinical outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma associated with BRCA-2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ojas; Leung, Keith; Ledbetter, Leslie; Kaley, Kristin; Rodriguez, Teresa; Garcon, Marie C; Saif, Muhammad W

    2015-02-01

    Patients with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 germ line mutations are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). In particular, the BRCA-2 mutation has been associated with a relative risk of developing PAC of 3.51. The BRCA-2 protein is involved in repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Recent reports have suggested that in the setting of impaired DNA repair, chemotherapeutic agents that induce DNA damage, such as platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (platins) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitors), have improved efficacy. However, because of the relative rarity of BRCA-related PAC, studies evaluating such agents in this setting are scarce. Patients with a known BRCA-2 mutation and PAC were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients with PAC and BRCA-2 mutation were identified. Four patients (40%) were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Seven patients (70%) received platinum agents, two (20%) received mitomycin-C, one (10%) received a PARP inhibitor, and seven (70%) received a topoisomerase-I inhibitor. Overall, chemotherapy was well tolerated with expected side effects. Patients with a BRCA-2 mutation and PAC represent a group with a unique biology underlying their cancer. Chemotherapies such as platinum derivatives, mitomycin-C, topoisomerase-I inhibitors, and PARP inhibitors targeting DNA require further investigation in this population. Genetic testing may guide therapy in the future. PMID:25304989

  2. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing may be offered. Genetic testing requires a DNA sample from blood or saliva. There are several ... specific BRCA mutation is present. This is called DNA sequencing. Your DNA then can be tested to ...

  3. Biallelic BRCA2 Mutations Shape the Somatic Mutational Landscape of Aggressive Prostate Tumors.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brennan; Karyadi, Danielle M; Davis, Brian W; Karlins, Eric; Tillmans, Lori S; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2016-05-01

    To identify clinically important molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa), we characterized the somatic landscape of aggressive tumors via deep, whole-genome sequencing. In our discovery set of ten tumor/normal subject pairs with Gleason scores of 8-10 at diagnosis, coordinated analysis of germline and somatic variants, including single-nucleotide variants, indels, and structural variants, revealed biallelic BRCA2 disruptions in a subset of samples. Compared to the other samples, the PCa BRCA2-deficient tumors exhibited a complex and highly specific mutation signature, featuring a 2.88-fold increased somatic mutation rate, depletion of context-specific C>T substitutions, and an enrichment for deletions, especially those longer than 10 bp. We next performed a BRCA2 deficiency-targeted reanalysis of 150 metastatic PCa tumors, and each of the 18 BRCA2-mutated samples recapitulated the BRCA2 deficiency-associated mutation signature, underscoring the potent influence of these lesions on somatic mutagenesis and tumor evolution. Among all 21 individuals with BRCA2-deficient tumors, only about half carried deleterious germline alleles. Importantly, the somatic mutation signature in tumors with one germline and one somatic risk allele was indistinguishable from those with purely somatic mutations. Our observations clearly demonstrate that BRCA2-disrupted tumors represent a unique and clinically relevant molecular subtype of aggressive PCa, highlighting both the promise and utility of this mutation signature as a prognostic and treatment-selection biomarker. Further, any test designed to leverage BRCA2 status as a biomarker for PCa must consider both germline and somatic mutations and all types of deleterious mutations.

  4. Effects of BRCA2 cis-regulation in normal breast and cancer risk amongst BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cis-acting regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at specific loci may modulate penetrance of germline mutations at the same loci by introducing different levels of expression of the wild-type allele. We have previously reported that BRCA2 shows differential allelic expression and we hypothesize that the known variable penetrance of BRCA2 mutations might be associated with this mechanism. Methods We combined haplotype analysis and differential allelic expression of BRCA2 in breast tissue to identify expression haplotypes and candidate cis-regulatory variants. These candidate variants underwent selection based on in silico predictions for regulatory potential and disruption of transcription factor binding, and were functionally analyzed in vitro and in vivo in normal and breast cancer cell lines. SNPs tagging the expression haplotypes were correlated with the total expression of several genes in breast tissue measured by Taqman and microarray technologies. The effect of the expression haplotypes on breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers was investigated in 2,754 carriers. Results We identified common haplotypes associated with differences in the levels of BRCA2 expression in human breast cells. We characterized three cis-regulatory SNPs located at the promoter and two intronic regulatory elements which affect the binding of the transcription factors C/EBPα, HMGA1, D-binding protein (DBP) and ZF5. We showed that the expression haplotypes also correlated with changes in the expression of other genes in normal breast. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence that the minor allele of SNP rs4942440, which is associated with higher BRCA2 expression, is also associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.048). Conclusions Our work provides further insights into the role of cis-regulatory variation in the penetrance of disease-causing mutations

  5. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer.

  6. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  7. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rolando Comacho; Esperon, Antonio Alejandro; Ropero, Ramon; Rubio, Maria Caridad; Rodriguez, Ronald; Ortiz, Rosa M; Anta, Juan J Lence; de los Rios, Mario; Carnesolta, Deyanira; del Olivera, Maria C; Vansam, Somalia Stiu; Royer, Robert; Akbari, Mohammad R; Donenberg, Talia; Narod, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to breast cancer incidence in Cuba has not yet been explored. In order to estimate the proportion of breast cancers due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Cuba, and to identify possible Cuban founder mutations, we conducted a study of unselected breast cancer patients from Havana, Cuba. We enrolled 336 women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in the city. A family history of cancer was obtained from each patient and a blood sample was processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques, but all mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. We were able to successfully complete testing on samples from 307 women. Among these, eight mutations were identified (seven in BRCA2 and one in BRCA1) representing 2.6% of the total, including 10% of familial cases and 10% of cases under age forty. One BRCA2 mutation (c.3394C > T) was found in two women, but no clear example of a founder mutation was identified. In summary, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are not uncommon in Cuban women with breast cancer, but the absence of founder mutations precludes the development of a rapid and inexpensive clinical screening test.

  8. Women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations survive ovarian cancer at higher rates

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored multicenter study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on January 25, 2012, provides strong evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers with ovarian cancer were more

  9. Origin and distribution of the BRCA2-8765delAG mutation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Grazia; Cossu, Antonio; Friedman, Eitan; Budroni, Mario; Farris, Antonio; Contu, Antonio; Pisano, Marina; Baldinu, Paola; Sini, Maria C; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Background The BRCA2-8765delAG mutation was firstly described in breast cancer families from French-Canadian and Jewish-Yemenite populations; it was then reported as a founder mutation in Sardinian families. We evaluated both the prevalence of the BRCA2-8765delAG variant in Sardinia and the putative existence of a common ancestral origin through a haplotype analysis of breast cancer family members carrying such a mutation. Methods Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers (D13S1250, centromeric, to D13S267, telomeric) spanning the BRCA2 gene locus were used for the haplotype analysis. Screening for the 8765delAG mutation was performed by PCR-based amplification of BRCA2-exon 20, followed by automated sequencing. Results Among families with high recurrence of breast cancer (≥ 3 cases in first-degree relatives), those from North Sardinia shared the same haplotype whereas the families from French Canadian and Jewish-Yemenite populations presented distinct genetic assets at the BRCA2 locus. Screening for the BRCA2-8765delAG variant among unselected and consecutively-collected breast cancer patients originating from the entire Sardinia revealed that such a mutation is present in the northern part of the island only [9/648 (1.4%) among cases from North Sardinia versus 0/493 among cases from South Sardinia]. Conclusion The BRCA2-8765delAG has an independent origin in geographically and ethnically distinct populations, acting as a founder mutation in North but not in South Sardinia. Since BRCA2-8765delAG occurs within a triplet repeat sequence of AGAGAG, our study further confirmed the existence of a mutational hot-spot at this genomic position (additional genetic factors within each single population might be involved in generating such a mutation). PMID:17640379

  10. First case report of an adrenocortical carcinoma caused by a BRCA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Grunenwald, Solange; Nolet, Serge; Primeau, Vanessa; Côté, Stéphanie; Maugard, Christine M.; Lacroix, André; Gaboury, Louis; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) may rarely be a component of inherited cancer syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. ACC caused by a BRCA2 mutation has never been reported. Methods: Nucleotide sequencing of BRCA2 in lymphocyte and tumoral DNA of a 50-year-old male who presented with an androgen-secreting ACC and a strong family history of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. Results: A germline BRCA2 2 bp heterozygous deletion at nucleotide 8765 (8765delAG) leading to a frameshift mutation (p.Glu2846GlyfsX23) was detected. Only the BRCA2 deleted allele was retained in the ACC tumoral DNA compared with the control DNA supporting a loss of heterozygosity in the tumor. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of a patient with ACC associated with a BRCA2 germline mutation. Loss of heterozygosity in ACC DNA suggests a causal link with the BRCA2 8765delAG mutation. PMID:27603373

  11. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks: impact in the western Danish population.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne; Ladelund, Steen; Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Hansen, Thomas V O; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Borg, Åke; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G>A and c.8474delC] were found to account for 23 % of the BRCA1 mutations and for 32 % of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 mutation c.3319G>T was, compared to other BRCA1 mutations, associated with a higher risk for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to up to one-third of the families in western Denmark and among these the BRCA1 c.3319G>T mutation is potentially linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

  12. Founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in French Canadian breast and ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed Central

    Tonin, P N; Mes-Masson, A M; Futreal, P A; Morgan, K; Mahon, M; Foulkes, W D; Cole, D E; Provencher, D; Ghadirian, P; Narod, S A

    1998-01-01

    We have identified four mutations in each of the breast cancer-susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, in French Canadian breast cancer and breast/ovarian cancer families from Quebec. To identify founder effects, we examined independently ascertained French Canadian cancer families for the distribution of these eight mutations. Mutations were found in 41 of 97 families. Six of eight mutations were observed at least twice. The BRCA1 C4446T mutation was the most common mutation found, followed by the BRCA2 8765delAG mutation. Together, these mutations were found in 28 of 41 families identified to have a mutation. The odds of detection of any of the four BRCA1 mutations was 18.7x greater if one or more cases of ovarian cancer were also present in the family. The odds of detection of any of the four BRCA2 mutations was 5.3x greater if there were at least five cases of breast cancer in the family. Interestingly, the presence of a breast cancer case <36 years of age was strongly predictive of the presence of any of the eight mutations screened. Carriers of the same mutation, from different families, shared similar haplotypes, indicating that the mutant alleles were likely to be identical by descent for a mutation in the founder population. The identification of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations will facilitate carrier detection in French Canadian breast cancer and breast/ovarian cancer families. PMID:9792861

  13. Family history of cancer and germline BRCA2 mutations in sporadic exocrine pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Real, F X; Malats, N; Lesca, G; Porta, M; Chopin, S; Lenoir, G M; Sinilnikova, O

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hereditary factors have been reported in 5–10% of cases with exocrine pancreatic cancer and recent data support a role for BRCA2. Aims: We have studied the prevalence of germline BRCA2 mutations in two groups of patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer from an unselected series in Spain: group A included 24 cases showing familial aggregation of cancer and group B included 54 age, sex, and hospital matched cases without such evidence. Methods: Information was obtained by interview of patients and was validated by a telephone interview with a structured questionnaire. In patients from group A, >80% of the coding sequence of BRCA2 was analysed; in patients from group B, the regions in which germline BRCA2 mutations have been described to be associated with pancreatic cancer were screened. Results: Telephone interviews led to reclassification of 7/54 cases (13%). Familial aggregation of cancer was found in 24/165 cases (14.5%); six patients had a first degree relative with pancreatic cancer (3.6%) and nine patients had relatives with breast cancer. Germline BRCA2 mutations were not identified in any patient from group A (0/23). Among group B cases, one germline variant (T5868G>Asn1880Lys) was found in a 59 year old male without a family history of cancer. The 6174delT mutation was not found in any of the 71 cases analysed. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of BRCA2 mutations among patients with pancreatic cancer in Spain is low and the 6174delT mutation appears to be very infrequent. Our data do not support screening patients with cancer of the pancreas for germline BRCA2 mutations to identify relatives at high risk of developing this tumour. PMID:11950811

  14. Recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexican women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Royer, Robert; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Akbari, Mohammad R.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Martínez-Matsushita, Louis; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ziv, Elad; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an estimated 58–80% lifetime risk of breast cancer. In general, screening is done for cancer patients if a relative has been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer. There are few data on the prevalence of mutations in these genes in Mexican women with breast cancer and this hampers efforts to develop screening policies in Mexico. Methods We screened 810 unselected women with breast cancer from three cities in Mexico (Mexico City, Veracruz and Monterrey) for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including a panel of 26 previously reported mutations. Results Thirty-five mutations were identified in 34 women (4.3% of total) including 20 BRCA1 mutations and 15 BRCA2 mutations. Twenty-two of the 35 mutations were recurrent mutations (62.8%). Only five of the 34 mutation carriers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (three with BRCA1 and two with BRCA2 mutations). Conclusion These results support the rationale for a strategy of screening for recurrent mutations in all women with breast cancer in Mexico, as opposed to restricting screening to those with a sister or mother with breast or ovarian cancer. Impact These results will impact cancer genetic testing in Mexico and the identification of at-risk individuals who will benefit from increased surveillance. PMID:25371446

  15. Low frequency of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llort, Gemma; Muñoz, Carmen Yagüe; Tuser, Mercè Peris; Guillermo, Ignacio Blanco; Lluch, José Ramón Germà; Bale, Allen E; Franco, Mayra Alvarez

    2002-03-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations underlie a substantial proportion of all hereditary breast cancer. The mutational spectrum in these genes is very broad, with hundreds of different BRCA mutations reported worldwide. However, high frequency founder mutations make up a substantial fraction of all mutations in some ethnic groups. We directly sequenced BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 35 Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families and found 13 mutations of which 3 had been reported previously in Spain. The ten novel mutations are: IVS5+1 G>A, 1491delA, Leu1086Ter, and Gln895Ter in BRCA1; Glu49Ter, 5373delGTAT, 5947delCTCT, 6672delTA, 8281insA, and Pro3039Leu (which also involves a splice site) in BRCA2. Our data, in combination with previous reports, indicate that 14 mutations have been seen recurrently in Spanish families. Analyzing these 14 mutations in 42 previously untested breast/ovarian cancer families revealed only two families testing positive, one for BRCA1 185delAG and one for BRCA2 9254delATCAT. While several mutations have been found recurrently in Spain, none appear to be high frequency founder mutations based on studies of breast and ovarian cancer families.

  16. A Comprehensive Focus on Global Spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Fatemeh; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer of women all over the world. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations comprise the most important genetic susceptibility of BC. Except for few common mutations, the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is heterogeneous in diverse populations. 185AGdel and 5382insC are the most important BRCA1 and BRCA2 alterations which have been encountered in most of the populations. After those Ashkenazi founder mutations, 300T>G also demonstrated sparse frequency in African American and European populations. This review affords quick access to the most frequent alterations among various populations which could be helpful in BRCA screening programs. PMID:24312913

  17. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Scotland and Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been identified in 107 families in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Ninety-seven of these families had been referred to regional cancer genetics centres and a further 10 were identified from a sequential series of male breast cancers treated in Edinburgh. Fifty-nine of the families had a mutation in BRCA1 and 46 in BRCA2. Two families had both. Family trees were extended and cancer diagnoses verified by means of the unusually complete and accessible Scottish and Northern Irish records. Ten specific recurring mutations (five in each gene) accounted for almost half of the total detected, and almost one-quarter were accounted for by just two (BRCA1 2800 delAA and BRCA2 6503 delTT). The prevalence of breast cancer is similar for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation families (average 3.7 and 3.6 per family), but the former have a much greater risk of ovarian cancer (average 1.5 and 0.6 per family, respectively). For breast cancer, age of onset tended to be younger in BRCA1 mutation carriers but, for ovarian cancer, there was no difference between BRCA1 and BRCA2 families in mean age at diagnosis. Mutations within the 5′ two-thirds of BRCA1 carry a significantly higher relative risk of ovarian cancer and the same is true for mutations within the central portion of BRCA2 (the ‘OCCR’). In the former case, this appears to be because of differences in absolute risk for both ovarian and breast cancer, while, in the latter, only ovarian cancer risk varies significantly. The findings confirm that founder mutations are present within the Scottish/Northern Irish population and have implications for the organisation of molecular screening services. PMID:12698193

  18. Mouse ES-cell-based functional assay to evaluate mutations in BRCA2

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Sergey G.; Liu, Pentao; Sharan, Shyam K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have up to 80% risk of developing breast cancer by the age of 70. Sequencing based genetic tests are now available to identify mutation carriers in effort to reduce mortality through prevention and early diagnosis. However, lack of a suitable functional assay hinders risk assessment of more than 1900 BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants in the Breast Cancer Information Core database that do not clearly disrupt the gene product. We have established a simple, versatile and reliable assay to test for functional significance of mutations in BRCA2 using mouse embryonic stem cells (ES-cells) and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and have used it to classify 17 sequence variants. The assay is based on the ability of human BRCA2 to complement the loss of endogenous Brca2 in mouse ES-cells. This technique may also serve as a paradigm for functional analysis of mutations found in other human disease genes. PMID:18607349

  19. Screening for RAD51 and BRCA2 BRC repeat mutations in breast and ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Rapakko, Katrin; Heikkinen, Katri; Karppinen, Sanna-Maria; Winqvist, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Together, germline mutations in the two major susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 20-30% and 70-80% of the familial breast and ovarian cancer cases, respectively. This indicates involvement of additional susceptibility genes, perhaps in combination with a polygenic effect. However, it is also possible that part of the mutations disrupting BRCA1 and BRCA2 function still remains to be discovered. In response to double-strand DNA damage the co-operation between RAD51 and BRCA2 is of great importance, and the conserved BRC repeat motifs in BRCA2 are crucial for this interaction. In the current study, patients belonging to 126 breast and/or ovarian cancer families were screened for RAD51 and BRCA2 BRC repeat mutations in order to uncover aberrations that may contribute to hereditary cancer susceptibility. The performed study revealed several novel alterations, however, none of them appeared to be disease-related. Thus, it seems likely that germline mutations in the highly conserved RAD51 gene are extremely rare and generally poorly tolerated.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and the risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopik, V; Phelan, C; Cybulski, C; Narod, S A

    2015-05-01

    Women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and may be at moderately increased risk of other cancer types. This review examines studies to date that have evaluated the risk of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations for colorectal cancer. Accurate knowledge of colorectal cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers is important, because colonoscopy screening can prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of adenomatous polyps. Most studies that have identified an increased risk for colorectal cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were in high-risk cancer families, while studies that found no association were conducted in specific populations and involved the analysis of founder mutations. A recent prospective study of 7015 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation identified significant fivefold increased risk of colorectal cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers younger than 50 years [standardized incidence ratio (SIR): 4.8; 95% CI: 2.2-9], but not in women with a BRCA2 mutation or in older women. Based on this evidence, women with BRCA1 mutations should be counseled about their increased risk for early-onset colorectal cancer, and offered colonoscopy at 3- to 5-year intervals between the ages of 40 and 50 years, and should follow population guidelines thereafter.

  1. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Telomerase immortalization of human mammary epithelial cells derived from a BRCA2 mutation carrier.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cheryl M; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Bu, Dawei; Halloway, Shane; Beck, Adam; Shadeo, Ashleen; Zhang, Cindy; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shay, Jerry W; Euhus, David M

    2006-09-01

    A novel human mammary epithelial cell line, HME348, was established from benign breast tissue from a 44-year-old germ-line BRCA2 mutation carrier with a history of stage 1 breast cancer. Mutation analysis showed that the patient had a known 6872del4 BRCA2 heterozygous mutation. The human mammary epithelial cells passaged in culture exhibited cellular replicative aging as evidenced by telomere shortening, lack of telomerase activity, and senescence. Ectopic expression of telomerase (hTERT) reconstituted telomerase activity in these cells and led to the immortalization of the cells. When grown on glass, the majority of immortalized HME348 cells expressed ESA and p63 with a small population also expressing EMA. In three-dimensional Matrigel culture, HME348 cells formed complex branching acini structures that expressed luminal (EMA, CK18) and myoepithelial (p63, CALLA, CK14) markers. Three clones derived from this culture were also p63(+)/ESA(+)/EMA(+/-) on glass but formed similar acinar structures with both luminal and myoepithelial cell differentiation in Matrigel confirming the mammary progenitor nature of these cells. Additionally, the experimentally immortalized HME348 cells formed acini in cleared mammary fat pads in vivo. As this is the first report establishing and characterizing a benign human mammary epithelial cell line derived from a BRCA2 patient without the use of viral oncogenes, these cells may be useful for the study of BRCA2 function in breast morphogenesis and carcinogenesis.

  3. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Peru.

    PubMed

    Abugattas, J; Llacuachaqui, M; Allende, Y Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, A Arias; Velarde, R; Cotrina, J; Garcés, M; León, M; Calderón, G; de la Cruz, M; Mora, P; Royer, R; Herzog, J; Weitzel, J N; Narod, S A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer.

  4. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Abugattas, Julio; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Allende, Yasser Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, Abelardo Arias; Velarde, Raúl; Cotrina, José; Garcés, Milko; León, Mauricio; Calderón, Gabriela; de la Cruz, Miguel; Mora, Pamela; Royer, Robert; Herzog, Josef; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Narod, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, thirteen deleterious mutations were identified (eleven in BRCA1 and two in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented seven of the eleven mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. PMID:25256238

  5. AURKA F31I Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: A CIMBA study

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Sinilnikova, Olga; Vierkant, Robert A; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Coupier, Isabelle; Hughes, David; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Baynes, Caroline; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Schmutzler, Rita; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Horst, Jurgen; Schaefer, Dieter; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ilyushik, Eduard; Glendon, Gordon; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Borg, Ake; Backenhorn, Katja; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Greene, Mark H.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine; Domchek, Susan; Wagner, Theresa; Garber, Judy E.; Szabo, Csilla; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Olson, Janet E.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lindor, Noralane; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tommiska, Johanna; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Torres, Diana; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine; Guenard, Frederic; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Narod, Steven; Daly, Mary B.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tomlinson, Gail; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniouon, Antonis C.

    2009-01-01

    The AURKA oncogene is associated with abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy and predisposition to cancer. Amplification of AURKA has been detected at higher frequency in tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers than in sporadic breast tumors, suggesting that overexpression of AURKA and inactivation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 co-operate during tumor development and progression. The F31I polymorphism in AURKA has been associated with breast cancer risk in the homozygous state in prior studies. We evaluated whether the AURKA F31I polymorphism modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). CIMBA was established to provide sufficient statistical power through increased numbers of mutation carriers to identify polymorphisms that act as modifiers of cancer risk and can refine breast cancer risk estimates in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. A total of 4935 BRCA1 and 2241 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 11 individuals carrying both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were genotyped for F31I. Overall, homozygosity for the 31I allele was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers combined (HR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.06). Similarly, no significant association was seen in BRCA1 (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.75-1.08) or BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.67-1.29) or when assessing the modifying effects of either bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy or menopausal status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In summary, the F31I polymorphism in AURKA is not associated with a modified risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. PMID:17627006

  6. Whole exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in BRCA2 and FAT genes in acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Hitomi; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ameri, Mitra; Kuboki, Yuko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Masanori; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Michio; Shibata, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we identified recurrent mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. BRCA2 showed somatic or germline premature termination mutations, with loss of the wild-type allele in 3 of 7 tumors. FAT1, FAT3, and FAT4 showed somatic or germline missense mutations in 4 of 7 tumors. The germline FAT mutations were with loss of the wild-type allele. Loss of BRCA2 expression was observed in 5 of 11 tumors. One patient with a BRCA2-mutated tumor experienced complete remission of liver metastasis following cisplatinum chemotherapy. In conclusion, acinar cell carcinomas show a distinct mutation pattern and often harbor somatic or germline mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. This result may warrant assessment of BRCA2 abrogation in patients with the carcinoma to determine their sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:25743105

  7. Associations of High-Grade Prostate Cancer with BRCA1 and BRCA2 Founder Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Agalliu, Ilir; Gern, Robert; Leanza, Suzanne; Burk, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Protein-truncating mutations in BRCA1 and in particular BRCA2 genes have been associated with prostate cancer. However, there is still uncertainty about the magnitude of association particularly with Gleason score, and family history of prostate, breast, and ovary cancers. Experimental Design To further examine associations between three founder mutations located in BRCA1 (185delAG, 5382insC) or BRCA2 (6174delT) genes and prostate cancer, we conducted a study of 979 prostate cancer cases and 1,251 controls among Ashkenazi Jewish men. Detailed information was obtained on prostate cancer pathology, age at diagnosis, and family history of all cancers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models. Results Prostate cancer risk was increased (OR, 1.9; 95% CI 0.9-4.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers but not for BRCA1 mutation carriers. BRCA2 mutation carriers had an OR of 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.3) for Gleason score of 7 to 10, but no association was observed for Gleason score of <7. Carriers of BRCA1-185delAG mutation also had an OR of 3.5 (95% CI, 1.2-10.3) for Gleason score of ≥7 tumors; however, the association of either BRCA1-185delAG or 5382insC mutation was not statistically significant. Associations between founder mutations and prostate cancer were stronger in men with no first-degree family history of breast and/or ovarian cancers but were unaffected by family history of prostate cancer. Conclusion These results indicate that the BRCA2 founder mutation confers a 3-fold elevated risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Although BRCA1 mutations were not associated with prostate cancer, the BRCA1-185delAG was associated with high Gleason score tumors. These findings should be carefully considered in genetic counseling and/or evaluating therapeutic options. PMID:19188187

  8. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Van Roozendaal, Cees E; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Klein, Robert J; Daly, Mark J; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G; Altshuler, David M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-11-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

  9. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage dis-equilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

  10. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Van Roozendaal, Cees E; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Klein, Robert J; Daly, Mark J; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G; Altshuler, David M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-11-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.

  11. Clinical implications of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Muhr, D; Rappaport, C; Tea, M-K; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Fink-Retter, A; Pfeiler, G; Berger, A; Sun, P; Narod, S A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the experience of genetic testing in Austrian women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in terms of preventive measures taken and incident cancers diagnosed. We collected clinical information on 246 Austrian women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation tested between 1995 and 2012 and followed 182 of them for an average of 6.5 years. Of the 90 women who were cancer-free at baseline, 21.4% underwent preventive bilateral mastectomy, 46.1% had preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 1 took tamoxifen; 58.8% of the at-risk women underwent at least one screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Of the 85 women with breast cancer, 69.4% had a unilateral mastectomy or lumpectomy and 30.6% had a contralateral mastectomy. In the follow-up period, 14 new invasive breast cancers (6 first primary and 8 contralateral), 1 ductal carcinoma in situ case, 2 incident ovarian cancer cases, and 1 peritoneal cancer were diagnosed. In Austria, the majority of healthy women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation opt for preventive oophorectomy and MRI screening to manage their breast cancer risk; few have preventive mastectomy or take tamoxifen.

  12. Prostate cancer in a man with a BRCA2 mutation and a personal history of bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, C; Sopik, V; Narod, S A

    2015-08-01

    Men with a BRCA2 mutation face substantial lifetime risks for the development of both breast and prostate cancer. A male who was initially diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 32 was subsequently diagnosed at age 77 with both contralateral breast cancer and prostate cancer. He was found to be BRCA2 mutation carrier. The patient was treated with contralateral mastectomy, breast irradiation, prostate irradiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy. At age 83 he died of metastatic prostate cancer. Our case underscores the observation that BRCA2 mutation carriers are at risk for multiple cancers, including contralateral breast cancer, and illustrates the need for current practice recommendations for the early detection of breast and prostate cancer in men with BRCA2 mutations.

  13. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer families: Are there more breast cancer-susceptibility genes?

    SciTech Connect

    Serova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Putet, N.

    1997-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of breast cancer families due to BRCA1 or BRCA2, we performed mutation screening of the entire coding regions of both genes supplemented with linkage analysis of 31 families, 8 containing male breast cancers and 23 site-specific female breast cancer. A combination of protein-truncation test and SSCP or heteroduplex analyses was used for mutation screening complemented, where possible, by the analysis of expression level of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles. Six of the eight families with male breast cancer revealed frameshift mutations, two in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. Although most families with female site-specific breast cancers were thought to be due to mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, we identified only eight mutations in our series of 23 site-specific female breast cancer families (34%), four in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. According to the posterior probabilities calculated for mutation-negative families, based on linkage data and mutation screening results, we would expect 8-10 site-specific female breast cancer families of our series to be due to neither BRCA1 nor BRCA2. Thus, our results suggest the existence of at least one more major breast cancer-susceptibility gene. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Breast and ovarian cancer predisposition due to de novo BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Golmard, L; Delnatte, C; Laugé, A; Moncoutier, V; Lefol, C; Abidallah, K; Tenreiro, H; Copigny, F; Giraudeau, M; Guy, C; Barbaroux, C; Amorim, G; Briaux, A; Guibert, V; Tarabeux, J; Caputo, S; Collet, A; Gesta, P; Ingster, O; Stern, M-H; Rouleau, E; de Pauw, A; Gauthier-Villars, M; Buecher, B; Bézieau, S; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Houdayer, C

    2016-03-10

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two major genes predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer. Whereas high de novo mutation rates have been demonstrated for several genes, only 11 cases of de novo BRCA1/2 mutations have been reported to date and the BRCA1/2 de novo mutation rate remains unknown. The present study was designed to fill this gap based on a series of 12 805 consecutive unrelated patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer who met the inclusion criteria for BRCA1/2 gene analysis according to French guidelines. BRCA1/2 mutations were detected in 1527 (12%) patients, and three BRCA1 mutations and one BRCA2 mutation were de novo. The BRCA1/2 de novo mutation rate was estimated to be 0.3% (0.1%; 0.7%). Although rare, it may be useful to take the possibility of de novo BRCA1/2 mutation into account in genetic counseling of relatives and to improve the understanding of complex family histories of breast and ovarian cancers.

  15. Common Breast Cancer-Predisposition Alleles Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Pooley, Karen A.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Hofmann, Wera; Sutter, Christian; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Caldes, Trinidad; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Wagner, Theresa; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Ganz, Patricia A.; Daly, Mary B.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Blum, Joanne L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Pereira, Lutecia H. Mateus; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Barnett-Griness, Ofra; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Milgrom, Roni; Friedman, Eitan; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Llort, Gemma; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Manders, Peggy; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.L.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Pichert, Gabriella; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Davidson, Rosemarie; Douglas, Fiona; Godwin, Andrew K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, François; Chompret, Agnès; Capoulade, Corinne; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that these risks are modified by other genetic or environmental factors that cluster in families. A recent genome-wide association study has shown that common alleles at single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFR2 (rs2981582), TNRC9 (rs3803662), and MAP3K1 (rs889312) are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. To investigate whether these loci are also associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in a sample of 10,358 mutation carriers from 23 studies. The minor alleles of SNP rs2981582 and rs889312 were each associated with increased breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20–1.45, ptrend = 1.7 × 10−8 and HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.24, ptrend = 0.02) but not in BRCA1 carriers. rs3803662 was associated with increased breast cancer risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.20, ptrend = 5 × 10−5 in BRCA1 and BRCA2 combined). These loci appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The differences in the effects of the FGFR2 and MAP3K1 SNPs between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers point to differences in the biology of BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer tumors and confirm the distinct nature of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:18355772

  16. CONTRIBUTION TO FAMILIAL BREAST CANCER OF INHERITED MUTATIONS IN THE BRCA2-INTERACTING PROTEIN PALB2

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, Silvia; Norquist, Barbara M.; Walsh, Tom; Stray, Sunday; Mandell, Jessica B.; Lee, Ming K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; King, Mary-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the BRCA2-interacting protein PALB2 are known to be associated with increased risks of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the contribution of PALB2 to familial breast cancer in the United States, we sequenced the coding sequences and flanking regulatory regions of the gene from constitutional genomic DNA of 1144 familial breast cancer patients with wildtype sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2. Overall, 3.4% (33/972) of patients not selected by ancestry and 0% (0/172) of patients specifically of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry were heterozygous for a nonsense, frameshift, or frameshift-associated splice mutation in PALB2. Mutations were detected in both male and female breast cancer patients. All mutations were individually rare: the 33 heterozygotes harbored 13 different mutations, 5 previously reported and 8 novel. PALB2 heterozygotes were 4-fold more likely to have a male relative with breast cancer (P=0.0003) and 6-fold more likely to have a relative with pancreatic cancer (P=0.002), and 1.3-fold more likely to have a relative with ovarian cancer (P=0.18). Compared to their female relatives without mutations, increased risk of breast cancer for female PALB2 heterozygotes was 2.3-fold (95%CI [1.5–4.2]) by age 55 and 3.4-fold (95%CI [2.4–5.9]) by age 85. Loss of the wildtype PALB2 allele was observed in laser dissected tumor specimens from heterozygous patients. Given this mutation prevalence and risk, consideration might be given to clinical testing of PALB2 by complete genomic sequencing for familial breast cancer patients with wildtype sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:21285249

  17. Telomere length shows no association with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status.

    PubMed

    Killick, Emma; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Smith, Paula; Thompson, Deborah J; Pooley, Karen A; Easton, Doug F; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Page, Elizabeth; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether telomere length (TL) is a marker of cancer risk or genetic status amongst two cohorts of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. The first group was a prospective set of 665 male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 53 years), all healthy at time of enrollment and blood donation, 21 of whom have developed prostate cancer whilst on study. The second group consisted of 283 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 48 years), half of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer prior to enrollment. TL was quantified by qPCR from DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Weighted and unweighted Cox regressions and linear regression analyses were used to assess whether TL was associated with BRCA1/2 mutation status or cancer risk. We found no evidence for association between developing cancer or being a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier and telomere length. It is the first study investigating TL in a cohort of genetically predisposed males and although TL and BRCA status was previously studied in females our results don't support the previous finding of association between hereditary breast cancer and shorter TL. PMID:24489760

  18. Effect of BRCA2 mutation on familial breast cancer survival: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jun-nai; Qiao, Long; Fan, Wei; Gao, Qing-lei; Feng, Yao-jun

    2015-10-01

    Reports of BRCA2 genetic mutations on the prognosis of familial breast cancer (BC) patients have been contradictory. True difference in survival, if it exists, would have important implications for genetic counseling and in treatment of hereditary BC. The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival rate (OSR) among BRCA2 mutation carriers, non-carriers and sporadic BC patients. We searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and retrieved 4529 articles using keywords that included breast cancer, BRCA, prognosis and survival. Nine articles were selected for systematic review and among them 6 were included in our meta-analysis. We used the fixed and random effect models to calculate the summary odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). BRCA2 mutation carriers had significantly higher long-term OSR than non-carriers (OR=0.69 [95% CI=0.5-0.95]), while both short-term and long-term OSR of BRCA2 mutation carriers did not differ from those of patients with sporadic disease (OR=1.11 [95% CI=0.74-1.65]; 0.85 [95% CI=0.38-1.94], respectively). For BC-specific survival rate (BCSSR), BRCA2 mutation carriers had a similar BCSSR to the non-carriers (OR=0.61 [95% CI=0.28-1.34]). There was no significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between BRCA2 mutation carriers and patients with sporadic disease. Our results suggest that BRCA2 mutation increases long-term OSR in hereditary BC, which reminds us a new prospect of management of the disease.

  19. Genetic Variation at 9p22.2 and Ovarian Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Gismondi, Viviana; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Borg, Ake; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A.; Asperen, Christi J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Dunning, Alison M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Pichert, Gabriella; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Gregory, Helen; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Moncoutier, Virginie; Castera, Laurent; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Bonadona, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Lidereau, Rosette; Nogues, Catherine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Prieur, Fabienne; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Miron, Alex; Buys, Saundra S.; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Dutra-Clarke, Ana V. C.; Przybylo, Jennifer A.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Fiebig, Britta; Sutter, Christian; Arnold, Norbert; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Niederacher, Dieter; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Methods We genotyped rs3814113 in 10 029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10-9) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10-4). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PMID:21169536

  20. Development of primary early-onset colorectal cancers due to biallelic mutations of the FANCD1/BRCA2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Degrolard-Courcet, Emilie; Sokolowska, Joanna; Padeano, Marie-Martine; Guiu, Séverine; Bronner, Myriam; Chery, Carole; Coron, Fanny; Lepage, Côme; Chapusot, Caroline; Loustalot, Catherine; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Hatem, Cyril; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Martin, Laurent; Coutant, Charles; Baurand, Amandine; Couillault, Gérard; Delignette, Alexandra; El Chehadeh, Salima; Lizard, Sarab; Arnould, Laurent; Fumoleau, Pierre; Callier, Patrick; Mugneret, Francine; Philippe, Christophe; Frebourg, Thierry; Jonveaux, Philippe; Faivre, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and predisposition to malignancy. In a minority of cases, FA results from biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations that are associated with early-onset leukaemia and solid tumours. Here, we describe the clinical and molecular features of a remarkable family presenting with multiple primary colorectal cancers (CRCs) without detectable mutations in genes involved in the Mendelian predisposition to CRCs. We unexpectedly identified, despite the absence of clinical cardinal features of FA, a biallelic mutation of the FANCD1/BRCA2 corresponding to a frameshift alteration (c.1845_1846delCT, p.Asn615Lysfs*6) and a missense mutation (c.7802A>G, p.Tyr2601Cys). The diagnosis of FA was confirmed by the chromosomal analysis of lymphocytes. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that the c.7802A>G BRCA2 variation was in fact a splicing mutation that creates an aberrant splicing donor site and results partly into an aberrant transcript encoding a truncated protein (p.Tyr2601Trpfs*46). The atypical FA phenotype observed within this family was probably explained by the residual amount of BRCA2 with the point mutation c.7802A>G in the patients harbouring the biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations. Although this report is based in a single family, it suggests that CRCs may be part of the tumour spectrum associated with FANCD1/BRCA2 biallelic mutations and that the presence of such mutations should be considered in families with CRCs, even in the absence of cardinal features of FA. PMID:24301060

  1. The role of targeted BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analysis in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families of Portuguese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, A; Santos, C; Pinto, P; Pinheiro, M; Rocha, P; Pinto, C; Bizarro, S; Veiga, I; Principe, A S; Maia, S; Castro, F; Couto, R; Gouveia, A; Teixeira, M R

    2015-07-01

    We report the analysis of altogether 1050 suspected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families, 524 fully screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and 526 tested only for the most common mutations. Of the 119 families with pathogenic mutations, 40 (33.6%) had the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu rearrangement and 15 (12.6%) the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation, the former being specific of Portuguese ancestry and the latter showing a founder effect in Portugal. Interestingly, the two most common mutations were found in a significant proportion of the HBOC families with an a priori BRCAPRO mutation probability <10%. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry, even those fulfilling moderately stringent clinical-criteria for genetic testing, should be specifically analyzed for the two most common BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations, and we here present a simple method for this first tier test. Screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 should subsequently be offered to those families with a mutation probability ≥10% if none of those founder mutations are found. PMID:24916970

  2. The role of targeted BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analysis in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families of Portuguese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, A; Santos, C; Pinto, P; Pinheiro, M; Rocha, P; Pinto, C; Bizarro, S; Veiga, I; Principe, A S; Maia, S; Castro, F; Couto, R; Gouveia, A; Teixeira, M R

    2015-07-01

    We report the analysis of altogether 1050 suspected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families, 524 fully screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and 526 tested only for the most common mutations. Of the 119 families with pathogenic mutations, 40 (33.6%) had the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu rearrangement and 15 (12.6%) the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation, the former being specific of Portuguese ancestry and the latter showing a founder effect in Portugal. Interestingly, the two most common mutations were found in a significant proportion of the HBOC families with an a priori BRCAPRO mutation probability <10%. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry, even those fulfilling moderately stringent clinical-criteria for genetic testing, should be specifically analyzed for the two most common BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations, and we here present a simple method for this first tier test. Screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 should subsequently be offered to those families with a mutation probability ≥10% if none of those founder mutations are found.

  3. BRCA2 in American families with four or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer: recurrent and novel mutations, variable expression, penetrance, and the possibility of families whose cancer is not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, E L; Lee, M K; Mefford, H C; Argonza, R H; Morrow, J E; Hull, J; Dann, J L; King, M C

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of inherited BRCA2 mutations in American families--particularly the appearance in America of European founder mutations--the BRCA2 coding sequence, 5' UTR, and 3' UTR were screened in 22 Caucasian American kindreds with four or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Six mutations were found that cause a premature-termination codon; four of them have been reported elsewhere, and two are novel. In the four families with previously seen mutations, the distinct lineages at high risk of cancer were of Dutch, German, Irish, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry; mutations in Europe reflect these ancestries. The families with novel mutations were Puerto Rican Hispanic (exon 9 deletion 995delCAAAT) and Ashkenazi Jewish (exon 11 deletion 6425delTT). Among female BRCA2-mutation carriers, risks of breast cancer were 32% by age 50 years, 67% by age 70 years, and 80% by age 90 years, yielding a lifetime risk similar to that for BRCA1 but an older distribution of ages at onset. BRCA2 families also included multiple cases of cancers of the male breast (six cases), ovary (three cases), fallopian tube (two cases), pancreas (three cases), bladder (two cases), and prostate (two cases). Among 17 Ashkenazi Jewish families with four or more breast or ovarian cancers, 9 families (including 3 with ovarian cancer and 1 with male breast cancer) carried none of the three ancient mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. To date, both BRCA2 and BRCA1 have been screened by SSCA, supplemented by the protein-truncation test, in 48 families with four or more breast or ovarian cancers. Mutations have been detected in BRCA1 in 33 families, in BRCA2 in 6 families, and in neither gene in 9 families, suggesting both the probable cryptic nature of some mutations and the likelihood of at least one other BRCA gene. PMID:9150150

  4. Mutational analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from Asturias (Northern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Spain is heterogeneous and varies according to geographical origin of studied families. The contribution of these mutations to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has not been previously investigated in Asturian populations (Northern Spain). Methods In the present work, 256 unrelated high-risk probands with breast and/or ovarian cancer from families living in Asturias were analyzed for the presence of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation from October 2007 to May 2012. The entire coding sequences and each intron/exon boundaries of BRCA1/2 genes were screened both by direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). Results A total of 59 families (23%) were found to carry a pathogenic germ line mutation, 39 in BRCA1 and 20 in BRCA2. Twenty nine additional families (12%) carried an unknown significance variant. We detected 28 distinct pathogenic mutations (16 in BRCA1 and 12 in BRCA2), of which 3 mutations in BRCA1 (c.1674delA, c.1965C>A and c.2900_2901dupCT) and 5 in BRCA2 (c.262_263delCT, c.2095C>T, c.3263dupC, c.4030_4035delinsC, c.8042_8043delCA) had not been previously described. The novel mutations c.2900_2901dupCT in BRCA1 and c.4030_4035delinsC in BRCA2 occurred in 8 and 6 families respectively and clustered in two separated small geographically isolated areas suggesting a founder effect. These 2 mutations, together with the Galician BRCA1 mutation c.211A>G (9 families), and the common BRCA1 mutation c.3331_3334delCAAG (6 families), account for approximately 50% of all affected families. By contrast, very frequent mutations in other Spanish series such as the BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutation c.68_69delAG, was found in only one family. Conclusions In this study we report the BRCA1 and BRCA2 spectrum of mutations and their geographical distribution in Asturias, which largely differ from other areas of Spain. Our findings may help design a first step recurrent mutation panel for

  5. Increased Chromosomal Radiosensitivity in Women Carrying BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations Assessed With the G2 Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ernestos, Beroukas; Nikolaos, Pandis; Koulis, Giannoukakos; Eleni, Rizou; Konstantinos, Beroukas; Alexandra, Giatromanolaki; Michael, Koukourakis

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Several in vitro studies suggest that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers present increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Different assays for the assessment of deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand break repair capacity have been used, but results are rather inconsistent. Given the concerns about the possible risks of breast screening with mammography in mutation carrier women and the potentially damaging effects of radiotherapy, the purpose of this study was to further investigate the radiosensitivity of this population. Methods and Materials: The G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay was used to assess chromosomal breaks in lymphocyte cultures after exposure to 1 Gy. A group of familiar breast cancer patients carrying a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene (n = 15) and a group of healthy mutation carriers (n = 5) were investigated and compared with a reference group of healthy women carrying no mutation (n = 21). Results: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had a significantly higher number of mean chromatid breaks per cell (p = 0.006) and a higher maximum number of breaks (p = 0.0001) as compared with their matched controls. Both healthy carriers and carriers with a cancer history were more radiosensitive than controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.025, respectively). Age was not associated with increased radiosensitivity (p = 0.868). Conclusions: Our results indicate that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers show enhanced radiosensitivity, presumably because of the involvement of the BRCA genes in deoxyribonucleic acid repair and cell cycle control mechanisms.

  6. A Survey of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutations in women with breast cancer in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Donenberg, Talia; Ahmed, Humayun; Royer, Robert; Zhang, Shiyu; Narod, Steven A; George, Sophia; Akbari, Mohammad R; Ali, Jameel; Hurley, Judith

    2016-08-01

    The mortality rate from breast cancer in the nation of Trinidad and Tobago is among the highest of any country in the Caribbean region. The contribution of inherited gene mutations to the burden of breast cancer in Trinidad and Tobago has not been studied. We examined the prevalence of mutations in three susceptibility genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2) in breast cancer patients in Trinidad and Tobago. We studied 268 unselected breast cancer patients from Trinidad and Tobago and looked for mutations across the entire coding sequences of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. Overall, 28 of 268 patients (10.4 %) had a mutation in one of the three genes, including 15 in BRCA1, ten in BRCA2, two in PALB2, and one in both BRCA2 and PALB2. There were 25 different mutations identified; of these, four mutations were seen in two patients each. Given the high prevalence of mutations, it is reasonable to offer genetic testing for these three genes to all breast cancer patients in Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:27469594

  7. Disseminated Medulloblastoma in a Child with Germline BRCA2 6174delT Mutation and without Fanconi Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley Sloane; Shukla, Anju; Ren, Xiuhai; Finlay, Jonathan L.; Krieger, Mark D.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Aziz, Meraj; Fung, Eric T.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Barrett, Michael T.; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, occurs with increased frequency in individuals with Fanconi anemia who have biallelic germline mutations in BRCA2. We describe an 8-year-old child who had disseminated anaplastic medulloblastoma and a deleterious heterozygous BRCA2 6174delT germline mutation. Molecular profiling was consistent with Group 4 medulloblastoma. The posterior fossa mass was resected and the patient received intensive chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation. Despite this, the patient succumbed to a second recurrence of his medulloblastoma, which presented 8 months after diagnosis as malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions. Continuous medulloblastoma cell lines were isolated from the original tumor (CHLA-01-MED) and the malignant pleural effusion (CHLA-01R-MED). Here, we provide their analyses, including in vitro and in vivo growth, drug sensitivity, comparative genomic hybridization, and next generation sequencing analysis. In addition to the BRCA2 6174delT, the medulloblastoma cells had amplification of MYC, deletion at Xp11.2, and isochromosome 17, but no structural variations or overexpression of GFI1 or GFI1B. To our knowledge, this is the first pair of diagnosis/recurrence medulloblastoma cell lines, the only medulloblastoma cell lines with BRCA2 6174delT described to date, and the first reported case of a child with medulloblastoma associated with a germline BRCA2 6174delT who did not also have Fanconi anemia. PMID:26380221

  8. The importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations in breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Mehrgou, Amir; Akouchekian, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Many factors including genetic, environmental, and acquired are involved in breast cancer development across various societies. Among all of these factors in families with a history of breast cancer throughout several generations, genetics, like predisposing genes to develop this disease, should be considered more. Early detection of mutation carriers in these genes, in turn, can play an important role in its prevention. Because this disease has a high prevalence in half of the global population, female screening of reported mutations in predisposing genes, which have been seen in breast cancer patients, seems necessary. In this review, a number of mutations in two predisposing genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) that occurred in patients with a family history was investigated. We studied published articles about mutations in genes predisposed to breast cancer between 2000 and 2015. We then summarized and classified reported mutations in these two genes to recommend some exons which have a high potential to mutate. According to previous studies, exons have been reported as most mutated exons presented in this article. Considering the large size and high cost of screening all exons in these two genes in patients with a family history, especially in developing countries, the results of this review article can be beneficial and helpful in the selection of exon to screen for patients with this disease. PMID:27493913

  9. The importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations in breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Mehrgou, Amir; Akouchekian, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Many factors including genetic, environmental, and acquired are involved in breast cancer development across various societies. Among all of these factors in families with a history of breast cancer throughout several generations, genetics, like predisposing genes to develop this disease, should be considered more. Early detection of mutation carriers in these genes, in turn, can play an important role in its prevention. Because this disease has a high prevalence in half of the global population, female screening of reported mutations in predisposing genes, which have been seen in breast cancer patients, seems necessary. In this review, a number of mutations in two predisposing genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) that occurred in patients with a family history was investigated. We studied published articles about mutations in genes predisposed to breast cancer between 2000 and 2015. We then summarized and classified reported mutations in these two genes to recommend some exons which have a high potential to mutate. According to previous studies, exons have been reported as most mutated exons presented in this article. Considering the large size and high cost of screening all exons in these two genes in patients with a family history, especially in developing countries, the results of this review article can be beneficial and helpful in the selection of exon to screen for patients with this disease. PMID:27493913

  10. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  11. Screening of male breast cancer and of breast-ovarian cancer families for BRCA2 mutations using large bifluorescent amplicons

    PubMed Central

    Pages, S; Caux, V; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Tosi, M

    2001-01-01

    41 breast cancer or breast-ovarian cancer families, including 12 families with at least one affected first-degree male relative, were screened for mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Mutations had not been found in the BRCA1 gene of these families. Chemical cleavage of Mismatch was used to identify nucleotide changes within large PCR products (average size 1.2 kb) that carried strand-specific fluorescent end-labels. 15 amplicons were sufficient to scan 18 exons, including the large exon 11. The remaining 9 small exons were examined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The high sensitivity of this approach was documented by the detection, in these 41 patients, of all 9 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms reported with heterozygosity >0.1. Truncating BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 of the 41 families. 3 of them were in the group of 12 families comprising cases of male breast cancer. Since the methods used here have no bias for particular types of mutations, these data confirm the high proportion of frameshifts among mutations in BRCA2. However, relevant single nucleotide substitutions were also found: one resulting in a stop codon and another one, present in a male patient, was the previously reported change Asp2723His, that affects a highly conserved region of the BRCA2 protein. This study indicates a BRCA2 contribution of 10% (95% CI 2.5–17.5) to our original cohort of 59 breast-ovarian cancer families, whereas the contribution of BRCA1 had been estimated at 46% (95% CI 33–59). © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11207042

  12. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from medellín, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 5% of all breast cancers can be attributed to a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. The genetic component of breast cancer in Colombia has been, for the most part, studied on cases from the Bogota region. Five different founder mutations were in two studies of breast cancer patients in the Bogota region. It is important that the frequency of mutations be established among unselected cases of breast cancer of other regions of Colombia in order to estimate the genetic burden of this cancer in Colombia and to plan genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation frequencies of the BRCA genes in breast cancer patients unselected for family history or age, from Medellin, Colombia. Methods We enrolled 280 unselected women with breast cancer from a large public hospital in Medellin, Colombia. A detailed family history from each patient and a blood sample was obtained and processed for DNA analysis. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were sought using a combination of techniques including a panel of recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations which consists of fifty BRCA1 mutations and forty-six BRCA2 mutations, including the five recurrent Colombian BRCA mutations. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genetic testing was successfully completed for 244 of the 280 cases (87%). Among the 244 cases, three deleterious mutations were identified (two in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) representing 1.2% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 34 years. The two BRCA1 mutations were known founder mutations (3450del4 in exon 11 and A1708E in exon 18). The BRCA2 mutation was in exon 11 (5844del5) and has not been previously reported in individuals of Colombian descent. Among the three mutation-positive families was a breast cancer family and two families with no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Conclusion The frequency of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer cases from the Medellin region

  13. Effects of the missense mutations in canine BRCA2 on BRC repeat 3 functions and comparative analyses between canine and human BRC repeat 3.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Suzuki, Yu; Wada, Seiichi; Taoda, Takahiro; Iwai, Satomi; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Mammary tumors are the most common tumor type in both human and canine females. Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, have been found in most cases of inherited human breast cancer. Similarly, the canine BRCA2 gene locus has been associated with mammary tumors in female dogs. However, deleterious mutations in canine BRCA2 have not been reported, thus far. The BRCA2 protein is involved in homologous recombination repair via its interaction with RAD51 recombinase, an interaction mediated by 8 BRC repeats. These repeats are 26-amino acid, conserved motifs in mammalian BRCA2. Previous structural analyses of cancer-associated mutations affecting the BRC repeats have shown that the weakening of RAD51's affinity for even 1 repeat is sufficient to increase breast cancer susceptibility. In this study, we focused on 2 previously reported canine BRCA2 mutations (T1425P and K1435R) in BRC repeat 3 (BRC3), derived from mammary tumor samples. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51, and were considered deleterious. Two BRC3 mutations (K1440R and K1440E), reported in human breast cancer patients, occur at amino acids corresponding to those of the K1435R mutation in dogs. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51, and may also be considered deleterious. The two BRC3 mutations and a substitution (T1430P), corresponding to T1425P in canine BRCA2, were examined for their effects on human BRC3 function and the results were compared between species. The corresponding mutations and the substitution showed similar results in both human and canine BRC3. Therefore, canine BRCA2 may be a good model for studying human breast cancer caused by BRCA2 mutations.

  14. Effects of the missense mutations in canine BRCA2 on BRC repeat 3 functions and comparative analyses between canine and human BRC repeat 3.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Suzuki, Yu; Wada, Seiichi; Taoda, Takahiro; Iwai, Satomi; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Mammary tumors are the most common tumor type in both human and canine females. Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, have been found in most cases of inherited human breast cancer. Similarly, the canine BRCA2 gene locus has been associated with mammary tumors in female dogs. However, deleterious mutations in canine BRCA2 have not been reported, thus far. The BRCA2 protein is involved in homologous recombination repair via its interaction with RAD51 recombinase, an interaction mediated by 8 BRC repeats. These repeats are 26-amino acid, conserved motifs in mammalian BRCA2. Previous structural analyses of cancer-associated mutations affecting the BRC repeats have shown that the weakening of RAD51's affinity for even 1 repeat is sufficient to increase breast cancer susceptibility. In this study, we focused on 2 previously reported canine BRCA2 mutations (T1425P and K1435R) in BRC repeat 3 (BRC3), derived from mammary tumor samples. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51, and were considered deleterious. Two BRC3 mutations (K1440R and K1440E), reported in human breast cancer patients, occur at amino acids corresponding to those of the K1435R mutation in dogs. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51, and may also be considered deleterious. The two BRC3 mutations and a substitution (T1430P), corresponding to T1425P in canine BRCA2, were examined for their effects on human BRC3 function and the results were compared between species. The corresponding mutations and the substitution showed similar results in both human and canine BRC3. Therefore, canine BRCA2 may be a good model for studying human breast cancer caused by BRCA2 mutations. PMID:23071527

  15. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  16. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  17. Lymphocyte telomere length is long in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers regardless of cancer-affected status

    PubMed Central

    McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Bardwell, Julian; Brewer, Carole; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemary; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Douglas, Fiona; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Kennedy, M. John; McCann, Emma; Miedzybrobzka, Zosia; Murray, Alex; Porteous, Mary E.; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Walker, Lisa; Hodgson, Shirley; Eccles, Diana M.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Telomere length has been linked to risk of common diseases, including cancer, and has previously been proposed as a biomarker for cancer risk. Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations predispose to breast, ovarian and other cancer types. Methods We investigated telomere length in BRCA mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives and further examined whether telomere length is a modifier of cancer risk in mutation carriers. We measured mean telomere length in DNA extracted from whole blood using high-throughput Q-PCR. Participants were from the EMBRACE study in the UK and Eire (n=4,822) and comprised BRCA1 (n=1,628) and BRCA2 (n=1,506) mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives (n=1,688). Results We find no significant evidence that mean telomere length is associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. However, we find mutation carriers to have longer mean telomere length than their non-carrier relatives (all carriers vs. non-carriers, P-trend=0.0018), particularly in families with BRCA2 mutations (BRCA2 mutation carriers vs. all non-carriers, P-trend=0.0016). Our findings lend little support to the hypothesis that short mean telomere length predisposes to cancer. Conversely, our main and unexpected finding is that BRCA mutation carriers (regardless of cancer status) have longer telomeres than their non-mutation carrier, non-cancer-affected relatives. The longer telomere length in BRCA2 mutation carriers is consistent with its role in DNA damage response. Conclusions Overall, it appears that increased telomere length may be a consequence of these mutations, but is not itself directly related to the increased cancer risk in carriers. Impact The finding that mutation carriers to have longer mean telomere lengths than their non-carrier relatives is unexpected but biologically plausible and could open up new lines of research into the functions of the BRCA proteins. To our knowledge, this is the largest study of telomere length

  18. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Aalfs, Cora M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van Asperen, Christi J; van Roozendaal, K E P; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E; Kennedy, M John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D P; Gayther, Simon A; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-04-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10(-4), rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10(-4), rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10(-4). The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer.

  19. Significant clinical impact of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Alvarez-Gómez, Rosa María; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Herrera, Luis A.; Herzog, Josef; Castillo, Danielle; Mohar, Alejandro; Castro, Clementina; Gallardo, Lenny N.; Gallardo, Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Frequent recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics, including a large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), suggest that an ancestry-informed BRCA-testing strategy could reduce disparities and promote cancer prevention by enabling economical screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Mexico. Methods In a multistage approach, 188 cancer cases unselected for family cancer history (92 ovarian cancer and 96 breast cancer) were screened for BRCA mutations using a Hispanic mutation panel (HISPANEL®) of 115 recurrent mutations in a multiplex assay (114 on a mass spectroscopy platform, and a PCR assay for the BRCA1 ex9-12del mutation), followed by sequencing of all BRCA exons and adjacent intronic regions, and BRCA1 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) for HISPANEL negative cases. BRCA mutation prevalence was calculated and correlated with histology and tumor receptor status, and HISPANEL sensitivity was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 28% (26/92) of ovarian cancer cases and 15% (14/96) of breast cancer cases overall and 27% (9/33) of triple negative breast cancer. Most breast cancer cases were diagnosed with locally advanced disease. The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) accounted for 35% of the BRCA-associated ovarian cancer cases and 29% of the BRCA-associated breast cancer cases. At 2% of the sequencing and MLPA cost, the HISPANEL detected 68% of all BRCA mutations. Conclusion In this study, we found a remarkably high prevalence of BRCA mutations among ovarian and breast cases not selected for family history, and BRCA1 ex9-12del explained one third of the total. The remarkable frequency of BRCA1 ex9-12del in Mexico City supports a nearby origin of this Mexican founder mutation and may constitute a regional public health problem. The HISPANEL presents a translational opportunity for cost-effective genetic testing to enable breast and ovarian cancer

  20. Association of Type and Location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations With Risk of Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; McGuffog, Lesley; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19 581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11 900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. EXPOSURES Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Breast and ovarian cancer risks. RESULTS Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22–1.74; P = 2 × 10−6), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01–1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR23, RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22–1.55; P = 6 × 10−9). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56–0.70; P = 9 × 10−17). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR13; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10–2.40; P = .01

  1. Novel mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Iranian women with early-onset breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yassaee, Vahid R; Zeinali, Sirous; Harirchi, Iraj; Jarvandi, Soghra; Mohagheghi, Mohammad A; Hornby, David P; Dalton, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and a major cause of death in middle-aged women. So far, germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer have not been identified within the Iranian population. Methods With the collaboration of two main centres for cancer in Iran, we obtained clinical information, family history and peripheral blood from 83 women under the age of 45 with early-onset breast cancer for scanning of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We analysed BRCA1 exons 11 and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11 by the protein truncation test, and BRCA1 exons 2, 3, 5, 13 and 20 and BRCA2 exons 9, 17, 18 and 23 with the single-strand conformation polymorphism assay on genomic DNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results Ten sequence variants were identified: five frameshifts (putative mutations – four novel); three missense changes of unknown significance and two polymorphisms, one seen commonly in both Iranian and British populations. Conclusions Identification of these novel mutations suggests that any given population should develop a mutation database for its programme of breast cancer screening. The pattern of mutations seen in the BRCA genes seems not to differ from other populations studied. Early-onset breast cancer (less than 45 years) and a limited family history is sufficient to justify mutation screening with a detection rate of over 25% in this group, whereas sporadic early-onset breast cancer (detection rate less than 5%) is unlikely to be cost-effective. PMID:12100744

  2. The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among young Mexican women with triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Garza, C.; Weitzel, J. N.; Llacuachaqui, M.; Sifuentes, E.; Magallanes-Hoyos, M. C.; Gallardo, L.; Alvarez-Gómez, R. M.; Herzog, J.; Castillo, D.; Royer, R.; Akbari, Mohammad; Lara-Medina, F.; Herrera, L. A.; Mohar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Various guidelines recommend that women with triple-negative breast cancer should be tested for BRCA1 mutations, but the prevalence of mutations may vary with ethnic group and with geographic region, and the optimal cutoff age for testing has not been established. We estimated the frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among 190 women with triple-negative breast cancer, unselected for family history, diagnosed at age 50 or less at a single hospital in Mexico City. Patients were screened for 115 recurrent BRCA mutations, which have been reported previously in women of Hispanic origin, including a common large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del). A BRCA mutation was detected in 44 of 190 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (23 %). Forty-three mutations were found in BRCA1 and one mutation was found in BRCA2. Seven different mutations accounted for 39 patients (89 % of the total mutations). The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was found 18 times and accounted for 41 % of all mutations detected. There is a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young triple-negative breast cancer patients in Mexico. Women with triple-negative breast cancer in Mexico should be screened for mutations in BRCA1. PMID:25716084

  3. The KL-VS sequence variant of Klotho and cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Rantala, Johanna; Hogervorst, Frans; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Arason, Adalgeir; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Isaacs, Claudine; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ganz, Patricia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Wolf, Ido

    2012-01-01

    Klotho (KL) is a putative tumor suppressor gene in breast and pancreatic cancers located at chromosome 13q12. A functional sequence variant of Klotho (KL-VS) was previously reported to modify breast cancer risk in Jewish BRCA1 mutation carriers. The effect of this variant on breast and ovarian cancer risks in non-Jewish BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers has not been reported. The KL-VS variant was genotyped in women of European ancestry carrying a BRCA mutation: 5,741 BRCA1 mutation carriers (2,997 with breast cancer, 705 with ovarian cancer, and 2,039 cancer free women) and 3,339 BRCA2 mutation carriers (1,846 with breast cancer, 207 with ovarian cancer, and 1,286 cancer free women) from 16 centers. Genotyping was accomplished using TaqMan® allelic discrimination or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed within a retrospective cohort approach, stratified by country of origin and Ashkenazi Jewish origin. The per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer was 1.02 (95% CI 0.93–1.12, P = 0.66) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 0.92 (95% CI 0.82–1.04, P = 0.17) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results remained unaltered when analysis excluded prevalent breast cancer cases. Similarly, the per-allele HR for ovarian cancer was 1.01 (95% CI 0.84–1.20, P = 0.95) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 0.9 (95% CI 0.66–1.22, P = 0.45) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The risk did not change when carriers of the 6174delT mutation were excluded. There was a lack of association of the KL-VS Klotho variant with either breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22212556

  4. Cancer-associated mutations in BRC domains of BRCA2 affect homologous recombination induced by Rad51.

    PubMed

    Tal, Asaf; Arbel-Goren, Rinat; Stavans, Joel

    2009-11-13

    The tumor suppressor BRCA2 protein plays a major role in the regulation of Rad51-catalyzed homologous recombination. BRCA2 interacts with monomeric Rad51 primarily via conserved BRC domains and coordinates the formation of Rad51 filaments at double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks. A number of cancer-associated mutations in BRC4 and BRC2 domains have been reported. To elucidate their effects on homologous recombination, we studied Rad51 filament formation on single-stranded DNA and dsDNA substrates and Rad51-catalyzed strand exchange, in the presence of wild-type and mutated peptides of either BRC4 or BRC2. While the wild-type BRC2 and BRC4 peptides inhibited filament formation and, thus, strand exchange, the mutated forms decreased significantly these inhibitory effects. These results are consistent with a three-dimensional model for the interface between individual BRC repeats and Rad51. We suggest that mutations at sites crucial for the association between Rad51 and BRC domains impair the ability of BRCA2 to recruit Rad51 to dsDNA breaks, hampering recombinational repair.

  5. Design and validation of a next generation sequencing assay for hereditary BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Jared R.; Chu, Clement S.; Haque, Imran S.; Lai, Henry; Mar-Heyming, Rebecca; Ready, Kaylene; Vysotskaia, Valentina S.; Evans, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, caused by a germline pathogenic variant in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes, is characterized by an increased risk for breast, ovarian, pancreatic and other cancers. Identification of those who have a BRCA1/2 mutation is important so that they can take advantage of genetic counseling, screening, and potentially life-saving prevention strategies. We describe the design and analytic validation of the Counsyl Inherited Cancer Screen, a next-generation-sequencing-based test to detect pathogenic variation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We demonstrate that the test is capable of detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), short insertions and deletions (indels), and copy-number variants (CNVs, also known as large rearrangements) with zero errors over a 114-sample validation set consisting of samples from cell lines and deidentified patient samples, including 36 samples with BRCA1/2pathogenic germline mutations. PMID:27375968

  6. Novel and recurrent BRCA2 mutations in Italian breast/ovarian cancer families widen the ovarian cancer cluster region boundaries to exons 13 and 14.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Anna; Buffone, Amelia; Capalbo, Carlo; Nicolussi, Arianna; D'Inzeo, Sonia; Belardinilli, Francesca; Colicchia, Valeria; Petroni, Marialaura; Granato, Teresa; Midulla, Cecilia; Zani, Massimo; Ferraro, Sergio; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are mainly linked to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which confer a similar cumulative risk of developing breast cancer. Importantly, while BRCA2 mutation carriers generally have a lower cumulative risk for ovarian cancer, mutations clustered in the central portion of BRCA2 are associated with a higher proportion of ovarian compared with breast cancer cases. The boundaries of this ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) have been tentatively defined within a 3.3 kb region of BRCA2 exon 11, and herein, we reassessed these boundaries using our series of Italian breast/ovarian cancer families. We used direct sequencing to investigate BRCA mutations in 367 breast/ovarian cancer families. We also studied the association between the location of the mutations and the ovarian cancer phenotype in our cohort of BRCA2-mutated families. We observed the novel c.7309_7309delA frameshift mutation and the c.7007G>A deleterious mutation in BRCA2 exons 14 and 13, respectively, in five independent Italian families characterized by a high proportion of ovarian cancer cases. Of note, a significantly higher proportion of ovarian versus breast cancer cases was associated not only with mutations in the previously defined OCCR (OR = 5.91; p = 0.004), but also with the exon 13-14 region (OR = 7.37; p = 0.001) in our BRCA2-mutated families. Our data provide initial evidence for a novel putative OCCR in BRCA2 exons 13-14.

  7. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with <10 % a priori risk, and found 1 BRCA1 (0.2 %) and 5 BRCA2 (0.9 %) carriers. Testing in a hospital-based unselected cohort of 532 Singaporean breast cancer cases revealed 6 BRCA1 (1.1 %) and 3 BRCA2 (0.6 %) carriers. Overall, 2 recurrent BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutations in Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.

  8. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with <10 % a priori risk, and found 1 BRCA1 (0.2 %) and 5 BRCA2 (0.9 %) carriers. Testing in a hospital-based unselected cohort of 532 Singaporean breast cancer cases revealed 6 BRCA1 (1.1 %) and 3 BRCA2 (0.6 %) carriers. Overall, 2 recurrent BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutations in Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics. PMID:24578176

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas in a Patient with Germline BRCA2 Mutation-Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schultheis, Anne M.; Nguyen, Gia Phuong; Ortmann, Monika; Kruis, Wolfgang; Büttner, Reinhard; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Markiefka, Birgid

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant neoplasia, accounting for approximately 0.5–2% of all malignant pancreatic tumors. These lesions are characterized by poor prognosis. Here we report on a case of a 57-year-old female patient with known BRCA2 germline mutation presenting with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas as the only malignancy. The tumor was locally advanced at the first presentation but responded almost completely to neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Our case highlights the facts (i) that pancreatic carcinomas belong to the tumor spectrum of patients with the BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and (ii) that tumors of the pancreas can represent the first or even the only manifestation of HBOC. Furthermore, this case of a nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma indicates that HBOC-associated carcinomas of the pancreas might be characterized by a broader morphological spectrum than was previously thought. Since BRCA mutations cause deficiency of DNA double-strand breakage repair in tumors, neoadjuvant treatment regimens might become a reasonable option in HBOC-associated pancreatic carcinomas. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary pancreatic squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with this particular genetic background of BRCA2-associated HBOC. PMID:24959366

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas in a Patient with Germline BRCA2 Mutation-Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, Anne M; Nguyen, Gia Phuong; Ortmann, Monika; Kruis, Wolfgang; Büttner, Reinhard; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Markiefka, Birgid

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant neoplasia, accounting for approximately 0.5-2% of all malignant pancreatic tumors. These lesions are characterized by poor prognosis. Here we report on a case of a 57-year-old female patient with known BRCA2 germline mutation presenting with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas as the only malignancy. The tumor was locally advanced at the first presentation but responded almost completely to neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Our case highlights the facts (i) that pancreatic carcinomas belong to the tumor spectrum of patients with the BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and (ii) that tumors of the pancreas can represent the first or even the only manifestation of HBOC. Furthermore, this case of a nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma indicates that HBOC-associated carcinomas of the pancreas might be characterized by a broader morphological spectrum than was previously thought. Since BRCA mutations cause deficiency of DNA double-strand breakage repair in tumors, neoadjuvant treatment regimens might become a reasonable option in HBOC-associated pancreatic carcinomas. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary pancreatic squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with this particular genetic background of BRCA2-associated HBOC.

  11. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O’Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas v O; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benítez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de al Hoya, Miguel; Cañadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D’Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Bob; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous small studies found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian and contralateral breast cancers. Results There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (p-trend=1.2×10−5) but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2 carriers (p-trend=6.8×10−6). The proportion of triple negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histological grade than ER-positive tumors (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1, p=1.2×10−13 for BRCA1 and p=0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status (ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2=9.4, 95%CI:7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.3-2.3, under joint analysis). Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2=3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.4, p=4.4×10−14), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2=0.25, 95%CI:0.18-0.35, p=2.3×10−15). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (p=0.0004 for BRCA1; p=0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous:67%; mucinous:1%; endometriod:12%; clear-cell:2%). Conclusions/Impact Pathology characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis. PMID:22144499

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000690.htm BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing To use the sharing features on this ... br east ca ncer. What is the BRCA Gene Mutation? BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress ...

  13. The rate of the founder Jewish mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in prostate cancer patients in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Vazina, A; Baniel, J; Yaacobi, Y; Shtriker, A; Engelstein, D; Leibovitz, I; Zehavi, M; Sidi, A A; Ramon, Y; Tischler, T; Livne, P M; Friedman, E

    2000-01-01

    Inherited predisposition occurs in 5–10% of all prostate cancer (CaP) patients, but the genes involved in conferring genetic susceptibility remain largely unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 might be associated with an increased risk for CaP. Three mutations in these two genes (185delAG and 5382InsC (BRCA1) and 6174delT (BRCA2) occur in about 2.5% of the general Ashkenazi population, and the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation, in up to 1% of non-Ashkenazi Jews. In order to assess the contribution of these germline mutations to prostate cancer in Jewish Israeli patients, we tested 174 unselected prostate cancer patients (95 of Ashkenazi origin) for these mutations by PCR amplification and modified restriction enzyme digests. Patient’s age range was 45–81 years (median 66), and in 24 (14.4%) the disease was diagnosed prior to 55 years of age. Nineteen (11%) and 12 (6.9%) patients had a first or second degree relative with CaP or breast cancer, respectively. Overall, five mutation carriers were detected: 2/152 (1.3%) 185delAG, 2/104 (2%) 5382InsC, and 1/158 (0.6%) 6174delT. In all carriers, the disease was diagnosed after the age of 55, and only one of them had a family history of breast and CaP. In addition, no allelic losses at the BRCA1 locus were demonstrated in 17 patients with a family history of CaP, using seven microsatellite markers. We conclude that the rate of the predominant Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in CaP patients does not significantly differ from that of the general population, and that mutational inactivation of the BRCA1 is rare in familial CaP. Thus, germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations probably contribute little to CaP occurrence, to inherited predisposition, and to early onset disease in Jewish individuals. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10945492

  14. Molecular insights into the OGG1 gene, a cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carriers

    PubMed Central

    Benitez-Buelga, Carlos; Vaclová, Tereza; Ferreira, Sofia; Urioste, Miguel; Inglada-Perez, Lucia; Soberón, Nora; Blasco, Maria A.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that rs2304277 variant in the OGG1 glycosidase gene of the Base Excision Repair pathway can increase ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of this genetic variant on different genome instability hallmarks to explain its association with cancer risk. We have evaluated the effect of this polymorphism on OGG1 transcriptional regulation and its contribution to telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation. For that, we have used a series of 89 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, 74 BRCAX cases, 60 non-carrier controls and 23 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We have identified that this SNP is associated to a significant OGG1 transcriptional down regulation independently of the BRCA mutational status and that the variant may exert a synergistic effect together with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations on DNA damage and telomere shortening. These results suggest that this variant, could be associated to a higher cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers, due to an OGG1 transcriptional down regulation and its effect on genome instability. PMID:27015555

  15. Use of Risk-Reducing Surgeries in a Prospective Cohort of 1,499 BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xinglei; Friebel, Tara M.; Singer, Christian F.; Evans, D. Gareth; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Garber, Judy E.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Matloff, Ellen; Eeles, Rosalind; Tung, Nadine; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hulick, Peter J.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Daly, Mary B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tomlinson, Gail; Blum, Joanne L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Chen, Jinbo; Rebecck, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Inherited mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) confer very high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Genetic testing and counseling can reduce risk and death from these cancers if appropriate preventive strategies are applied, including risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) or risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM). However, some women who might benefit from these interventions do not take full advantage of them. Methods We evaluated RRSO and RRM use in a prospective cohort of 1,499 women with inherited BRCA1/2 mutations from 20 centers who enrolled in the study without prior cancer or RRSO or RRM, and were followed forward for the occurrence of these events. We estimated the age-specific usage of RRSO/RRM in this cohort using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results Use of RRSO was 45% for BRCA1 and 34% for BRCA2 by age 40, and 86% for BRCA1 and 71% for BRCA2 by age 50. RRM usage was estimated to be 46% by age 70 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers used RRSO more frequently than BRCA2 mutation carriers overall, but the uptake of RRSO in BRCA2 was similar after mutation testing and in women born since 1960. RRM uptake was similar for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Childbearing influenced use of RRSO and RRM in both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Conclusions Uptake of RRSO is high, but some women are still diagnosed with ovarian cancer before undergoing RRSO. This suggests that research is needed to understand the optimal timing of RRSO to maximize risk reduction and limit potential adverse consequences of RRSO. PMID:25311111

  16. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  17. Evaluation of chromosome 6p22 as a breast cancer risk modifier locus in a follow-up study of BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Caligo, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Osorio, Ana; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S.; Singer, Christian F.; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Arason, Adalgeir; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Montagna, Marco; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Sucheston, Lara; Beattie, Mary; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differences in the absolute risk of developing breast cancer for mutation carriers, suggesting that additional modifier loci may further enhance individual risk assessment for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recently, a common variant on 6p22 (rs9393597) was found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% CI 1.25–1.92, p=6.0×10−5]. This observation was based on data from GWAS studies in which, despite statistical correction for multiple comparisons, the possibility of false discovery remains a concern. Here we report on an analysis of this variant in an additional 6,165 BRCA1 and 3,900 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). In this replication analysis, rs9393597 was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.96–1.24, p=0.18]. No association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers was observed. This follow-up study suggests that, contrary to our initial report, this variant is not associated with breast cancer risk among individuals with germline BRCA2 mutations. PMID:23011509

  18. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Heikkinen, T; Simard, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Healey, S; Neuhausen, S L; Ding, Y C; Couch, F J; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Manoukian, S; Barile, M; Viel, A; Tizzoni, L; Szabo, C I; Foretova, L; Zikan, M; Claes, K; Greene, M H; Mai, P; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Barnett-Griness, O; Andrulis, I L; Ozcelik, H; Weerasooriya, N; Gerdes, A-M; Thomassen, M; Cruger, D G; Caligo, M A; Friedman, E; Kaufman, B; Laitman, Y; Cohen, S; Kontorovich, T; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Dagan, E; Jernström, H; Askmalm, M S; Arver, B; Malmer, B; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Brunet, J; Ramón y Cajal, T; Yannoukakos, D; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; Verhoef, S; García, EB Gómez; Wijnen, J T; van den Ouweland, A; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Cook, J; Hodgson, S; Morrison, P J; Douglas, F; Godwin, A K; Sinilnikova, O M; Barjhoux, L; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Moncoutier, V; Giraud, S; Cassini, C; Olivier-Faivre, L; Révillion, F; Peyrat, J-P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Lynch, H T; John, E M; Buys, S; Daly, M; Hopper, J L; Terry, M B; Miron, A; Yassin, Y; Goldgar, D; Singer, C F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Pfeiler, G; Spiess, A-C; Hansen, Thomas v O; Johannsson, O T; Kirchhoff, T; Offit, K; Kosarin, K; Piedmonte, M; Rodriguez, G C; Wakeley, K; Boggess, J F; Basil, J; Schwartz, P E; Blank, S V; Toland, A E; Montagna, M; Casella, C; Imyanitov, E N; Allavena, A; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Ditsch, N; Arnold, N; Niederacher, D; Deißler, H; Fiebig, B; Varon-Mateeva, R; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Caldes, T; de la Hoya, M; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Nevanlinna, H; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out. PMID:19920816

  19. Anti-Müllerian hormone serum concentrations of women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Collins, Ian M.; Milne, Roger L.; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Friedlander, Michael; Hickey, Martha; Stern, Catharyn; Hopper, John L.; Fisher, Richard; Kannemeyer, Gordon; Picken, Sandra; Smith, Charmaine D.; Kelsey, Thomas W.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have reduced ovarian reserve, as measured by circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration? SUMMARY ANSWER Women with a germline mutation in BRCA1 have reduced ovarian reserve as measured by AMH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The DNA repair enzymes encoded by BRCA1 and BRCA2 are implicated in reproductive aging. Circulating AMH is a biomarker of ovarian reserve and hence reproductive lifespan. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was a cross-sectional study of AMH concentrations of 693 women at the time of enrolment into the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for research in the Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) cohort study (recruitment from 19 August 1997 until 18 September 2012). AMH was measured on stored plasma samples between November 2014 and January 2015 using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay platform. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Eligible women were from families segregating BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and had known mutation status. Participants were aged 25–45 years, had no personal history of cancer, retained both ovaries and were not pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of plasma storage. Circulating AMH was measured for 172 carriers and 216 non-carriers from families carrying BRCA1 mutations, and 147 carriers and 158 non-carriers from families carrying BRCA2 mutations. Associations between plasma AMH concentration and carrier status were tested by linear regression, adjusted for age at plasma storage, oral contraceptive use, body mass index and cigarette smoking. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Mean AMH concentration was negatively associated with age (P < 0.001). Mutation carriers were younger at blood draw than non-carriers (P ≤ 0.031). BRCA1 mutation carriers had, on average, 25% (95% CI: 5%–41%, P = 0.02) lower AMH concentrations than non-carriers and were more likely to have AMH concentrations in the lowest quartile for age (OR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.11–303, P = 0

  20. Double PALB2 and BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers are rare in breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer syndrome families from the French Canadian founder population

    PubMed Central

    ANCOT, FRÉDÉRIC; ARCAND, SUZANNA L.; MES-MASSON, ANNE-MARIE; PROVENCHER, DIANE M.; TONIN, PATRICIA N.

    2015-01-01

    French Canadian families with breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer syndrome harbor specific BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 germline mutations, which have been attributed to common founders. Mutations in these genes confer an increased risk to breast and ovarian cancers, and have been identified to play a role in and directly interact with the common homologous recombination DNA repair pathways. Our previous study described the case of a female diagnosed with breast cancer at 45 years old, who harbored the PALB2:c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] and BRCA2:c.9004G>A [p.E3002K] germline mutations, which have been found to recur in the French Canadian cancer families. As the frequency of double heterozygous carriers of breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles is unknown, and due to the possibility that there may be implications for genetic counseling and management for these carriers, the present study investigated the co-occurrence of BRCA1/BRCA2 and PALB2 mutations in the French Canadian cancer families. The PALB2:c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] mutation, which is the only PALB2 mutation to have been identified in French Canadian cancer families, was screened in 214 breast cancer cases and 22 breast-ovarian cancer cases from 114 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-positive French Canadian breast cancer (n=61) and breast-ovarian cancer (n=53) families using a tailored polymerase chain reaction-based TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay. No additional PALB2:c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] mutation carriers were identified among the BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. The results suggest that carriers of the PALB2:c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] mutation rarely co-occur in French Canadian breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer families harboring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. PMID:26137147

  1. No association of TGFB1 L10P genotypes and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a multi-center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Llopis, Trinidad Caldes; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pereira, Lutecia H. Mateus; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Pasche, Boris; Kaklamani, Virginia; Hamann, Ute; Szabo, Csilla; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Harrington, Patricia A.; Donaldson, Alan; Male, Allison M.; Gardiner, Carol Anne; Gregory, Helen; Side, Lucy E.; Robinson, Anne C.; Emmerson, Louise; Ellis, Ian; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Schaefer, Dieter; Froster, Ursula G.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    Background The transforming growth factor β-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-β, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population. Methods To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92–1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81–1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:18523885

  2. Factors Influencing Ovulation and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Demsky, Rochelle; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Tung, Nadine; Friedman, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Karlan, Beth; Moller, Pal; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles has not been evaluated in the context of BRCA – associated ovarian cancer. Thus, we conducted a matched case-control study to evaluate the relationship between the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles (and contributing components) and risk of developing ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers (1,329 cases and 5,267 controls). Information regarding reproductive and hormonal factors was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate all associations. We observed a 45% reduction in the risk of developing ovarian cancer among women in the lowest vs. highest quartile of ovulatory cycles (OR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.41–0.75 P=0.0001). Breastfeeding for more than 12 months was associated with a 38% (95%CI 0.48–0.79) and 50% (95%CI 0.29–0.84) reduction in risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. For oral contraceptive use, maximum benefit was seen with five or more years of use among BRCA1 mutation carriers (OR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.40–0.63) and three or more years for BRCA2 mutation carriers (OR = 0.42; 95%CI 0.22–0.83). Increasing parity was associated with a significant inverse trend among BRCA1 (OR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.79–0.96; P-trend=0.005) but not BRCA2 mutation carriers (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.81–1.19; P-trend=0.85). A later age at menopause was associated with an increased risk in women with a BRCA1 mutation (OR trend = 1.18; 95%CI 1.03–1.35; P =0.02). These findings support an important role of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer among women carrying BRCA mutations. PMID:25482078

  3. Comprehensive analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in a large cohort of 5931 Chinese women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Chen, Jiuan; Yao, Lu; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-08-01

    We determined the prevalence and characteristics of BRCA1/2 germline mutations in a large cohort of Chinese women with breast cancer. A total of 5931 unselected Chinese women with breast cancer were enrolled in this study and underwent testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Of these, 543 patients were familial breast cancer, 1033 were early-onset disease (≤40 years) without family history of breast cancer, and 4355 were sporadic breast cancer. In total, 232 patients (3.9 %) carried a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (110 in BRCA1and 122 in BRCA2) in this cohort of 5931 patients. BRCA1/2 mutation rate was 16.9 % (92/543) in familial breast cancers, 5.2 % (54/1033) in early-onset breast cancers (≤40 years), and 2.0 % in sporadic breast cancers (>40 years), respectively. The BRCA1/2 mutation rate was 27.0 % in 111 familial breast cancers diagnosed at and before the age of 40. 41.4 % of mutations in this cohort were specific for Chinese population. Recurrent mutations accounted for 44.8 % of the entire mutations in 2382 cases that BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were fully sequenced in this study. Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were significantly more likely to be early-onset and bilateral breast cancers, high-grade cancer, and to have a family history of breast cancer compared with non-carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to be triple-negative cancer than BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Our data provide guidelines for Chinese women with breast cancer who should undergo BRCA1/2 genetic testing; additionally, recurrent mutations account for nearly half of the mutations and some of them are specific for Chinese women.

  4. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Collee, J Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; van der Luijt, Rob B; Aalfs, Cora M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E P; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Singer, Christian; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v O; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-11-15

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 x 10(-4)]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case-control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not.

  5. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Collee, J Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; van der Luijt, Rob B; Aalfs, Cora M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E P; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Singer, Christian; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v O; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-11-15

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 x 10(-4)]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case-control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not. PMID:19656774

  6. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E.P.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deißler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25, P-trend = 2.8 × 10−4]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04–1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98–1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case–control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not. PMID:19656774

  7. The contribution of deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and the mismatch repair genes to ovarian cancer in the population.

    PubMed

    Song, Honglin; Cicek, Mine S; Dicks, Ed; Harrington, Patricia; Ramus, Susan J; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Alsop, Jennifer; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Gayther, Simon A; Goode, Ellen L; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population. The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of all six genes were amplified in germline DNA from 2240 invasive EOC cases and 1535 controls. Barcoded fragment libraries were sequenced using the Illumina GAII or HiSeq and sequence data for each subject de-multiplexed prior to interpretation. GATK and Annovar were used for variant detection and annotation. After quality control 2222 cases (99.2%) and 1528 controls (99.5%) were included in the final analysis. We identified 193 EOC cases (8.7%) carrying a deleterious mutation in at least one gene compared with 10 controls (0.65%). Mutations were most frequent in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with 84 EOC cases (3.8%) carrying a BRCA1 mutation and 94 EOC cases (4.2%) carrying a BRCA2 mutation. The combined BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence was 11% in high-grade serous disease. Seventeen EOC cases carried a mutation in a mismatch repair gene, including 10 MSH6 mutation carriers (0.45%) and 4 MSH2 mutation carriers (0.18%). At least 1 in 10 women with high-grade serous EOC has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The development of next generation sequencing technologies enables rapid mutation screening for multiple susceptibility genes at once, suggesting that routine clinical testing of all incidence cases should be considered.

  8. The contribution of deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and the mismatch repair genes to ovarian cancer in the population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Honglin; Cicek, Mine S.; Dicks, Ed; Harrington, Patricia; Ramus, Susan J.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Alsop, Jennifer; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Gayther, Simon A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population. The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of all six genes were amplified in germline DNA from 2240 invasive EOC cases and 1535 controls. Barcoded fragment libraries were sequenced using the Illumina GAII or HiSeq and sequence data for each subject de-multiplexed prior to interpretation. GATK and Annovar were used for variant detection and annotation. After quality control 2222 cases (99.2%) and 1528 controls (99.5%) were included in the final analysis. We identified 193 EOC cases (8.7%) carrying a deleterious mutation in at least one gene compared with 10 controls (0.65%). Mutations were most frequent in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with 84 EOC cases (3.8%) carrying a BRCA1 mutation and 94 EOC cases (4.2%) carrying a BRCA2 mutation. The combined BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence was 11% in high-grade serous disease. Seventeen EOC cases carried a mutation in a mismatch repair gene, including 10 MSH6 mutation carriers (0.45%) and 4 MSH2 mutation carriers (0.18%). At least 1 in 10 women with high-grade serous EOC has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The development of next generation sequencing technologies enables rapid mutation screening for multiple susceptibility genes at once, suggesting that routine clinical testing of all incidence cases should be considered. PMID:24728189

  9. [Genotyping of BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 germline mutations in Russian breast cancer patients using diagnostic biochips].

    PubMed

    Nasedkina, T V; Gromyko, O E; Emel'ianova, M A; Ignatova, E O; Kazubskaia, T P; Portnoĭ, S M; Zasedatelev, A S; Liubchenko, L N

    2014-01-01

    Germline mutations of BRCA1/2 genes cause the predisposition of their carriers to breast or/and ovary cancers (BC or/and OC) during the lifetime. Identification of these mutations is a basis of molecular diagnosis for BC susceptibility. Rapid genotyping technique using microarrays for identification of BRCA1 185delAG, 300T>G, 4153delA, 5382insC mutations and 4158 A>G sequence variant; BRCA2 695insT and 6174delT mutations; 1100delC mutation in CHEK2 gene was applied for 412 randomly collected breast cancer samples from the central region of European area of Russia. In 25 (6.0%) patients (6.0%) BC was associated with other tumours: OC, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer etc. BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 mutations were found in 33 (8.0%) BC patients. The most frequent mutation was BRCA1 5382insC, occurred in 16 (3.9%) BC patients, and CHEK2 1100delC, revealed in 7 (1.7%) BC patients. An application of diagnostic BC-microarray for genetic testing of BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 founder mutations has been discussed. PMID:25850293

  10. Characterization of medulloblastoma in Fanconi Anemia: a novel mutation in the BRCA2 gene and SHH molecular subgroup.

    PubMed

    Miele, Evelina; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Po, Agnese; Carai, Andrea; Alfano, Vincenzo; Serra, Annalisa; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; Strocchio, Luisa; Antonelli, Manila; Buttarelli, Francesca Romana; Zani, Massimo; Ferraro, Sergio; Buffone, Amelia; Vacca, Alessandra; Screpanti, Isabella; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Franco; Ferretti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by the variable presence of multiple congenital somatic abnormalities, bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. Medulloblastoma (MB) has been described only in few cases of FA with biallelic inactivation in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA2/FANCD1 or its associated gene PALB2/FANCN. We report the case of a patient affected by Fanconi Anemia with Wilms tumor and unusual presentation of two medulloblastomas (MB1 and MB2). We identified a new pathogenetic germline BRCA2 mutation: c.2944_2944delA. Molecular analysis of MBs allowed us to define new features of MB in FA. MBs were found to belong to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) molecular subgroup with some differences between MB1 and MB2. We highlighted that MB in FA could share molecular aspects and hemispheric localization with sporadic adult SHH-MB. Our report provides new findings that shed new light on the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of MB in FA patients with implications in the disease management. PMID:26064523

  11. The rate of recurrent BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 mutations in the general population, and unselected ovarian cancer cases, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schayek, Hagit; De Marco, Luiz; Starinsky-Elbaz, Sigal; Rossette, Mariana; Laitman, Yael; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, several recurring mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and a TP53 mutation (R337H) have been reported in high risk breast cancer cases. We hypothesized that these recurring mutations may also be detected in the general population and ovarian cancer cases in the state of Minas Gerais. To test this notion, participants were recruited from the outpatient and the Gynecological clinic in the UFMG Medical Center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. BRCA1 (c.68_69delAG, c.5266dupC, c.181T>G, c.4034delA, c.5123C>A), BRCA2 (c.5946delT, c.8537_8538delAG, 4936_4939delGAAA), the c.156_157insAlu* BRCA2 and the c.1010G>A *TP53 mutation were genotyped using validated techniques. Overall, 513 cancer free participants (273 men) (mean age 47.7 ± 15.1 years) and 103 ovarian cancer cases (mean age at diagnosis 58.7 ± 9.6 years) were studied. None of the participants were found to carry any of the genotyped mutations. We conclude that the recurring mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 cannot be detected in the general population or consecutive ovarian cancer cases in this geographical region in Brazil.

  12. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  13. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  14. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  15. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; den Enden, Apollonia T. Helderman-van; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful

  16. Prevalence and penetrance of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population series of 649 women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Risch, H A; McLaughlin, J R; Cole, D E; Rosen, B; Bradley, L; Kwan, E; Jack, E; Vesprini, D J; Kuperstein, G; Abrahamson, J L; Fan, I; Wong, B; Narod, S A

    2001-03-01

    A population-based series of 649 unselected incident cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in Ontario, Canada, during 1995-96 was screened for germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We specifically tested for 11 of the most commonly reported mutations in the two genes. Then, cases were assessed with the protein-truncation test (PTT) for exon 11 of BRCA1, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for the remainder of BRCA1, and with PTT for exons 10 and 11 of BRCA2. No mutations were found in all 134 women with tumors of borderline histology. Among the 515 women with invasive cancers, we identified 60 mutations, 39 in BRCA1 and 21 in BRCA2. The total mutation frequency among women with invasive cancers, 11.7% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 9.2%-14.8%), is higher than previous estimates. Hereditary ovarian cancers diagnosed at age <50 years were mostly (83%) due to BRCA1, whereas the majority (60%) of those diagnosed at age >60 years were due to BRCA2. Mutations were found in 19% of women reporting first-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer and in 6.5% of women with no affected first-degree relatives. Risks of ovarian, breast, and stomach cancers and leukemias/lymphomas were increased nine-, five-, six- and threefold, respectively, among first-degree relatives of cases carrying BRCA1 mutations, compared with relatives of noncarriers, and risk of colorectal cancer was increased threefold for relatives of cases carrying BRCA2 mutations. For carriers of BRCA1 mutations, the estimated penetrance by age 80 years was 36% for ovarian cancer and 68% for breast cancer. In breast-cancer risk for first-degree relatives, there was a strong trend according to mutation location along the coding sequence of BRCA1, with little evidence of increased risk for mutations in the 5' fifth, but 8.8-fold increased risk for mutations in the 3' fifth (95%CI 3.6-22.0), corresponding to a carrier penetrance of essentially 100%. Ovarian, colorectal, stomach, pancreatic, and prostate

  17. The impact of contralateral mastectomy on mortality in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Narod, Steven A

    2011-07-01

    Among women with breast cancer and a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, the lifetime risk of breast cancer may be as high as 40%. Many physicians recommend prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, which is an effective measure of minimising the risk of contralateral cancer. The benefits of preventive contralateral mastectomy are apparent within 10 years, in terms of preventing cancer, but a much longer time period is required in order to demonstrate a reduction in mortality. Under the simple model presented here, among women who retain the contralateral breast, 0.4% of women are expected to die of contralateral breast cancer within 5 years, but 6.8% are expected to die at 20 years from diagnosis. These unnecessary deaths can be prevented by bilateral mastectomy.

  18. RAD51 135G→C Modifies Breast Cancer Risk among BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from a Combined Analysis of 19 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C. ; Sinilnikova, Olga M. ; Simard, Jacques ; Léoné, Mélanie ; Dumont, Martine ; Neuhausen, Susan L. ; Struewing, Jeffery P. ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique ; Barjhoux, Laure ; Hughes, David J. ; Coupier, Isabelle ; Belotti, Muriel ; Lasset, Christine ; Bonadona, Valérie ; Bignon, Yves-Jean ; Rebbeck, Timothy R. ; Wagner, Theresa ; Lynch, Henry T. ; Domchek, Susan M. ; Nathanson, Katherine L. ; Garber, Judy E. ; Weitzel, Jeffrey ; Narod, Steven A. ; Tomlinson, Gail ; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. ; Godwin, Andrew ; Isaacs, Claudine ; Jakubowska, Anna ; Lubinski, Jan ; Gronwald, Jacek ; Górski, Bohdan ; Byrski, Tomasz ; Huzarski, Tomasz ; Peock, Susan ; Cook, Margaret ; Baynes, Caroline ; Murray, Alexandra ; Rogers, Mark ; Daly, Peter A. ; Dorkins, Huw ; Schmutzler, Rita K. ; Versmold, Beatrix ; Engel, Christoph ; Meindl, Alfons ; Arnold, Norbert ; Niederacher, Dieter ; Deissler, Helmut ; Spurdle, Amanda B. ; Chen, Xiaoqing ; Waddell, Nicola ; Cloonan, Nicole ; Kirchhoff, Tomas ; Offit, Kenneth ; Friedman, Eitan ; Kaufmann, Bella ; Laitman, Yael ; Galore, Gilli ; Rennert, Gad ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Raskin, Leon ; Andrulis, Irene L. ; Ilyushik, Eduard ; Ozcelik, Hilmi ; Devilee, Peter ; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G. ; Greene, Mark H. ; Prindiville, Sheila A. ; Osorio, Ana ; Benítez, Javier ; Zikan, Michal ; Szabo, Csilla I. ; Kilpivaara, Outi ; Nevanlinna, Heli ; Hamann, Ute ; Durocher, Francine ; Arason, Adalgeir ; Couch, Fergus J. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia 

    2007-01-01

    RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA–repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G→C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G→C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25–2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83–1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91–1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39–7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G→C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5′ UTR. Thus, 135G→C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:17999359

  19. Targeted sequencing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 across a large unselected breast cancer cohort suggests that one-third of mutations are somatic

    PubMed Central

    Winter, C.; Nilsson, M. P.; Olsson, E.; George, A. M.; Chen, Y.; Kvist, A.; Törngren, T.; Vallon-Christersson, J.; Hegardt, C.; Häkkinen, J.; Jönsson, G.; Grabau, D.; Malmberg, M.; Kristoffersson, U.; Rehn, M.; Gruvberger-Saal, S. K.; Larsson, C.; Borg, Å.; Loman, N.; Saal, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A mutation found in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene of a breast tumor could be either germline or somatically acquired. The prevalence of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and the ratio between somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients are currently unclear. Patients and methods Paired normal and tumor DNA was analyzed for BRCA1/2 mutations by massively parallel sequencing in an unselected cohort of 273 breast cancer patients from south Sweden. Results Deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 (n = 10) or BRCA2 (n = 10) were detected in 20 patients (7%). Deleterious somatic mutations in BRCA1 (n = 4) or BRCA2 (n = 5) were detected in 9 patients (3%). Accordingly, about 1 in 9 breast carcinomas (11%) in our cohort harbor a BRCA1/2 mutation. For each gene, the tumor phenotypes were very similar regardless of the mutation being germline or somatically acquired, whereas the tumor phenotypes differed significantly between wild-type and mutated cases. For age at diagnosis, the patients with somatic BRCA1/2 mutations resembled the wild-type patients (median age at diagnosis, germline BRCA1: 41.5 years; germline BRCA2: 49.5 years; somatic BRCA1/2: 65 years; wild-type BRCA1/2: 62.5 years). Conclusions In a population without strong germline founder mutations, the likelihood of a BRCA1/2 mutation found in a breast carcinoma being somatic was ∼1/3 and germline 2/3. This may have implications for treatment and genetic counseling. PMID:27194814

  20. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Vaclová, Tereza; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, Rosario; Peterlongo, Paolo; Blanco, Ignacio; de la Hoya, Miguel; Duran, Mercedes; Díez, Orland; Ramón Y Cajal, Teresa; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Andrés Conejero, Raquel; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Swe-Brca; Arver, Brita; Rantala, Johanna; Loman, Niklas; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Beattie, Mary S; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; John, Esther M; Whittemore, Alice S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John; Terry, Mary B; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Infante, Mar; Herráez, Belén; Moreno, Leticia Thais; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Herzog, Josef; Weeman, Kisa; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariette, Frederique; Volorio, Sara; Viel, Alessandra; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Garber, Judy; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Eccles, Diana; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Morrison, Patrick; Donaldson, Alan; Kennedy, John; Foo, Claire; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Damiola, Francesca; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Tucker, Kathy; Backes, Floor; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Brewster, Wendy; Wakeley, Katie; Rutherford, Thomas; Caldés, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Rookus, Matti A; van Os, Theo A M; van der Kolk, Lizet; de Lange, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van der Hout, A H; van Asperen, Christi J; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van der Luijt, Rob B; Devilee, Peter; Hebon; Olah, Edith; Lázaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Menéndez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Maugard, Christine; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R; Healey, Sue; Investigators, Kconfab; Olswold, Curtis; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane; Slager, Susan; Szabo, Csilla I; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Zhang, Liying; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Phelan, Catherine M; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shimon, Shani Paluch; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Benitez, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  1. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Vaclová, Tereza; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, Rosario; Peterlongo, Paolo; Blanco, Ignacio; de la Hoya, Miguel; Duran, Mercedes; Díez, Orland; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Andrés Conejero, Raquel; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; SWE-BRCA; Arver, Brita; Rantala, Johanna; Loman, Niklas; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Beattie, Mary S.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John; Terry, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Infante, Mar; Herráez, Belén; Moreno, Leticia Thais; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Herzog, Josef; Weeman, Kisa; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariette, Frederique; Volorio, Sara; Viel, Alessandra; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Garber, Judy; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Eccles, Diana; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Morrison, Patrick; Donaldson, Alan; Kennedy, John; Foo, Claire; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Damiola, Francesca; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Tucker, Kathy; Backes, Floor; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Brewster, Wendy; Wakeley, Katie; Rutherford, Thomas; Caldés, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Rookus, Matti A.; van Os, Theo A. M.; van der Kolk, Lizet; de Lange, J. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, A. H.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Devilee, Peter; HEBON; Olah, Edith; Lázaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Menéndez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Maugard, Christine; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Healey, Sue; Investigators, kConFab; Olswold, Curtis; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane; Slager, Susan; Szabo, Csilla I.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Zhang, Liying; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shimon, Shani Paluch; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Benitez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03–1.16), p = 2.7×10−3) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03–1.21, p = 4.8×10−3). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied. PMID:24698998

  2. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Laura Putignano, Anna; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Gareth Evans, D.; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; John Kennedy, M.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Catharina Dressler, Anne; Hansen, Thomas v.O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bjork Barkardottir, Rosa; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r2 = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10−9 for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10−8 for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women. PMID:21593217

  3. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Hooning, Maartje J; Nelen, Marcel R; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo A M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine S; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L; Beattie, Mary S; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Sluiter, Michelle D; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-08-15

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r(2) = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women.

  4. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  5. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lynch, Henry T; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary E; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2010-12-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  6. Second primary breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: 10-year cumulative incidence in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Menes, Tehillah S.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; John, Esther M.; Liao, Yuyan; Southey, Melissa; Miron, Alexander; Chung, Wendy; Buys, Saundra S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. Data from high risk clinics may be subject to different biases which can cause both over and underestimation of this risk. Using data from a large multi-institutional family registry we estimated the 10 year cumulative risk of second primary breast cancer including more complete testing information on family members. Patients and Methods We prospectively followed 800 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) who were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation or a variant of unknown clinical significance. In order to limit survival and ascertainment bias, cases were limited to those diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer from 1994 to 2001 and enrolled in the BCFR within 3 years after their cancer diagnosis; We excluded women enrolled after being diagnosed with a second breast cancer. We calculated 10 year incidence of second primary breast cancers. Results The 10-year incidence of a second primary breast cancer was highest in BRCA1 mutation carriers (17%; 95% CI 11-25%), with even higher estimates in those first diagnosed under the age of 40 (21%; 95% CI 13-34%). Lower rates were found in BRCA2 mutation carriers (7%; 95% CI 3-15%) and women with a variant of unknown clinical significance (6%; 95% CI 4-9%). Conclusions Whereas the cumulative 10-year incidence of second primary breast cancer is high in BRCA1 mutation carriers, the estimates in BRCA2 mutation carriers and women with variants of unknown clinical significance are similar to those reported in women with sporadic breast cancer. PMID:25975955

  7. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D.P.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additional risk modifiers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be identified from promising signals discovered in breast cancer GWAS. A total of 350 SNPs identified as candidate breast cancer risk factors (P < 1 × 10−3) in two breast cancer GWAS studies were genotyped in 3451 BRCA1 and 2006 BRCA2 mutation carriers from nine centers. Associations with breast cancer risk were assessed using Cox models weighted for penetrance. Eight SNPs in BRCA1 carriers and 12 SNPs in BRCA2 carriers, representing an enrichment over the number expected, were significantly associated with breast cancer risk (Ptrend < 0.01). The minor alleles of rs6138178 in SNRPB and rs6602595 in CAMK1D displayed the strongest associations in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69–0.90, Ptrend = 3.6 × 10−4 and HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.41, Ptrend = 4.2 × 10−4), whereas rs9393597 in LOC134997 and rs12652447 in FBXL7 showed the strongest associations in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25–1.92, Ptrend = 6 × 10−5 and HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16–1.62, Ptrend = 1.7 × 10−4). The magnitude and direction of the associations were consistent with the original GWAS. In subsequent risk assessment studies, the loci appeared to interact multiplicatively for breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Promising candidate SNPs from GWAS were identified as modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Upon further validation, these SNPs together with other genetic and environmental factors may improve breast cancer risk assessment in these populations. PMID:20418484

  8. Durable Clinical Benefit of Pertuzumab in a Young Patient with BRCA2 Mutation and HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Involving the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Koumarianou, Anna; Kontopoulou, Christina; Kouloulias, Vassilis; Tsionou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases have limited treatment options, and, as a result of their poor performance status and worse prognosis, they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Not surprisingly, these patients may not be fit enough to receive any active treatment and are offered supportive therapy. BRCA2 mutations are reported to be rarely associated with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer and even more rarely with brain metastases at diagnosis. We report on a BRCA2-positive breast cancer patient with metastatic disease in multiple sites, including the brain, and poor performance status who exhibited an extraordinary clinical and imaging response to the novel anti-HER2 therapy pertuzumab after multiple lines of therapy including anti-HER2 targeting. To our knowledge, the clinicopathologic and therapeutic characteristics of this patient point to a unique case and an urgent need for further investigation of pertuzumab in patients with brain metastases. PMID:27195161

  9. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  10. Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Ramus, Susan J.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianshu; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A.; Caligo, Maria A.; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, María Isabel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; van Os, Theo A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Wijnen, Juul; Blok, Marinus J.; Kets, Marleen; Hooning, Maartje J.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana M.; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Bove, Betsy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Castera, Laurent; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Delnatte, Capucine; Akloul, Linda; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, MaryBeth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Goldgar, David E.; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Arason, Aðalgeir; Vijai, Joseph; Shah, Sohela; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly; Basil, Jack; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Boggess, John; Wakeley, Katie; Ewart-Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Brunet, Joan; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul PD; Odunsi, Kunle O.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tischkowitz, Marc D.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Lindor, Noralane M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Methods Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. Results We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.07–1.27; p=7.42×10−4) and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR=0.84; 95%CI 0.73–0.97; p=0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR=1.11; 95%CI 0.94–1.31; p=0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR=1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.29; p=3.8×10−4) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=1.30; 95%CI 1.10–1.52; p=1.8×10−3). Conclusions 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22351618

  11. Detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using conventional PCR and heteroduplex/amplicon size differences.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Kathy A; Wang, Vivien; Weissman, Scott M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Kaul, Karen L

    2010-01-01

    In many families with histories suggestive of BRCA1- or BRCA2-related disease, the proband is deceased. Reliable assessment of archived tissue blocks not amenable to full gene sequencing would be helpful. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers that bracket the BRCA mutation site and microfluidics-based detection of heteroduplex/amplicon size differences was developed to circumvent artifacts associated with low quality DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Genomic DNA was extracted from 100 FFPE specimens from patients that had previously undergone BRCA gene sequence analysis on blood specimens. Conventional PCR amplification products were differentiated using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. One FFPE specimen failed to amplify the wild-type alleles for all three sites and was therefore called indeterminate. All 62 FFPE specimens with known Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutations had both the wild-type and the correct mutated allele amplified, including one specimen that failed to amplify the mutant allele in other real-time PCR assays. Appropriately, 21 FFPE specimens known to have other BRCA1/2 mutations and 16 without any mutation had only the wild-type allele correctly amplified for each target. Therefore, by changing the primer location and detecting amplicons via heteroduplexes formed by size differences, we identified mutations from FFPE tissues missed using real-time methods.

  12. Mutational analysis of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRIP1 /BACH1/FANCJ in high-risk non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Frédéric; Labrie, Yvan; Ouellette, Geneviève; Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine

    2008-01-01

    The BRIP1 gene encodes a helicase interacting with BRCA1, which contributes to BRCA1-associated DNA repair function. Germ-line BRIP1 mutations affecting the helicase domain activity have been identified in early onset breast cancer patients. In addition, BRIP1 was recently identified as deficient in Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group J. Given the growing evidence now linking BRCA1, BRCA2, and the FA pathway, as well as the involvement of FA proteins (BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN) in breast cancer susceptibility, we sought to evaluate the contribution of FANCJ gene alterations regarding breast cancer susceptibility among our cohort of 96 breast cancer individuals from high-risk non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families. No deleterious mutation, exon deletion, or retention of intronic portions could be identified. However, extensive analysis of the promoter and whole exonic and flanking intronic regions of FANCJ led to the identification of 42 variants, including 22 novel variants not previously reported, four of which were located in the promoter region. Transcription factors analysis revealed a potential involvement of FANCJ promoter variants in regulation of FANCJ expression, and reporter gene assays were performed. The allelic frequency was assessed in a cohort of 73 unaffected French Canadian individuals, and haplotype analysis and tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification were also performed. Although our study unlikely involves FANCJ as a high-risk predisposition gene in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian families, the possible association of FANCJ missense variants with phenotypes associated with FA, such as childhood cancer, cannot be excluded.

  13. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. Methods We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. Results The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. Conclusions The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models

  14. Relevance and efficacy of breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers above 60 years: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Vos, Janet R; Hooning, Maartje J; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Koppert, Linetta B; de Bock, Geertruida H; Ausems, Margreet G; van Asperen, Christi J; Aalfs, Cora M; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Piek, Marianne; Seynaeve, Caroline; Verhoef, Cornelis; Rookus, Matti; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M

    2014-12-15

    Annual MRI and mammography is recommended for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to reduce breast cancer mortality. Less intensive screening is advised ≥60 years, although effectiveness is unknown. We identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers without bilateral mastectomy before age 60 to determine for whom screening ≥60 is relevant, in the Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic and HEBON: a nationwide prospective cohort study. Furthermore, we compared tumour stage at breast cancer diagnosis between different screening strategies in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers ≥60. Tumours >2 cm, positive lymph nodes, or distant metastases at detection were defined as "unfavourable." Of 548 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers ≥60 years in 2012, 395 (72%) did not have bilateral mastectomy before the age of 60. Of these 395, 224 (57%) had a history of breast or other invasive carcinoma. In 136 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we compared 148 breast cancers (including interval cancers) detected ≥60, of which 84 (57%) were first breast cancers. With biennial mammography 53% (30/57) of carcinomas were detected in unfavourable stage, compared to 21% (12/56) with annual mammography (adjusted odds ratio: 4·07, 95% confidence interval [1.79-9.28], p = 0.001). With biennial screening 40% of breast cancers were interval cancers, compared to 20% with annual screening (p = 0.016). Results remained significant for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and first breast cancers separately. Over 70% of 60-year old BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remain at risk for breast cancer, of which half has prior cancers. When life expectancy is good, continuation of annual breast cancer screening of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers ≥60 is worthwhile.

  15. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-02-08

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  16. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). Methods To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). Conclusions The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22348646

  17. Mutation analysis of PALB2 in BRCA1 and BRCA2-negative breast and/or ovarian cancer families from Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PALB2 has emerged as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Mutations in PALB2 have been identified in almost all breast cancer populations studied to date, but the rarity of these mutations and lack of information regarding their penetrance makes genetic counseling for these families challenging. We studied BRCA1/2 -negative breast and/or ovarian cancer families to a) assess the contribution of PALB2 mutations in this series and b) identify clinical, pathological and family history characteristics that might make PALB2 screening more efficient. Methods The coding region of the PALB2 gene was analyzed in 175 probands with family histories of breast and/or ovarian cancer ascertained from a single Canadian institution in Eastern Ontario. Results We identified 2 probands with PALB2 mutations that are known or strongly considered to be pathogenic and 3 probands with missense mutations that are possibly pathogenic. One of the identified truncating mutations [c.3113G > A (p.Gly1000_Trp1038del – major product)], has been previously described while the other four mutations [c.3507_3508delTC (p.H1170Ffs*19), c.1846G > C (p.D616H), c.3418 T > G (p.W1140G), c.3287A > G (p.N1096S)] have not been previously reported. Loss of heterozygosity was detected in two breast tumors from one c.3507_3508delTC mutation carrier but not in other available tumors from that family or in tumors from carriers of other mutations. Conclusions PALB2 mutation screening identifies a small, but significant number of mutations in BRCA1/2 -negative breast and/or ovarian cancer families. We show that mutations are more likely to be found in families with three or more breast cancers as well as other BRCA2-related cancers. In our cohort, both clearly pathogenic mutations were identified in premenopausal breast cancer cases (2/77, 2.6%). Testing should be preferentially offered to affected women from such families. PMID:25225577

  18. Hereditary truncating mutations of DNA repair and other genes in BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2-negatively tested breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lhota, F; Zemankova, P; Kleiblova, P; Soukupova, J; Vocka, M; Stranecky, V; Janatova, M; Hartmannova, H; Hodanova, K; Kmoch, S; Kleibl, Z

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer comprises a minor but clinically meaningful breast cancer (BC) subgroup. Mutations in the major BC-susceptibility genes are important prognostic and predictive markers; however, their carriers represent only 25% of high-risk BC patients. To further characterize variants influencing BC risk, we performed SOLiD sequencing of 581 genes in 325 BC patients (negatively tested in previous BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 analyses). In 105 (32%) patients, we identified and confirmed 127 truncating variants (89 unique; nonsense, frameshift indels, and splice site), 19 patients harbored more than one truncation. Forty-six (36 unique) truncating variants in 25 DNA repair genes were found in 41 (12%) patients, including 16 variants in the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes. The most frequent variant in FA genes was c.1096_1099dupATTA in FANCL that also show a borderline association with increased BC risk in subsequent analysis of enlarged groups of BC patients and controls. Another 81 (53 unique) truncating variants were identified in 48 non-DNA repair genes in 74 patients (23%) including 16 patients carrying variants in genes coding proteins of estrogen metabolism/signaling. Our results highlight the importance of mutations in the FA genes' family, and indicate that estrogen metabolism genes may reveal a novel candidate genetic component for BC susceptibility. PMID:26822949

  19. Novel BRCA2-Interacting Protein, LIMD1, Is Essential for the Centrosome Localization of BRCA2 in Esophageal Cancer Cell.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaobin; Li, Tinghui; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) has been identified as a vital risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC). To date, several proteins have been reported as BRCA2-interacting proteins and are associated with multiple biological processes. This study's aim was to identify a novel interactive protein of BRCA2 and to explore its functional roles in EC. A yeast two-hybrid screening was performed to identify a novel BRCA2-interacting protein. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down analysis was performed to find out how the binding domain of BRCA2 interacts with LIM domains containing 1 (LIMD1). The interaction between LIMD1 and BRCA2 at the endogenous level was confirmed by using coimmunoprecipitation and immunobloting. Furthermore, two different sequences of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against LIMD1 were transfected into the human EC cell line ECA109. Afterward, the effects of LIMD1 suppression on the centrosome localization of BRCA2 and cell division were analyzed using an immunofluorescence microscope. Results showed that LIMD1 was a novel BRCA2-interacting protein, and LIMD1 interacted with the conserved region of BRCA2 (amino acids 2,750-3,094) in vitro. Importantly, after interfering with the protein expression of LIMD1 in ECA109 cells, the centrosome localization of BRCA2 was significantly abolished and abnormal cell division was significantly increased. These results suggested that LIMD1 is a novel BRCA2-interacting protein and is involved in the centrosome localization of BRCA2 and suppression of LIMD1, causing abnormal cell division in EC cells. PMID:27656835

  20. Association of the Variants CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Christoph; Versmold, Beatrix; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Mayes, Rebecca; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Barjhoux, Laure; Frenay, Marc; Michel, Cécile; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Helene; Toulas, Christine; Gladieff, Laurence; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ehrencrona, Hans; Liljegren, Annelie; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramón y; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Benítez, Javier; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Szabo, Csilla I.; Caldes, Trinidad; Couch, Fergus J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hamann, Ute; Schmutzler, Rita K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genes caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) functionally cooperate and play a key role in the initiation of apoptosis. Suppression of apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of cancer. Previous case-control studies have indicated that the polymorphisms CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population. Methods To evaluate whether the CASP8 D302H (CASP10 V410I) polymorphisms modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we analyzed 7,353 (7,227) subjects of white European origin provided by 19 (18) study groups that participate in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIM-BA). A weighted cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The minor allele of CASP8 D302H was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76–0.97; Ptrend = 0.011) and ovarian cancer (per-allele HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53–0.89; Ptrend = 0.004) for BRCA1 but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The CASP10 V410I polymorphism was not associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Conclusions CASP8 D302H decreases breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact The combined application of these and other recently identified genetic risk modifiers could in the future allow better individual risk calculation and could aid in the individualized counseling and decision making with respect to preventive options in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:20978178

  1. The Leu33Pro polymorphism in the ITGB3 gene does not modify BRCA1/2-associated breast or ovarian cancer risks: results from a multicenter study among 15,542 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, Anna; Rozkrut, Dominik; Antoniou, Antonis; Hamann, Ute; Lubinski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Integrins containing the β3 subunit are key players in tumor growth and metastasis. A functional Leu33Pro polymorphism (rs5918) in the β3 subunit of the integrin gene (ITGB3) has previously been suggested to act as a modifier of ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers. To investigate the association further, we genotyped 9,998 BRCA1 and 5,544 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 34 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for the ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism. Data were analysed within a Cox-proportional hazards framework using a retrospective likelihood approach. There was marginal evidence that the ITGB3 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23, p-trend 0.05). However, when the original Polish study was excluded from the analysis, the polymorphism was no longer significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96–1.19, p-trend 0.25). There was no evidence of an association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89–1.32). The polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism does not modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:19876733

  2. The TP53 Arg72Pro and MDM2 309G>T polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Sinilnikova, O M; Antoniou, A C; Simard, J; Healey, S; Léoné, M; Sinnett, D; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Greene, M H; Loud, J T; Lejbkowicz, F; Rennert, G; Dishon, S; Andrulis, I L; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Manoukian, S; Radice, P; Konstantopoulou, I; Blanco, I; Laborde, A L; Durán, M; Osorio, A; Benitez, J; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; van Os, T A M; Gille, H J P; Peock, S; Cook, M; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Davidson, R; Cole, T; Cook, J; Paterson, J; Brewer, C; Hughes, D J; Coupier, I; Giraud, S; Coulet, F; Colas, C; Soubrier, F; Rouleau, E; Bièche, I; Lidereau, R; Demange, L; Nogues, C; Lynch, H T; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Arnold, N; Sutter, C; Deissler, H; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Aittomäki, K; Nevanlinna, H; McGuffog, L; Easton, D F; Chenevix-Trench, G; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    2009-01-01

    Background: The TP53 pathway, in which TP53 and its negative regulator MDM2 are the central elements, has an important role in carcinogenesis, particularly in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mediated carcinogenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MDM2 (309T>G, rs2279744) and a coding SNP of TP53 (Arg72Pro, rs1042522) have been shown to be of functional significance. Methods: To investigate whether these SNPs modify breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we pooled genotype data on the TP53 Arg72Pro SNP in 7011 mutation carriers and on the MDM2 309T>G SNP in 2222 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results: No association was found between these SNPs and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (TP53: per-allele hazard ratio (HR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.10, Ptrend=0.77; MDM2: HR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.84–1.09, Ptrend=0.54) or for BRCA2 mutation carriers (TP53: HR=0.99, 95%CI: 0.87–1.12, Ptrend=0.83; MDM2: HR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.80–1.21, Ptrend=0.88). We also evaluated the potential combined effects of both SNPs on breast cancer risk, however, none of their combined genotypes showed any evidence of association. Conclusion: There was no evidence that TP53 Arg72Pro or MDM2 309T>G, either singly or in combination, influence breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:19707196

  3. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Santos, Patricia Koehler Dos; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann de Netto; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-05-24

    In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil.

  4. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Santos, Patricia Koehler Dos; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann de Netto; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-05-24

    In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil. PMID:27223485

  5. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; dos Santos, Patricia Koehler; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; de Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil. PMID:27223485

  6. "Social separation" among women under 40 years of age diagnosed with breast cancer and carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kenen, Regina; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Eeles, Rosalind

    2006-06-01

    We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study investigating experiences of women who had developed breast cancer under the age of 40 and who were identified as BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. These germline mutation carriers face an increased lifetime risk of a second primary breast cancer and an increased risk for a primary ovarian cancer. Thirteen women who fit this criteria participated in three focus groups conducted at a major cancer center in the UK during Spring 2003. We asked broad, open-ended questions that allowed for a wide range of responses about their cancer and genetic testing experiences, physical and psycho-social concerns, family and partner reactions and their need for social support. The women expressed feelings of devastation, loneliness, feeling different and isolation, ambivalence about having to support family members, worries about partner's anxiety and depression, and anxiety about talking to family members, especially children. These feelings were stronger after the cancer diagnosis and compounded by the genetic test results that occurred at a later time. We also found that, at least temporarily, the women experienced what we call "social separation"--emotional distance from, or dissonance with groups they interact with or are part of, e.g., family and friends, frequently leading to a reduction in communication or a change in previously unstated, but accepted normal interaction. We concentrate on a few characteristics of social separation-feelings of aloneness, isolation and separation, use of silence and verbal discretion, the relationship between estrangement and kinship interaction and norm disruption, and are looking at social patterns of interpersonal relationships that may occur when risk and illness statuses are new and framing and feeling rules have not as yet been clearly developed due to a cultural lag. PMID:16724273

  7. Pooled analysis indicates that the GSTT1 deletion, GSTM1 deletion, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms do not modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Fahey, Paul; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Simard, Jacques; Rebbeck, Tim R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2010-07-01

    The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies.

  8. Pooled analysis indicates that the GSTT1 deletion, GSTM1 deletion, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms do not modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fahey, Paul; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Simard, Jacques; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies. PMID:19921428

  9. Population Testing for Cancer Predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish Community: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Conclusion: Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn

  10. A case of familial breast cancer with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

    PubMed

    Nomizu, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Sakuma, Takeshi; Monma, Tomoyuki; Saito, Motonobu; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Midorikawa, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko

    2015-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of familial breast cancer with deleterious germline mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, of which, to date, no such case has been reported among Japanese breast/ovarian cancer patients. Genetic testing of the family members indicated that the same double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was transmitted to the paternal cousin, and the same BRCA2 mutation to the younger sister with bilateral breast cancer, younger brother with stomach cancer, and proband's son and daughter without cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA protein expression was performed using breast cancer tissues from the proband with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and from her sibling without BRCA1 mutation but with BRCA2 mutation. There was no staining of either BRCA in the proband and no staining of BRCA2 in the sibling.

  11. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xia; Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Martin, Betty K.; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E.; Keller, Jonathan R.; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K.

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2cko/ko mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2ko/ko cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2ko/ko cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2cko/cko mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss. PMID:27498558

  12. Synthetic viability by BRCA2 and PARP1/ARTD1 deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xia; Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Callen, Elsa; Pang, Yan; Biswas, Kajal; Klarmann, Kimberly D; Martin, Betty K; Burkett, Sandra; Cleveland, Linda; Stauffer, Stacey; Sullivan, Teresa; Dewan, Aashish; Marks, Hanna; Tubbs, Anthony T; Wong, Nancy; Buehler, Eugen; Akagi, Keiko; Martin, Scott E; Keller, Jonathan R; Nussenzweig, André; Sharan, Shyam K

    2016-08-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated cells, which are homologous recombination (HR) deficient, are hypersensitive to PARPi through the mechanism of synthetic lethality. Here we examine the effect of PARPi on HR-proficient cells. Olaparib pretreatment, PARP1 knockdown or Parp1 heterozygosity of Brca2(cko/ko) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), carrying a null (ko) and a conditional (cko) allele of Brca2, results in viable Brca2(ko/ko) cells. PARP1 deficiency does not restore HR in Brca2(ko/ko) cells, but protects stalled replication forks from MRE11-mediated degradation through its impaired recruitment. The functional consequence of Parp1 heterozygosity on BRCA2 loss is demonstrated by a significant increase in tumorigenesis in Brca2(cko/cko) mice. Thus, while olaparib efficiently kills BRCA2-deficient cells, we demonstrate that it can also contribute to the synthetic viability if PARP is inhibited before BRCA2 loss.

  13. Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and survival of BRCA2 positive and negative cases.

    PubMed

    Syamala, Vani; Syamala, Volga S; Sreeja, Leelakumari; Raveendran, Praveenkumar B; Vijayalekshmi, R V; Sheeja, V R; Santhi, S; Kuttan, Ratheesan; Abraham, Elizabeth K; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and pathological characteristics and prognostic outcome of patients with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and BRCA2 mutations are poorly known. Hence, the present study aimed to correlate the BRCA2 mutation status with clinical characteristics and overall survival of 102 breast/ovarian cancer patients in Kerala, South India. All the coding regions of BRCA2 genes were PCR amplified and analyzed for mutations employing Conformation Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis and characterized by sequencing. The ORs with 95% Cls was computed to assess the association between BRCA2 gene mutation status and clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer patients. Survival curves were generated according to Kaplan-Meier method using Log Rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression method. Out of the 102 breast/ovarian cancer patients with known BRCA2 status, 19 were BRCA2 mutation positive. In survival analysis, BRCA2 gene mutation status (P = 0.02) and clinicopathologic parameters such as tumour size (p = 0.01), metastasis (P = 0.01), disease stage (P = 0.03) and laterality (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Patients with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer resulting from a BRCA2 mutation have been conclusively shown to have a worse survival prognosis compared to the non mutated group of patients. PMID:19066131

  14. Comparable frequency of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutations in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort suggests TP53 screening should be offered together with BRCA1/2 screening to early-onset breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Germline TP53 mutations cause an increased risk to early-onset breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) families and the majority of carriers identified through breast cancer cohorts have LFS or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) features. However, in Asia and in many low resource settings, it is challenging to obtain accurate family history and we, therefore, sought to determine whether the presence of early-onset breast cancer is an appropriate selection criteria for germline TP53 testing. Methods A total of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer (≤ 35 years) treated at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2003 and 2009, were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 by full DNA sequencing. Of the mutations identified, we examined their likely pathogenicity on the basis of prevalence in a case-control cohort, co-segregation analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor tissues. Results We identified 11 BRCA1 (11%) and 6 BRCA2 (6%) germline carriers among early-onset breast cancer patients. Of the 83 BRCA-negative patients, we identified four exonic variants and three intronic variants in TP53. Of these, two exonic variants are clinically relevant (E346X and p. G334_R335dup6) and two novel missense mutations (A138V and E285K) are likely to be clinically relevant, on the basis of co-segregation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Notably, E285K was found in two unrelated individuals and haplotype analyses suggest a founder effect. Two of the three intronic variants are likely benign based on their prevalence in a control population. Clinically relevant TP53 germline mutations were identified in three of the four patients (75%) with a family history of at least two LFS-linked cancers (breast, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors or adrenocortical cancer); 1 of the 17 patients (6%) with a family history of breast cancer only, and 1 of the 62 patients (< 2%) with no family history of breast or LFS-linked cancers. Conclusions Our

  15. Up-regulation of the interferon-related genes in BRCA2 knockout epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Xian, Jian; Vire, Emmanuelle; McKinney, Steven; Wong, Jason; Wei, Vivien; Tong, Rebecca; Kouzarides, Tony; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 mutations are significantly associated with early onset breast cancer, and the tumour suppressing function of BRCA2 has been attributed to its involvement in homologous recombination [1]-mediated DNA repair. In order to identify additional functions of BRCA2, we generated BRCA2-knockout HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Using genome-wide microarray analyses, we have discovered a link between the loss of BRCA2 and the up-regulation of a subset of interferon (IFN)-related genes, including APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. The over-expression of IFN-related genes was confirmed in different human BRCA2−/− and mouse Brca2−/− tumour cell lines, and was independent of either senescence or apoptosis. In isogenic wild type BRCA2 cells, we observed over-expression of IFN-related genes after treatment with DNA-damaging agents, and following ionizing radiation. Cells with endogenous DNA damage because of defective BRCA1 or RAD51 also exhibited over-expression of IFN-related genes. Transcriptional activity of the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was increased in BRCA2 knockout cells, and the expression of BRCA2 greatly decreased IFN-α stimulated ISRE reporter activity, suggesting that BRCA2 directly represses the expression of IFN-related genes through the ISRE. Finally, the colony forming capacity of BRCA2 knockout cells was significantly reduced in the presence of either IFN-β or IFN-γ, suggesting that IFNs may have potential as therapeutic agents in cancer cells with BRCA2 mutations. PMID:25043256

  16. Frequent occurrence of BRCA2 linkage in Icelandic breast cancer families and segregation of a common BRCA2 haplotype

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J.; Johannesdottir, G.; Arason, A.; Bergthorsson, J.T.

    1996-04-01

    Cloning of a breast cancer-predisposing gene (BRCA2) on chromosome 13q12-14 has been reported recently. We analyzed seven large Icelandic breast cancer families with markers from the BRCA2 region. Five families showed strong evidence of linkage. The maximum two-point LOD scores for the five BRCA2-linked families ranged from 1.06 to 3.19. Haplotype analyses revealed a region with identical allele sizes between the families, suggesting that they have inherited the mutation from a common ancestor. Cancer types other than breast cancer occur in individuals, segregating the affected haplotype within these families. This suggests that mutations in the gene may also confer some risk of other malignancies in both males and females. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. BRCA2 BRC motifs bind RAD51-DNA filaments.

    PubMed

    Galkin, Vitold E; Esashi, Fumiko; Yu, Xiong; Yang, Shixin; West, Stephen C; Egelman, Edward H

    2005-06-14

    Germ-line mutations in BRCA2 account for approximately half the cases of autosomal dominant familial breast cancers. BRCA2 has been shown to interact directly with RAD51, an essential component of the cellular machinery for homologous recombination and the maintenance of genome stability. Interactions between BRCA2 and RAD51 take place by means of the conserved BRC repeat regions of BRCA2. Previously, it was shown that peptides corresponding to BRC3 or BRC4 bind RAD51 monomers and block RAD51-DNA filament formation. In this work, we further analyze these interactions and find that at lower molar ratios BRC3 or BRC4 actually bind and form stable complexes with RAD51-DNA nucleoprotein filaments. Only at high concentrations of the BRC repeats are filaments disrupted. The specific protein-protein contacts occur in the RAD51 filament by means of the N-terminal domain of RAD51 for BRC3 and the nucleotide-binding core of RAD51 for BRC4. These observations show that the BRC repeats bind distinct regions of RAD51 and are nonequivalent in their mode of interaction. The results provide insight into why mutation in just one of the eight BRC repeats would affect the way that BRCA2 protein interacts with the RAD51 filament. Disruption of a single RAD51 interaction site, one of several simultaneous interactions occurring throughout the BRC repeat-containing exon 11 of BRCA2, might modulate the ability of RAD51 to promote recombinational repair and lead to an increased risk of breast cancer.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary breast cancer: Role of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    SciTech Connect

    Rebbeck, T.R.; Couch, F.J.; Kant, J.

    1996-09-01

    The common hereditary forms of breast cancer have been largely attributed to the inheritance of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. However, it is not yet clear what proportion of hereditary breast cancer is explained by BRCA1 and BRCA2 or by some other unidentified susceptibility gene(s). We describe the proportion of hereditary breast cancer explained by BRCA1 or BRCA2 in a sample of North American hereditary breast cancers and assess the evidence for additional susceptibility genes that may confer hereditary breast or ovarian cancer risk. Twenty-three families were identified through two high-risk breast cancer research programs. Genetic analysis was undertaken to establish linkage between the breast or ovarian cancer cases and markers on chromosomes 17q (BRCA1) and 13q (BRCA2). Mutation analysis in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was also undertaken in all families. The pattern of hereditary cancer in 14 (61%) of the 23 families studied was attributed to BRCA1 by a combination of linkage and mutation analyses. No families were attributed to BRCA2. Five families (22%) provided evidence against linkage to both BRCA1 and BRCA2. No BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were detected in these five families. The BRCA1 or BRCA2 status of four families (17%) could not be determined. BRCA1 and BRCA2 probably explain the majority of hereditary breast cancer that exists in the North American population. However, one or more additional genes may yet be found that explain some proportion of hereditary breast cancer. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Interaction with PALB2 Is Essential for Maintenance of Genomic Integrity by BRCA2

    PubMed Central

    Hartford, Suzanne A.; Chittela, Rajanikant; Ding, Xia; Martin, Betty; Burkett, Sandra; Haines, Diana C.; Southon, Eileen; Tessarollo, Lino; Sharan, Shyam K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, encodes a 3418-amino acid protein that is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. Among the proteins that physically interact with BRCA2, Partner and Localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), which binds to the N-terminal region of BRCA2, is vital for its function by facilitating its subnuclear localization. A functional redundancy has been reported between this N-terminal PALB2-binding domain and the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of BRCA2, which undermines the relevance of the interaction between these two proteins. Here, we describe a genetic approach to examine the functional significance of the interaction between BRCA2 and PALB2 by generating a knock-in mouse model of Brca2 carrying a single amino acid change (Gly25Arg, Brca2G25R) that disrupts this interaction. In addition, we have combined Brca2G25R homozygosity as well as hemizygosity with Palb2 and Trp53 heterozygosity to generate an array of genotypically and phenotypically distinct mouse models. Our findings reveal defects in body size, fertility, meiotic progression, and genome stability, as well as increased tumor susceptibility in these mice. The severity of the phenotype increased with a decrease in the interaction between BRCA2 and PALB2, highlighting the significance of this interaction. In addition, our findings also demonstrate that hypomorphic mutations such as Brca2G25R have the potential to be more detrimental than the functionally null alleles by increasing genomic instability to a level that induces tumorigenesis, rather than apoptosis. PMID:27490902

  20. Interaction with PALB2 Is Essential for Maintenance of Genomic Integrity by BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Suzanne A; Chittela, Rajanikant; Ding, Xia; Vyas, Aradhana; Martin, Betty; Burkett, Sandra; Haines, Diana C; Southon, Eileen; Tessarollo, Lino; Sharan, Shyam K

    2016-08-01

    Human breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, encodes a 3418-amino acid protein that is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. Among the proteins that physically interact with BRCA2, Partner and Localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), which binds to the N-terminal region of BRCA2, is vital for its function by facilitating its subnuclear localization. A functional redundancy has been reported between this N-terminal PALB2-binding domain and the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of BRCA2, which undermines the relevance of the interaction between these two proteins. Here, we describe a genetic approach to examine the functional significance of the interaction between BRCA2 and PALB2 by generating a knock-in mouse model of Brca2 carrying a single amino acid change (Gly25Arg, Brca2G25R) that disrupts this interaction. In addition, we have combined Brca2G25R homozygosity as well as hemizygosity with Palb2 and Trp53 heterozygosity to generate an array of genotypically and phenotypically distinct mouse models. Our findings reveal defects in body size, fertility, meiotic progression, and genome stability, as well as increased tumor susceptibility in these mice. The severity of the phenotype increased with a decrease in the interaction between BRCA2 and PALB2, highlighting the significance of this interaction. In addition, our findings also demonstrate that hypomorphic mutations such as Brca2G25R have the potential to be more detrimental than the functionally null alleles by increasing genomic instability to a level that induces tumorigenesis, rather than apoptosis. PMID:27490902

  1. The role of the BRCA2 gene in susceptibility to prostate cancer revisited.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Udler, Miriam S

    2008-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a genetically complex disease with multiple predisposing factors affecting presentation, progression, and outcome. Epidemiologic studies have long shown an aggregation of breast and prostate cancer in some families. More recently, studies have reported an apparent excess of prostate cancer cases among BRCA2 mutation-carrying families. Additionally, population-based screens of early-onset prostate cancer patients have suggested that the prevalence of deleterious BRCA2 mutations in this group is 1% to 2%, imparting a significantly increased risk of the disease compared with noncarrier cases. However, studies of high-risk prostate cancer families suggest that BRCA2 plays at most a minimal role in these individuals, highlighting the potential genetic heterogeneity of the disease. In this commentary, we review the current literature and hypotheses surrounding the relationship between BRCA2 mutations and susceptibility to prostate cancer and speculate on the potential for involvement of additional genes.

  2. Drosophila brca2 Is Required for Mitotic and Meiotic DNA Repair and Efficient Activation of the Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Klovstad, Martha; Abdu, Uri; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2008-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the tumor suppressor BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast and other cancers in humans. BRCA2 maintains genome stability in part through the regulation of Rad51-dependent homologous recombination. Much about its precise function in the DNA damage responses is, however, not yet known. We have made null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of BRCA2 and measured the levels of homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining, and single-strand annealing in the pre-meiotic germline of Drosophila males. We show that repair by homologous recombination is dramatically decreased in Drosophila brca2 mutants. Instead, large flanking deletions are formed, and repair by the non-conservative single-strand annealing pathway predominates. We further show that during meiosis, Drosophila Brca2 has a dual role in the repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks and the efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint. The eggshell patterning defects that result from activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint in other meiotic DNA repair mutants can be strongly suppressed by mutations in brca2. In addition, Brca2 co-immunoprecipitates with the checkpoint protein Rad9, suggesting a direct role for Brca2 in the transduction of the meiotic recombination checkpoint signal. PMID:18266476

  3. [Recommended Extension of Indication Criteria for Genetic Testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Foretová, L; Macháčková, E; Palácová, M; Navrátilová, M; Svoboda, M; Petráková, K

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is indicated by a genetic counselor on the basis of personal and family history evaluation, with regards to consensual criteria, reflecting the current knowledge. The latest recommendation accepted by Czech Oncology Society and Society of Medical Genetics was published in the supplement 22 to the Journal of Clinical Oncology in 2009. Since the availability of PARP inhibitors for treatment of ovarian cancer in BRCA1/ 2 mutation carriers, an update of these guidelines is urgently needed. Another reason is a higher incidence of other malignancies in high-risk families, such as prostate or pancreatic cancer. The goal is to refine the detection of mutations in selected families, to improve preventive care and collect data necessary for targeted cancer treatment.

  4. Large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in familial breast cancer patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ja Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Choi, Su-Youn; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Ku, Bo Kyung; Son, Byung Ho

    2014-06-01

    We screened large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Korean, familial breast cancer patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to identify BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in 226 Korean familial breast cancer patients with risk factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, who previously tested negative for point mutations in the two genes. We identified only one large deletion (c.4186-1593_4676-1465del) in BRCA1. No large rearrangements were found in BRCA2. Our result indicates that large genomic rearrangement in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes does not seem like a major determinant of breast cancer susceptibility in the Korean population. A large-scale study needs to validate our result in Korea.

  5. Hereditary breast cancer. Identifying and managing BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, R. E.; Carroll, J. C.; Warner, E.; McCready, D. R.; Goel, V.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present a strategy for identifying candidates for consideration of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing. To discuss the implications of identifying patients as BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, and to provide recommendations for managing them. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1990 to May 1998 was performed using the terms genetic breast screening, BRCA1, and BRCA2. The bibliographies of articles found were searched for further relevant titles. There are no published, randomized controlled clinical trials of management strategies for known BRCA carriers. Many recommendations for management are based on expert opinion only. MAIN FINDINGS: About 5% of women with breast cancer are carriers of genetic mutations. An accurate and detailed family history is the most important tool for identifying potential BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Women identified as carriers have a substantially increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Male carriers have a moderately increased risk of prostate cancer. Management strategies for carriers are not well studied but include increased surveillance, preventive surgery, chemoprevention, and lifestyle modification. CONCLUSION: Family physicians must be able to identify people at risk, to discuss management strategies, and when appropriate, to offer referral for consideration of genetic testing. There is an urgent need for research to determine the effectiveness of surveillance strategies, preventive surgery, chemoprevention, and lifestyle modification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:10889864

  6. Inactivation of BRCA2 in human cancer cells identifies a subset of tumors with enhanced sensitivity towards death receptormediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    De Toni, Enrico N.; Ziesch, Andreas; Rizzani, Antonia; Török, Helga-Paula; Hocke, Sandra; Lü, Shuai; Wang, Shao-Chun; Hucl, Tomas; Göke, Burkhard; Bruns, Christiane; Gallmeier, Eike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose DNA repair defects due to detrimental BRCA2-mutations confer increased susceptibility towards DNA interstrand-crosslinking (ICL) agents and define patient subpopulations for individualized genotype-based cancer therapy. However, due to the side effects of these drugs, there is a need to identify additional agents, which could be used alone or in combination with ICL-agents. Therefore, we investigated whether BRCA2-mutations might also increase the sensitivity towards TRAIL-receptors (TRAIL-R)-targeting compounds. Experimental design Two independent model systems were applied: a BRCA2 gene knockout and a BRCA2 gene complementation model. The effects of TRAIL-R-targeting compounds and ICL-agents on cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were compared in BRCA2-proficient versus-deficient cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the effects of the TRAIL-R2-targeting antibody LBY135 were assessed in vivo using a murine tumor xenograft model. Results BRCA2-deficient cancer cells displayed an increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-R-targeting agents. These effects exceeded and were mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established effects of ICL-agents. In vitro, ICL-agents expectedly induced an early cell cycle arrest followed by delayed apoptosis, whereas TRAIL-R-targeting compounds caused early apoptosis without prior cell cycle arrest. In vivo, treatment with LBY135 significantly reduced the tumor growth of BRCA2-deficient cancer cells in a xenograft model. Conclusions BRCA2 mutations strongly increase the in vitro- and in vivo-sensitivity of cancer cells towards TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. This effect is mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established ICL-hypersensitivity of BRCA2-deficient cells. Our study thus defines a new genetic subpopulation of cancers susceptible towards TRAIL-R-targeting compounds, which could facilitate novel therapeutic approaches for patients with BRCA2-deficient tumors. PMID:26843614

  7. A common missense variant in BRCA2 predisposes to early onset breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Górski, Bohdan; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Mutations in the BRCA2 gene are one of the two major causes of hereditary breast cancer. Protein-truncating mutations of BRCA2 are usually deleterious and increase the risk of breast cancer up to 80% over a lifetime. A few missense mutations in BRCA2 are believed to have a similarly high penetrance, apart from more common neutral polymorphisms. It is often difficult to classify a particular sequence variant as a mutation or a polymorphism. For a deleterious variant, one would expect a greater allele frequency in breast cancer cases than in ethnic-matched controls. In contrast, neutral polymorphic variants should be equally frequent in the two groups. Methods We genotyped 3,241 cases of breast cancer diagnosed at under 51 years of age, unselected for family history, from 18 hospitals throughout Poland and 2,791 ethnic-matched controls for a single BRCA2 C5972T variant. Results The variant was present in approximately 6% of the Polish population. In the study, 13 women (11 cases and two controls (OR = 4.7; p = 0.02)) were homozygous for the variant allele. The overall odds ratio for breast cancer in women with a single copy of the BRCA2 C5972T variant was 1.1 (p = 0.7); however, the effect was significant for patients diagnosed at or before age 40 (OR = 1.4; p = 0.04). We reviewed the association between the BRCA2 variant in different histologic subgroups and found the effect most pronounced in women who had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with micro-invasion (OR = 2.8; p < 0.0001). Conclusion The BRCA2 C5972T allele is a common variant in Poland that increases the risk of DCIS with micro-invasion. The homozygous state is rare but increases the risk of breast cancer five-fold. PMID:16280055

  8. Aceruloplasminemia in an asymptomatic patient with a new mutation. Diagnosis and family genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Fernando; Burguera, Juan A; Benlloch, Salvador; Berenguer, Marina; Rayón, Jose M

    2005-06-01

    A 39-year-old asymptomatic man showed elevated serum ferritin levels, mild hypertransaminasemia and serum ceruloplasmin almost undetectable. There was histological iron accumulation within the hepatocytes and also in the central nervous system (MRI). A genetic analysis revealed a new missense mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Two of the other four siblings were also affected by this mutation.

  9. Interactions between canine RAD51 and full length or truncated BRCA2 BRC repeats.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Oonuma, T; Tomioka, Y; Hashizume, K; Morimatsu, M

    2011-11-01

    In humans, mutations in the gene for the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 affect its interactions with the recombinase RAD51 and are associated with an increased risk of cancer. This interaction occurs through a series of eight BRC repeat sequences in BRCA2. A mammalian two-hybrid assay using individual BRC repeats demonstrated that BRC6 did not bind to RAD51, whereas there was strong (BRC1, 2 and 4), intermediate (BRC8), or weak (BRC3, 5 and 7) binding of other BRC repeats to RAD51. In serial deletion mutation experiments, binding strengths were increased when the C-terminal BRC repeat was removed from BRC1-8, BRC1-5 and BRC1-3. These results may provide an insight into the effects of missense or truncation mutations in BRCA2 in canine tumours.

  10. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner in the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  11. BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements in Brazilian individuals with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Palmero, Edenir Inez; Pinheiro, Manuela; Nascimento, Ivana Lucia de Oliveira; Machado, Taisa Manuela Bonfim; Sandes, Kiyoko Abe; Toralles, Betânia; Garicochea, Bernardo; Izetti, Patricia; Pereira, Maria Luiza Saraiva; Bock, Hugo; Vargas, Fernando Regla; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo Martins; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by germline mutations in high penetrance predisposition genes. Among these, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome, are the most frequently affected genes. Recent studies confirm that gene rearrangements, especially in BRCA1, are responsible for a significant proportion of mutations in certain populations. In this study we determined the prevalence of BRCA rearrangements in 145 unrelated Brazilian individuals at risk for HBOC syndrome who had not been previously tested for BRCA mutations. Using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and a specific PCR-based protocol to identify a Portuguese founder BRCA2 mutation, we identified two (1,4%) individuals with germline BRCA1 rearrangements (c.547+240_5193+178del and c.4675+467_5075-990del) and three probands with the c.156_157insAlu founder BRCA2 rearrangement. Furthermore, two families with false positive MLPA results were shown to carry a deleterious point mutation at the probe binding site. This study comprises the largest Brazilian series of HBOC families tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements to date and includes patients from three regions of the country. The overall observed rearrangement frequency of 3.44% indicates that rearrangements are relatively uncommon in the admixed population of Brazil. PMID:27303907

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements in Brazilian individuals with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Palmero, Edenir Inez; Pinheiro, Manuela; Nascimento, Ivana Lucia de Oliveira; Machado, Taisa Manuela Bonfim; Sandes, Kiyoko Abe; Toralles, Betânia; Garicochea, Bernardo; Izetti, Patricia; Pereira, Maria Luiza Saraiva; Bock, Hugo; Vargas, Fernando Regla; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo Martins; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by germline mutations in high penetrance predisposition genes. Among these, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome, are the most frequently affected genes. Recent studies confirm that gene rearrangements, especially in BRCA1, are responsible for a significant proportion of mutations in certain populations. In this study we determined the prevalence of BRCA rearrangements in 145 unrelated Brazilian individuals at risk for HBOC syndrome who had not been previously tested for BRCA mutations. Using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and a specific PCR-based protocol to identify a Portuguese founder BRCA2 mutation, we identified two (1,4%) individuals with germline BRCA1 rearrangements (c.547+240_5193+178del and c.4675+467_5075-990del) and three probands with the c.156_157insAlu founder BRCA2 rearrangement. Furthermore, two families with false positive MLPA results were shown to carry a deleterious point mutation at the probe binding site. This study comprises the largest Brazilian series of HBOC families tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements to date and includes patients from three regions of the country. The overall observed rearrangement frequency of 3.44% indicates that rearrangements are relatively uncommon in the admixed population of Brazil. PMID:27303907

  13. Distinct binding of BRCA2 BRC repeats to RAD51 generates differential DNA damage sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Gouri; Jimenez-Sainz, Judit; Presti, Thomas; Nguyen, Tiffany; Jensen, Ryan B

    2016-06-20

    BRCA2 is a multi-faceted protein critical for the proper regulation of homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Elucidating the mechanistic features of BRCA2 is crucial for understanding homologous recombination and how patient-derived mutations impact future cancer risk. Eight centrally located BRC repeats in BRCA2 mediate binding and regulation of RAD51 on resected DNA substrates. Herein, we dissect the biochemical and cellular features of the BRC repeats tethered to the DNA binding domain of BRCA2. To understand how the BRC repeats and isolated domains of BRCA2 contribute to RAD51 binding, we analyzed both the biochemical and cellular properties of these proteins. In contrast to the individual BRC repeat units, we find that the BRC5-8 region potentiates RAD51-mediated DNA strand pairing and provides complementation functions exceeding those of BRC repeats 1-4. Furthermore, BRC5-8 can efficiently repair nuclease-induced DNA double-strand breaks and accelerate the assembly of RAD51 repair complexes upon DNA damage. These findings highlight the importance of the BRC5-8 domain in stabilizing the RAD51 filament and promoting homology-directed repair under conditions of cellular DNA damage.

  14. Nuclear localization of Rad51B is independent of BRCA2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K A; Hinz, J M; Yamada, A; Thompson, L H; Albala, J S

    2005-06-28

    Human Rad51 is critical for the maintenance of genome stability through its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Rad51B (Rad51L1/hRec2) is one of the five known paralogs of human Rad51 found in a multi-protein complex with three other Rad51 paralogs, Rad51C, Rad51D and Xrcc2. Examination of EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in HeLa S3 cells and immunofluorescence in several human cell lines confirms the nuclear localization of Rad51B. This is the first report to detail putative interactions of a Rad51 paralog protein with BRCA2. Utilization of a BRCA2 mutant cell line, CAPAN-1 suggests that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of BRCA2. Although both Rad51B and BRCA2 are clearly involved in the homologous recombinational repair pathway, Rad51B and BRCA2 do not appear to associate directly. Furthermore, mutations in the KKLK motif of Rad51B, amino acid residues 4-7, mislocalizes Rad51B to the cytoplasm suggesting that this is the nuclear localization signal for the Rad51B protein. Examination of wild-type EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in mammalian cells deficient in Rad51C showed that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of Rad51C; further suggesting that Rad51B, like Rad51C, contains its own nuclear localization signal.

  15. Distinct binding of BRCA2 BRC repeats to RAD51 generates differential DNA damage sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gouri; Jimenez-Sainz, Judit; Presti, Thomas; Nguyen, Tiffany; Jensen, Ryan B.

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 is a multi-faceted protein critical for the proper regulation of homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Elucidating the mechanistic features of BRCA2 is crucial for understanding homologous recombination and how patient-derived mutations impact future cancer risk. Eight centrally located BRC repeats in BRCA2 mediate binding and regulation of RAD51 on resected DNA substrates. Herein, we dissect the biochemical and cellular features of the BRC repeats tethered to the DNA binding domain of BRCA2. To understand how the BRC repeats and isolated domains of BRCA2 contribute to RAD51 binding, we analyzed both the biochemical and cellular properties of these proteins. In contrast to the individual BRC repeat units, we find that the BRC5–8 region potentiates RAD51-mediated DNA strand pairing and provides complementation functions exceeding those of BRC repeats 1–4. Furthermore, BRC5–8 can efficiently repair nuclease-induced DNA double-strand breaks and accelerate the assembly of RAD51 repair complexes upon DNA damage. These findings highlight the importance of the BRC5–8 domain in stabilizing the RAD51 filament and promoting homology-directed repair under conditions of cellular DNA damage. PMID:27084934

  16. Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoho, Greg; Brenneman, Mark A.; Cui, Tracy X.; Donoviel, Dorit; Vogel, Hannes; Goodwin, Edwin H.; Chen, David J.; Hasty, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2(lex1)) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2(lex1) mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2(lex1) mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guiducci, Candace; Segrè, Ayellet V.; McGee, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Sobol, Hagay; Longy, Michel; Frenay, Marc; GEMO Study Collaborators; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy; Nerenstone, Stacy; Van Le, Linda; Blank, Stephanie V.; Caldés, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar T.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olofunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Flugelman, Anath; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Borg, Ake; Beattie, Mary; Ramus, Susan J.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Tim; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tung, Nadine; Overeem Hansen, Thomas V.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Greene, Mark I.; Mai, Phuong L.; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andres, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Walker, Lisa; Eason, Jacqueline; Barwell, Julian; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engert, Stefanie; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Dean, Michael; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Daly, Mark J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Altshuler, David M.; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10−5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10−4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer. PMID:21060860

  18. Population-based screening for breast and ovarian cancer risk due to BRCA1 and BRCA2

    PubMed Central

    Gabai-Kapara, Efrat; Lahad, Amnon; Kaufman, Bella; Friedman, Eitan; Segev, Shlomo; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Gal, Moran; Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Djemal, Karen; Mandell, Jessica B.; Lee, Ming K.; Beller, Uziel; Catane, Raphael; King, Mary-Claire; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

    2014-01-01

    In the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population of Israel, 11% of breast cancer and 40% of ovarian cancer are due to three inherited founder mutations in the cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. For carriers of these mutations, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. Population screening for these mutations among AJ women may be justifiable if accurate estimates of cancer risk for mutation carriers can be obtained. We therefore undertook to determine risks of breast and ovarian cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained irrespective of personal or family history of cancer. Families harboring mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were ascertained by identifying mutation carriers among healthy AJ males recruited from health screening centers and outpatient clinics. Female relatives of the carriers were then enrolled and genotyped. Among the female relatives with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, cumulative risk of developing either breast or ovarian cancer by age 60 and 80, respectively, were 0.60 (± 0.07) and 0.83 (± 0.07) for BRCA1 carriers and 0.33 (± 0.09) and 0.76 (± 0.13) for BRCA2 carriers. Risks were higher in recent vs. earlier birth cohorts (P = 0.006). High cancer risks in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers identified through healthy males provide an evidence base for initiating a general screening program in the AJ population. General screening would identify many carriers who are not evaluated by genetic testing based on family history criteria. Such a program could serve as a model to investigate implementation and outcomes of population screening for genetic predisposition to cancer in other populations. PMID:25192939

  19. First BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing implemented in the health care system of Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Arver, B; Borg, A; Lindblom, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to optimize the criteria for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing and to improve oncogenetic counseling in the Stockholm region. Screening for inherited breast cancer genes is laborious and a majority of tested samples turn out to be negative. The frequencies of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes differ across populations. Between 1997 and 2000, 160 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer were counseled and screened for mutations in the two genes. Twenty-five BRCA1 and two BRCA2 disease-causing mutations were found. Various factors associated with the probability of finding a BRCA1 mutation in the families were estimated. Age of onset in different generations and other malignancies were also studied. Families from our region in which both breast and ovarian cancer occur were likely to carry a BRCA1 mutation (34%). In breast-only cancer families, mutations were found only in those with very early onset. All breast- only cancer families with a mutation had at least one case of onset before 36 years of age and a young median age of onset (<43 years). Other malignancies than breast and ovarian cancers did not segregate in the BRCA1 families and surveillance for other malignancies is not needed, in general. Decreasing age of onset with successive generations was common and must be taken into account when surveillance options are considered. PMID:11336395

  20. Molecular classification of familial non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedenfalk, Ingrid; Ringner, Markus; Ben-Dor, Amir; Yakhini, Zohar; Chen, Yidong; Chebil, Gunilla; Ach, Robert; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Håkan; Meltzer, Paul; Borg, Ake; Trent, Jeffrey

    2003-03-01

    In the decade since their discovery, the two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been shown conclusively to be involved in a significant fraction of families segregating breast and ovarian cancer. However, it has become equally clear that a large proportion of families segregating breast cancer alone are not caused by mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Unfortunately, despite intensive effort, the identification of additional breast cancer predisposition genes has so far been unsuccessful, presumably because of genetic heterogeneity, low penetrance, or recessive/polygenic mechanisms. These non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families (termed BRCAx families) comprise a histopathologically heterogeneous group, further supporting their origin from multiple genetic events. Accordingly, the identification of a method to successfully subdivide BRCAx families into recognizable groups could be of considerable value to further genetic analysis. We have previously shown that global gene expression analysis can identify unique and distinct expression profiles in breast tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Here we show that gene expression profiling can discover novel classes among BRCAx tumors, and differentiate them from BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors. Moreover, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to cDNA arrays revealed specific somatic genetic alterations within the BRCAx subgroups. These findings illustrate that, when gene expression-based classifications are used, BRCAx families can be grouped into homogeneous subsets, thereby potentially increasing the power of conventional genetic analysis.

  1. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dörk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80–0.90, P = 3.9×10−8). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical

  2. [Breast cancer genetics. BRCA1 and BRCA2: the main genes for disease predisposition].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Flores, P; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Barrera-Saldaña, H A

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most common world cancers. In Mexico this neoplasm has been progressively increasing since 1990 and is expected to continue. The risk factors for this disease are age, some reproductive factors, ionizing radiation, contraceptives, obesity and high fat diets, among other factors. The main risk factor for BC is a positive family history. Several families, in which clustering but no mendelian inheritance exists, the BC is due probably to mutations in low penetrance genes and/or environmental factors. In families with autosomal dominant trait, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are frequently mutated. These genes are the two main BC susceptibility genes. BRCA1 predispose to BC and ovarian cancer, while BRCA2 mutations predispose to BC in men and women. Both are long genes, tumor suppressors, functioning in a cell cycle dependent manner, and it is believed that both switch on the transcription of several genes, and participate in DNA repair. The mutations profile of these genes is known in developed countries, while in Latin America their search has just began. A multidisciplinary group most be responsible of the clinical management of patients with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, and the risk assignment and Genetic counseling most be done carefully.

  3. Identification of Rad51 regulation by BRCA2 using Caenorhabditis elegans BRCA2 and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Jaewon; Park, Pil-gu; Ko, Eunkyong; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Hyunsook

    2007-11-03

    BRCA2 is involved in double-stranded DNA break repair by binding and regulating Rad51-mediated homologous recombination. Insights as to how BRCA2 regulates Rad51-mediated DNA repair arose from in vitro biochemical studies on fragments of BRCA2. However, the large 400-kDa BRCA2 protein has hampered our ability to understand the entire process by which full-length BRCA2 regulates Rad51. Here, we show that CeBRC-2, which is only one tenth the size of mammalian BRCA2, complemented BRCA2-deficiency in Rad51 regulation. CeBRC-2 was able to bind to mammalian Rad51 (mRad51) and form distinct nuclear foci when they interacted. In our bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis (BiFC), we show that the strength of the interaction between CeBRC-2 and mRad51 increased markedly after DNA damage. The BRC motif of CeBRC-2 was responsible for binding mRad51, but without the OB fold, the complex was unable to target damaged DNA. When CeBRC-2 was introduced into BRCA2-deficient cells, it restored Rad51 foci after DNA damage. Our study suggests a mode of action for BRCA2 with regard to DNA repair.

  4. Intracellular location of BRCA2 protein expression and prostate cancer progression in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Jordahl, Kristina M; Flavin, Richard; Epstein, Mara Meyer; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andren, Ove; Rider, Jennifer R; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Ingoldsby, Helen; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer patients with inherited BRCA2 mutations have a survival disadvantage. However, it is unknown whether progression is associated with BRCA2 protein expression in diagnostic prostate cancer tissue, among men without inherited mutations. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The case group included all 71 patients who died from prostate cancer within 5 years from diagnosis and controls were all patients (n = 165) who lived at least 7 years after diagnosis. Tissue microarrays were stained using antibodies for C- and N-terminal domains of the BRCA2 protein. Location (nuclear, cytoplasmic and membranous) and magnitude (intensity and percentage) of expression were assessed. Logistic regression models produced odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, year of diagnosis and Gleason score. Positive BRCA2 staining at the cell membrane was associated with reduced risk of death within 5 years (N-terminal: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.21-1.04, P = 0.06; C-terminal: OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.18-0.91, P = 0.03) and low Gleason scores (P = 0.006). Positive cytoplasmic C-terminal staining was associated with higher Gleason scores and increased lethality (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.61-8.07, P = 0.002). BRCA2 protein expression at the cell membrane and lack of C-terminal expression in the cytoplasm were associated with a reduced risk of rapidly fatal prostate cancer. BRCA2 protein expression in prostate cancer tissue may have independent prognostic value. The potential biological significance of BRCA2 expression at the cell membrane warrants further investigation. PMID:26775038

  5. The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women.

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, D; Kaduri, L; Lerer, I; Weinberg, N; Amir, G; Sagi, M; Zlotogora, J; Heching, N; Peretz, T

    1997-01-01

    The mutations 185delAG, 188del11, and 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene were analyzed in 199 Ashkenazi and 44 non-Ashkenazi Jewish unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Of the Jewish Ashkenazi women with ovarian cancer, 62% (13/21) had one of the target mutations, as did 30% (13/43) of women with breast cancer alone diagnosed before the age 40 years and 10% (15/141) of those with breast cancer diagnosed after the age 40 years. Age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not associated with carrier status. Of 99 Ashkenazi patients with no family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 10% carried one of the mutations; in two of them the mutation was proved to be paternally transmitted. One non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patient from Iraq carried the 185delAG mutation. Individual mutation frequencies among breast cancer Ashkenazi patients were 6.7% for 185delAG, 2.2% for 5382insC, and 4.5% for 6174delT, among ovarian cancer patients; 185delAG and 6174delT were about equally common (33% and 29%, respectively), but no ovarian cancer patient carried the 5382insC. More mutations responsible for inherited breast and ovarian cancer probably remain to be found in this population, since 79% of high-incidence breast cancer families and 35% of high-incidence breast/ovarian cancer families had none of the three known founder mutations. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9042909

  6. The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliovich, D.; Lerer, I.; Weinberg, N.

    1997-03-01

    The mutations 185delAG, 188del11, and 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene were analyzed in 199 Ashkenazi and 44 non-Ashkenazi Jewish unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Of the Jewish Ashkenazi women with ovarian cancer, 62% (13/21) had one of the target mutations, as did 30% (13/43) of women with breast cancer alone diagnosed before the age 40 years and 10% (15/141) of those with breast cancer diagnosed after the age 40 years. Age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not associated with carrier status. Of 99 Ashkenazi patients with no family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 10% carried one of the mutations; in two of them the mutation was proved to be paternally transmitted. One non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patient from Iraq carried the 185delAG mutation. Individual mutation frequencies among breast cancer Ashkenazi patients were 6.7% for 185delAG, 2.2% for 5382insC, and 4.5% for 6174delT, among ovarian cancer patients; 185delAG and 6174delT were about equally common (33% and 29%, respectively), but no ovarian cancer patient carried the 5382insC. More mutations responsible for inherited breast and ovarian cancer probably remain to be found in this population, since 79% of high-incidence breast cancer families and 35% of high-incidence breast/ovarian cancer families had none of the three known founder mutations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Homologous recombination and human health: the roles of BRCA1, BRCA2, and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Rohit; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Weiran; Jasin, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a major pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells, the defining step of which is homologous strand exchange directed by the RAD51 protein. The physiological importance of HR is underscored by the observation of genomic instability in HR-deficient cells and, importantly, the association of cancer predisposition and developmental defects with mutations in HR genes. The tumor suppressors BRCA1 and BRCA2, key players at different stages of HR, are frequently mutated in familial breast and ovarian cancers. Other HR proteins, including PALB2 and RAD51 paralogs, have also been identified as tumor suppressors. This review summarizes recent findings on BRCA1, BRCA2, and associated proteins involved in human disease with an emphasis on their molecular roles and interactions. PMID:25833843

  8. Double heterozygosity in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the Jewish population

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, O.; Narod, S.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Dishon, S.; Goldberg, Y.; Gemer, O.; Rennert, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The frequency and characteristics of disease in individuals who concomitantly harbor pathogenic mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are not established. Materials and methods: Data were collected from the database of Clalit Health Services National Familial Cancer Consultation Service. Probands referred to this clinical service and their family members are routinely tested for the three Jewish founder mutations (BRCA1:185delAG, 5382insC, BRCA2:6174delT). In addition, carriers identified in a population-based cohort of all cases diagnosed with breast cancer in Israel in 1987–1988 allowed the estimation of the population frequency of this phenomenon. Results: In the clinic-based series of 1191 carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 belonging to 567 families, 22 males and females (1.85%) from 17 different families (3.0%) were found to harbor two different mutations. These included 18 individuals (1.51%) who concomitantly carried the 185delAG BRCA1 and the 6174delT BRCA2 mutations and four individuals (0.34%) who carried the 5382insC BRCA1 and the 6174delT mutations. All individuals were heterozygote carriers and none had a double mutation of both founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene itself. Seven of the 16 double carrier women (46.7%) had a personal history of breast carcinoma, diagnosed at a mean age of 44.6, compared with 372/926 (40.2%) carriers of a single mutation diagnosed with a mean age at diagnosis of 48.1 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4–4.0]. One case (6.7%) had a personal history of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed at the age of 53 compared with 55/926 (5.9%) of the women with single mutation (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.2–7.6). The frequency of double mutations in the population-based national breast cancer cohort was 2.2% of all carriers, and 0.3% of all breast cancer cases in the Ashkenazi population in the cohort. The mean age at diagnosis of breast cancer was younger in the carriers of two mutations. Conclusion: Double

  9. Large BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in Malaysian high risk breast-ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Phuah, Sze Yee; Lim, Linda Shushan; Liu, Jianjun; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Yip, Cheng Har; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2010-11-01

    Early studies of genetic predisposition due to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have focused largely on sequence alterations, but it has now emerged that 4-28% of inherited mutations in the BRCA genes may be due to large genomic rearrangements of these genes. However, to date, there have been relatively few studies of large genomic rearrangements in Asian populations. We have conducted a full sequencing and large genomic rearrangement analysis (using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, MLPA) of 324 breast cancer patients who were selected from a multi-ethnic hospital-based cohort on the basis of age of onset of breast cancer and/or family history. Three unrelated individuals were found to have large genomic rearrangements: 2 in BRCA1 and 1 in BRCA2, which accounts for 2/24 (8%) of the total mutations detected in BRCA1 and 1/23 (4%) of the mutations in BRCA2 detected in this cohort. Notably, the family history of the individuals with these mutations is largely unremarkable suggesting that family history alone is a poor predictor of mutation status in Asian families. In conclusion, this study in a multi-ethnic (Malay, Chinese, Indian) cohort suggests that large genomic rearrangements are present at a low frequency but should nonetheless be included in the routine testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:20617377

  10. Large BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in Malaysian high risk breast-ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Phuah, Sze Yee; Lim, Linda Shushan; Liu, Jianjun; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Yip, Cheng Har; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2010-11-01

    Early studies of genetic predisposition due to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have focused largely on sequence alterations, but it has now emerged that 4-28% of inherited mutations in the BRCA genes may be due to large genomic rearrangements of these genes. However, to date, there have been relatively few studies of large genomic rearrangements in Asian populations. We have conducted a full sequencing and large genomic rearrangement analysis (using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, MLPA) of 324 breast cancer patients who were selected from a multi-ethnic hospital-based cohort on the basis of age of onset of breast cancer and/or family history. Three unrelated individuals were found to have large genomic rearrangements: 2 in BRCA1 and 1 in BRCA2, which accounts for 2/24 (8%) of the total mutations detected in BRCA1 and 1/23 (4%) of the mutations in BRCA2 detected in this cohort. Notably, the family history of the individuals with these mutations is largely unremarkable suggesting that family history alone is a poor predictor of mutation status in Asian families. In conclusion, this study in a multi-ethnic (Malay, Chinese, Indian) cohort suggests that large genomic rearrangements are present at a low frequency but should nonetheless be included in the routine testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Ovarian Cancer Classified by BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51C Status

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J. M.; Cicek, M. S.; Larson, N. B.; Davila, J.; Wang, C.; Larson, M. C.; Song, H.; Dicks, E. M.; Harrington, P.; Wick, M.; Winterhoff, B. J.; Hamidi, H.; Konecny, G. E.; Chien, J.; Bibikova, M.; Fan, J.-B.; Kalli, K. R.; Lindor, N. M.; Fridley, B. L.; Pharoah, P. P. D.; Goode, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated homologous recombination deficient (HRD) phenotypes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) considering BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51C in a large well-annotated patient set. We evaluated EOC patients for germline deleterious mutations (n = 899), somatic mutations (n = 279) and epigenetic alterations (n = 482) in these genes using NGS and genome-wide methylation arrays. Deleterious germline mutations were identified in 32 (3.6%) patients for BRCA1, in 28 (3.1%) for BRCA2 and in 26 (2.9%) for RAD51C. Ten somatically sequenced patients had deleterious alterations, six (2.1%) in BRCA1 and four (1.4%) in BRCA2. Fifty two patients (10.8%) had methylated BRCA1 or RAD51C. HRD patients with germline or somatic alterations in any gene were more likely to be high grade serous, have an earlier diagnosis age and have ovarian and/or breast cancer family history. The HRD phenotype was most common in high grade serous EOC. Identification of EOC patients with an HRD phenotype may help tailor specific therapies. PMID:24504028

  12. Post-transcriptional Regulation of BRCA2 through Interactions with miR-19a and miR-19b

    PubMed Central

    Mogilyansky, Elena; Clark, Peter; Quann, Kevin; Zhou, Honglei; Londin, Eric; Jing, Yi; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of ‘BRCAness.’ The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2’s messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3′UTR of BRCA2’s mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2’s mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2’s 3′UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types. PMID:27630665

  13. Post-transcriptional Regulation of BRCA2 through Interactions with miR-19a and miR-19b.

    PubMed

    Mogilyansky, Elena; Clark, Peter; Quann, Kevin; Zhou, Honglei; Londin, Eric; Jing, Yi; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of 'BRCAness.' The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2's messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3'UTR of BRCA2's mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2's mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2's 3'UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types. PMID:27630665

  14. Post-transcriptional Regulation of BRCA2 through Interactions with miR-19a and miR-19b

    PubMed Central

    Mogilyansky, Elena; Clark, Peter; Quann, Kevin; Zhou, Honglei; Londin, Eric; Jing, Yi; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of ‘BRCAness.’ The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2’s messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3′UTR of BRCA2’s mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2’s mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2’s 3′UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types.

  15. Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of a BRCA2 Deficient Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kozarewa, Iwanka; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Sims, David; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Capan-1 is a well-characterised BRCA2-deficient human cell line isolated from a liver metastasis of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here we report a genome-wide assessment of structural variations and high-depth exome characterization of single nucleotide variants and small insertion/deletions in Capan-1. To identify potential somatic and tumour-associated variations in the absence of a matched-normal cell line, we devised a novel method based on the analysis of HapMap samples. We demonstrate that Capan-1 has one of the most rearranged genomes sequenced to date. Furthermore, small insertions and deletions are detected more frequently in the context of short sequence repeats than in other genomes. We also identify a number of novel mutations that may represent genetic changes that have contributed to tumour progression. These data provide insight into the genomic effects of loss of BRCA2 function. PMID:21750719

  16. Expression of BRC repeats in breast cancer cells disrupts the BRCA2-Rad51 complex and leads to radiation hypersensitivity and loss of G(2)/M checkpoint control.

    PubMed

    Chen, C F; Chen, P L; Zhong, Q; Sharp, Z D; Lee, W H

    1999-11-12

    BRCA2 is a breast tumor suppressor with a potential function in the cellular response to DNA damage. BRCA2 binds to Rad51 through its BRC repeats. In support of the biological significance of this interaction, we found that the complex of BRCA2 and Rad51 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells was diminished upon conditional expression of a wild-type, but not a mutated, BRC4 repeat using the tetracycline-inducible system. Cells expressing a wild-type BRC4 repeat showed hypersensitivity to gamma-irradiation, an inability to form Rad51 radiation-induced foci, and a failure of radiation-induced G(2)/M, but not G(1)/S, checkpoint control. These results strongly suggest that the interaction between BRCA2 and Rad51 mediated by BRC repeats is critical for the cellular response to DNA damage.

  17. Pathogenicity evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 unclassified variants identified in Portuguese breast/ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Santos, Catarina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Pedro; Bizarro, Susana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Pinto, Carla; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2014-05-01

    Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome is caused by germline deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. A major problem of genetic testing and counseling is the finding of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). We sought to ascertain the pathogenicity of 25 BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS identified in Portuguese families during genetic testing. We performed cosegregation analysis of VUS with cancer in families, evaluated their frequency in unaffected controls, and looked for loss of heterozygosity in tumors. In addition, three different bioinformatic algorithms were used (Interactive Biosoftware, ESEfinder, and PolyPhen). Finally, six VUS located in exon-intron boundaries were analyzed by RT-PCR. We found that seven variants segregated with the disease, six variants co-occurred with a pathogenic mutation in the same gene, and four variants co-occurred with a deleterious mutation in the other BRCA gene. By RT-PCR, we observed that four variants (BRCA1 c.4484G>T, BRCA2 c.682-2A>C, BRCA2 c.8488-1G>A, and BRCA2 c.8954-5A>G) disrupted splicing. After the combined analysis, we were able to classify 4 splicing variants as pathogenic mutations, 16 variants as neutral, and 3 variants as polymorphisms; only 2 variants remained classified as VUS. This work highlights the contribution of DNA, RNA, and in silico data to assess the pathogenicity of BRCA1/2 VUS, which, in turn, allows more accurate genetic counseling and clinical management of the families carrying them. PMID:24607278

  18. Polymorphisms of canine BRCA2 BRC repeats affecting interaction with RAD51.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Udagawa, Chihiro; Kato, Yuiko; Watanabe, Masami; Bonkobara, Makoto; Morimatsu, Masami; Omi, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 leading to the failure of interactions with the recombinase RAD51 are associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. This interaction depends on the eight BRC repeat (BRC1-8) sequences in BRCA2. We previously reported that canine BRC3 has two polymorphisms (T1425P and K1435R) influencing the interaction with RAD51, and 1435R was identified in mammary tumor dog samples. In this study, we investigated the sequence variations of BRC3 and 4 in 236 dogs of five breeds. Allele frequencies of 1425P and 1435R were 0.063 and 0.314, respectively, and there was no other polymorphism in the sequenced region. A mammalian two-hybrid assay using BRC3-4 sequences demonstrated that 1425P allele reduced the binding strength with RAD51 but 1435R had no effect. These results may provide an insight into the functions of not only individual but also multiple BRC repeats of BRCA2 in dogs.

  19. Polymorphisms of canine BRCA2 BRC repeats affecting interaction with RAD51.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Udagawa, Chihiro; Kato, Yuiko; Watanabe, Masami; Bonkobara, Makoto; Morimatsu, Masami; Omi, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 leading to the failure of interactions with the recombinase RAD51 are associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. This interaction depends on the eight BRC repeat (BRC1-8) sequences in BRCA2. We previously reported that canine BRC3 has two polymorphisms (T1425P and K1435R) influencing the interaction with RAD51, and 1435R was identified in mammary tumor dog samples. In this study, we investigated the sequence variations of BRC3 and 4 in 236 dogs of five breeds. Allele frequencies of 1425P and 1435R were 0.063 and 0.314, respectively, and there was no other polymorphism in the sequenced region. A mammalian two-hybrid assay using BRC3-4 sequences demonstrated that 1425P allele reduced the binding strength with RAD51 but 1435R had no effect. These results may provide an insight into the functions of not only individual but also multiple BRC repeats of BRCA2 in dogs. PMID:25876666

  20. After BRCA1 and BRCA2-what next? Multifactorial segregation analyses of three-generation, population-based Australian families affected by female breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Antoniou, A C; Dite, G S; Southey, M C; Venter, D J; Easton, D F; Giles, G G; McCredie, M R; Hopper, J L

    2001-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that cause a dominantly inherited high risk of female breast cancer seem to explain only a small proportion of the aggregation of the disease. To study the possible additional genetic components, we conducted single-locus and two-locus segregation analyses, with and without a polygenic background, using three-generation families ascertained through 858 women with breast cancer diagnosed at age <40 years, ascertained through population cancer registries in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Extensive testing for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, to date, has identified 34 carriers. Our analysis suggested that, after other possible unmeasured familial factors are adjusted for and the known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are excluded, there appears to be a residual dominantly inherited risk of female breast cancer in addition to that derived from mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. This study also suggests that there is a substantial recessively inherited risk of early-onset breast cancer. According to the best-fitting model, after excluding known carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, about 1/250 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1/500 to 1/125) women have a recessive risk of 86% (95% CI 69%-100%) by age 50 years and of almost 100% by age 60 years. Possible reasons that our study has implicated a novel strong recessive effect include our inclusion of data on lineal aunts and grandmothers, study of families ascertained through women with early-onset breast cancer, allowance for multiple familial factors in the analysis, and removal of families for whom the cause (i.e., BRCA1 or BRCA2) is known. Our findings may have implications for attempts to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes. PMID:11133358

  1. An integrated in silico approach to analyze the involvement of single amino acid polymorphisms in FANCD1/BRCA2-PALB2 and FANCD1/BRCA2-RAD51 complex.

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Nagasundaram, N

    2014-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive human disease characterized by genomic instability and a marked increase in cancer risk. The importance of FANCD1 gene is manifested by the fact that deleterious amino acid substitutions were found to confer susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Attaining experimental knowledge about the possible disease-associated substitutions is laborious and time consuming. The recent introduction of genome variation analyzing in silico tools have the capability to identify the deleterious variants in an efficient manner. In this study, we conducted in silico variation analysis of deleterious non-synonymous SNPs at both functional and structural level in the breast cancer and FA susceptibility gene BRCA2/FANCD1. To identify and characterize deleterious mutations in this study, five in silico tools based on two different prediction methods namely pathogenicity prediction (SIFT, PolyPhen, and PANTHER), and protein stability prediction (I-Mutant 2.0 and MuStab) were analyzed. Based on the deleterious scores that overlap in these in silico approaches, and the availability of three-dimensional structures, structure analysis was carried out with the major mutations that occurred in the native protein coded by FANCD1/BRCA2 gene. In this work, we report the results of the first molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study performed to analyze the structural level changes in time scale level with respect to the native and mutated protein complexes (G25R, W31C, W31R in FANCD1/BRCA2-PALB2, and F1524V, V1532F in FANCD1/BRCA2-RAD51). Analysis of the MD trajectories indicated that predicted deleterious variants alter the structural behavior of BRCA2-PALB2 and BRCA2-RAD51 protein complexes. In addition, statistical analysis was employed to test the significance of these in silico tool predictions. Based on these predictions, we conclude that the identification of disease-related SNPs by in silico methods, in combination with MD

  2. Targeting BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells with RAD52 small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Goyal, Nadish; Sullivan, Katherine; Hanamshet, Kritika; Patel, Mikir; Mazina, Olga M; Wang, Charles X; An, W Frank; Spoonamore, James; Metkar, Shailesh; Emmitte, Kyle A; Cocklin, Simon; Skorski, Tomasz; Mazin, Alexander V

    2016-05-19

    RAD52 is a member of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway that is important for maintenance of genome integrity. While single RAD52 mutations show no significant phenotype in mammals, their combination with mutations in genes that cause hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer like BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD51C are lethal. Consequently, RAD52 may represent an important target for cancer therapy. In vitro, RAD52 has ssDNA annealing and DNA strand exchange activities. Here, to identify small molecule inhibitors of RAD52 we screened a 372,903-compound library using a fluorescence-quenching assay for ssDNA annealing activity of RAD52. The obtained 70 putative inhibitors were further characterized using biochemical and cell-based assays. As a result, we identified compounds that specifically inhibit the biochemical activities of RAD52, suppress growth of BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells and inhibit RAD52-dependent single-strand annealing (SSA) in human cells. We will use these compounds for development of novel cancer therapy and as a probe to study mechanisms of DNA repair. PMID:26873923

  3. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with the E200K mutation: longitudinal neuroimaging from asymptomatic to symptomatic CJD.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Oren S; Chapman, Joab; Korczyn, Amos D; Nitsan, Zeev; Appel, Shmuel; Hoffmann, Chen; Rosenmann, Hanna; Kahana, Esther; Lee, Hedok

    2015-03-01

    Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) in Jews of Libyan ancestry is caused by an E200K mutation in the PRNP gene. While carriers are born with this mutation, they usually remain asymptomatic until middle age. Early detection of conversion is crucial for understanding and eventually for the treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to report longitudinal MRI data in E200K individuals who eventually converted from healthy mutation carriers to clinically symptomatic CJD. As a part of a prospective study, asymptomatic E200K mutation carriers were scanned annually until their conversion to symptomatic disease. Standardized diffusion and anatomical MR sequences were performed before and after clinical conversion in the subjects and those were compared to 15 non-carrier siblings ("healthy controls"). Blinded radiological readings and region of interest analyses were performed. Radiological readings of individual cases failed to detect characteristic changes in the scans taken before the conversion. Region of interest analysis of diffusion changes in pre-symptomatic stage was inconclusive; however, ADC reduction was found in early and late stages of the disease. Computerized volumetric analysis revealed monotonic volume reductions in thalamus, putamen and caudate following conversion, and the lateral ventricles showed dilatation of up to 62 % after clinical conversion. Although the clinical manifestations at disease onset are variable, the diffusion abnormalities and/or volume changes in the thalamus and basal ganglia during conversion may indicate early involvement of the thalamostriatal neuronal circuit.

  4. Molecular characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of the R2787H missense variation in BRCA2 gene: Association with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Aouatef; Messaoudi, Abdelmonem; Mrad, Ridha; Fourati, Asma; Chabouni-Bouhamed, Habiba; Kharrat, Maher

    2016-08-21

    The significance of many BRCA unclassified variants (UVs) has not been evaluated. Classification of these variations as neutral or pathogenic presents a significant challenge and has important implications for breast and ovarian cancer genetic counseling. Here we report a combined molecular and computational approach to classify BRCA UVs missense variations. By using the LOH (Loss of heterozygosity) analysis at the BRCA1/BRCA2 loci, five bioinformatics approaches namely fathmm, PhD-SNP, SNAP, MutationTaster and Human Splicing Finder and the association with the clinico-pathological characteristics related to BRCA tumors, we were able to classify the R2787H (in BRCA2 gene) variant as pathogenic. Then, to investigate the functional role of the R2787H variation in altering BRCA2 structure, the homology model of this variant was constructed using the Rattus norvegicus BRCA2 (PDB ID: 1IYJ) as a template. The predicted model was then assessed for stereochemical quality and side chain environment. Furthermore, docking and binding free energy simulations were performed to investigate the ssDNA-BRCA2 complex interaction. Binding energy value calculation proves that this substitution affects the complex stability. Moreover, this alteration was not found in one hundred healthy controls. These findings suggest that R2787H variant could have potential functional impact. Our approach might be useful for evaluation of BRCA unclassified variants. However additional functional analyzes may provide appropriate assessment to classify such variants. PMID:27211102

  5. A risk prediction algorithm for ovarian cancer incorporating BRCA1, BRCA2, common alleles and other familial effects

    PubMed Central

    Jervis, Sarah; Song, Honglin; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Harrington, Patricia; Baynes, Caroline; Manchanda, Ranjit; Easton, Douglas F; Jacobs, Ian; Pharoah, Paul P D; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2015-01-01

    Background Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for only ∼27% of the familial aggregation of ovarian cancer (OvC), no OvC risk prediction model currently exists that considers the effects of BRCA1, BRCA2 and other familial factors. Therefore, a currently unresolved problem in clinical genetics is how to counsel women with family history of OvC but no identifiable BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods We used data from 1548 patients with OvC and their relatives from a population-based study, with known BRCA1/2 mutation status, to investigate OvC genetic susceptibility models, using segregation analysis methods. Results The most parsimonious model included the effects of BRCA1/2 mutations, and the residual familial aggregation was accounted for by a polygenic component (SD 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.86), reflecting the multiplicative effects of a large number of genes with small contributions to the familial risk. We estimated that 1 in 630 individuals carries a BRCA1 mutation and 1 in 195 carries a BRCA2 mutation. We extended this model to incorporate the explicit effects of 17 common alleles that are associated with OvC risk. Based on our models, assuming all of the susceptibility genes could be identified we estimate that the half of the female population at highest genetic risk will account for 92% of all OvCs. Conclusions The resulting model can be used to obtain the risk of developing OvC on the basis of BRCA1/2, explicit family history and common alleles. This is the first model that accounts for all OvC familial aggregation and would be useful in the OvC genetic counselling process. PMID:26025000

  6. Intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that affect RNA splicing can be reliably selected by splice-site prediction programs.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Kraan, Jaennelle N; van der Klift, Heleen M; Vink, Geraldine R; Cornelisse, Cees J; Wijnen, Juul T; Bakker, Egbert; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A large number of sequence variants identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot be distinguished as either disease-causing mutations or neutral variants. These so-called unclassified variants (UVs) include variants that are located in the intronic sequences of BRCA1 and BRCA2. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of splice-site prediction programs (SSPPs) to select intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that are likely to affect RNA splicing. We performed in vitro molecular characterization of RNA of six intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In four cases (BRCA1, c.81-6T>A and c.4986+5G>T; BRCA2, c.7617+2T>G and c.8754+5G>A) a deleterious effect on RNA splicing was seen, whereas the c.135-15_-12del variant in BRCA1 showed no effect on RNA splicing. In the case of the BRCA2 c.68-7T>A variant, RNA analysis was not sufficient to establish the clinical significance. Six SSPPs were used to predict whether an effect on RNA splicing was expected for these six variants as well as for 23 intronic variants in BRCA1 for which the effect on RNA splicing has been published. Out of a total of 174 predictions, 161 (93%) were informative (i.e., the wild-type splice-site was recognized). No false-negative predictions were observed; an effect on RNA splicing was always predicted by these programs. In four cases (2.5%) a false-positive prediction was observed. For DNA diagnostic laboratories, these programs are therefore very useful to select intronic variants that are likely to affect RNA splicing for further analysis.

  7. A region of human BRCA2 containing multiple BRC repeats promotes RAD51-mediated strand exchange.

    PubMed

    Shivji, Mahmud K K; Davies, Owen R; Savill, Jane M; Bates, Debbie L; Pellegrini, Luca; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2006-01-01

    Human BRCA2, a breast and ovarian cancer suppressor, binds to the DNA recombinase RAD51 through eight conserved BRC repeats, motifs of approximately 30 residues, dispersed across a large region of the protein. BRCA2 is essential for homologous recombination in vivo, but isolated BRC repeat peptides can prevent the assembly of RAD51 into active nucleoprotein filaments in vitro, suggesting a model in which BRCA2 sequesters RAD51 in undamaged cells, and promotes recombinase function after DNA damage. How BRCA2 might fulfill these dual functions is unclear. We have purified a fragment of human BRCA2 (BRCA2(BRC1-8)) with 1127 residues spanning all 8 BRC repeats but excluding the C-terminal DNA-binding domain (BRCA2(CTD)). BRCA2(BRC1-8) binds RAD51 nucleoprotein filaments in a ternary complex, indicating it may organize RAD51 on DNA. Human RAD51 is relatively ineffective in vitro at strand exchange between homologous DNA molecules unless non-physiological ions like NH4+ are present. In an ionic milieu more typical of the mammalian nucleus, BRCA2(BRCI-8) stimulates RAD51-mediated strand exchange, suggesting it may be an essential co-factor in vivo. Thus, the human BRC repeats, embedded within their surronding sequences as an eight-repeat unit, mediate homologous recombination independent of the BRCA2(CTD) through a previously unrecognized role in control of RAD51 activity.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, D; Easton, D F; Stratton, M; Narod, S; Goldgar, D; Devilee, P; Bishop, D T; Weber, B; Lenoir, G; Chang-Claude, J; Sobol, H; Teare, M D; Struewing, J; Arason, A; Scherneck, S; Peto, J; Rebbeck, T R; Tonin, P; Neuhausen, S; Barkardottir, R; Eyfjord, J; Lynch, H; Ponder, B A; Gayther, S A; Zelada-Hedman, M

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to inherited breast cancer was assessed by linkage and mutation analysis in 237 families, each with at least four cases of breast cancer, collected by the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Families were included without regard to the occurrence of ovarian or other cancers. Overall, disease was linked to BRCA1 in an estimated 52% of families, to BRCA2 in 32% of families, and to neither gene in 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6%-28%), suggesting other predisposition genes. The majority (81%) of the breast-ovarian cancer families were due to BRCA1, with most others (14%) due to BRCA2. Conversely, the majority of families with male and female breast cancer were due to BRCA2 (76%). The largest proportion (67%) of families due to other genes was found in families with four or five cases of female breast cancer only. These estimates were not substantially affected either by changing the assumed penetrance model for BRCA1 or by including or excluding BRCA1 mutation data. Among those families with disease due to BRCA1 that were tested by one of the standard screening methods, mutations were detected in the coding sequence or splice sites in an estimated 63% (95% CI 51%-77%). The estimated sensitivity was identical for direct sequencing and other techniques. The penetrance of BRCA2 was estimated by maximizing the LOD score in BRCA2-mutation families, over all possible penetrance functions. The estimated cumulative risk of breast cancer reached 28% (95% CI 9%-44%) by age 50 years and 84% (95% CI 43%-95%) by age 70 years. The corresponding ovarian cancer risks were 0.4% (95% CI 0%-1%) by age 50 years and 27% (95% CI 0%-47%) by age 70 years. The lifetime risk of breast cancer appears similar to the risk in BRCA1 carriers, but there was some suggestion of a lower risk in BRCA2 carriers <50 years of age. PMID:9497246

  9. Opposite effects of plasma homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation on carotid artery geometry in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Demuth, K; Moatti, N; Hanon, O; Benoit, M O; Safar, M; Girerd, X

    1998-12-01

    Studies of symptomatic patients have identified hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. In case-control studies, a point mutation (C677T) in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has also been linked to an increased risk of vascular disease through its effect on homocysteinemia. Our aim was to extend these observations to asymptomatic subjects by studying the influence of both homocysteinemia and its mutation on carotid artery geometry. We examined 144 subjects free of atherosclerotic lesions. Fasting homocysteinemia was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. MTHFR genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by HinfI digestion. Carotid artery geometry was characterized by internal diameter and intima-media thickness, as assessed by a high-resolution echo-tracking system. Subjects in the upper homocysteine tertile had a greater carotid internal diameter than did subjects in the middle and lower tertiles (6516+/-770 versus 6206+/-641 and 5985+/-558 microm, respectively; P<0.001). Subjects homozygous for the mutation had a smaller carotid artery internal diameter than did subjects heterozygous or homozygous for the wild-type allele (5846+/-785 versus 6345+/-673 and 6199+/-671 microm, respectively; P<0.05). Homocysteinemia was not significantly increased in subjects homozygous for the mutation. In multivariate regression analysis, homocysteinemia was independently and positively associated with lumen diameter (P=0.0008) and wall thickness (P=0.020). Conversely, homozygosity for the mutation was negatively associated with internal diameter (P=0.009). These preliminary data suggest that mildly elevated homocysteinemia and homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with opposite preclinical modifications of carotid artery geometry. If confirmed, these results may have important implications for new treatment strategies for vascular disease

  10. FANCD2 limits replication stress and genome instability in cells lacking BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Michl, Johanna; Zimmer, Jutta; Buffa, Francesca M; McDermott, Ultan; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2016-08-01

    The tumor suppressor BRCA2 plays a key role in genome integrity by promoting replication-fork stability and homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Here we report that human cancer cells lacking BRCA2 rely on the Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 to limit replication-fork progression and genomic instability. Our results identify a new role of FANCD2 in limiting constitutive replication stress in BRCA2-deficient cells, thereby affecting cell survival and treatment responses. PMID:27322732

  11. Structure-activity relationship of the peptide binding-motif mediating the BRCA2:RAD51 protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Duncan E; Marsh, May; Blundell, Tom L; Abell, Chris; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-04-01

    RAD51 is a recombinase involved in the homologous recombination of double-strand breaks in DNA. RAD51 forms oligomers by binding to another molecule of RAD51 via an 'FxxA' motif, and the same recognition sequence is similarly utilised to bind BRCA2. We have tabulated the effects of mutation of this sequence, across a variety of experimental methods and from relevant mutations observed in the clinic. We use mutants of a tetrapeptide sequence to probe the binding interaction, using both isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography. Where possible, comparison between our tetrapeptide mutational study and the previously reported mutations is made, discrepancies are discussed and the importance of secondary structure in interpreting alanine scanning and mutational data of this nature is considered.

  12. BRCA2-deficient sarcomatoid mammary tumors exhibit multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Janneke E; Sol, Wendy; Kersbergen, Ariena; Schlicker, Andreas; Guyader, Charlotte; Xu, Guotai; Wessels, Lodewyk; Borst, Piet; Jonkers, Jos; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-02-15

    Pan- or multidrug resistance is a central problem in clinical oncology. Here, we use a genetically engineered mouse model of BRCA2-associated hereditary breast cancer to study drug resistance to several types of chemotherapy and PARP inhibition. We found that multidrug resistance was strongly associated with an EMT-like sarcomatoid phenotype and high expression of the Abcb1b gene, which encodes the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein could partly resensitize sarcomatoid tumors to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, docetaxel, and doxorubicin. We propose that multidrug resistance is a multifactorial process and that mouse models are useful to unravel this.

  13. Trypanosoma brucei BRCA2 acts in antigenic variation and has undergone a recent expansion in BRC repeat number that is important during homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Claire L; McCulloch, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei has selected for the evolution of a massive archive of silent Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes, which are activated by recombination into specialized expression sites. Such VSG switching can occur at rates substantially higher than background mutation and is dependent on homologous recombination, a core DNA repair reaction. A key regulator of homologous recombination is BRCA2, a protein that binds RAD51, the enzyme responsible for DNA strand exchange. Here, we show that T. brucei BRCA2 has undergone a recent, striking expansion in the number of BRC repeats, a sequence element that mediates interaction with RAD51. T. brucei BRCA2 mutants are shown to be significantly impaired in antigenic variation and display genome instability. By generating BRCA2 variants with reduced BRC repeat numbers, we show that the BRC expansion is crucial in determining the efficiency of T. brucei homologous recombination and RAD51 localization. Remarkably, however, this appears not to be a major determinant of the activation of at least some VSG genes.

  14. Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

  15. BRCA2 mediates centrosome cohesion via an interaction with cytoplasmic dynein

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sadiya; Saito, Hiroko; Takaoka, Miho; Miki, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 is responsible for familial breast and ovarian cancer and has been linked to DNA repair and centrosome duplication. Here we analyzed the mechanism by which the centrosomal localization signal (CLS) of BRCA2 interacts with cytoplasmic dynein 1 to localize BRCA2 to the centrosome. In vitro pull-down assays demonstrated that BRCA2 directly binds to the cytoplasmic dynein 1 light intermediate chain 2. A dominant-negative HA-CLS-DsRed fusion protein, the depletion of dynein by siRNA, and the inactivation of dynein by EHNA, inhibited the localization of BRCA2 at centrosomes and caused the separation of centrosome pairs during the S-phase. The double depletion of BRCA2 and C-Nap1 caused a larger dispersion of centrosome distances than the silencing of C-Nap1. These results suggest that cytoplasmic dynein 1 binds to BRCA2 through the latter's CLS and BRCA2 mediates the cohesion between centrosomes during the S phase, potentially serving as a cell-cycle checkpoint. PMID:27433848

  16. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Morrone, A. |; Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C.

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A fragmented alignment method detects a putative phosphorylation site and a putative BRC repeat in the Drosophila melanogaster BRCA2 protein.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA2 tumor suppressor protein leave individuals susceptible to breast, ovarian and other cancers. The BRCA2 protein is a critical component of the DNA repair pathways in eukaryotes, and also plays an integral role in fostering genomic variability through meiotic recombination. Although present in many eukaryotes, as a whole the BRCA2 gene is weakly conserved. Conserved fragments of 30 amino acids (BRC repeats), which mediate interactions with the recombinase RAD51, helped detect orthologs of this protein in other organisms. The carboxy-terminal of the human BRCA2 has been shown to be phosphorylated by checkpoint kinases (Chk1/Chk2) at T3387, which regulate the sequestration of RAD51 on DNA damage. However, apart from three BRC repeats, the Drosophila melanogaster gene has not been annotated and associated with other functionally relevant sequence fragments in human BRCA2. In the current work, the carboxy-terminal phosphorylation threonine site (E=9.1e-4) and a new BRC repeat (E=17e-4) in D. melanogaster has been identified, using a fragmented alignment methodology (FRAGAL). In a similar study, FRAGAL has also identified a novel half-a- tetratricopeptide (HAT) motif (E=11e-4), a helical repeat motif implicated in various aspects of RNA metabolism, in Utp6 from yeast. The characteristic three aromatic residues with conserved spacing are observed in this new HAT repeat, further strengthening my claim. The reference and target sequences are sliced into overlapping fragments of equal parameterized lengths. All pairs of fragments in the reference and target proteins are aligned, and the gap penalties are adjusted to discourage gaps in the middle of the alignment. The results of the best matches are sorted based on differing criteria to aid the detection of known and putative sequences. The source code for FRAGAL results on these sequences is available at https://github.com/sanchak/FragalCode, while the database can be accessed at www.sanchak.com/fragal.html.

  18. Molecular evolution of a Drosophila homolog of human BRCA2

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Sarah M.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The human cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, functions in double-strand break repair by homologous recombination, and it appears to function via interaction of a repetitive region (“BRC repeats”) with RAD-51. A putatively simpler homolog, dmbrca2, was identified in Drosophila melanogaster recently and also affects mitotic and meiotic double-strand break repair. In this study, we examined patterns of repeat variation both within Drosophila pseudoobscura and among available Drosophila genome sequences. We identified extensive variation within and among closely related Drosophila species in BRC repeat number, to the extent that variation within this genus recapitulates the extent of variation found across the entire animal kingdom. We describe patterns of evolution across species by documenting recent repeat expansions (sometimes in tandem arrays) and homogenizations within available genome sequences. Overall, we have documented patterns and modes of evolution in a new model system of a gene which is important to human health. PMID:19554456

  19. Molecular evolution of a Drosophila homolog of human BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2009-11-01

    The human cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, functions in double-strand break repair by homologous recombination, and it appears to function via interaction of a repetitive region ("BRC repeats") with RAD-51. A putatively simpler homolog, dmbrca2, was identified in Drosophila melanogaster recently and also affects mitotic and meiotic double-strand break repair. In this study, we examined patterns of repeat variation both within Drosophila pseudoobscura and among available Drosophila genome sequences. We identified extensive variation within and among closely related Drosophila species in BRC repeat number, to the extent that variation within this genus recapitulates the extent of variation found across the entire animal kingdom. We describe patterns of evolution across species by documenting recent repeat expansions (sometimes in tandem arrays) and homogenizations within available genome sequences. Overall, we have documented patterns and modes of evolution in a new model system of a gene which is important to human health.

  20. Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Trego, Kelly S; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R; Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Nelson, Michael R; Hlaing, Ayesu; Shih, Brian; Rydberg, Björn; Pluth, Janice M; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K

    2016-02-18

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatin binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging. PMID:26833090

  1. The breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2: at the crossroads between DNA replication and recombination?

    PubMed Central

    Venkitaraman, A R

    2000-01-01

    The identification and cloning of the familial breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, has excited much interest in its biological functions. Here, evidence is reviewed that the protein encoded by BRCA2 has an essential role in DNA repair through its association with mRad51, a mammalian homologue of bacterial and yeast proteins involved in homologous recombination. A model is proposed that the critical requirement for BRCA2 in cell division and the maintenance of chromosome stability stems from its participation in recombinational processes essential for DNA replication. PMID:10724455

  2. A review of a multifactorial probability based model for classification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS)

    PubMed Central

    Lindor, Noralane M.; Guidugli, Lucia; Wang, Xianshu; Vallée, Maxime P.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Tavtigian, Sean; Goldgar, David E.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the presence of germline inactivating mutations is used to identify individuals at elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Variants identified during screening are usually classified as pathogenic (increased risk of cancer) or not pathogenic (no increased risk of cancer). However, a significant proportion of genetic tests yield variants of uncertain significance (VUS) that have undefined risk of cancer. Individuals carrying these VUS cannot benefit from individualized cancer risk assessment. Recently a quantitative “posterior probability model” for assessing the clinical relevance of VUS in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that integrates multiple forms of genetic evidence has been developed. Here we provide a detailed review of this model. We describe the components of the model and explain how these can be combined to calculate a posterior probability of pathogenicity for each VUS. We explain how the model can be applied to public data and provide Tables that list the VUS that have been classified as not pathogenic or pathogenic using this method. While we use BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS as examples, the method can be used as a framework for classification of the pathogenicity of VUS in other cancer genes. PMID:21990134

  3. Two modules in the BRC repeats of BRCA2 mediate structural and functional interactions with the RAD51 recombinase.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Eeson; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2010-01-01

    The breast and ovarian cancer suppressor protein BRCA2 controls the RAD51 recombinase in reactions that lead to homologous DNA recombination (HDR). BRCA2 binds RAD51 via eight conserved BRC repeat motifs of approximately 35 amino acids, each with a varying capacity to bind RAD51. BRC repeats both promote and inhibit RAD51 assembly on different DNA substrates to regulate HDR, but the structural basis for these functions is unclear. Here, we demarcate two tetrameric clusters of hydrophobic residues in the BRC repeats, interacting with distinct pockets in RAD51, and show that the co-location of both modules within a single BRC repeat is necessary for BRC-RAD51 binding and function. The two modules comprise the sequence FxxA, known to inhibit RAD51 assembly by blocking the oligomerization interface, and a previously unrecognized tetramer with the consensus sequence LFDE, which binds to a RAD51 pocket distinct from this interface. The LFDE motif is essential in BRC repeats for modes of RAD51 binding both permissive and inhibitory to RAD51 oligomerization. Targeted insertion of point mutations in RAD51 that disrupt the LFDE-binding pocket impair its assembly at DNA damage sites in living cells. Our findings suggest a model for the modular architecture of BRC repeats that provides fresh insight into the mechanisms regulating homologous DNA recombination.

  4. BRCA1/2 germline mutations and their clinical importance in Turkish breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Tunca, Berrin; Erturk, Elif; Ak, Secil; Gokgoz, Sehsuvar; Tasdelen, Ismet; Tezcan, Gulcin; Demirdogen, Elif; Bayram, Nuran; Avci, Nilufer; Evrensel, Turkkan

    2014-10-01

    BRCA1/BRCA2 genes were screened in 117 patients with breast cancer by sequencing. Fourteen percent of patients tested positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Four frame shift mutations, four pathogenic missense mutations, and 25 different sequence variations were detected. BRCA mutation positivity was significantly associated with Ki67 (p = .001). BRCA protein expressions were decreased in the patients harboring important mutations and polymorphisms (BRCA1;P508 stop, V1740G, Q1182R, Q1756P and BRCA2;V2466A) related with disease. Our findings contribute significantly to the types of germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and their biological effects in Turkish women. These data could help guide the management of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-carrying patients when considering breast-conserving therapy.

  5. Interrogation of the protein-protein interactions between human BRCA2 BRC repeats and RAD51 reveals atomistic determinants of affinity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Daniel J; Rajendra, Eeson; Roberts-Thomson, Meredith; Hardwick, Bryn; McKenzie, Grahame J; Payne, Mike C; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 controls the recombinase RAD51 in the reactions that mediate homologous DNA recombination, an essential cellular process required for the error-free repair of DNA double-stranded breaks. The primary mode of interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51 is through the BRC repeats, which are ∼35 residue peptide motifs that interact directly with RAD51 in vitro. Human BRCA2, like its mammalian orthologues, contains 8 BRC repeats whose sequence and spacing are evolutionarily conserved. Despite their sequence conservation, there is evidence that the different human BRC repeats have distinct capacities to bind RAD51. A previously published crystal structure reports the structural basis of the interaction between human BRC4 and the catalytic core domain of RAD51. However, no structural information is available regarding the binding of the remaining seven BRC repeats to RAD51, nor is it known why the BRC repeats show marked variation in binding affinity to RAD51 despite only subtle sequence variation. To address these issues, we have performed fluorescence polarisation assays to indirectly measure relative binding affinity, and applied computational simulations to interrogate the behaviour of the eight human BRC-RAD51 complexes, as well as a suite of BRC cancer-associated mutations. Our computational approaches encompass a range of techniques designed to link sequence variation with binding free energy. They include MM-PBSA and thermodynamic integration, which are based on classical force fields, and a recently developed approach to computing binding free energies from large-scale quantum mechanical first principles calculations with the linear-scaling density functional code onetep. Our findings not only reveal how sequence variation in the BRC repeats directly affects affinity with RAD51 and provide significant new insights into the control of RAD51 by human BRCA2, but also exemplify a palette of computational and experimental tools for the

  6. BRCA2 regulates DMC1-mediated recombination through the BRC repeats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Juan S; von Nicolai, Catharina; Kim, Taeho; Ehlén, Åsa; Mazin, Alexander V; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; Carreira, Aura

    2016-03-29

    In somatic cells, BRCA2 is needed for RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. The meiosis-specific DNA strand exchange protein, DMC1, promotes the formation of DNA strand invasion products (joint molecules) between homologous molecules in a fashion similar to RAD51. BRCA2 interacts directly with both human RAD51 and DMC1; in the case of RAD51, this interaction results in stimulation of RAD51-promoted DNA strand exchange. However, for DMC1, little is known regarding the basis and functional consequences of its interaction with BRCA2. Here we report that human DMC1 interacts directly with each of the BRC repeats of BRCA2, albeit most tightly with repeats 1-3 and 6-8. However, BRC1-3 bind with higher affinity to RAD51 than to DMC1, whereas BRC6-8 bind with higher affinity to DMC1, providing potential spatial organization to nascent filament formation. With the exception of BRC4, each BRC repeat stimulates joint molecule formation by DMC1. The basis for this stimulation is an enhancement of DMC1-ssDNA complex formation by the stimulatory BRC repeats. Lastly, we demonstrate that full-length BRCA2 protein stimulates DMC1-mediated DNA strand exchange between RPA-ssDNA complexes and duplex DNA, thus identifying BRCA2 as a mediator of DMC1 recombination function. Collectively, our results suggest unique and specialized functions for the BRC motifs of BRCA2 in promoting homologous recombination in meiotic and mitotic cells.

  7. Colocalisation of predicted exonic splicing enhancers in BRCA2 with reported sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Christopher A; Wayte, Nicola; Wronski, Ania; Lovelock, Paul K; Spurdle, Amanda B; Brown, Melissa A

    2008-07-01

    Disruption of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is associated with increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Over 1800 sequence changes in BRCA2 have been reported, although for many the pathogenicity is unclear. Classifying these changes remains a challenge, as they may disrupt regulatory sequences as well as the primary protein coding sequence. Sequence changes located in the splice site consensus sequences often disrupt splicing, however sequence changes located within exons are also able to alter splicing patterns. Unfortunately, the presence of these exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) and the functional effect of variants within ESEs it is currently difficult to predict. We have previously developed a method of predicting which sequence changes within exons are likely to affect splicing, using BRCA1 as an example. In this paper, we have predicted ESEs in BRCA2 using the web-based tool ESEfinder and incorporated the same series of filters (increased threshold, 125 nt limit and evolutionary conservation of the motif) in order to identify predicted ESEs that are more likely to be functional. Initially 1114 ESEs were predicted for BRCA2, however after all the filters were included, this figure was reduced to 31, 3% of the original number of predicted ESEs. Reported unclassified sequence variants in BRCA2 were found to colocalise to 55% (17/31) of these conserved ESEs, while polymorphisms colocalised to 0 of the conserved ESEs. In summary, we have identified a subset of unclassified sequence variants in BRCA2 that may adversely affect splicing and thereby contribute to BRCA2 disruption.

  8. Interference with BRCA2, which localizes to the centrosome during S and early M phase, leads to abnormal nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Akira; Han, Xiangzi; Saito, Hiroko; Taguchi, Keiko; Ohta, Yoshiyasu; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Miki, Yoshio; E-mail: miki.mgen@mri.tmd.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    BRCA2 is responsible for familial breast and ovarian cancer, and its gene product is linked to DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. The BRCA2 protein exists mainly in the nucleus. Here, we show that BRCA2 has a centrosomal localization signal (CLS), localizes also to centrosomes during S and early M phases, and may regulate duplication and separation of the centrosomes. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the CLS peptides from BRCA2 (GFP-CLS) localizes to centrosomes and prevents endogenous BRCA2 from localizing to centrosomes. In addition, expression of GFP-CLS in cells leads to the abnormal duplication and positioning of centrosomes, resulting in the generation of multinuclear cells. These results thus implicate BRCA2 in the regulation of the centrosome cycle, and provide new insight into the aneuploid nature of many breast cancers.

  9. Long Term Outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 Testing: Risk Reduction and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Marc D.; Isaacs, Claudine; Graves, Kristi D.; Poggi, Elizabeth; Peshkin, Beth N.; Gell, Christy; Finch, Clinton; Kelly, Scott; Taylor, Kathryn L.; Perley, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose For BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing to benefit public health, mutation carriers must initiate appropriate risk management strategies. There has been little research examining the long-term use and prospective predictors of the full range of risk management behaviors among women who have undergone BRCA1/2 testing. We evaluated long-term uptake and predictors of risk reducing mastectomy (RRM), risk reducing oophorectomy (RRBSO), chemoprevention and cancer screening among women at a mean of 5.3 years post testing. Patients and Methods Participants were 465 women who underwent BRCA1/2 testing. Prior to genetic counseling, we measured family/personal cancer history, sociodemographics, perceived risk, cancer-specific and general distress. We contacted patients at a mean of 5.3-years post-testing to measure use of: RRM; RRBSO; chemoprevention; breast and ovarian cancer screening. Results Among participants with intact breasts and/or ovaries at the time of testing, BRCA1/2 carriers were significantly more likely to obtain RRM (37%) and RRBSO (65%) compared to women who received uninformative (RRM=6.8%; RRBSO=13.3%) or negative (RRM=0%; RRBSO=1.9%) results. Among carriers, pre-counseling anxiety was associated with subsequent uptake of RRM. RRO was predicted by age. Carriers were also more likely have used breast cancer chemoprevention and have obtained a screening MRI. Conclusion This prospective evaluation of the uptake and predictors of long-term management outcomes provides a clearer picture of decision making in this population. By a mean of 5.3 years post-testing, more than 80% of carriers had obtained RRM, RRBSO or both, suggesting that BRCA1/2 testing is likely to favorably impact breast and ovarian cancer outcomes. PMID:21717445

  10. Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13q12-13

    SciTech Connect

    Wooster, R.; Mangion, J.; Quirk, Y.; Collins, N.; Seal, S.; Ford, D.; Averill, D. ); Neuhausen, S.L.; Nguyen, K.; Tran, T. )

    1994-09-30

    A small proportion of breast cancer, in particular those cases arising at a young age, is due to the inheritance of dominant susceptibility genes conferring a high risk of the disease. A genomic linkage search was performed with 15 high-risk breast cancer families that were unlinked to the BRCA1 locus on chromosome 17q21. This analysis localized a second breast cancer susceptibility locus, BRCA2, to a 6-centimorgan interval on chromosome 13q12-13. Preliminary, evidence suggests that BRCA2 confers a high risk of breast cancer but, unlike BRCA1, does not confer a substantially elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

  11. Minding the gap: The underground functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 at stalled replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Ganesh; Scully, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The hereditary breast and ovarian cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, participate in the repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination. Circumstantial evidence implicates these genes in recombinational responses to DNA polymerase stalling during the S phase of the cell cycle. These responses play a key role in preventing genomic instability and cancer. Here, we review the current literature implicating the BRCA pathway in HR at stalled replication forks and explore the hypothesis that BRCA1 and BRCA2 participate in the recombinational resolution of single stranded DNA lesions termed “daughter strand gaps”, generated during replication across a damaged DNA template. PMID:17379580

  12. High frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in asymptomatic individuals homozygous to MTHFR C677T mutation is associated with endothelial dysfunction and homocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Zittan, E; Preis, M; Asmir, I; Cassel, A; Lindenfeld, N; Alroy, S; Halon, D A; Lewis, B S; Shiran, A; Schliamser, J E; Flugelman, M Y

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency in 360 asymptomatic individuals and to investigate forearm endothelial function in C677T homozygotes. MTHFR C677T mutation and levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine were measured in study participants. Frequency of homozygosity for the C677T mutation was 67/360 (18.6%). Homocysteine levels were elevated in homozygous compared with heterozygous subjects or those without the mutation (20.6 +/- 18.8 vs. 9.4 +/- 3.2 mumol/l; P < 0.0001). The number of subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l) was significantly higher among the homozygote than the heterozygote subjects or subjects without mutation [20/67 (29.8%) vs. 27/293 (9.2%); P < 0.0001]. Homozygote subjects had 4.2 times higher probability of having B12 deficiency (95% confidence interval = 2.1-8.3). Forearm endothelial function was assessed in 33 homozygote and 12 control subjects. Abnormal endothelial function was observed in homozygous subjects and was worse in homozygote subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency. Endothelial function was normalized after B12 and folic acid treatment. We found that homozygosity for the C677T mutation is strongly associated with B12 deficiency. Coexistence of homozygosity for the C677T mutation and B12 deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction and can be corrected with vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment. PMID:17449548

  13. Peptide aptamer mimicking RAD51-binding domain of BRCA2 inhibits DNA damage repair and survival in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mack; Misra, Smita; Chaudhuri, Minu; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic DNA recombination repair protein BRCA2 is functional in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The mechanism of the involvement of BRCA2 in homologous recombination includes its interaction with the DNA recombinase proteins of the RAD51 family. BRCA2 is known to interact with RAD51 through its unique and essential BRC sequence motifs. T. brucei BRCA2 homolog (TbBRCA2) has fifteen repeating BRC motifs as compared to mammalian BRCA2 that has only eight. We report here our yeast 2-hybrid analysis studies on the interactions of TbBRCA2 BRC motifs with five different RAD51 paralogues of T. brucei. Our study revealed that a single BRC motif is sufficient to bind to these RAD51 paralogues. To test the possibility whether a single 44 amino acid long repeating unit of the TbBRCA2 BRC motif may be exploited as an inhibitor of T. brucei growth, we ectopically expressed this peptide segment in the procyclic form of the parasite and evaluated its effects on cell survival as well as the sensitivity of these cells to the DNA damaging agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS). Expression of a single BRC motif led to MMS sensitivity and inhibited cellular proliferation in T. brucei.

  14. Interaction with the BRCA2 C terminus protects RAD51-DNA filaments from disassembly by BRC repeats.

    PubMed

    Davies, Owen Richard; Pellegrini, Luca

    2007-06-01

    BRCA2 has an essential function in DNA repair by homologous recombination, interacting with RAD51 via short motifs in the middle and at the C terminus of BRCA2. Here, we report that a conserved 36-residue sequence of human BRCA2 encoded by exon 27 (BRCA2Exon27) interacts with RAD51 through the specific recognition of oligomerized RAD51 ATPase domains. BRCA2Exon27 binding stabilizes the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament against disassembly by BRC repeat 4. The protection is specific for RAD51 filaments formed on single-stranded DNA and is lost when BRCA2Exon27 is phosphorylated on Ser3291. We propose that productive recombination results from the functional balance between the different RAD51-binding modes [corrected] of the BRC repeat and exon 27 regions of BRCA2. Our results further suggest a mechanism in which CDK phosphorylation of BRCA2Exon27 at the G2-M transition alters the balance in favor of RAD51 filament disassembly, thus terminating recombination.

  15. The BRC repeats of BRCA2 modulate the DNA-binding selectivity of RAD51.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Aura; Hilario, Jovencio; Amitani, Ichiro; Baskin, Ronald J; Shivji, Mahmud K K; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2009-03-20

    The breast cancer susceptibility protein, BRCA2, is essential for recombinational DNA repair. BRCA2 delivers RAD51 to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks through interaction with eight conserved, approximately 35 amino acid motifs, the BRC repeats. Here we show that the solitary BRC4 promotes assembly of RAD51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but not dsDNA, to stimulate DNA strand exchange. BRC4 acts by blocking ATP hydrolysis and thereby maintaining the active ATP-bound form of the RAD51-ssDNA filament. Single-molecule visualization shows that BRC4 does not disassemble RAD51-dsDNA filaments but rather blocks nucleation of RAD51 onto dsDNA. Furthermore, this behavior is manifested by a domain of BRCA2 comprising all eight BRC repeats. These results establish that the BRC repeats modulate RAD51-DNA interaction in two opposing but functionally reinforcing ways: targeting active RAD51 to ssDNA and prohibiting RAD51 nucleation onto dsDNA. Thus, BRCA2 recruits RAD51 to DNA breaks and, we propose, the BRC repeats regulate DNA-binding selectivity.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Older age Pregnancy -- up to 40% of pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria will develop a kidney infection Vesicoureteral reflux (backward movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or ...

  17. BRCA2 diffuses as oligomeric clusters with RAD51 and changes mobility after DNA damage in live cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Marcel; Zelensky, Alex; Smal, Ihor; Meijering, Erik; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; de Gruiter, H Martijn; van Belle, Gijsbert J; van Royen, Martin E; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland; Wyman, Claire

    2014-12-01

    Genome maintenance by homologous recombination depends on coordinating many proteins in time and space to assemble at DNA break sites. To understand this process, we followed the mobility of BRCA2, a critical recombination mediator, in live cells at the single-molecule level using both single-particle tracking and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. BRCA2-GFP and -YFP were compared to distinguish diffusion from fluorophore behavior. Diffusive behavior of fluorescent RAD51 and RAD54 was determined for comparison. All fluorescent proteins were expressed from endogenous loci. We found that nuclear BRCA2 existed in oligomeric clusters, and exhibited heterogeneous mobility. DNA damage increased BRCA2 transient binding, presumably including binding to damaged sites. Despite its very different size, RAD51 displayed mobility similar to BRCA2, which indicates physical interaction between these proteins both before and after induction of DNA damage. We propose that BRCA2-mediated sequestration of nuclear RAD51 serves to prevent inappropriate DNA interactions and that all RAD51 is delivered to DNA damage sites in association with BRCA2.

  18. Mre11-dependent degradation of stalled DNA replication forks is prevented by BRCA2 and PARP1.

    PubMed

    Ying, Songmin; Hamdy, Freddie C; Helleday, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    PARP inhibitors are currently being used in clinical trials to treat BRCA1- or BRCA2-defective tumors, based on the synthetic lethal interaction between PARP1 and BRCA1/2-mediated homologous recombination (HR). However, the molecular mechanisms that drive this synthetic lethality remain unclear. Here, we show increased levels of Mre11, a key component of MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) complex that plays a role in the restart of stalled replication forks and enhanced resection at stalled replication forks in BRCA2-deficient cells. BRCA2-deficient cells also showed hypersensitivity to the Mre11 inhibitor mirin. Interestingly, PARP1 activity was required to protect stalled forks from Mre11-dependent degradation. Resistance to PARP inhibition in BRCA2-mutant cells led to reduced levels of Mre11 foci and also rescued their sensitivity to mirin. Taken together, our findings not only show that Mre11 activity is required for the survival of BRCA2 mutant cells but also elucidate roles for both the BRCA2 and PARP1 proteins in protecting stalled replication forks, which offers insight into the molecular mechanisms of the synthetic lethality between BRCA2 and PARP1.

  19. The BRC repeats in BRCA2 are critical for RAD51 binding and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, P L; Chen, C F; Chen, Y; Xiao, J; Sharp, Z D; Lee, W H

    1998-04-28

    The BRCA2 gene was identified based on its involvement in familial breast cancer. The analysis of its sequence predicts that the gene encodes a protein with 3,418 amino acids but provides very few clues pointing to its biological function. In an attempt to address this question, specific antibodies were prepared that identified the gene product of BRCA2 as a 390-kDa nuclear protein. Furthermore, direct binding of human RAD51 to each of the four single 30-amino acid BRC repeats located at the 5' portion of exon 11 of BRCA2 was demonstrated. Such an interaction is significant, as BRCA2 and RAD51 can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated by each of the individual, specific antibodies and form complexes in vivo. Inferring from the function of RAD51 in DNA repair, human pancreatic cancer cells, Capan-1, expressing truncated BRCA2 were shown to be hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment. Exogenous expression of wild-type BRCA2, but not BRC-deleted mutants, in Capan-1 cells confers resistance to MMS treatment. These results suggest that the interaction between the BRC repeats of BRCA2 and RAD51 is critical for cellular response to DNA damage caused by MMS.

  20. Genome Annotation by Shotgun Inactivation of a Native Gene in Hemizygous Cells: Application to BRCA2 with Implication of Hypomorphic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soma; Bhunia, Anil K.; Paun, Bogdan C.; Gilbert, Samuel F.; Dhru, Urmil; Patel, Kalpesh; Kern, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The greatest interpretive challenge of modern medicine may be to functionally annotate the vast variation of human genomes. Demonstrating a proposed approach, we created a library of BRCA2 exon 27 shotgun-mutant plasmids including solitary and multiplex mutations to generate human knockin clones using homologous recombination. This 55-mutation, 13-clone syngeneic variance library (SyVaL) comprised severely affected clones having early-stop nonsense mutations, functionally hypomorphic clones having multiple missense mutations emphasizing the potential to identify and assess hypomorphic mutations in novel proteomic and epidemiologic studies, and neutral clones having multiple missense mutations. Efficient coverage of nonessential amino acids was provided by mutation multiplexing. Severe mutations were distinguished from hypomorphic or neutral changes by chemosensitivity assays (hypersensitivity to mitomycin C and acetaldehyde), by analysis of RAD51 focus formation, and by mitotic multipolarity. A multiplex unbiased approach of generating all-human SyVaLs in medically important genes, with random mutations in native genes, would provide databases of variants that could be functionally annotated without concerns arising from exogenous cDNA constructs or interspecies interactions, as a basis for subsequent proteomic domain mapping or clinical calibration if desired. Such gene-irrelevant approaches could be scaled up for multiple genes of clinical interest, providing distributable cellular libraries linked to public-shared functional databases. PMID:25451944

  1. RAD51 interacts with the evolutionarily conserved BRC motifs in the human breast cancer susceptibility gene brca2.

    PubMed

    Wong, A K; Pero, R; Ormonde, P A; Tavtigian, S V; Bartel, P L

    1997-12-19

    Recent work has shown that the murine BRCA2 tumor suppressor protein interacts with the murine RAD51 protein. This interaction suggests that BRCA2 participates in DNA repair. Residues 3196-3232 of the murine BRCA2 protein were shown to be involved in this interaction. Here, we report the detailed mapping of additional domains that are involved in interactions between the human homologs of these two proteins. Through yeast two-hybrid and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that the RAD51 protein interacts specifically with the eight evolutionarily conserved BRC motifs encoded in exon 11 of brca2 and with a similar motif found in a Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein. Deletion analysis demonstrates that residues 98-339 of human RAD51 interact with the 59-residue minimal region that is conserved in all BRC motifs. These data suggest that the BRC repeats function to bind RAD51.

  2. RAD51 and BRCA2 enhance oncolytic adenovirus type 5 activity in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tookman, Laura A.; Browne, Ashley K.; Connell, Claire M.; Bridge, Gemma; Ingemarsdotter, Carin K.; Dowson, Suzanne; Shibata, Atsushi; Lockley, Michelle; Martin, Sarah A.; McNeish, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Homologous Recombination (HR) function is critically important in High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC with intact HR has a worse prognosis and is less likely to respond to platinum chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors. Oncolytic adenovirus, a novel therapy for human malignancies, stimulates a potent DNA damage response that influences overall anti-tumor activity. Here, the importance of HR was investigated by determining the efficacy of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors in ovarian cancer. Using matched BRCA2 mutant and wild-type HGSOC cells, it was demonstrated that intact HR function promotes viral DNA replication and augments overall efficacy, without influencing viral DNA processing. These data were confirmed in a wider panel of HR competent and defective ovarian cancer lines. Mechanistically, both BRCA2 and RAD51 localize to viral replication centers within the infected cell nucleus and that RAD51 localization occurs independently of BRCA2. In addition, a direct interaction was identified between RAD51 and adenovirus E2 DNA binding protein. Finally, using functional assays of HR competence, despite inducing degradation of MRE11, Ad5 infection does not alter cellular ability to repair DNA double strand break damage via HR. These data reveal that Ad5 redistributes critical HR components to viral replication centers and enhances cytotoxicity. Implications Oncolytic adenoviral therapy may be most clinically relevant in tumors with intact HR function. PMID:26452665

  3. Brca2-Pds5 complexes mobilize persistent meiotic recombination sites to the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    Homologous recombination is required for reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome arms during meiosis. Only select meiotic recombination events become chromosomal crossovers; the majority of recombination outcomes are noncrossovers. Growing evidence suggests that crossovers are repaired after noncrossovers. Here, I report that persisting recombination sites are mobilized to the nuclear envelope of Drosophila pro-oocytes during mid-pachytene. Their number correlates with the average crossover rate per meiosis. Proteomic and interaction studies reveal that the recombination mediator Brca2 associates with lamin and the cohesion factor Pds5 to secure persistent recombination sites at the nuclear envelope. In Rad51(-/-) females, all persistent DNA breaks are directed to the nuclear envelope. By contrast, a reduction of Pds5 or Brca2 levels abolishes the movement and has a negative impact on crossover rates. The data suggest that persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks might correspond to crossovers, which are mobilized to the nuclear envelope for their repair. The identification of Brca2-Pds5 complexes as key mediators of this process provides a first mechanistic explanation for the contribution of lamins and cohesins to meiotic recombination.

  4. A second DNA binding site in human BRCA2 promotes homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    von Nicolai, Catharina; Ehlén, Åsa; Martin, Charlotte; Zhang, Xiaodong; Carreira, Aura

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 tumour-suppressor protein is well known for its role in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR); assisting the loading of RAD51 recombinase at DNA double-strand breaks. This function is executed by the C-terminal DNA binding domain (CTD) which binds single-stranded (ss)DNA, and the BRC repeats, which bind RAD51 and modulate its assembly onto ssDNA. Paradoxically, analysis of cells resistant to DNA damaging agents missing the CTD restore HR proficiency, suggesting another domain may take over its function. Here, we identify a region in the N terminus of BRCA2 that exhibits DNA binding activity (NTD) and provide evidence for NTD promoting RAD51-mediated HR. A missense variant detected in breast cancer patients located in the NTD impairs HR stimulation on dsDNA/ssDNA junction containing substrates. These findings shed light on the function of the N terminus of BRCA2 and have implications for the evaluation of breast cancer variants. PMID:27628236

  5. A second DNA binding site in human BRCA2 promotes homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    von Nicolai, Catharina; Ehlén, Åsa; Martin, Charlotte; Zhang, Xiaodong; Carreira, Aura

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 tumour-suppressor protein is well known for its role in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR); assisting the loading of RAD51 recombinase at DNA double-strand breaks. This function is executed by the C-terminal DNA binding domain (CTD) which binds single-stranded (ss)DNA, and the BRC repeats, which bind RAD51 and modulate its assembly onto ssDNA. Paradoxically, analysis of cells resistant to DNA damaging agents missing the CTD restore HR proficiency, suggesting another domain may take over its function. Here, we identify a region in the N terminus of BRCA2 that exhibits DNA binding activity (NTD) and provide evidence for NTD promoting RAD51-mediated HR. A missense variant detected in breast cancer patients located in the NTD impairs HR stimulation on dsDNA/ssDNA junction containing substrates. These findings shed light on the function of the N terminus of BRCA2 and have implications for the evaluation of breast cancer variants. PMID:27628236

  6. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for MTHFR, SERPINA1, RET, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Shannon D.; Bale, Sherri; Booker, Jessica; Buller, Arlene; Das, Soma; Friedman, Kenneth; Godwin, Andrew K.; Grody, Wayne W.; Highsmith, Edward; Kant, Jeffery A.; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Payne, Deborah A.; Pratt, Victoria M.; Schrijver, Iris; Shrimpton, Antony E.; Spector, Elaine; Telatar, Milhan; Toji, Lorraine; Weck, Karen; Zehnbauer, Barbara; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2009-01-01

    Well-characterized reference materials (RMs) are integral in maintaining clinical laboratory quality assurance for genetic testing. These RMs can be used for quality control, monitoring of test performance, test validation, and proficiency testing of DNA-based genetic tests. To address the need for such materials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program (GeT-RM), which works with the genetics community to improve public availability of characterized RMs for genetic testing. To date, the GeT-RM program has coordinated the characterization of publicly available genomic DNA RMs for a number of disorders, including cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, fragile X, and several genetic conditions with relatively high prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genotypic information about a number of other cell lines has been collected and is also available. The present study includes the development and commutability/genotype characterization of 10 DNA samples for clinically relevant mutations or sequence variants in the following genes: MTHFR; SERPINA1; RET; BRCA1; and BRCA2. DNA samples were analyzed by 19 clinical genetic laboratories using a variety of assays and technology platforms. Concordance was 100% for all samples, with no differences observed between laboratories using different methods. All DNA samples are available from Coriell Cell Repositories and characterization information can be found on the GeT-RM website. PMID:19767587

  7. An Unusual BRCA Mutation Distribution in a High Risk Cancer Genetics Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Moseke, Anna C.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Cui, Haiyan; Roe, Denise J.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    The Database of Individuals at High Risk for Breast, Ovarian, or Other Hereditary Cancers at the Arizona Cancer Center in Tucson, Arizona, assesses cancer risk factors and outcomes in patients with a family history of cancer or a known genetic mutation. We analyzed the subset of clinic probands who carry deleterious BRCA gene mutations to identify factors that could explain why mutations in BRCA2 out number those in BRCA1. Medical, family, social, ethnic and genetic mutation histories were collected from consenting patients’ electronic medical records. Differences between BRCA1 and BRCA2 probands from this database were analyzed for statistical significance and compared to published analyses.. A significantly higher proportion of our clinic probands carry mutations in BRCA2 than BRCA1, compared with previous reports of mutation prevalence. This also holds true for the Hispanic sub-group. Probands with BRCA2 mutations were significantly more likely than their BRCA1 counterparts to present to the high risk clinic without adiagnosis of cancer. Other differences between the groups were not significant. Six previously unreported BRCA2 mutations appear in our clinic population. The increased proportion of probands carrying deleterious BRCA2 mutations is likely multifactorial, but may reflect aspects of Southern Arizona’s unique ethnic heritage. PMID:23179792

  8. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James B; Blom, Eric; Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan; Kupfer, Gary M; Jones, Nigel J

    2010-07-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  9. Expression profile of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in premenopausal Mexican women with breast cancer: clinical and immunohistochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Loredo-Pozos, Gloria; Chiquete, Erwin; Oceguera-Villanueva, Antonio; Panduro, Arturo; Siller-López, Fernando; Ramos-Márquez, Martha E

    2009-01-01

    Low BRCA1 gene expression is associated with increased invasiveness and influences the response of breast carcinoma (BC) to chemotherapeutics. However, expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has not been completely characterized in premenopausal BC. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical correlates of BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression in young BC women. We studied 62 women (mean age 38.8 years) who developed BC before the age of 45 years. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mRNA expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and that of HER-2 and p53 proteins by immunohistochemistry. Body mass index (BMI) > or = 27 (52%) and a declared family history of BC (26%) were the main risk factors. Ductal infiltrative adenocarcinoma was found in 86% of the cases (tumor size >5 cm in 48%). Disease stages I-IV occurred in 2, 40, 55, and 3%, respectively (73% implicating lymph nodes). Women aged < or = 35 years (24%) had more family history of cervical cancer, stage III/IV disease, HER-2 positivity, and lower BRCA1 expression than older women (P < 0.05). BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression correlated in healthy, but not in tumor tissues (TT). Neither BRCA1 nor BRCA2 expression was associated with tumor histology, differentiation, nodal metastasis or p53 and HER-2 expression. After multivariate analysis, only disease stage explained BRCA1 mRNA levels in the lowest quartile. Premenopausal BC has aggressive clinical and molecular characteristics. Low BRCA1 mRNA expression is associated mainly with younger ages and advanced clinical stage of premenopausal BC. BRCA2 expression is not associated with disease severity in young BC women.

  10. Evaluation of an amplicon-based next-generation sequencing panel for detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Saeam; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Seung-Tae; Choi, Jong Rak

    2016-08-01

    The recent advances in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have enabled fast, accurate, and cost-effective genetic testing. Here, we evaluated the performance of a targeted NGS panel for BRCA1/2 sequencing and confirmed its applicability in routine clinical diagnostics. We tested samples from 88 patients using the TruSeq custom panel (Illumina Inc, USA) and a MiSeq sequencer (Illumina) and compared the results to the outcomes of conventional Sanger sequencing. All 1015 sequence variations identified by Sanger sequencing were detected by NGS, except for one missense variant that might have been missed due to a rare mutation on a primer-binding site. One deletion variation, c.1909 + 12delT of BRCA2, was falsely called in all samples due to a homopolymer error. In addition, seven different single-nucleotide substitutions with low variant frequencies (range: 16.2-33.3 %) were falsely called by NGS. In a separate batch, 10 different false-positive variations were found in five samples. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value of NGS were estimated to be 99.9 and 87.5 %, respectively. The false-positive results could be excluded by setting quality and alternative allele ratio filters and/or by visual inspection using the IGV software. Targeted NGS panel for BRCA1 and BRCA2 showed an excellent agreement with Sanger sequencing results. We therefore conclude that this NGS panel can be used for routine diagnostic method in a clinical genetic laboratory. PMID:27383479

  11. Trypanosoma brucei BRCA2 acts in a life cycle-specific genome stability process and dictates BRC repeat number-dependent RAD51 subnuclear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Trenaman, Anna; Hartley, Claire; Prorocic, Marko; Passos-Silva, Danielle G; van den Hoek, Moniek; Nechyporuk-Zloy, Volodymyr; Machado, Carlos R; McCulloch, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei survives in mammals through antigenic variation, which is driven by RAD51-directed homologous recombination of Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSG) genes, most of which reside in a subtelomeric repository of >1000 silent genes. A key regulator of RAD51 is BRCA2, which in T. brucei contains a dramatic expansion of a motif that mediates interaction with RAD51, termed the BRC repeats. BRCA2 mutants were made in both tsetse fly-derived and mammal-derived T. brucei, and we show that BRCA2 loss has less impact on the health of the former. In addition, we find that genome instability, a hallmark of BRCA2 loss in other organisms, is only seen in mammal-derived T. brucei. By generating cells expressing BRCA2 variants with altered BRC repeat numbers, we show that the BRC repeat expansion is crucial for RAD51 subnuclear dynamics after DNA damage. Finally, we document surprisingly limited co-localization of BRCA2 and RAD51 in the T. brucei nucleus, and we show that BRCA2 mutants display aberrant cell division, revealing a function distinct from BRC-mediated RAD51 interaction. We propose that BRCA2 acts to maintain the huge VSG repository of T. brucei, and this function has necessitated the evolution of extensive RAD51 interaction via the BRC repeats, allowing re-localization of the recombinase to general genome damage when needed.

  12. The BRC repeats of human BRCA2 differentially regulate RAD51 binding on single- versus double-stranded DNA to stimulate strand exchange.

    PubMed

    Shivji, Mahmud K K; Mukund, Shreyas R; Rajendra, Eeson; Chen, Shaoxia; Short, Judith M; Savill, Jane; Klenerman, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2009-08-11

    The breast and ovarian cancer suppressor BRCA2 controls the enzyme RAD51 during homologous DNA recombination (HDR) to preserve genome stability. BRCA2 binds to RAD51 through 8 conserved BRC repeat motifs dispersed in an 1127-residue region (BRCA2([BRC1-8])). Here, we show that BRCA2([BRC1-8]) exerts opposing effects on the binding of RAD51 to single-stranded (ss) versus double-stranded (ds) DNA substrates, enhancing strand exchange. BRCA2([BRC1-8]) alters the electrophoretic mobility of RAD51 bound to an ssDNA substrate, accompanied by an increase in ssDNA-bound protein assemblies, revealed by electron microscopy. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy shows that BRCA2([BRC1-8]) promotes RAD51 loading onto ssDNA. In contrast, BRCA2([BRC1-8]) has a different effect on RAD51 assembly on dsDNA; it suppresses and slows this process. When homologous ssDNA and dsDNA are both present, BRCA2([BRC1-8]) stimulates strand exchange, with delayed RAD51 loading onto dsDNA accompanying the appearance of joint molecules representing recombination products. Collectively, our findings suggest that BRCA2([BRC1-8]) targets RAD51 to ssDNA while inhibiting dsDNA binding and that these contrasting activities together bolster one another to stimulate HDR. Our work provides fresh insight into the mechanism of HDR in humans, and its regulation by the BRCA2 tumor suppressor.

  13. Next-generation sequencing meets genetic diagnostics: development of a comprehensive workflow for the analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    PubMed Central

    Feliubadaló, Lídia; Lopez-Doriga, Adriana; Castellsagué, Ester; del Valle, Jesús; Menéndez, Mireia; Tornero, Eva; Montes, Eva; Cuesta, Raquel; Gómez, Carolina; Campos, Olga; Pineda, Marta; González, Sara; Moreno, Victor; Brunet, Joan; Blanco, Ignacio; Serra, Eduard; Capellá, Gabriel; Lázaro, Conxi

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is changing genetic diagnosis due to its huge sequencing capacity and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an NGS-based workflow for routine diagnostics for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS), to improve genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. A NGS-based workflow was designed using BRCA MASTR kit amplicon libraries followed by GS Junior pyrosequencing. Data analysis combined Variant Identification Pipeline freely available software and ad hoc R scripts, including a cascade of filters to generate coverage and variant calling reports. A BRCA homopolymer assay was performed in parallel. A research scheme was designed in two parts. A Training Set of 28 DNA samples containing 23 unique pathogenic mutations and 213 other variants (33 unique) was used. The workflow was validated in a set of 14 samples from HBOCS families in parallel with the current diagnostic workflow (Validation Set). The NGS-based workflow developed permitted the identification of all pathogenic mutations and genetic variants, including those located in or close to homopolymers. The use of NGS for detecting copy-number alterations was also investigated. The workflow meets the sensitivity and specificity requirements for the genetic diagnosis of HBOCS and improves on the cost-effectiveness of current approaches. PMID:23249957

  14. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. ); Stolle, C. ); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A mitotic function for the high-mobility group protein HMG20b regulated by its interaction with the BRC repeats of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Daniels, M J; Garnett, M J; Venkitaraman, A R

    2011-07-28

    The inactivation of BRCA2, a suppressor of breast, ovarian and other epithelial cancers, triggers instability in chromosome structure and number, which are thought to arise from defects in DNA recombination and mitotic cell division, respectively. Human BRCA2 controls DNA recombination via eight BRC repeats, evolutionarily conserved motifs of ∼35 residues, that interact directly with the recombinase RAD51. How BRCA2 controls mitotic cell division is debated. Several studies by different groups report that BRCA2 deficiency affects cytokinesis. Moreover, its interaction with HMG20b, a protein of uncertain function containing a promiscuous DNA-binding domain and kinesin-like coiled coils, has been implicated in the G2-M transition. We show here that HMG20b depletion by RNA interference disturbs the completion of cell division, suggesting a novel function for HMG20b. In vitro, HMG20b binds directly to the BRC repeats of BRCA2, and exhibits the highest affinity for BRC5, a motif that binds poorly to RAD51. Conversely, the BRC4 repeat binds strongly to RAD51, but not to HMG20b. In vivo, BRC5 overexpression inhibits the BRCA2-HMG20b interaction, recapitulating defects in the completion of cell division provoked by HMG20b depletion. In contrast, BRC4 inhibits the BRCA2-RAD51 interaction and the assembly of RAD51 at sites of DNA damage, but not the completion of cell division. Our findings suggest that a novel function for HMG20b in cytokinesis is regulated by its interaction with the BRC repeats of BRCA2, and separate this unexpected function for the BRC repeats from their known activity in DNA recombination. We propose that divergent tumor-suppressive pathways regulating chromosome segregation as well as chromosome structure may be governed by the conserved BRC motifs in BRCA2.

  16. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  17. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue.

  18. Valine 1532 of human BRC repeat 4 plays an important role in the interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Oonuma, Toshina; Tomioka, Yukiko; Takeda, Eichi; Arikawa, Jiro; Mominoki, Katsumi; Omi, Toshinori; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Morimatsu, Masami

    2011-06-23

    The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 is essential for recombinational DNA repair. BRCA2 specifically binds to RAD51 via eight BRC repeat motifs and delivers RAD51 to double-stranded DNA breaks. In this study, a mammalian two-hybrid assay and competitive ELISA showed that the interaction between BRC repeat 4 (BRC4) and RAD51 was strengthened by the substitution of a single BRC4 amino acid from valine to isoleucine (V1532I). However, the cancer-associated V1532F mutant exhibited very weak interaction with RAD51. This study used a comparative analysis of BRC4 between animal species to identify V1532 as an important residue that interacts with RAD51.

  19. Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufei; McKay, James D.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Wang, Zhaoming; Timofeeva, Maria; Broderick, Peter; Zong, Xuchen; Laplana, Marina; Wei, Yongyue; Han, Younghun; Lloyd, Amy; Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Chubb, Daniel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Wheeler, William; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Liu, Geoffrey; Kaaks, Rudolf; Henrion, Marc; Kinnersley, Ben; Vallée, Maxime; LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence; Stevens, Victoria L.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Chen, Wei V.; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Krokan, Hans E.; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; Benhamou, Simone; Vooder, Tonu; Valk, Kristjan; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Andres; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Johansson, Mikael; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Lathrop, Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E.; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R.; Dienemann, Hendrik; Rosenberger, Albert; Su, Li; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Stefansson, Kari; Risch, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Christiani, David C.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Houlston, Richard S.; Amos, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants of BRCA2-K3326X (rs11571833; odds ratio [OR]=2.47, P=4.74×10−20) and of CHEK2-I157T (rs17879961; OR=0.38 P=1.27×10−13). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63; rs13314271; OR=1.13, P=7.22×10−10) and lung adenocarcinoma previously only reported in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants having substantive effects on cancer risk from pre-existing GWAS data. PMID:24880342

  20. Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; McKay, James D; Rafnar, Thorunn; Wang, Zhaoming; Timofeeva, Maria N; Broderick, Peter; Zong, Xuchen; Laplana, Marina; Wei, Yongyue; Han, Younghun; Lloyd, Amy; Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Chubb, Daniel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Wheeler, William; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Liu, Geoffrey; Kaaks, Rudolf; Henrion, Marc; Kinnersley, Ben; Vallée, Maxime; LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence; Stevens, Victoria L; Gapstur, Susan M; Chen, Wei V; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Krokan, Hans E; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; Benhamou, Simone; Vooder, Tonu; Välk, Kristjan; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Andres; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Johansson, Mikael; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Lathrop, Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Dienemann, Hendrik; Rosenberger, Albert; Su, Li; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Stefansson, Kari; Risch, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J; Christiani, David C; Hung, Rayjean J; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Houlston, Richard S; Amos, Christopher I

    2014-07-01

    We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants BRCA2 p.Lys3326X (rs11571833, odds ratio (OR) = 2.47, P = 4.74 × 10(-20)) and CHEK2 p.Ile157Thr (rs17879961, OR = 0.38, P = 1.27 × 10(-13)). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63, rs13314271, OR = 1.13, P = 7.22 × 10(-10)) and lung adenocarcinoma that had been previously reported only in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants with substantive effects on cancer risk from preexisting genome-wide association study data. PMID:24880342

  1. Targeting BRCA1 and BRCA2 Deficiencies with G-Quadruplex-Interacting Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jutta; Tacconi, Eliana M C; Folio, Cecilia; Badie, Sophie; Porru, Manuela; Klare, Kerstin; Tumiati, Manuela; Markkanen, Enni; Halder, Swagata; Ryan, Anderson; Jackson, Stephen P; Ramadan, Kristijan; Kuznetsov, Sergey G; Biroccio, Annamaria; Sale, Julian E; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2016-02-01

    G-quadruplex (G4)-forming genomic sequences, including telomeres, represent natural replication fork barriers. Stalled replication forks can be stabilized and restarted by homologous recombination (HR), which also repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arising at collapsed forks. We have previously shown that HR facilitates telomere replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication efficiency of guanine-rich (G-rich) telomeric repeats is decreased significantly in cells lacking HR. Treatment with the G4-stabilizing compound pyridostatin (PDS) increases telomere fragility in BRCA2-deficient cells, suggesting that G4 formation drives telomere instability. Remarkably, PDS reduces proliferation of HR-defective cells by inducing DSB accumulation, checkpoint activation, and deregulated G2/M progression and by enhancing the replication defect intrinsic to HR deficiency. PDS toxicity extends to HR-defective cells that have acquired olaparib resistance through loss of 53BP1 or REV7. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic potential of G4-stabilizing drugs to selectively eliminate HR-compromised cells and tumors, including those resistant to PARP inhibition.

  2. Targeting BRCA1 and BRCA2 Deficiencies with G-Quadruplex-Interacting Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jutta; Tacconi, Eliana M.C.; Folio, Cecilia; Badie, Sophie; Porru, Manuela; Klare, Kerstin; Tumiati, Manuela; Markkanen, Enni; Halder, Swagata; Ryan, Anderson; Jackson, Stephen P.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Kuznetsov, Sergey G.; Biroccio, Annamaria; Sale, Julian E.; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary G-quadruplex (G4)-forming genomic sequences, including telomeres, represent natural replication fork barriers. Stalled replication forks can be stabilized and restarted by homologous recombination (HR), which also repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arising at collapsed forks. We have previously shown that HR facilitates telomere replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication efficiency of guanine-rich (G-rich) telomeric repeats is decreased significantly in cells lacking HR. Treatment with the G4-stabilizing compound pyridostatin (PDS) increases telomere fragility in BRCA2-deficient cells, suggesting that G4 formation drives telomere instability. Remarkably, PDS reduces proliferation of HR-defective cells by inducing DSB accumulation, checkpoint activation, and deregulated G2/M progression and by enhancing the replication defect intrinsic to HR deficiency. PDS toxicity extends to HR-defective cells that have acquired olaparib resistance through loss of 53BP1 or REV7. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic potential of G4-stabilizing drugs to selectively eliminate HR-compromised cells and tumors, including those resistant to PARP inhibition. PMID:26748828

  3. Targeting BRCA1 and BRCA2 Deficiencies with G-Quadruplex-Interacting Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jutta; Tacconi, Eliana M C; Folio, Cecilia; Badie, Sophie; Porru, Manuela; Klare, Kerstin; Tumiati, Manuela; Markkanen, Enni; Halder, Swagata; Ryan, Anderson; Jackson, Stephen P; Ramadan, Kristijan; Kuznetsov, Sergey G; Biroccio, Annamaria; Sale, Julian E; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2016-02-01

    G-quadruplex (G4)-forming genomic sequences, including telomeres, represent natural replication fork barriers. Stalled replication forks can be stabilized and restarted by homologous recombination (HR), which also repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arising at collapsed forks. We have previously shown that HR facilitates telomere replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication efficiency of guanine-rich (G-rich) telomeric repeats is decreased significantly in cells lacking HR. Treatment with the G4-stabilizing compound pyridostatin (PDS) increases telomere fragility in BRCA2-deficient cells, suggesting that G4 formation drives telomere instability. Remarkably, PDS reduces proliferation of HR-defective cells by inducing DSB accumulation, checkpoint activation, and deregulated G2/M progression and by enhancing the replication defect intrinsic to HR deficiency. PDS toxicity extends to HR-defective cells that have acquired olaparib resistance through loss of 53BP1 or REV7. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic potential of G4-stabilizing drugs to selectively eliminate HR-compromised cells and tumors, including those resistant to PARP inhibition. PMID:26748828

  4. Intention to communicate BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic test results to the family.

    PubMed

    Barsevick, Andrea M; Montgomery, Susan V; Ruth, Karen; Ross, Eric A; Egleston, Brian L; Bingler, Ruth; Malick, John; Miller, Suzanne M; Cescon, Terrence P; Daly, Mary B

    2008-04-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this analysis explores the communication skills of women who had genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. The key outcome was intention to tell test results to adult first-degree relatives. The theory predicts that global and specific attitudes, global and specific perceived social norms, and perceived control will influence the communication of genetic test results. A logistic regression model revealed that global attitude (p < .05), specific social influence (p < .01), and perceived control (p < .05) were significant predictors of intention to tell. When gender and generation of relatives were added to the regression, participants were more likely to convey genetic test results to female than to male relatives (p < .05) and were also more likely to communicate test results to children (p < .01) or siblings (p < .05) than to parents. However, this association depended on knowing the relative's opinion of genetic testing. Intention to tell was lowest among participants who did not know their relative's opinion. These results extend the theory of planned behavior by showing that gender and generation influence intention when the relative's opinion is unknown. PMID:18410217

  5. Breast cancer proteins PALB2 and BRCA2 stimulate polymerase η in recombination-associated DNA synthesis at blocked replication forks.

    PubMed

    Buisson, Rémi; Niraj, Joshi; Pauty, Joris; Maity, Ranjan; Zhao, Weixing; Coulombe, Yan; Sung, Patrick; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2014-02-13

    One envisioned function of homologous recombination (HR) is to find a template for DNA synthesis from the resected 3'-OH molecules that occur during double-strand break (DSB) repair at collapsed replication forks. However, the interplay between DNA synthesis and HR remains poorly understood in higher eukaryotic cells. Here, we reveal functions for the breast cancer proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 at blocked replication forks and show a role for these proteins in stimulating polymerase η (Polη) to initiate DNA synthesis. PALB2, BRCA2, and Polη colocalize at stalled or collapsed replication forks after hydroxyurea treatment. Moreover, PALB2 and BRCA2 interact with Polη and are required to sustain the recruitment of Polη at blocked replication forks. PALB2 and BRCA2 stimulate Polη-dependent DNA synthesis on D loop substrates. We conclude that PALB2 and BRCA2, in addition to their functions in D loop formation, play crucial roles in the initiation of recombination-associated DNA synthesis by Polη-mediated DNA repair.

  6. Asymptomatic and late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency caused by a A208T mutation: Clinical, biochemical and DNA analyses in a four-generation family

    SciTech Connect

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.

    1997-01-20

    We describe a 4-generation family in which a previously healthy 10-year-old boy died of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Pedigree analysis and allopurinol loading tests in female relatives were not informative. A missense mutation (A208T) in the OTC gene was detected in the deceased patient and in several clinically healthy male and female relatives, the oldest male being 97 years old. OTC deficiency was established in autopsy liver tissue of the propositus and liver biopsy samples of his sister, mother, and a maternal uncle. The males had 4% and 6% residual activity, respectively, the females 58% and 67%, respectively. The observed relation between the mutation and the decreased OTC activity in liver tissue of these subjects suggests that the mutation is a deleterious one. Late-onset, {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} OTC deficiency can have a fatal or a favorable outcome. The disease can segregate undetected in families. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of conventional splicing assays: IARC analytical and clinical classification of 31 BRCA2 genetic variants.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Tosar, Alicia; Romero, Atocha; Garre, Pilar; Llort, Gemma; Thomassen, Mads; Díez, Orland; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Velasco, Eladio A; Caldés, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Rare sequence variants in "high-risk" disease genes, often referred as unclassified variants (UVs), pose a serious challenge to genetic testing. However, UVs resulting in splicing alterations can be readily assessed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, analytical and clinical interpretation of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical International Agency for Research on Cancer guidelines), we performed qPCR and/or minigene assays. The latter were performed with a new splicing vector (pSAD) developed by authors of the present manuscript (patent #P201231427 CSIC). We have identified three clinically relevant Class-5 variants (c.682-2A>G, c.7617+1G>A, and c.8954-5A>G), and 27 analytical Class-2 variants (not inducing splicing alterations). In addition, we demonstrate that rs9534262 (c.7806-14T>C) is a BRCA2 splicing quantitative trait locus.

  8. Rare variants in BRCA2 and CHEK2 are associated with the risk of urinary tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yuqiu; Wang, Yunyan; Shao, Wei; Jin, Jing; Du, Mulong; Ma, Gaoxiang; Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that two rare variants, rs11571833 in BRCA2 and rs17879961 in CHEK2 were associated with lung cancer. However, the associations between these two variants and urinary tract cancers risk remain largely unexplored. We applied imputation of three genome-wide association studies published in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Unconditional logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between these two variants and the risk of urinary tract cancers. Our results showed that rs11571833[T] had an effect on urinary tract cancers predisposition (ORmeta = 1.45, Pmeta = 0.013), especially associated with increased the risk of bladder cancer (ORmeta = 1.60, Pmeta = 0.010). Moreover, rs17879961[C] had a protective effect on the urinary tract cancers (ORmeta = 0.67, Pmeta = 1.0 × 10−3) and was mostly associated with a lower incidence of renal cell carcinoma (ORmeta = 0.51, Pmeta = 2.0 × 10−3). Together, our study indicates that BRCA2 and CHEK2 play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to urinary tract cancers. PMID:27632928

  9. Rare variants in BRCA2 and CHEK2 are associated with the risk of urinary tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuqiu; Wang, Yunyan; Shao, Wei; Jin, Jing; Du, Mulong; Ma, Gaoxiang; Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that two rare variants, rs11571833 in BRCA2 and rs17879961 in CHEK2 were associated with lung cancer. However, the associations between these two variants and urinary tract cancers risk remain largely unexplored. We applied imputation of three genome-wide association studies published in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Unconditional logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between these two variants and the risk of urinary tract cancers. Our results showed that rs11571833[T] had an effect on urinary tract cancers predisposition (ORmeta = 1.45, Pmeta = 0.013), especially associated with increased the risk of bladder cancer (ORmeta = 1.60, Pmeta = 0.010). Moreover, rs17879961[C] had a protective effect on the urinary tract cancers (ORmeta = 0.67, Pmeta = 1.0 × 10(-3)) and was mostly associated with a lower incidence of renal cell carcinoma (ORmeta = 0.51, Pmeta = 2.0 × 10(-3)). Together, our study indicates that BRCA2 and CHEK2 play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to urinary tract cancers. PMID:27632928

  10. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  11. Expression of DNA Damage Response Molecules PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Predicts Poor Survival of Breast Carcinoma Patients1

    PubMed Central

    Park, See-Hyoung; Noh, Sang Jae; Kim, Kyoung Min; Bae, Jun Sang; Kwon, Keun Sang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Jung Ryul; Lee, Ho; Chung, Myoung Ja; Moon, Woo Sung; Kang, Myoung Jae; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 are conventional molecular indicators of DNA damage in cells and are often overexpressed in various cancers. In this study, we aimed, using immunohistochemical detection, whether the co-expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 in breast carcinoma (BCA) tissue can provide more reliable prediction of survival of BCA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated immunohistochemical expression and prognostic significance of the expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 in 192 cases of BCAs. RESULTS: The expression of these four molecules predicted earlier distant metastatic relapse, shorter overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of PARP1, γH2AX, and BRCA2 as independent poor prognostic indicators of OS and RFS. In addition, the combined expressional pattern of BRCA1, BRCA2, PARP1, and γH2AX (CSbbph) was an additional independent prognostic predictor for OS (P < .001) and RFS (P < .001). The 10-year OS rate was 95% in the CSbbph-low (CSbbph scores 0 and 1) subgroup, but that was only 35% in the CSbbph-high (CSbbph score 4) subgroup. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that the individual and combined expression patterns of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 could be helpful in determining an accurate prognosis for BCA patients and for the selection of BCA patients who could potentially benefit from anti-PARP1 therapy with a combination of genotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26310369

  12. Interaction between Hormonal Receptor Status, Age and Survival in Patients with BRCA1/2 Germline Mutations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Laura Diez; Vera-Badillo, Francisco E.; Tibau, Ariadna; Goldstein, Robyn; Šeruga, Boštjan; Srikanthan, Amirrtha; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan; Ocana, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most frequent known hereditary causes of familial breast cancer. Little is known about the interaction of age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) expression and outcomes in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Methods A PubMed search identified publications exploring the association between BRCA mutations and clinical outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival were extracted from multivariable analyses. Hazard ratios were weighted and pooled using generic inverse-variance and random-effect modeling. Meta-regression weighted by total study sample size was conducted to explore the influence of age, ER and PgR expression on the association between BRCA mutations and overall survival. Results A total of 16 studies comprising 10,180 patients were included in the analyses. BRCA mutations were not associated with worse overall survival (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.84–1.34, p = 0.61). A similar finding was observed when evaluating the influence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on overall survival independently (BRCA1: HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.89–1.61, p = 0.24; BRCA2: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.80–1.27, p = 0.95). Meta-regression identified an inverse association between ER expression and overall survival (β = -0.75, p = 0.02) in BRCA1 mutation carriers but no association with age or PgR expression (β = -0.45, p = 0.23 and β = 0.02, p = 0.97, respectively). No association was found for BRCA2 mutation status and age, ER, or PgR expression. Conclusion ER-expression appears to be an effect modifier in patients with BRCA1 mutations, but not among those with BRCA2 mutations. PMID:27149669

  13. Two classes of BRC repeats in BRCA2 promote RAD51 nucleoprotein filament function by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Aura; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2011-06-28

    The human tumor suppressor protein BRCA2 plays a key role in recombinational DNA repair. BRCA2 recruits RAD51 to sites of DNA damage through interaction with eight conserved motifs of approximately 35 amino acids, the BRC repeats; however, the specific function of each repeat remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of the individual BRC repeats by systematically analyzing their effects on RAD51 activities. Our results reveal the existence of two categories of BRC repeats that display unique functional characteristics. One group, comprising BRC1, -2, -3, and -4, binds to free RAD51 with high affinity. The second group, comprising BRC5, -6, -7, and -8, binds to free RAD51 with low affinity but binds to the RAD51-ssDNA filament with high affinity. Each member of the first group reduces the ATPase activity of RAD51, whereas none of the BRC repeats of the second group affects this activity. Thus, through different mechanisms, both types of BRC repeats bind to and stabilize the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament on ssDNA. In addition, members of the first group limit binding of RAD51 to duplex DNA, where members of the second group do not. Only the first group enhances DNA strand exchange by RAD51. Our results suggest that the two groups of BRC repeats have differentially evolved to ensure efficient formation of a nascent RAD51 filament on ssDNA by promoting its nucleation and growth, respectively. We propose that the BRC repeats cooperate in a partially redundant but reinforcing manner to ensure a high probability of RAD51 filament formation.

  14. Hyperthermia adds to trabectedin effectiveness and thermal enhancement is associated with BRCA2 degradation and impairment of DNA homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Harnicek, Dominique; Kampmann, Eric; Lauber, Kirsten; Hennel, Roman; Cardoso Martins, Ana Sofia; Guo, Yang; Belka, Claus; Mörtl, Simone; Gallmeier, Eike; Kanaar, Roland; Mansmann, Ulrich; Hucl, Tomas; Lindner, Lars H; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Issels, Rolf D

    2016-07-15

    The tetrahydroisoquinoline trabectedin is a marine compound with approved activity against human soft-tissue sarcoma. It exerts antiproliferative activity mainly by specific binding to the DNA and inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). As homologous recombination repair (HRR)-deficient tumors are more susceptible to trabectedin, hyperthermia-mediated on-demand induction of HRR deficiency represents a novel and promising strategy to boost trabectedin treatment. For the first time, we demonstrate enhancement of trabectedin effectiveness in human sarcoma cell lines by heat and characterize cellular events and molecular mechanisms related to heat-induced effects. Hyperthermic temperatures (41.8 or 43°C) enhanced significantly trabectedin-related clonogenic cell death and G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by cell type-dependent induction of apoptosis or senescence. Heat combination increased accumulation of γH2AX foci as key marker of DSBs. Expression of BRCA2 protein, an integral protein of the HRR machinery, was significantly decreased by heat. Consequently, recruitment of downstream RAD51 to γH2AX-positive repair foci was almost abolished indicating relevant impairment of HRR by heat. Accordingly, enhancement of trabectedin effectiveness was significantly augmented in BRCA2-proficient cells by hyperthermia and alleviated in BRCA2 knockout or siRNA-transfected BRCA2 knockdown cells. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from sarcoma patients, increased numbers of nuclear γH2AX foci were detected after systemic treatment with trabectedin and hyperthermia of the tumor region. The findings establish BRCA2 degradation by heat as a key factor for a novel treatment strategy that allows targeted chemosensitization to trabectedin and other DNA damaging antitumor drugs by on-demand induction of HRR deficiency.

  15. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Steere, Allen C; Sikand, Vijay K; Schoen, Robert T; Nowakowski, John

    2003-08-15

    The natural history of asymptomatic seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi has been unclear. We report here, on the basis of a post hoc assessment, the frequency and outcome of asymptomatic seroconversion to B. burgdorferi in participants of a large Lyme disease vaccine trial. We show that infection with B. burgdorferi may be asymptomatic but that asymptomatic infection is unusual in the United States.

  16. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors. PMID:26511885

  17. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  18. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.

  19. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  20. Long-term psychosocial outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: Differences across affected status and risk-reducing surgery choice

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Vegella, Patti; Poggi, Elizabeth A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Tong, Angie; Isaacs, Claudine; Finch, Clinton; Kelly, Scott; Taylor, Kathryn L.; Luta, George; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented the short-term impact of BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) testing; however, little research has examined the long-term impact of testing. We conducted the first long-term prospective study of psychosocial outcomes in a U.S. sample of women who had BRCA1/2 testing. Methods Participants were 464 women who underwent genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Prior to testing, we measured sociodemographics, clinical variables, and cancer specific and general distress. At long-term follow-up (Median=5.0 years; Range=3.4 to 9.1 years), we assessed cancer specific and genetic testing distress, perceived stress and perceived cancer risk. We evaluated the impact of BRCA1/2 test result and risk reducing surgery on long-term psychosocial outcomes. Results Among participants who had been affected with breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.41, P<0.0001), uncertainty (β=0.18, P<0.0001) and perceived stress (β=0.17, P=0.005) compared to women who received negative (i.e., uninformative) results. Among women unaffected with breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.39, P<0.0001) and lower positive testing experiences (β=0.25, P=0.008) than women with negative results. Receipt of risk-reducing surgery was associated with lower perceived cancer risk (P<0.0001). Conclusions In this first prospective long-term study in a U.S. sample, we found modestly increased distress in BRCA1/2 carriers compared to women who received uninformative or negative test results. Despite this modest increase in distress, we found no evidence of clinically significant dysfunction. Impact While a positive BRCA1/2 result remains salient among carriers years after testing, testing does not appear to impact long-term psychological dysfunction. PMID:22328347

  1. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy.

  2. The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles in Latin America and the Caribbean: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Julie; Golubeva, Volha A; Pacheco-Torres, Alba L; Diaz-Zabala, Hector J; Matta, Jaime L; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary cancer predisposition gene testing allows the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer that may benefit from increased surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. In order to implement clinical genetic strategies adapted to each population's needs and intrinsic genetic characteristic, this review aims to present the current status of knowledge about the spectrum of BRCA pathogenic variants in Latin American populations. We have conducted a comprehensive review of 33 studies published between 1994 and 2015 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of BRCA1 (OMIM 113705) and BRCA2 (OMIM 600185) variants. The combined sample size for these studies consisted of 4835 individuals from 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Hispanics in the United States. A total of 167 unique pathogenic variants have been reported in the existing literature. In unselected breast cancer cases, the prevalence ranged from 1.2 to 27.1%. Some countries presented a few recurrent pathogenic variants, while others were characterized by diverse, non-recurrent variants. The proportion of BRCA pathogenic variants shared between Hispanics in the United States and Latin American populations was estimated at 10.4%. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, 8.2% of the BRCA variants reported were present in more than one country. Countries with high prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants may benefit from more aggressive testing strategies, while testing of recurrent variant panels might present a cost-effective solution for improving genetic testing in some, but not all, countries.

  3. Streamlined ion torrent PGM-based diagnostics: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as a model

    PubMed Central

    Tarabeux, Julien; Zeitouni, Bruno; Moncoutier, Virginie; Tenreiro, Henrique; Abidallah, Khadija; Lair, Séverine; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Leroy, Quentin; Rouleau, Etienne; Golmard, Lisa; Barillot, Emmanuel; Stern, Marc-Henri; Rio-Frio, Thomas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude

    2014-01-01

    To meet challenges in terms of throughput and turnaround time, many diagnostic laboratories are shifting from Sanger sequencing to higher throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms. Bearing in mind that the performance and quality criteria expected from NGS in diagnostic or research settings are strikingly different, we have developed an Ion Torrent's PGM-based routine diagnostic procedure for BRCA1/2 sequencing. The procedure was first tested on a training set of 62 control samples, and then blindly validated on 77 samples in parallel with our routine technique. The training set was composed of difficult cases, for example, insertions and/or deletions of various sizes, large-scale rearrangements and, obviously, mutations occurring in homopolymer regions. We also compared two bioinformatic solutions in this diagnostic context, an in-house academic pipeline and the commercially available NextGene software (Softgenetics). NextGene analysis provided higher sensitivity, as four previously undetected single-nucleotide variations were found. Regarding specificity, an average of 1.5 confirmatory Sanger sequencings per patient was needed for complete BRCA1/2 screening. Large-scale rearrangements were identified by two distinct analyses, that is, bioinformatics and fragment analysis with electrophoresis profile comparison. Turnaround time was enhanced, as a series of 30 patients were sequenced by one technician, making the results available for the clinician in 10 working days following blood sampling. BRCA1/2 genes are a good model, representative of the difficulties commonly encountered in diagnostic settings, which is why we believe our findings are of interest for the whole community, and the pipeline described can be adapted by any user of PGM for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23942203

  4. Asymptomatic cervical bruits.

    PubMed Central

    Côté, R.; Battista, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis, significance and management of asymptomatic cervical bruits have been the focus of considerable controversy. The literature does not support an aggressive approach but, rather, careful follow-up of patients with this disorder. This paper reviews the available data and discusses the management options of family practitioners who may detect this disorder during a routine physical examination, during an examination prompted by an unrelated problem or preoperatively when elective surgery is being considered. PMID:6367922

  5. Characterization of three alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 gene in patients with breast cancer and a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer who tested negative for pathogenic mutations

    PubMed Central

    GAMBINO, GAETANA; TANCREDI, MARIELLA; FALASCHI, ELISABETTA; ARETINI, PAOLO; CALIGO, MARIA ADELAIDE

    2015-01-01

    The study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and their alterations has been essential to the understanding of the development of familial breast and ovarian cancers. Many of the variants identified have an unknown pathogenic significance. These include variants which determine alternative mRNA splicing, identified in the intronic regions and those are capable of destroying the splicing ability. The aim of this study was to detect BRCA1/BRCA2 aberrant transcripts resulting from alternative splicing, in women with a known family history and/or early onset of breast and/or ovarian cancer, tested wild-type for BRCA1 and BRCA2. The identification and characterization of aberrant transcripts through the analysis of mRNA levels in blood lymphocytes may help us to recognize families otherwise misclassified as wild-type BRCA1 and BRCA2. Blood samples were collected from 13 women that had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and tested negative for pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Total RNA was analyzed for the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 naturally occuring and pathological transcripts using RT-PCR. In 2 out of the 13 samples, 2 alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 gene were identified. These were probably pathogenic as they lacked exon 17 and exon 15, respectively, giving rise to a truncated protein. In addition to these, we identified the Δ17–19 transcript in 1 patient, which gives rise to a protein with an in-frame deletion of 69 amino acids. In conclusion, this study on alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes revealed the presence of isoforms (prevalence of 15%) in blood samples from women with breast and ovarian cancer that were probably pathogenic, that were not detected by conventional methods of mutation screening based on direct sequencing of all coding regions, intron-exons junctions and MLPA analysis. PMID:25683334

  6. Characterization of three alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 gene in patients with breast cancer and a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer who tested negative for pathogenic mutations.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Gaetana; Tancredi, Mariella; Falaschi, Elisabetta; Aretini, Paolo; Caligo, Maria Adelaide

    2015-04-01

    The study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and their alterations has been essential to the understanding of the development of familial breast and ovarian cancers. Many of the variants identified have an unknown pathogenic significance. These include variants which determine alternative mRNA splicing, identified in the intronic regions and those are capable of destroying the splicing ability. The aim of this study was to detect BRCA1/BRCA2 aberrant transcripts resulting from alternative splicing, in women with a known family history and/or early onset of breast and/or ovarian cancer, tested wild-type for BRCA1 and BRCA2. The identification and characterization of aberrant transcripts through the analysis of mRNA levels in blood lymphocytes may help us to recognize families otherwise misclassified as wild-type BRCA1 and BRCA2. Blood samples were collected from 13 women that had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and tested negative for pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Total RNA was analyzed for the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 naturally occurring and pathological transcripts using RT-PCR. In 2 out of the 13 samples, 2 alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 gene were identified. These were probably pathogenic as they lacked exon 17 and exon 15, respectively, giving rise to a truncated protein. In addition to these, we identified the Δ17-19 transcript in 1 patient, which gives rise to a protein with an in-frame deletion of 69 amino acids. In conclusion, this study on alternative transcripts of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes revealed the presence of isoforms (prevalence of 15%) in blood samples from women with breast and ovarian cancer that were probably pathogenic, that were not detected by conventional methods of mutation screening based on direct sequencing of all coding regions, intron-exons junctions and MLPA analysis.

  7. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  8. Small-molecule inhibitors identify the RAD52-ssDNA interaction as critical for recovery from replication stress and for survival of BRCA2 deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Hengel, Sarah R; Malacaria, Eva; Folly da Silva Constantino, Laura; Bain, Fletcher E; Diaz, Andrea; Koch, Brandon G; Yu, Liping; Wu, Meng; Pichierri, Pietro; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The DNA repair protein RAD52 is an emerging therapeutic target of high importance for BRCA-deficient tumors. Depletion of RAD52 is synthetically lethal with defects in tumor suppressors BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. RAD52 also participates in the recovery of the stalled replication forks. Anticipating that ssDNA binding activity underlies the RAD52 cellular functions, we carried out a high throughput screening campaign to identify compounds that disrupt the RAD52-ssDNA interaction. Lead compounds were confirmed as RAD52 inhibitors in biochemical assays. Computational analysis predicted that these inhibitors bind within the ssDNA-binding groove of the RAD52 oligomeric ring. The nature of the inhibitor-RAD52 complex was validated through an in silico screening campaign, culminating in the discovery of an additional RAD52 inhibitor. Cellular studies with our inhibitors showed that the RAD52-ssDNA interaction enables its function at stalled replication forks, and that the inhibition of RAD52-ssDNA binding acts additively with BRCA2 or MUS81 depletion in cell killing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14740.001 PMID:27434671

  9. Small-molecule inhibitors identify the RAD52-ssDNA interaction as critical for recovery from replication stress and for survival of BRCA2 deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Sarah R; Malacaria, Eva; Folly da Silva Constantino, Laura; Bain, Fletcher E; Diaz, Andrea; Koch, Brandon G; Yu, Liping; Wu, Meng; Pichierri, Pietro; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The DNA repair protein RAD52 is an emerging therapeutic target of high importance for BRCA-deficient tumors. Depletion of RAD52 is synthetically lethal with defects in tumor suppressors BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. RAD52 also participates in the recovery of the stalled replication forks. Anticipating that ssDNA binding activity underlies the RAD52 cellular functions, we carried out a high throughput screening campaign to identify compounds that disrupt the RAD52-ssDNA interaction. Lead compounds were confirmed as RAD52 inhibitors in biochemical assays. Computational analysis predicted that these inhibitors bind within the ssDNA-binding groove of the RAD52 oligomeric ring. The nature of the inhibitor-RAD52 complex was validated through an in silico screening campaign, culminating in the discovery of an additional RAD52 inhibitor. Cellular studies with our inhibitors showed that the RAD52-ssDNA interaction enables its function at stalled replication forks, and that the inhibition of RAD52-ssDNA binding acts additively with BRCA2 or MUS81 depletion in cell killing. PMID:27434671

  10. A new scoring system for the chances of identifying a BRCA1/2 mutation outperforms existing models including BRCAPRO

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D; Eccles, D; Rahman, N; Young, K; Bulman, M; Amir, E; Shenton, A; Howell, A; Lalloo, F

    2004-01-01

    Methods: DNA samples from affected subjects from 422 non-Jewish families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations and a subset of 318 was screened for BRCA2 by whole gene screening techniques. Using a combination of results from screening and the family history of mutation negative and positive kindreds, a simple scoring system (Manchester scoring system) was devised to predict pathogenic mutations and particularly to discriminate at the 10% likelihood level. A second separate dataset of 192 samples was subsequently used to test the model's predictive value. This was further validated on a third set of 258 samples and compared against existing models. Results: The scoring system includes a cut-off at 10 points for each gene. This equates to >10% probability of a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 individually. The Manchester scoring system had the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity at 10% prediction for the presence of mutations as shown by its highest C-statistic and was far superior to BRCAPRO. Conclusion: The scoring system is useful in identifying mutations particularly in BRCA2. The algorithm may need modifying to include pathological data when calculating whether to screen for BRCA1 mutations. It is considerably less time-consuming for clinicians than using computer models and if implemented routinely in clinical practice will aid in selecting families most suitable for DNA sampling for diagnostic testing. PMID:15173236

  11. Asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Bories, Claire; Jagannath, Sundar

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent the earlier phases of plasma cell dyscrasias. Their definition is based on absence of end-organ damage with presence of a malignant clone that grows in the bone marrow. They share, as a common feature, the risk of progression to a symptomatic disease. MGUS progression risk is approximately 1% per year, and SMM has a risk of progression of 10% for the first 5 years which tapers off over time. The main purpose of identification of these earlier phases of the plasma cell dyscrasia was to identify patients who do not warrant treatment with chemotherapy, in whom the risk of treatment outweighs the benefit. Over the years, the definitions have not been modified to incorporate developments in imaging (magnetic resonance or positron emission and computed tomography), or genomics to identify patients at highest risk of progression within 2 years, where wait and watch might not be an appropriate option. In the absence of such definition, patients who have only a 50% chance of progression within 2 years are being offered therapy, which might also not be an optimal approach. In this review, we provide an overview of the definition, current prognostic factors, and risk stratifications in asymptomatic gammopathies, and discuss clinical trial outcomes in high-risk SMM. PMID:25486961

  12. Individual and Combined Expression of DNA Damage Response Molecules PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Predict Shorter Survival of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, See-Hyoung; Park, Hye Jeong; Wang, Sung Il; Park, Ho Sung; Lee, Ho; Kwon, Keun Sang; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Dong Geun; Kim, Jung Ryul; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) molecules are protective against genotoxic stresses. DDR molecules are also involved in the survival of cancer cells in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapies. Therefore, DDR molecules are potential markers of cancer progression in addition to being potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 and their prognostic significance in 112 cases of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 were significantly associated with each other and were associated with higher tumor stage and presence of distant metastasis. The expression of PARP1, γH2AX, and BRCA2 were significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) and event-free survival (EFS) by univariate analysis. BRCA1 expression was associated with shorter DSS. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of PARP1 and γH2AX to be independent indicators of poor prognosis of DSS and EFS. BRCA2 expression was an independent indicator of poor prognosis of DSS. In addition, the combined expressional patterns of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 (CSddrm) were independent prognostic predictors of DSS (P < 0.001) and EFS (P = 0.016). The ten-year DSS rate of the CSddrm-low, CSddrm-intermediate, and CSddrm-high subgroups were 81%, 26%, and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the individual and combined expression patterns of the DDR molecules PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 could be predictive of the prognosis of STS patients and suggests that controlling the activity of these DDR molecules could be employed in new therapeutic stratagems for the treatment of STS. PMID:27643881

  13. Individual and Combined Expression of DNA Damage Response Molecules PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Predict Shorter Survival of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Young Jae; Park, See-Hyoung; Park, Hye Jeong; Wang, Sung Il; Park, Ho Sung; Lee, Ho; Kwon, Keun Sang; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Dong Geun; Kim, Jung Ryul; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) molecules are protective against genotoxic stresses. DDR molecules are also involved in the survival of cancer cells in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapies. Therefore, DDR molecules are potential markers of cancer progression in addition to being potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 and their prognostic significance in 112 cases of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The expression of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 were significantly associated with each other and were associated with higher tumor stage and presence of distant metastasis. The expression of PARP1, γH2AX, and BRCA2 were significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) and event-free survival (EFS) by univariate analysis. BRCA1 expression was associated with shorter DSS. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of PARP1 and γH2AX to be independent indicators of poor prognosis of DSS and EFS. BRCA2 expression was an independent indicator of poor prognosis of DSS. In addition, the combined expressional patterns of PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 (CSddrm) were independent prognostic predictors of DSS (P < 0.001) and EFS (P = 0.016). The ten-year DSS rate of the CSddrm-low, CSddrm-intermediate, and CSddrm-high subgroups were 81%, 26%, and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the individual and combined expression patterns of the DDR molecules PARP1, γH2AX, BRCA1, and BRCA2 could be predictive of the prognosis of STS patients and suggests that controlling the activity of these DDR molecules could be employed in new therapeutic stratagems for the treatment of STS. PMID:27643881

  14. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging1

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. PMID:26224004

  15. Detection of inherited mutations for breast and ovarian cancer using genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming K.; Casadei, Silvia; Thornton, Anne M.; Stray, Sunday M.; Pennil, Christopher; Nord, Alex S.; Mandell, Jessica B.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; King, Mary-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and multiple other genes predispose to high risks of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated inherited mutations in these genes are collectively quite common, but individually rare or even private. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations has become an integral part of clinical practice, but testing is generally limited to these two genes and to women with severe family histories of breast or ovarian cancer. To determine whether massively parallel, “next-generation” sequencing would enable accurate, thorough, and cost-effective identification of inherited mutations for breast and ovarian cancer, we developed a genomic assay to capture, sequence, and detect all mutations in 21 genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, with inherited mutations that predispose to breast or ovarian cancer. Constitutional genomic DNA from subjects with known inherited mutations, ranging in size from 1 to >100,000 bp, was hybridized to custom oligonucleotides and then sequenced using a genome analyzer. Analysis was carried out blind to the mutation in each sample. Average coverage was >1200 reads per base pair. After filtering sequences for quality and number of reads, all single-nucleotide substitutions, small insertion and deletion mutations, and large genomic duplications and deletions were detected. There were zero false-positive calls of nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, or genomic rearrangements for any gene in any of the test samples. This approach enables widespread genetic testing and personalized risk assessment for breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:20616022

  16. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations by Ethnicity and Mutation Location in BRCA Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Soley; Jackson, Michelle; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Liu, Diane; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Brandt, Amanda; Woodson, Ashley; Litton, Jennifer; Lu, Karen H; Valero, Vicente; Arun, Banu K

    2015-01-01

    The genotype-phenotype correlations of the specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in multi-ethnic populations in USA have not yet been fully investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of ethnicity at specific mutation locations and breast/ovarian cancer phenotypes. Our cohort included 445 women with different ethnic backgrounds who underwent BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2010. Known clinical and pathologic characteristics were compared with Chi-Square Analysis or Fisher's Exact test as appropriate. The three most common mutation locations in BRCA1 (exons 2, 11, and 20) and BRCA2 (exons 10, 11, and 25) genes were chosen. Prevalence of BRCA1 exon 2 mutations were significantly higher in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) women compared to Caucasians (41% versus 15%; p = 0.001). Similarly, AJ women with breast cancer were more likely to have BRCA1 exon 2 mutation (47% positivity in AJ women versus 0-12.5% positivity in other ethnicities; p = 0.004). Women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation had the highest probability of having combined breast and ovarian cancers compared to women carrying other exon mutations (p = 0.05). The median age at initial cancer diagnosis, phenotypic features of breast cancer tumors, and overall survival did not vary significantly by ethnicity or mutation location. Our data suggest that ethnicity does not affect age of onset, overall survival or confer different risks of breast and ovarian cancer development in BRCA carriers. These results also suggest that women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation may warrant mutation-specific counseling and be more aggressively managed for risk reduction.

  17. The beta-isoform of the BRCA2 and CDKN1A(p21)-interacting protein (BCCIP) stabilizes nuclear RPL23/uL14.

    PubMed

    Wyler, Emanuel; Wandrey, Franziska; Badertscher, Lukas; Montellese, Christian; Alper, Daniel; Kutay, Ulrike

    2014-10-16

    BRCA2 and CDKN1A(p21,CIP1)-interacting protein (BCCIP) is an evolutionary conserved protein implicated in maintenance of genome stability and cell cycle progression. Two isoforms of BCCIP with distinct C-terminal domains exist in humans. We show that mammalian BCCIPβ, but not BCCIPα, forms a ternary complex with the ribosomal protein RPL23/uL14 and the pre-60S trans-acting factor eIF6. Complex formation is dependent on an intact C-terminal domain of BCCIPβ. Depletion of BCCIPβ reduces the pool of free RPL23, and decreases eIF6 levels in nucleoli. Overexpression of BCCIPβ leads to nucleoplasmic accumulation of extra-ribosomal RPL23 and stabilizes overexpressed RPL23, suggesting that BCCIPβ functions as nuclear chaperone for RPL23.

  18. Hormone therapy after prophylactic risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in women who have BRCA gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Guidozzi, F

    2016-10-01

    Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation have substantially higher risk for developing not only breast and ovarian cancers, but also for primary peritoneal, Fallopian tube, colonic, pancreatic cancers, uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma and malignant melanoma. The risk for ovarian cancer ranges from 39 to 49% by 70 years of age in BRCA1 mutation carriers and from 11 to 18% for those with a BRCA2 mutation, whilst breast cancer increases similarly within women who have either the BRCA1 mutation or the BRCA2 mutation, from about 20% in women in their forties, 37% by the age of 50 years, 55% by 60 years and more than 70% by the age of 70 years. Prophylactic risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) provides significantly greater benefits with the view of reducing the risk for gynecological and breast cancer (decreasing ovarian cancer risk by 85-95%, breast cancer risk by about 53-68% and removes occult or undetected cancers in 2-18% of such women) compared to other conservative options, namely screening/surveillance or use of chemopreventative agents. RRBSO will result in significant menopausal symptoms, increased risk for bone mineral loss, increasing risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis, and cognitive dysfunction. Risk for cardiovascular disease is also increased if the procedure is performed in women less than 50 years of age. This article analyzes the role of RRBSO in women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations with no personal history of breast cancer and the impact of hormone therapy on risk for breast and gynecological cancers if used after the procedure to alleviate the resulting menopausal symptoms. PMID:27426853

  19. Two PALB2 germline mutations found in both BRCA1+ and BRCAx familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bradley; Kim, Yeong C; Xiao, Fengxia; Snyder, Carrie; Chen, Peixian; Fleissner, Elizabeth A; Becirovic, Dina; Wen, Hongxiu; Sherman, Simon; Cowan, Kenneth H; Lynch, Henry T; Wang, San Ming

    2015-05-01

    Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), plays an important functional role in DNA damage repair. Recent studies indicate that germline mutations in PALB2 predispose individuals to a high risk of developing familial breast cancer. Therefore, comprehensive identification of PALB2 germline mutations is potentially important for understanding their roles in tumorigenesis and for testing their potential utility as clinical targets. Most of the previous studies of PALB2 have focused on familial breast cancer cases with normal/wild-type BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCAx). We hypothesize that PALB2 genetic mutations also exist in individuals with BRCA mutations (BRCA+). To test this hypothesis, PALB2 germline mutations were screened in 107 exome data sets collected from familial breast cancer families who were either BRCA1+ or BRCAx. Two novel heterozygous mutations predicted to alter the function of PALB2 were identified (c.2014G>C, p.E672Q and c.2993G>A, p.G998E). Notably, both of these mutations co-existed in BRCA1+ and BRCA1x families. These studies show that mutations in PALB2 can occur independent of the status of BRCA1 mutations, and they highlight the importance to include BRCA1+ families in PALB2 mutation screens. PMID:25833210

  20. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 gene and pathologic characteristics from Kazakh population with sporadic breast cancer in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Aisimutula, D; Li, H F; Hu, Y; Du, X; Li, J; Luan, M X

    2015-10-27

    Mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but no large-scale research have examined the BRCA1/2 mutations in Chinese Kazakh women. We evaluated the frequency and distributions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in Kazakh sporadic breast cancer patients and healthy women in China. The association between the clinical-pathologic features of Kazakh breast cancer patients and BRCA1/2 mutations were also investigated. Two unclassified variants (T539M and T1915M) and 16 polymorphisms were detected in this study, 4 of which (G356A, His743, Asn991Asp, Val1269) were detected more frequently in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. We observed a higher prevalence of BRCA1/2 common sequence alterations and a large number of Kazakh women carrying multiple co-existing BRCA1/2 mutations. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations was similar to that of BRCA2 mutations. Although no significant differences were observed, BRCA1/2 carriers were generally younger at diagnosis of wild-type breast cancer patients. BRCA1-associated Kazakh sporadic breast cancers present with high tumor grade, early stage, negative lymph node status, absence of estrogen receptor expression and progesterone-positive status. Estrogen receptor expression was the only predominant histological type in BRCA2 carriers. In this study, we determined the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation status and determined the association with clinical-pathologic characteristics in a Chinese Kazakh population. Larger population-based screening studies screening the entire coding region of BRCA1/2 are required to evaluate the breast cancer risk induced by the sequence alterations detected in this study.

  1. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  2. Prevalence of TP53 germ line mutations in young Pakistani breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad U; Gull, Sidra; Asghar, Kashif; Muhammad, Noor; Amin, Asim; Hamann, Ute

    2012-06-01

    Women from Pakistan and India are more often diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer than Caucasian women. Given that only 12% of Pakistani women diagnosed with breast cancer at or before 30 years of age have previously been shown to harbor germ line mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, the genetic causes of the majority of early-onset cases are unexplained. Since germ line mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 predispose women to early-onset breast cancer, we assessed the prevalence of TP53 mutations in 105 early-onset breast cancer patients from Pakistan, who had previously been found to be negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations. The patient group included 67 women diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer at or before age 30 with no family history of breast or ovarian cancer (EO30NFH group) and 38 women diagnosed with breast cancer at or before age 40 with one or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer (EO40FH group). Mutation analysis of the complete TP53 coding region was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by DNA sequencing of variant fragments. One deleterious mutation, c.499-500delCA in exon 5, was identified in the 105 breast cancer patients (1%). This mutation is novel in the germ line and has not been described in other populations. It was detected in a 28-year-old patient with no family history of breast or ovarian cancer. This mutation is rare as it was not detected in additional 157 recently recruited non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2-associated early-onset breast cancer patients. Our findings show that TP53 mutations may account for a minimal portion of early-onset breast cancer in Pakistan.

  3. Is asymptomatic malaria really asymptomatic? Hematological, vascular and inflammatory effects of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

    PubMed

    de Mast, Quirijn; Brouwers, Judith; Syafruddin, Din; Bousema, Teun; Baidjoe, Amrish Y; de Groot, Philip G; van der Ven, Andre J; Fijnheer, Rob

    2015-11-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infections are highly prevalent in malaria endemic regions and most of these infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. Whereas conventional malaria symptoms are by definition absent, little is known on the more subtle health consequences of these infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the hematologic, vascular and inflammatory effects of patent and subpatent asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in children and adults on the Indonesian island Sumba. Both children and adults with parasitemia had increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels compared to aparasitemic individuals. In addition, children, but not adults with parasitemia also had lower platelet counts and Hb levels and higher levels of von Willebrand factor and platelet factor-4, markers of endothelial and platelet activation, respectively. These findings suggest that asymptomatic malaria infections have subtle health consequences, especially in children, and should be regarded as potentially harmful.

  4. Is asymptomatic malaria really asymptomatic? Hematological, vascular and inflammatory effects of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

    PubMed

    de Mast, Quirijn; Brouwers, Judith; Syafruddin, Din; Bousema, Teun; Baidjoe, Amrish Y; de Groot, Philip G; van der Ven, Andre J; Fijnheer, Rob

    2015-11-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infections are highly prevalent in malaria endemic regions and most of these infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. Whereas conventional malaria symptoms are by definition absent, little is known on the more subtle health consequences of these infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the hematologic, vascular and inflammatory effects of patent and subpatent asymptomatic malaria parasitemia in children and adults on the Indonesian island Sumba. Both children and adults with parasitemia had increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels compared to aparasitemic individuals. In addition, children, but not adults with parasitemia also had lower platelet counts and Hb levels and higher levels of von Willebrand factor and platelet factor-4, markers of endothelial and platelet activation, respectively. These findings suggest that asymptomatic malaria infections have subtle health consequences, especially in children, and should be regarded as potentially harmful. PMID:26304688

  5. Assessing associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel; Wang, Xianshu; Barrowdale, Daniel; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Librado, Pablo; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio; Bonifaci, Núria; McGuffog, Lesley; Pankratz, Vernon S; Islam, Abul; Mateo, Francesca; Berenguer, Antoni; Petit, Anna; Català, Isabel; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Tornero, Eva; Benítez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Arun, Banu K; Toland, Amanda E; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Nussbaum, Robert L; Andrulis, Irene L; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Díez, Orland; Hansen, Thomas V; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldés, Trinidad; Dunning, Alison M; Oliver, Clare; Fineberg, Elena; Cook, Margaret; Peock, Susan; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Jacobs, Chris; Pichert, Gabriella; Lalloo, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Dorkins, Huw; Paterson, Joan; Ong, Kai-Ren; Teixeira, Manuel R; Hogervorst, Frans B L; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Luijt, Rob B; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T; Rookus, Matti A; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Blok, Marinus J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Aalfs, Cora M; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Phillips, Kelly-Anne A; Piedmonte, Marion; Nerenstone, Stacy R; Bae-Jump, Victoria L; O'Malley, David M; Ratner, Elena S; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg J; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Foretova, Lenka; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Ottini, Laura; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Maugard, Christine; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; John, Esther M; Miron, Alex; Neuhausen, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Daly, Mary B; Goldgar, David E; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elisabeth J; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Godwin, Andrew K; Olah, Edith; Narod, Steven A; Rennert, Gad; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Friedman, Eitan; Liljegren, Annelie; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Hamann, Ute; Spurdle, Amanda B; Healey, Sue; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Herzog, Josef; Margileth, David; Gorrini, Chiara; Esteller, Manel; Gómez, Antonio; Sayols, Sergi; Vidal, Enrique; Heyn, Holger; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Léoné, Melanie; Barjhoux, Laure; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Lasset, Christine; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Castera, Laurent; Berthet, Pascaline; Cornelis, François; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Maxwell, Christopher A; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Corines, Marina J; Villano, Danylko; Cunningham, Julie; Lee, Adam; Lindor, Noralane; Lázaro, Conxi; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  6. Assessing associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel; Wang, Xianshu; Barrowdale, Daniel; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Librado, Pablo; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio; Bonifaci, Núria; McGuffog, Lesley; Pankratz, Vernon S; Islam, Abul; Mateo, Francesca; Berenguer, Antoni; Petit, Anna; Català, Isabel; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Tornero, Eva; Benítez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Arun, Banu K; Toland, Amanda E; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Nussbaum, Robert L; Andrulis, Irene L; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Díez, Orland; Hansen, Thomas V; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldés, Trinidad; Dunning, Alison M; Oliver, Clare; Fineberg, Elena; Cook, Margaret; Peock, Susan; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Jacobs, Chris; Pichert, Gabriella; Lalloo, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Dorkins, Huw; Paterson, Joan; Ong, Kai-Ren; Teixeira, Manuel R; Hogervorst, Frans B L; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Luijt, Rob B; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T; Rookus, Matti A; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Blok, Marinus J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Aalfs, Cora M; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Phillips, Kelly-Anne A; Piedmonte, Marion; Nerenstone, Stacy R; Bae-Jump, Victoria L; O'Malley, David M; Ratner, Elena S; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg J; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Foretova, Lenka; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Ottini, Laura; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Maugard, Christine; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; John, Esther M; Miron, Alex; Neuhausen, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Daly, Mary B; Goldgar, David E; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elisabeth J; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Godwin, Andrew K; Olah, Edith; Narod, Steven A; Rennert, Gad; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Friedman, Eitan; Liljegren, Annelie; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Hamann, Ute; Spurdle, Amanda B; Healey, Sue; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Herzog, Josef; Margileth, David; Gorrini, Chiara; Esteller, Manel; Gómez, Antonio; Sayols, Sergi; Vidal, Enrique; Heyn, Holger; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Léoné, Melanie; Barjhoux, Laure; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Lasset, Christine; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Castera, Laurent; Berthet, Pascaline; Cornelis, François; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Maxwell, Christopher A; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Corines, Marina J; Villano, Danylko; Cunningham, Julie; Lee, Adam; Lindor, Noralane; Lázaro, Conxi; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:25830658

  7. Intentions for risk-reducing surgery among high-risk women referred for BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Angie; Kelly, Scott; Nusbaum, Rachel; Graves, Kristi; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Wood, Marie; McKinnon, Wendy; Garber, Judy; McCormick, Shelley R.; Jandorf, Lina; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is now part of routine clinical practice. Although rates of risk-reducing surgery following genetic testing have been increasing, little is known about attitudes toward risk-reducing surgery in women prior to genetic counseling and testing. This study examines correlates of patient intentions to undergo risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing oophorectomy (RRO). Methods Participants were 696 women, ages 21–85, who sought breast cancer gene 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) genetic counseling and had at least a 10% risk of carrying a mutation. The sample included women who were affected with breast or ovarian cancer and unaffected women with a known familial BRCA1/2 mutation. Participants completed a precounseling telephone questionnaire. Results Prior to receiving genetic counseling, 23.3% of participants were considering RRM and 42.5% were considering RRO. Variables that were independently associated with RRM intentions were cancer-specific distress (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03–1.26), perceived risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05–1.28), education (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.03–2.99), and age (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98). Predictors of RRO intentions were perceived risk for ovarian cancer (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.14–1.37), perceived risk of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.15–2.62), marital status (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.34–2.76), and age (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00–1.03). Conclusions Because precounseling intentions predict subsequent risk-reducing surgery decisions, this study identified patient factors associated with surgical intentions. These factors reinforce the critical role for pretest genetic counseling in communicating accurate risk estimates and management options, and addressing psychosocial concerns, to facilitate informed decision making regarding RRM and RRO. PMID:24839250

  8. Reevaluation of the BRCA2 truncating allele c.9976A > T (p.Lys3326Ter) in a familial breast cancer context.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ella R; Gorringe, Kylie L; Rowley, Simone M; Li, Na; McInerny, Simone; Wong-Brown, Michelle W; Devereux, Lisa; Li, Jason; Trainer, Alison H; Mitchell, Gillian; Scott, Rodney J; James, Paul A; Campbell, Ian G

    2015-10-12

    The breast cancer predisposition gene, BRCA2, has a large number of genetic variants of unknown effect. The variant rs11571833, an A > T transversion in the final exon of the gene that leads to the creation of a stop codon 93 amino acids early (K3326*), is reported as a neutral polymorphism but there is some evidence to suggest an association with an increased risk of breast cancer. We assessed whether this variant was enriched in a cohort of breast cancer cases ascertained through familial cancer clinics compared to population-based non-cancer controls using a targeted sequencing approach. We identified the variant in 66/2634 (2.5%) cases and 33/1996 (1.65%) controls, indicating an enrichment in the breast cancer cases (p = 0.047, OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.00-2.34). This data is consistent with recent iCOGs data suggesting that this variant is not neutral with respect to breast cancer risk. rs11571833 may need to be included in SNP panels for evaluating breast cancer risk.

  9. Guidelines for splicing analysis in molecular diagnosis derived from a set of 327 combined in silico/in vitro studies on BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants.

    PubMed

    Houdayer, Claude; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Krieger, Sophie; Barrois, Michel; Bonnet, Françoise; Bourdon, Violaine; Bronner, Myriam; Buisson, Monique; Coulet, Florence; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Lefol, Cédrick; Léone, Mélanie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Danielle; Remenieras, Audrey; Révillion, Françoise; Rouleau, Etienne; Sokolowska, Joanna; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Lidereau, Rosette; Soubrier, Florent; Sobol, Hagay; Sevenet, Nicolas; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Hardouin, Agnès; Tosi, Mario; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2012-08-01

    Assessing the impact of variants of unknown significance (VUS) on splicing is a key issue in molecular diagnosis. This impact can be predicted by in silico tools, but proper evaluation and user guidelines are lacking. To fill this gap, we embarked upon the largest BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice study to date by testing 272 VUSs (327 analyses) within the BRCA splice network of Unicancer. All these VUSs were analyzed by using six tools (splice site prediction by neural network, splice site finder (SSF), MaxEntScan (MES), ESE finder, relative enhancer and silencer classification by unanimous enrichment, and human splicing finder) and the predictions obtained were compared with transcript analysis results. Combining MES and SSF gave 96% sensitivity and 83% specificity for VUSs occurring in the vicinity of consensus splice sites, that is, the surrounding 11 and 14 bases for the 5' and 3' sites, respectively. This study was also an opportunity to define guidelines for transcript analysis along with a tentative classification of splice variants. The guidelines drawn from this large series should be useful for the whole community, particularly in the context of growing sequencing capacities that require robust pipelines for variant interpretation.

  10. Inhibition of filament formation of human Rad51 protein by a small peptide derived from the BRC-motif of the BRCA2 protein.

    PubMed

    Nomme, Julian; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Martinez, Susan F; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Fleury, Fabrice; Weigel, Pierre; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2008-05-01

    Human Rad51 is a key element of recombinational DNA repair and is related to the resistance of cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapies. The protein is thus a potential target of anti-cancer treatment. The crystallographic analysis shows that the BRC-motif of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor is in contact with the subunit-subunit interface of Rad51 and could thus prevent filament formation of Rad51. However, biochemical analysis indicates that a BRC-motif peptide of 69 amino acids preferentially binds to the N-terminal part of Rad51. We show experimentally that a short peptide of 28 amino acids derived from the BRC4 motif binds to the subunit-subunit interface and dissociates its filament, both in the presence and absence of DNA, certainly by binding to dissociated monomers. The inhibition is efficient and specific for Rad51: the peptide does not even interact with Rad51 homologs or prevent their interaction with DNA. Neither the N-terminal nor the C-terminal half of the peptide interacts with human Rad51, indicating that both parts are involved in the interaction, as expected from the crystal structure. These results suggest the possibility of developing inhibitors of human Rad51 based on this peptide.

  11. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    PubMed

    Nomme, Julian; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Asanomi, Yuya; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stasiak, Andrzej; Norden, Bengt; Tran, Vinh; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2010-08-12

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  12. Outcome of metastatic breast cancer in selected women with or without deleterious BRCA mutations.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, S; Gutierrez-Barrera, A M; Lin, H; Elsayegh, N; Tasbas, T; Litton, J K; Ibrahim, N K; Morrow, P K; Green, M; Valero, V; Booser, D J; Hortobagyi, G N; Arun, B K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time-to progression and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with and without deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. 195 women with MBC who were referred for BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2011 were included in the study. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the associations between clinical variables and outcomes. Of 195 women with MBC, 21 % (n = 41) were positive for BRCA1/2 mutations. The number of metastatic sites at the time of metastatic disease was not different between BRCA1 versus BRCA2 carriers versus non-carriers (P = 0.77). The site of first metastasis was visceral-only in 70 % of BRCA1 carriers compared to 9 % in BRCA2 carriers and 37 % in non-carriers (P = 0.001). Median follow-up was 2.8 years. BRCA non-carriers and BRCA2 carriers had a longer time-to progression and OS compared to BRCA1 carriers (median time-to progression = 1.3 vs. 0.9 vs. 0.7 years; P = 0.31, and median OS = 4.88 vs. 4.94 vs. 1.34 years; P = 0.0065). In a multivariate model, no association was identified between BRCA positivity and time-to-event outcomes (P > 0.28). In addition, patients with triple-negative MBC carried a poorer prognosis irrespective of their BRCA status (P = 0.058 and P = 0.15 for the interaction term of BRCA status and triple-negative for time-to progression and OS, respectively). Our data indicate that BRCA1 carriers diagnosed with MBC have worse outcomes compared to BRCA2 carriers and non-carriers. However, the differences in outcome did not reach statistical significance likely due to small sample sizes. PMID:23370825

  13. Identification of a founder BRCA1 mutation in the Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Quiles, F; Teulé, À; Martinussen Tandstad, N; Feliubadaló, L; Tornero, E; Del Valle, J; Menéndez, M; Salinas, M; Wethe Rognlien, V; Velasco, A; Izquierdo, A; Capellá, G; Brunet, J; Lázaro, C

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer among women in Morocco. However, the role of the most prevalent BC-predisposing genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, has been largely unexplored. To help define the role of BRCA1 in BC in Morocco, we characterized the first potential BRCA1 founder mutation in this population. Genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in BC high-risk families identified mutation BRCA1 c.5309G>T, p.(Gly1770Val) or G1770V in five independent families from Morocco, suggesting a founder effect. To confirm this hypothesis, haplotype construction was performed using seven intragenic and flanking BRCA1 microsatellite markers. Clinical data were also compiled. Clinical data from carriers of mutation G1770V correspond to data from carriers of BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. Microsatellite analysis showed a common haplotype for the five families in a region comprising 1.54 Mb, confirming G1770V as the first specific founder BRCA1 mutation in the Moroccan population. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of BC genetics in the Moroccan population. Nevertheless, comprehensive studies of mutation G1770V in large series of BC patients from Morocco are needed to assess the real prevalence of this mutation and to improve genetic testing and risk assessment in this population.

  14. Mutation analysis of PALB2 gene in French breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Damiola, Francesca; Schultz, Inès; Barjhoux, Laure; Sornin, Valérie; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Marcou, Morgane; Caron, Olivier; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Bonadona, Valérie; Maugard, Christine; Pujol, Pascal; Lasset, Christine; Longy, Michel; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Andrieu, Nadine; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Danièle

    2015-12-01

    Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36% of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40%). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population. PMID:26564480

  15. Prevalence of PALB2 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients in Multi-Ethnic Asian Population in Malaysia and Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Background The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. Methods We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. Results By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations. PMID:23977390

  16. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies. PMID:26799758

  17. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies.

  18. Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile Colonisation and Onward Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, David W.; Griffiths, David; Vaughan, Alison; Golubchik, Tanya; Acharya, Milind; O’Connor, Lily; Crook, Derrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Combined genotyping/whole genome sequencing and epidemiological data suggest that in endemic settings only a minority of Clostridium difficile infection, CDI, is acquired from other cases. Asymptomatic patients are a potential source for many unexplained cases. Methods We prospectively screened a cohort of medical inpatients in a UK teaching hospital for asymptomatic C. difficile carriage using stool culture. Electronic and questionnaire data were used to determine risk factors for asymptomatic carriage by logistic regression. Carriage isolates were compared with all hospital/community CDI cases from the same geographic region, from 12 months before the study to 3 months after, using whole genome sequencing and hospital admission data, assessing particularly for evidence of onward transmission from asymptomatic cases. Results Of 227 participants recruited, 132 provided ≥1 stool samples for testing. 18 participants were culture-positive for C. difficile, 14/132(11%) on their first sample. Independent risk factors for asymptomatic carriage were patient reported loose/frequent stool (but not meeting CDI criteria of ≥3 unformed stools in 24 hours), previous overnight hospital stay within 6 months, and steroid/immunosuppressant medication in the last 6 months (all p≤0.02). Surprisingly antibiotic exposure in the last 6 months was independently associated with decreased risk of carriage (p = 0.005). The same risk factors were identified excluding participants reporting frequent/loose stool. 13/18(72%) asymptomatically colonised patients carried toxigenic strains from common disease-causing lineages found in cases. Several plausible transmission events to asymptomatic carriers were identified, but in this relatively small study no clear evidence of onward transmission from an asymptomatic case was seen. Conclusions Transmission events from any one asymptomatic carrier are likely to be relatively rare, but as asymptomatic carriage is common, it may

  19. Expression status of let-7a and miR-335 among breast tumors in patients with and without germ-line BRCA mutations.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Elif; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Tunca, Berrin; Tezcan, Gulcin; Gokgoz, Sehsuvar; Tolunay, Sahsine; Tasdelen, Ismet

    2014-10-01

    The genetic factors of cancer predisposition remain elusive in the majority of familial and/or early-onset cases of breast cancer (BC). This type of BC is promoted by germ-line mutations that inactivate BRCA1 or BRCA2. On the other hand, recent studies have indicated that alterations in the levels of miRNA expression are linked to this disease. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations have been reported to commonly lead to alterations in genes that encode cancer-related proteins, little is known regarding the putative impact of these mutations on noncoding miRNAs. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether miRNA dysregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of BRCA-mutated BC. An expression analysis of 14 human miRNAs previously shown to be related to BC diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance was conducted using tissues from 60 familial and/or early-onset patients whose peripheral blood samples had been screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations through sequence analysis. Let-7a and miR-335 expression levels were significantly downregulated in the tumors of patients with a BRCA mutation compared with those of patients without a BRCA mutation (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results defined the associations between the expression status of let-7a and miR-335 and BRCA mutations. The expression analysis of these miRNAs might be used as biomarkers of the BRCA mutation status of early-onset and/or familial BC. PMID:24942235

  20. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.

  1. Germline and Somatic Mutations in Homologous Recombination Genes Predict Platinum Response and Survival in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Kathryn P.; Walsh, Tom; Harrell, Maria I.; Lee, Ming K.; Pennil, Christopher C.; Rendi, Mara H.; Thornton, Anne; Norquist, Barbara M.; Casadei, Silvia; Nord, Alexander S.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Pritchard, Colin C.; Scroggins, Sheena; Garcia, Rochelle L.; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes is uncertain. Experimental Design Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we assessed 390 ovarian carcinomas for germline and somatic loss-of-function mutations in 30 genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and 11 other genes in the HR pathway. Results 31% of ovarian carcinomas had a deleterious germline (24%) and/or somatic (9%) mutation in one or more of the 13 HR genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK1, CHEK2, FAM175A, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D. Non-serous ovarian carcinomas had similar rates of HR mutations to serous carcinomas (28% vs. 31%, p=0.6), including clear cell, endometrioid, and carcinosarcoma. The presence of germline and somatic HR mutations was highly predictive of primary platinum sensitivity (p=0.0002) and improved overall survival (p=0.0006), with median overall survival 66 months in germline HR mutation carriers, 59 months in cases with a somatic HR mutation, and 41 months for cases without an HR mutation. Conclusions Germline or somatic mutations in HR genes are present in almost one-third of ovarian carcinomas, including both serous and non-serous histologies. Somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other HR genes have a similar positive impact on overall survival and platinum responsiveness as germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The similar rate of HR mutations in non-serous carcinomas supports their inclusion in PARP inhibitor clinical trials. PMID:24240112

  2. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones.

  3. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  4. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

    2013-01-01

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.

  5. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, L.S.; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E.A.

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning {approximately}850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer to late-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3{prime}-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Comprehensive mutation profiling of mucinous gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rokutan, Hirofumi; Hosoda, Fumie; Hama, Natsuko; Nakamura, Hiromi; Totoki, Yasushi; Furukawa, Eisaku; Arakawa, Erika; Ohashi, Shoko; Urushidate, Tomoko; Satoh, Hironori; Shimizu, Hiroko; Igarashi, Keiko; Yachida, Shinichi; Katai, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) is a unique subtype of gastric cancer with a poor survival outcome. Comprehensive molecular profiles and putative therapeutic targets of MGC remain undetermined. We subjected 16 tumour-normal tissue pairs to whole-exome sequencing (WES) and an expanded set of 52 tumour-normal tissue pairs to subsequent targeted sequencing. The latter focused on 114 genes identified by WES. Twenty-two histologically differentiated MGCs (D-MGCs) and 46 undifferentiated MGCs (U-MGCs) were analysed. Chromatin modifier genes, including ARID1A (21%), MLL2 (19%), MLL3 (15%), and KDM6A (7%), were frequently mutated (47%) in MGC. We also identified mutations in potential therapeutic target genes, including MTOR (9%), BRCA2 (9%), BRCA1 (7%), and ERBB3 (6%). RHOA mutation was detected only in 4% of U-MGCs and in no D-MGCs. MYH9 was recurrently (13%) mutated in MGC, with all these being of the U-MGC subtype (p = 0.023). Three U-MGCs harboured MYH9 nonsense mutations. MYH9 knockdown enhanced cell migration and induced intracytoplasmic mucin and cellular elongation. BCOR mutation was associated with improved survival. In U-MGCs, the MLH1 expression status and combined mutation status (TP53/BCL11B or TP53/MLL2) were prognostic factors. A comparative analysis of driver genes revealed that the mutation profile of D-MGC was similar to that of intestinal-type gastric cancer, whereas U-MGC was a distinct entity, harbouring a different mutational profile to intestinal- and diffuse-type gastric cancers. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27313181

  7. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J.; Phillips, James G.; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84–4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25–11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  8. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J; Phillips, James G; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84-4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25-11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria. Which patients should be treated?

    PubMed

    Zhanel, G G; Harding, G K; Guay, D R

    1990-07-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in both the community nursing home and hospital settings. Few data, however, are available about the potential complications arising from asymptomatic bacteriuria (eg, the development of symptomatic infection and renal damage) for various patient populations and for various medical conditions. On the basis of data in the literature, we believe that neonates and preschool children with asymptomatic bacteriuria should be treated. Pregnant women and "nonelderly" (less than 60 years old) men should be treated. We do not think that school-age children, nonpregnant, nonelderly women, or elderly men and women need antimicrobial treatment if their urinary tracks are normal. In addition, antimicrobial treatment is recommended for patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and abnormal urinary tracts and those undergoing clean intermittent catheterization, genitourinary manipulation, or instrumentation. Patients with long-term indwelling catheters should not be treated. The treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with short-term indwelling catheters and those with ileal conduits is controversial. These treatment recommendations should not necessarily be accepted as the standards of practice, since treatment is often controversial due to the lack of published data describing the natural course of asymptomatic bacteriuria in various patient populations. PMID:2196024

  10. An exploration of the communication preferences regarding genetic testing in individuals from families with identified breast/ovarian cancer mutations.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Paboda; Wakefield, Claire E; Meiser, Bettina; Suthers, Graeme; Price, Melanie A; Duffy, Jessica; Tucker, Kathy

    2011-03-01

    The responsibility for informing at-risk relatives of the availability of genetic testing for breast/ovarian cancer gene (BRCA1 or BRCA2) mutations currently falls on the probands. This study explored the support needs of individuals from families with identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations when communicating about genetic risk and genetic testing with at-risk family members. Thirty-nine semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals from families with identified BRCA mutations. Interview responses were cross-tabulated by sample characteristics using the qualitative research analysis software NVivo8. The development of educational materials, which individuals could use when communicating the risks of carrying a BRCA gene mutation with their relatives, was identified as a specific need. Many participants expressed a preference for a staged approach, where relatives are notified of their increased risk and the availability of genetic testing risk either face-to-face or via a letter, with additional educational sources, including brief written information or access to a website, made available for those wishing to access more in-depth information. This research identified a need for the development of educational/informational resources to support individuals with identified breast/ovarian cancer mutations to communicate with their at-risk relatives about genetic risk and genetic testing availability.

  11. Prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutation c.5266dupin Brazilian individuals at-risk for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG) and c.5266dup (5382insC) in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT) in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%). This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023). The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be further assessed in a larger

  12. The prevalence of BRCA mutations among familial breast cancer patients in Korea: results of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Min Hyuk; Nam, Seok-Jin; Han, Wonshik; Bae, Young Tae; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young Up; Chang, Myung Chul; Paik, Nam Sun; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sei Joong; Noh, Dong-Young; Choi, Doo Ho; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Ku Sang; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Hyde; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations among familial breast cancer (BC) patients in Korea. We analyzed 775 familial BC patients who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study and treated at 36 institutions between May 2007 and May 2010. Patients with familial BC were defined as BC patients with family histories of BC or ovarian cancer (OC) in any relatives. All probands received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing was performed after obtaining informed consent. The mean age of BC diagnosis was 43.6 years. The numbers of probands with family histories of BC only and OC only were 682 and 93, respectively. The overall prevalence of the BRCA mutation among familial BC patients was 21.7 % (BRCA1 9.3 % and BRCA2 12.4 %). Subgroup analyses observed prevalences of the BRCA mutation as follows: 19.6 % among patients with BC family history only (BRCA1 7.6 % and BRCA2 12.0 %) and 36.6 % among patients with OC family history only (BRCA1 21.5 % and BRCA2 15.1 %). Most of the subgroups satisfied the 10 % probability criteria to undergo BRCA testing. However, the prevalence of the BRCA mutations among subgroups that had 2 BC patients in a family with both age at diagnosis of more than 50 years old did not reach the 10 % criteria (4.1 %). Korean familial BC patients are good candidates for BRCA testing even when they have family histories of single breast cancers. However, proband age at diagnosis should be carefully considered when selecting patients for testing.

  13. Breast cancer risk factors differ between Asian and white women with BRCA1/2 mutations.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Monique A; Kwong, Ava; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Lipson, Jafi A; Ikeda, Debra M; McPherson, Lisa; Sharma, Bhavna; Kardashian, Ani; Schackmann, Elizabeth; Kingham, Kerry E; Mills, Meredith A; West, Dee W; Ford, James M; Kurian, Allison W

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence and penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations may differ between Asians and whites. We investigated BRCA1/2 mutations and cancer risk factors in a clinic-based sample. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were enrolled from cancer genetics clinics in Hong Kong and California according to standardized entry criteria. We compared BRCA mutation position, cancer history, hormonal and reproductive exposures. We analyzed DNA samples for single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported to modify breast cancer risk. We performed logistic regression to identify independent predictors of breast cancer. Fifty Asian women and forty-nine white American women were enrolled. BRCA1 mutations were more common among whites (67 vs. 42 %, p = 0.02), and BRCA2 mutations among Asians (58 vs. 37 %, p = 0.04). More Asians had breast cancer (76 vs. 53 %, p = 0.03); more whites had relatives with breast cancer (86 vs. 50 %, p = 0.0003). More whites than Asians had breastfed (71 vs. 42 %, p = 0.005), had high BMI (median 24.3 vs. 21.2, p = 0.04), consumed alcohol (2 drinks/week vs. 0, p < 0.001), and had oophorectomy (61 vs. 34 %, p = 0.01). Asians had a higher frequency of risk-associated alleles in MAP3K1 (88 vs. 59 %, p = 0.005) and TOX3/TNRC9 (88 vs. 55 %, p = 0.0002). On logistic regression, MAP3K1 was associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2, but not BRCA1 mutation carriers; breast density was associated with increased risk among Asians but not whites. We found significant differences in breast cancer risk factors between Asian and white BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Further investigation of racial differences in BRCA1/2 mutation epidemiology could inform targeted cancer risk-reduction strategies.

  14. Association between basal-like phenotype and BRCA1/2 germline mutations in Korean breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, J.; Kang, E.; Gwak, J.M.; Seo, A.N.; Park, S.Y.; Lee, A.S.; Baek, H.; Chae, S.; Kim, E.K.; Kim, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction BRCA mutation testing allows index patients and their families to be provided with appropriate cancer risk-reduction strategies. Because of the low prevalence of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer patients and the high cost of genetic testing, it is important to identify the subset of women who are likely to carry BRCA mutations. In the present study, we examined the association between BRCA1/2 germline mutations and the immunohistochemical features of breast cancer. Methods In a retrospective review of 498 breast cancer patients who had undergone BRCA testing at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between July 2003 and September 2012, we gathered immunohistochemical information on estrogen receptor (er), progesterone receptor (pr), her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), cytokeratin 5/6, egfr (epidermal growth factor receptor), and p53 status. Results Among the 411 patients eligible for the study, 50 (12.2%) had germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Of the 93 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (tnbc), 25 with BRCA1/2 mutations were identified (BRCA1, 20.4%; BRCA2, 6.5%). On univariate analysis, er, pr, cytokeratin 5/6, egfr, and tnbc were found to be related to BRCA1 mutations, but on multivariate analysis, only tnbc was significantly associated with BRCA1 mutations. Among patients with early-onset breast cancer or with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA1 mutations were significantly more prevalent in the tnbc group than in the non-tnbc group. Conclusions In the present study, tnbc was the only independent predictor of BRCA1 mutation in patients at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Other histologic features of basal-like breast cancer did not improve the estimate of BRCA1 mutation risk. PMID:27803593

  15. Prioritizing Variants in Complete Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Genes in Patients Lacking Known BRCA Mutations.

    PubMed

    Caminsky, Natasha G; Mucaki, Eliseos J; Perri, Ami M; Lu, Ruipeng; Knoll, Joan H M; Rogan, Peter K

    2016-07-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) does not identify all pathogenic variants. Sequencing of 20 complete genes in HBOC patients with uninformative test results (N = 287), including noncoding and flanking sequences of ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, EPCAM, MLH1, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51B, STK11, TP53, and XRCC2, identified 38,372 unique variants. We apply information theory (IT) to predict and prioritize noncoding variants of uncertain significance in regulatory, coding, and intronic regions based on changes in binding sites in these genes. Besides mRNA splicing, IT provides a common framework to evaluate potential affinity changes in transcription factor (TFBSs), splicing regulatory (SRBSs), and RNA-binding protein (RBBSs) binding sites following mutation. We prioritized variants affecting the strengths of 10 splice sites (four natural, six cryptic), 148 SRBS, 36 TFBS, and 31 RBBS. Three variants were also prioritized based on their predicted effects on mRNA secondary (2°) structure and 17 for pseudoexon activation. Additionally, four frameshift, two in-frame deletions, and five stop-gain mutations were identified. When combined with pedigree information, complete gene sequence analysis can focus attention on a limited set of variants in a wide spectrum of functional mutation types for downstream functional and co-segregation analysis. PMID:26898890

  16. [Symptomatic cyst of the pancreas and asymptomatic bilateral phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed

    Karvar, S; Breidert, M; Nagel, M; Kirsch, C; Pinkert, J; Ehninger, G

    2001-01-01

    Symptomatic cyst of the pancreas and asymptomatic bilateral phaeochromocytoma. HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our department of gastroenterology with recurrent epigastrical pain. Ten years previously the diagnosis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-syndrome has been established. Two years before a germ line mutation in exon 3 of the VHL-tumour suppressor gene has been detected. The patient has a healthy son with a normal VHL-gene and four healthy siblings who had refused a genetic blood test. INVESTIGATIONS: At abdominal ultrasound at the head of the pancreas three 4 2 cm large cysts and in the region of the left adrenal gland a 2,9 2,7 cm large tumor were visible. MRI of the abdomen revealed in addition a 2,2 1,5 cm large tumour of the right adrenal gland. An asymptomatic biadrenal phaeochromocytoma was detected by elevated urine catecholamines and 123I-MIBG-scintigraphy. TREATMENT AND COURSE: The cysts of the pancreas were punctured under endosonographical control and analysis of the cyst fluid was not suspicious of a malignant cystic tumour. The patient had no further abdominal complaints. After oral treatment with the alpha-blocker phentolamine the biadrenal phaeochromocytoma was treated by retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery in an organ-sparing fashion. Postoperatively ACTH-stimulating test revealed a normal cortisol response. CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical function can be preserved by la-paroscopic adrenal-sparing surgery in bilateral phaeochromocytoma.

  17. gDNA Enrichment by a Transposase-based Technology for NGS Analysis of the Whole Sequence of BRCA1, BRCA2, and 9 Genes Involved in DNA Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Sandy; Boidot, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Next Generation Sequencing has opened up new avenues for cancer research and diagnosis. NGS will bring huge amounts of new data on cancer, and especially cancer genetics. Current knowledge and future discoveries will make it necessary to study a huge number of genes that could be involved in a genetic predisposition to cancer. In this regard, we developed a Nextera design to study 11 complete genes involved in DNA damage repair. This protocol was developed to safely study 11 genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD80, and TP53) from promoter to 3'-UTR in 24 patients simultaneously. This protocol, based on transposase technology and gDNA enrichment, gives a great advantage in terms of time for the genetic diagnosis thanks to sample multiplexing. This protocol can be safely used with blood gDNA. PMID:25350069

  18. gDNA enrichment by a transposase-based technology for NGS analysis of the whole sequence of BRCA1, BRCA2, and 9 genes involved in DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Sandy; Boidot, Romain

    2014-10-06

    The widespread use of Next Generation Sequencing has opened up new avenues for cancer research and diagnosis. NGS will bring huge amounts of new data on cancer, and especially cancer genetics. Current knowledge and future discoveries will make it necessary to study a huge number of genes that could be involved in a genetic predisposition to cancer. In this regard, we developed a Nextera design to study 11 complete genes involved in DNA damage repair. This protocol was developed to safely study 11 genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD80, and TP53) from promoter to 3'-UTR in 24 patients simultaneously. This protocol, based on transposase technology and gDNA enrichment, gives a great advantage in terms of time for the genetic diagnosis thanks to sample multiplexing. This protocol can be safely used with blood gDNA.

  19. Detection of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer - next-generation sequencing analysis of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Koczkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Monika; Gorczynski, Adam; Ratajska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Marzena; Biernat, Wojciech; Limon, Janusz; Wasag, Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    The overall prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is estimated between 11% and 15% of all ovarian cancers. Individuals with germline BRCA1/2 alterations treated with the PARP1 inhibitors (iPARP1) tend to respond better than patients with wild-type BRCA1/2. Additionally, also somatic BRCA1/2 alterations induce the sensitivity to iPARP1. Therefore, the detection of both germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations is required for effective iPARP1 treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and spectrum of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 alterations in a group of Polish patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. In total, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were enrolled to the study. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 genes was performed by using next-generation sequencing. The presence of pathogenic variants was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, to confirm the germline or somatic status of the mutation, the nonneoplastic tissue was analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 (28% of patient samples) mutations (20 in BRCA1 and 7 in BRCA2) were identified. For 22 of 27 patients, nonneoplastic cells were available and sequencing revealed the somatic character of two BRCA1 (2/16; 12.5%) and two BRCA2 (2/6; 33%) mutations. Notably, we identified six novel frameshift or nonsense BRCA1/2 mutations. The heterogeneity of the detected mutations confirms the necessity of simultaneous analysis of BRCA1/2 genes in all patients diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the use of tumor tissue for mutational analysis allowed the detection of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:27167707

  20. Detection of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer - next-generation sequencing analysis of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Koczkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Monika; Gorczynski, Adam; Ratajska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Marzena; Biernat, Wojciech; Limon, Janusz; Wasag, Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    The overall prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is estimated between 11% and 15% of all ovarian cancers. Individuals with germline BRCA1/2 alterations treated with the PARP1 inhibitors (iPARP1) tend to respond better than patients with wild-type BRCA1/2. Additionally, also somatic BRCA1/2 alterations induce the sensitivity to iPARP1. Therefore, the detection of both germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations is required for effective iPARP1 treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and spectrum of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 alterations in a group of Polish patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. In total, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were enrolled to the study. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 genes was performed by using next-generation sequencing. The presence of pathogenic variants was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, to confirm the germline or somatic status of the mutation, the nonneoplastic tissue was analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 (28% of patient samples) mutations (20 in BRCA1 and 7 in BRCA2) were identified. For 22 of 27 patients, nonneoplastic cells were available and sequencing revealed the somatic character of two BRCA1 (2/16; 12.5%) and two BRCA2 (2/6; 33%) mutations. Notably, we identified six novel frameshift or nonsense BRCA1/2 mutations. The heterogeneity of the detected mutations confirms the necessity of simultaneous analysis of BRCA1/2 genes in all patients diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the use of tumor tissue for mutational analysis allowed the detection of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations.

  1. Asymptomatic child heterozygous for hemoglobin S and hemoglobin Pôrto Alegre.

    PubMed

    Lojo, Liliana; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Rivera, Enid; Renta, Jessicca; Cadilla, Carmen L

    2011-03-01

    Hemoglobin Pôrto Alegre (PA) is a rare hemoglobin resulting from a mutation in β9(A6)Ser → Cys. We describe an asymptomatic Puerto Rican female with combined heterozygosity for Hb PA and Hb S. Since birth, she has maintained normal hemoglobin, bilirubin, LDH levels, and reticulocyte count. Peripheral smear evaluation has revealed normal erythrocyte morphology with no changes suggestive of hemolysis. We conclude that the presence of Hb PA does not increase the risk of red blood cell sickling in patients who carry the Hb S mutation.

  2. Asymptomatic Child Heterozygous for Hemoglobin S and Hemoglobin Pôrto Alegre

    PubMed Central

    Lojo, Liliana; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Rivera, Enid; Renta, Jessicca; Cadilla, Carmen L

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin Pôrto Alegre (PA) is a rare hemoglobin resulting from a mutation in β9(A6)Ser→Cys. We describe an asymptomatic Puerto Rican female with combined heterozygosity for Hb PA and Hb S. Since birth, she has maintained normal hemoglobin, bilirubin, LDH levels, and reticulocyte count. Peripheral smear evaluation has revealed normal erythrocyte morphology with no changes suggestive of hemolysis. We conclude that the presence of Hb PA does not increase the risk of red blood cell sickling in patients who carry the Hb S mutation. PMID:21225927

  3. Asymptomatic arsine nephrotoxicity. A case report.

    PubMed

    Levy, H; Lewin, J R; Ninin, D T; Schneider, H R; Milne, F J

    1979-08-01

    A completely asymptomatic patient with arsine nephrotoxicity is described. The light and electron microscopic appearances of the kidney biopsy specimen are documented. The pathogenesis of the lesions, the usual manifestations of arsine exposure, and how these differed from those seen in our patient, are discussed.

  4. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing

    PubMed Central

    Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K.; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y.; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service® report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  5. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    PubMed

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  6. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  7. First application of next-generation sequencing in Moroccan breast/ovarian cancer families and report of a novel frameshift mutation of the BRCA1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Jouali, Farah; Laarabi, Fatima-Zahra; Marchoudi, Nabila; Ratbi, Ilham; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Rhaissi, Houria; Fekkak, Jamal; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    At present, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females. The majority of cases are sporadic, but 5–10% are due to an inherited predisposition to develop breast and ovarian cancers, which are transmitted as an autosomal dominant form with incomplete penetrance. The beneficial effects of clinical genetic testing, including next generation sequencing (NGS) for BRCA1/2 mutations, is major; in particular, it benefits the care of patients and the counseling of relatives that are at risk of breast cancer, in order to reduce breast cancer mortality. BRCA genetic testing was performed in 15 patients with breast cancer and a family with positivity for the heterozygous c.6428C>A mutation of the BRCA2 gene. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. Genomic DNAs were extracted and the NGS for genes was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) with a 316 chip. The reads were aligned with the human reference HG19 genome to elucidate variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations detected by the PGM platform were confirmed by target direct Sanger sequencing on a second patient DNA sample. In total, 4 BRCA variants were identified in 6 families by NGS. Of these, 3 mutations had been previously reported: c.2126insA of BRCA1, and c.1310_1313delAAGA and c.7235insG of BRCA2. The fourth variant, c.3453delT in BRCA1, has, to the best of our knowledge, never been previously reported. The present study is the first to apply NGS of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to a Moroccan population, prompting additional investigation into local founder mutations and variant characteristics in the region. The variants with no clear clinical significance may present a diagnostic challenge when performing targeted resequencing. These results confirm that an NGS approach based on Ampliseq libraries and PGM sequencing is a highly efficient, speedy and high-throughput mutation detection method, which may be preferable in lower income countries. PMID:27446417

  8. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences

    DOE PAGES

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Martin, Sancha; Wedge, David C.; et al

    2016-05-02

    Here, we analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, anothermore » with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.« less

  9. Oncotype-DX recurrence score distribution in breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Lewin, R; Sulkes, A; Shochat, T; Tsoref, D; Rizel, S; Liebermann, N; Hendler, D; Neiman, V; Ben-Aharon, I; Friedman, E; Paluch-Shimon, S; Margel, D; Kedar, I; Yerushalmi, R

    2016-06-01

    Oncotype-DX assay has never been validated for BRCA mutation carriers. This study compares the recurrence score (RS) distribution in BRCA-positive breast cancer patients with that of a general population (GP) of patients and reports their outcomes. Eligible patients were BRCA carriers who performed the Oncotype-DX assay. Two sets of databases were cross-linked: BRCA carriers at Rabin Medical Center and Sheba Medical Center with Oncotype-DX tests performed through Clalit Health Services HMO, from 2003 to 2015. Fifty-eight BRCA patients were included (20 BRCA1, 38 BRCA2). The GP included 1020 patients. Compared to the GP, BRCA1 patients were younger, had higher rate of grade three tumors, and higher Ki67. BRCA2 patients had lower PR index, higher rate of grade three tumors, and higher Ki67. Among the GP, 52.9, 37.9, and 9.1 % had low, intermediate, and high risk RS, respectively. Corresponding rates were 15, 35, and 50 % in BRCA1 patients, and 18.4, 52.6, and 29 % in BRCA2 patients. Subgroup analysis revealed a similar RS distribution pattern regardless of the nodal status. Median follow-up was 45 months. Four BRCA patients (7 %) developed disease recurrence. RS of these patients were in the intermediate and low range. All recurrences occurred in chemo-naïve patients who had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy. This study revealed significantly different RS distributions between BRCA patients and the GP. RS values shifted toward high and intermediate risk categories. This pattern held regardless of the nodal status and was more pronounced in the BRCA1 group. PMID:27225387

  10. Motor slowing in asymptomatic HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, M L; Cella, D F; Humfleet, G; Griffin, E; Sheridan, K

    1989-06-01

    To examine neuropsychological deficits associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 25 asymptomatic homosexual men and sexual partners of intravenous drug users and 25 seronegative homosexual men and nonhigh-risk heterosexuals were assessed on measures of fine motor control, visual scanning, attention, depression, and global psychological functioning. Analysis suggested that HIV infection is associated with reduced fine motor control. Seropositivity is associated with elevated depression and global psychological maladjustment. When depression and global adjustment were analyzed as covariates, motor slowing was evident in the seropositive group. These findings suggest an association between motor slowing and HIV infection in asymptomatic subjects and point to the necessity of measuring affect at least as a control variable. Further study is needed to determine whether the fine motor deficit evident in this sample is limited to distinct subgrouping of the over-all sample. PMID:2762096

  11. Asymptomatic memory CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif Azam; Srivastava, Ruchi; Lopes, Patricia Prado; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T; Cochrane, Justin; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Gutierrez, Lucas; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    Generation and maintenance of high quantity and quality memory CD8+ T cells determine the level of protection from viral, bacterial, and parasitic re-infections, and hence constitutes a primary goal for T cell epitope-based human vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Phenotypically and functionally characterizing memory CD8+ T cells that provide protection against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infections, which cause blinding ocular herpes, genital herpes, and oro-facial herpes, is critical for better vaccine design. We have recently categorized 2 new major sub-populations of memory symptomatic and asymptomatic CD8+ T cells based on their phenotype, protective vs. pathogenic function, and anatomical locations. In this report we are discussing a new direction in developing T cell-based human herpes vaccines and immunotherapeutics based on the emerging new concept of “symptomatic and asymptomatic memory CD8+ T cells.” PMID:24499824

  12. Treatment approaches to asymptomatic follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Salles, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease in which some patients present an indolent evolution for decades and others, a rather aggressive form of the disease requiring immediate therapy. While immunochemotherapy has emerged as a standard of care for symptomatic patients, treatment of the asymptomatic population remains controversial. Since the disease is still considered incurable, delayed initiation of therapy is an acceptable option. However, four single injections of rituximab can result in an acceptable clinical response and can improve the duration of the interval without cytotoxic therapy. With recent therapeutic approaches that enable substantial improvements in life expectancy for follicular lymphoma patients, limiting short- or long-term treatment toxicities appears as a new concern in the asymptomatic population. Based on these options, the challenge is to preserve patient quality of life and prolong survival: from the patient's perspective, his/her opinion is therefore of significant importance. PMID:24219551

  13. The maximal exercise ECG in asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Cumming, G R; Borysyk, L; Dufresne, C

    1972-03-18

    Lead MC5 bipolar exercise ECG was obtained in 510 asymptomatic males, aged 40 to 65, utilizing the bicycle ergometer, with maximal stress in 71% of the subjects. "Ischemic changes" occurred in 61 subjects, the frequency increasing from 4% at age 40 to 45, to 20% at age 50 to 55, to 37% at age 61 to 65. Subjects having an ischemic type ECG change on exercise had more frequent minor resting ECG changes, more resting hypertension, and a greater incidence of high cholesterol values than subjects with a normal ECG response to exercise, but there was no difference in the incidence of obesity, low fitness, or high systolic blood pressure after exercise. Current evidence suggests that asymptomatic male subjects with an abnormal exercise ECG develop clinical coronary heart disease from 2.5 to over 30 times more frequently than those with a normal exercise ECG.

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  15. Mutation Screening of BRCA Genes in 10 Iranian Males with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zorrieh Zahra, Atieh; Kadkhoda, Sepideh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Aghakhani Moghaddam, Fatemeh; Badiei, Azadeh; Sirati, Fereidoon; Afshin Alavi, Hossein; Atri, Morteza; Omranipour, Ramesh; Keyhani, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an increasing trend. Due to limited information especially about the genetic basis of the disease in Iran and the lower age of its onset, the disease requires more attention. The aim of this study was to screen the male patients with breast cancer for BRCA mutations as well as tissue markers of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6). Ten Iranian males with breast cancer were selected regardless of their histologic subtypes, age and family history from patients referred to Mehrad, Day and Parsian hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during a two-year period. Paraffin blocks of the tumoral regions were tested for ER, PR, HER-2 and CK5/6 immunostaining. DNA extraction was carried out on the EDTA blood samples followed by Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry results for ER, and PR were negative in 2 out of 10 patients, while the results of HER-2 and CK5/6 were negative in all the cases. A missense mutation in exon 18 of BRCA1 and a nonsense mutation in exon 25 of in BRCA2 were detected in one patient each. Both patients belonged to luminal A subtype. Despite the low number of patients in this study, it could be concluded that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 occur in male breast cancer patients of luminal A subtype. The negative status of the tissue markers could not be used for the prediction of BRCA mutations. PMID:27478808

  16. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571

  17. Association of Somatic Mutations of ADAMTS Genes With Chemotherapy Sensitivity and Survival in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuexin; Yasukawa, Maya; Chen, Kexin; Hu, Limei; Broaddus, Russell R.; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Spellman, Paul; Levine, Douglas A.; Mills, Gordon B.; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sood, Anil K.; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Chemotherapy response in the majority of patients with ovarian cancer remains unpredictable. OBJECTIVE To identify novel molecular markers for predicting chemotherapy response in patients with ovarian cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study of genomics and clinical data of high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases with genomic and clinical data made public between 2009 and 2014 via the Cancer Genome Atlas project. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Chemotherapy response (primary outcome) and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and platinum-free duration (secondary outcome). RESULTS In 512 patients with ovarian cancer with available whole-exome sequencing data, mutations from 8 members of the ADAMTS family (ADAMTS mutations) with an overall mutation rate of approximately 10.4% were associated with a significantly higher chemotherapy sensitivity (100% for ADAMTS-mutated vs 64% for ADAMTS wild-type cases; P < .001) and longer platinum-free duration (median platinum-free duration, 21.7 months for ADAMTS-mutated vs 10.1 months for ADAMTS wild-type cases; P = .001). Moreover, ADAMTS mutations were associated with significantly better OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54 [95% CI, 0.42–0.89]; P = .01 and median OS, 58.0 months for ADAMTS-mutated vs 41.3 months for ADAMTS wild-type cases) and PFS (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.38–0.70]; P < .001 and median PFS, 31.8 for ADAMTS-mutated vs 15.3 months for ADAMTS wild-type cases). After adjustment by BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, surgical stage, residual tumor, and patient age, ADAMTS mutations were significantly associated with better OS (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.32–0.87]; P = .01), PFS (HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.25–0.62]; P < .001), and platinum-free survival (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.28–0.73]; P = .001). ADAMTS-mutated cases exhibited a distinct mutation spectrum and were significantly associated with tumors with a higher genome-wide mutation rate than ADAMTS wild-type cases across the whole exome (median

  18. The role of germline mutations in the BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair genes in men ascertained for early-onset and/or familial prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maia, Sofia; Cardoso, Marta; Paulo, Paula; Pinheiro, Manuela; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Catarina; Pinto, Carla; Peixoto, Ana; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed worldwide and 5-10 % of all cases are estimated to be associated with inherited predisposition. Even though there is strong evidence that the genetic component is significant in PrCa, the genetic etiology of familial and early-onset disease is largely unknown. Although it has been suggested that men from families with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) and, more recently, with Lynch syndrome may have an increased risk for PrCa, the contribution of these syndromes to PrCa predisposition in families ascertained for early-onset and/or familial PrCa, independently of the presence of other cancers in the family, is uncertain. To quantify the contribution of genes associated with HBOC and Lynch syndromes to PrCa predisposition, we have tested for germline mutations 460 early-onset and/or familial PrCa patients. All patients were screened for the six mutations that are particularly common in Portugal and 38 of them were selected for complete sequencing of BRCA1/2 and/or MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Two patients were found to harbor the same MSH2 mutation and a third patient carried a Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation. None of the alterations were identified in 288 control subjects. Furthermore, we reviewed the 62 PrCa diagnoses in all HBOC (n = 161) and Lynch syndrome (n = 124) families previously diagnosed at our department, and found five other BRCA2 mutation carriers and two additional MSH2 mutation carriers. The clinicopathological characteristics of mutation carriers are in concordance with earlier data suggesting an aggressive PrCa phenotype and support the hypothesis that mutation carriers might benefit from targeted screening according to the gene mutated in the germline.

  19. Current management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Serrano-Rodríguez, L

    2015-05-01

    Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a common problem in daily clinical practice, and its management is still the subject of controversy. In contrast to symptomatic carotid disease, the main studies on surgical treatment of patients with ACS have shown only a modest benefit in the primary prevention of stroke. In addition, current medical treatment has drastically decreased the risk of stroke in patients with ACS. Selecting patients amenable to endovascular treatment and determining how and when to conduct the ultrasound follow-up of these patients are issues that still need resolving. This article analyzes two new studies underway that provide evidence for better management of ACS in daily clinical practice.

  20. Finnish Fanconi anemia mutations and hereditary predisposition to breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mantere, T; Haanpää, M; Hanenberg, H; Schleutker, J; Kallioniemi, A; Kähkönen, M; Parto, K; Avela, K; Aittomäki, K; von Koskull, H; Hartikainen, J M; Kosma, V-M; Laasanen, S-L; Mannermaa, A; Pylkäs, K; Winqvist, R

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in downstream Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway genes, BRCA2, PALB2, BRIP1 and RAD51C, explain part of the hereditary breast cancer susceptibility, but the contribution of other FA genes has remained questionable. Due to FA's rarity, the finding of recurrent deleterious FA mutations among breast cancer families is challenging. The use of founder populations, such as the Finns, could provide some advantage in this. Here, we have resolved complementation groups and causative mutations of five FA patients, representing the first mutation confirmed FA cases in Finland. These patients belonged to complementation groups FA-A (n = 3), FA-G (n = 1) and FA-I (n = 1). The prevalence of the six FA causing mutations was then studied in breast (n = 1840) and prostate (n = 565) cancer cohorts, and in matched controls (n = 1176 females, n = 469 males). All mutations were recurrent, but no significant association with cancer susceptibility was observed for any: the prevalence of FANCI c.2957_2969del and c.3041G>A mutations was even highest in healthy males (1.7%). This strengthens the exclusive role of downstream genes in cancer predisposition. From a clinical point of view, current results provide fundamental information of the mutations to be tested first in all suspected FA cases in Finland.

  1. Differences in toileting habits between children with chronic encopresis, asymptomatic siblings, and asymptomatic nonsiblings.

    PubMed

    Borowitz, S M; Cox, D J; Sutphen, J L

    1999-06-01

    No studies have compared toileting-specific behaviors of encopretic children with those of asymptomatic children and have controlled for environmental factors such as parental attitudes, parenting styles, and bathroom facilities. This study prospectively examined the toileting habits of 86 chronically encopretic children compared with those of 27 asymptomatic siblings and 35 asymptomatic nonsiblings. Although encopretic children experienced significantly more soiling than did controls, the total number of daily bowel movements passed in the toilet (+/-SD) was comparable in the three groups (.92 +/- .76 in encopretic children compared with 1.14 +/- .43 and 1.08 +/- .47 in siblings and nonsiblings, respectively). Encopretic children experienced pain with defecation more often than did controls. During the 14-day study period, encopretic children complained of pain on 2.75 +/- 4.03 days compared with .58 +/- 1.84 days among sibling controls and 2.31 +/- 3.21 days among nonsibling controls. The mean pain score in encopretic children was .76 +/- 1.00 compared with .05 +/- .15 and .26 +/- .38 among siblings and nonsiblings, respectively. All three groups of children sat on the toilet without parental prompting the same number of times each day. In summary, children with chronic encopresis do not seem to avoid toileting, and they exhibit toileting behaviors that are very similar to those of asymptomatic siblings as well as to those of nonsibling controls. PMID:10393070

  2. Coronary angiographic findings in asymptomatic systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tarek, El-Gohary; Yasser, Amin E; Gheita, Tamer

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess coronary arterial involvement in asymptomatic systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Fourteen female patients with SSc (five limited and nine diffuse) were recruited for this study. All patients fulfilled the following 1980 American College of Rheumatology criteria for classification of SSc Masi et al (Arthritis Rheum 23:581-590 1980). None of them had chest pain nor electrocardiogram (ECG) changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia. All patients underwent thorough history taking, full clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations, and basic screening for conventional atherosclerotic disease risk factors. ECG and coronary catheterization were done for all patients. We detected 19 coronary angiographic abnormalities in our cohort. Three out of nine diffuse SSc patients (33.33%) had ectasia of the coronary arteries, and all of them had slow flow but none in the limited type. One patient with limited SSc showed spasm. Three out of five patients with limited type (60%) had stenosis, one of them had uncontrolled hypertension, while none of the diffuse type had. Five patients (55.55%) of the diffuse type had tortuosity, while it was found in only two patients (40%) of the limited type. Three patients (33.3%) of the diffuse type had calcification of the coronaries, while it was seen in two patients (40%) of the limited type. Pathological involvement of coronary arteries in asymptomatic SSc patients is not uncommon but not paralleled by clinical symptomatology.

  3. Changes in the plasma proteome at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Julia; Poljak, Anne; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Gupta, Veer B.; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Raftery, Mark; Masters, Colin L.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Martins, Ralph N.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    The autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) is far less prevalent than late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), but enables well-informed prospective studies, since symptom onset is near certain and age of onset is predictable. Our aim was to discover plasma proteins associated with early AD pathology by investigating plasma protein changes at the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of ADAD. Eighty-one proteins were compared across asymptomatic mutation carriers (aMC, n = 15), symptomatic mutation carriers (sMC, n = 8) and related noncarriers (NC, n = 12). Proteins were also tested for associations with cognitive measures, brain amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism. Fewer changes were observed at the asymptomatic than symptomatic stage with seven and 16 proteins altered significantly in aMC and sMC, respectively. This included complement components C3, C5, C6, apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-I and M, histidine-rich glycoprotein, heparin cofactor II and attractin, which are involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and vascular health. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism differed only at the symptomatic stage, whereas changes in inflammation and vascular health were evident at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages. Due to increasing evidence supporting the usefulness of ADAD as a model for LOAD, these proteins warrant further investigation into their potential association with early stages of LOAD. PMID:27381087

  4. Personalized synthetic lethality induced by targeting RAD52 in leukemias identified by gene mutation and expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Cramer-Morales, Kimberly; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Scheibner, Kara; Padget, Michelle; Irvine, David A.; Sliwinski, Tomasz; Haas, Kimberly; Lee, Jaewoong; Geng, Huimin; Roy, Darshan; Slupianek, Artur; Rassool, Feyruz V.; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Childers, Wayne; Copland, Mhairi; Müschen, Markus; Civin, Curt I.

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination repair (HRR) protects cells from the lethal effect of spontaneous and therapy-induced DNA double-stand breaks. HRR usually depends on BRCA1/2-RAD51, and RAD52-RAD51 serves as back-up. To target HRR in tumor cells, a phenomenon called “synthetic lethality” was applied, which relies on the addiction of cancer cells to a single DNA repair pathway, whereas normal cells operate 2 or more mechanisms. Using mutagenesis and a peptide aptamer approach, we pinpointed phenylalanine 79 in RAD52 DNA binding domain I (RAD52-phenylalanine 79 [F79]) as a valid target to induce synthetic lethality in BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-deficient leukemias and carcinomas without affecting normal cells and tissues. Targeting RAD52-F79 disrupts the RAD52–DNA interaction, resulting in the accumulation of toxic DNA double-stand breaks in malignant cells, but not in normal counterparts. In addition, abrogation of RAD52–DNA interaction enhanced the antileukemia effect of already-approved drugs. BRCA-deficient status predisposing to RAD52-dependent synthetic lethality could be predicted by genetic abnormalities such as oncogenes BCR-ABL1 and PML-RAR, mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes, and gene expression profiles identifying leukemias displaying low levels of BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. We believe this work may initiate a personalized therapeutic approach in numerous patients with tumors displaying encoded and functional BRCA deficiency. PMID:23836560

  5. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  6. Wilson's disease in an adult asymptomatic patient: a potential role for modifying factors of copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Loudianos, Georgios; Incollu, Simona; Mameli, Eva; Lepori, Maria B

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Wilson's disease (WD) still remains a challenge since no single test has an accuracy of 100%. Molecular testing for ATP7B gene mutations can help reach the diagnosis when routine testing is equivocal. We herein report an asymptomatic WD patient diagnosed accidentally by genetic analysis. Th is case suggests that WD is a challenge even in particular contexts such as family screening. Genetic testing of ATP7B gene should be recommended in the family members of WD patients with minimal alterations of specific tests such as ceruloplasmin, and presence of steatosis or increased body mass index.

  7. Wilson's disease in an adult asymptomatic patient: a potential role for modifying factors of copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Loudianos, Georgios; Incollu, Simona; Mameli, Eva; Lepori, Maria B

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Wilson's disease (WD) still remains a challenge since no single test has an accuracy of 100%. Molecular testing for ATP7B gene mutations can help reach the diagnosis when routine testing is equivocal. We herein report an asymptomatic WD patient diagnosed accidentally by genetic analysis. Th is case suggests that WD is a challenge even in particular contexts such as family screening. Genetic testing of ATP7B gene should be recommended in the family members of WD patients with minimal alterations of specific tests such as ceruloplasmin, and presence of steatosis or increased body mass index. PMID:26752957

  8. Deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations in an urban population of Black women.

    PubMed

    Lynce, Filipa; Smith, Karen Lisa; Stein, Julie; DeMarco, Tiffani; Wang, Yiru; Wang, Hongkun; Fries, Melissa; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine

    2015-08-01

    Information on the prevalence of deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations in clinic-based populations of Black women is limited. In order to address this gap, we performed a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations, predictors of having a mutation, and acceptance of risk-reducing surgeries in Black women. In an urban unselected clinic-based population, we evaluated 211 self-identified Black women who underwent genetic counseling for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in 13.4% of the participants who received genetic testing. Younger age at diagnosis, higher BRCAPRO score, significant family history, and diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer were associated with identification of a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of the affected patients found to have a deleterious mutation, almost half underwent prophylactic measures. In our study population, 1 in 7 Black women who underwent genetic testing harbored a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation independent of age at diagnosis or family history.

  9. Identification of a Variety of Mutations in Cancer Predisposition Genes in Patients with Suspected Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yurgelun, Matthew B.; Allen, Brian; Kaldate, Rajesh R.; Bowles, Karla R.; Judkins, Thaddeus; Kaushik, Praveen; Roa, Benjamin B.; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Syngal, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Multigene panels are commercially available tools for hereditary cancer risk assessment that allow for next-generation sequencing of numerous genes in parallel. However, it is not clear if these panels offer advantages over traditional genetic testing. We investigated the number of cancer predisposition gene mutations identified by parallel sequencing in individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome. Methods We performed germline analysis with a 25-gene next-generation sequencing panel using DNA from 1260 individuals who underwent clinical genetic testing for Lynch syndrome from 2012 through 2013. All subjects had a history of Lynch syndrome-associated cancer and/or polyps. We classified all identified germline alterations for pathogenicity and calculated the frequencies of pathogenic mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS). We also analyzed data on patients’ personal and family history of cancer, including fulfillment of clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Results Of the 1260 subjects, 1112 met National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for Lynch syndrome testing (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 86%–90%). Multigene panel testing identified 114 probands with Lynch syndrome mutations (9.0%; 95% CI, 7.6%−10.8%) and 71 with mutations in other cancer predisposition genes (5.6%; 95% CI, 4.4%−7.1%). Fifteen individuals had mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2; 93% of these met the NCCN criteria for Lynch syndrome testing and 33% met NCCN criteria for BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis (P=.0017). An additional 9 individuals carried mutations in other genes linked to high lifetime risks of cancer (5 had mutations in APC, 3 had bi-allelic mutations in MUTYH, and 1 had a mutation in STK11); all of these patients met NCCN criteria for Lynch syndrome testing. Four hundred seventy-nine individuals had ≥1 VUS (38%; 95% CI, 35%–41%). Conclusions In individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome, multigene panel testing identified high

  10. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981

  11. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium

    PubMed Central

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895

  12. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

  13. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium.

    PubMed

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-06-26

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m(2) for the definition of a "giant left atrium".

  14. Evaluation of association methods for analysing modifiers of disease risk in carriers of high-risk mutations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Daniel R; Lee, Andrew; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2012-04-01

    There is considerable evidence indicating that disease risk in carriers of high-risk mutations (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2) varies by other genetic factors. Such mutations tend to be rare in the population and studies of genetic modifiers of risk have focused on sampling mutation carriers through clinical genetics centres. Genetic testing targets affected individuals from high-risk families, making ascertainment of mutation carriers non-random with respect to disease phenotype. Standard analytical methods can lead to biased estimates of associations. Methods proposed to address this problem include a weighted-cohort (WC) and retrospective likelihood (RL) approach. Their performance has not been evaluated systematically. We evaluate these methods by simulation and extend the RL to analysing associations of two diseases simultaneously (competing risks RL-CRRL). The standard cohort approach (Cox regression) yielded the most biased risk ratio (RR) estimates (relative bias-RB: -25% to -17%) and had the lowest power. The WC and RL approaches provided similar RR estimates, were least biased (RB: -2.6% to 2.5%), and had the lowest mean-squared errors. The RL method generally had more power than WC. When analysing associations with two diseases, ignoring a potential association with one disease leads to inflated type I errors for inferences with respect to the second disease and biased RR estimates. The CRRL generally gave unbiased RR estimates for both disease risks and had correct nominal type I errors. These methods are illustrated by analyses of genetic modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22714938

  15. DNA Methylome of Familial Breast Cancer Identifies Distinct Profiles Defined by Mutation Status

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, James M.; Cocciardi, Sibylle; Waddell, Nic; Johnstone, Cameron N.; Marsh, Anna; Henderson, Stephen; Simpson, Peter; da Silva, Leonard; Khanna, Kumkum; Lakhani, Sunil; Boshoff, Chris; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that epigenetic alterations occur frequently in sporadic breast carcinogenesis, but little is known about the epigenetic alterations associated with familial breast tumors. We performed genome-wide DNA-methylation profiling on familial breast cancers (n = 33) to identify patterns of methylation specific to the different mutation groups (BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAx) or intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer (basal, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-amplified, and normal-like). We used methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) on Affymetrix promoter chips to interrogate methylation profiles across 25,500 distinct transcripts. Using a support vector machine classification algorithm, we demonstrated that genome-wide methylation profiles predicted tumor mutation status with estimated error rates of 19% (BRCA1), 31% (BRCA2), and 36% (BRCAx) but did not accurately predict the intrinsic subtypes defined by gene expression. Furthermore, using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified a distinct subgroup of BRCAx tumors defined by methylation profiles. We validated these findings in the 33 tumors in the test set, as well as in an independent validation set of 47 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded familial breast tumors, by pyrosequencing and Epityper. Finally, gene-expression profiling and SNP CGH array previously performed on the same samples allowed full integration of methylation, gene-expression, and copy-number data sets, revealing frequent hypermethylation of genes that also displayed loss of heterozygosity, as well as of genes that show copy-number gains, providing a potential mechanism for expression dosage compensation. Together, these data show that methylation profiles for familial breast cancers are defined by the mutation status and are distinct from the intrinsic subtypes. PMID:20206335

  16. Recognizing BRCA gene mutation risk subsequent to breast cancer diagnosis in southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Vanstone, Meredith; Chow, Winsion; Lester, Laura; Ainsworth, Peter; Nisker, Jeff; Brackstone, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the population of women in southwestern Ontario who were diagnosed with potentially preventable BRCA mutation–related breast cancer. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Cancer Genetics Clinic of the London Regional Cancer Program in London, Ont. Participants Patients younger than 52 years of age who were referred to the London Regional Cancer Program Cancer Genetics Clinic between 1997 and 2007 for BRCA testing after being diagnosed with breast cancer (N = 1017). Main outcome measures The proportion of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations and the proportion of women who would have qualified, based on family cancer history, for referral for genetic counseling and testing before their breast cancer diagnoses. Results Among the 1017 women referred for BRCA testing, 63 women younger than 52 years of age who had been diagnosed with breast cancer were found, subsequent to this diagnosis, to have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations. Of these, 41 (65%) had family cancer histories that would have qualified them for genetic counseling and testing, according to provincial criteria, before their own breast cancer diagnoses. Of the 63 women, most (81%) had been referred for BRCA gene mutation testing by their oncologists or surgeons. Conclusion Our results suggest that the diagnosis of breast cancer could have been anticipated, and perhaps in some cases prevented, in up to two-thirds of high-risk women younger than 52 years of age in southwestern Ontario. If the high-risk status of these women had been recognized, they might have had the opportunity to choose genetic counseling, testing, more effective cancer surveillance, and potentially preventive options. The results of this study call for increased public and care provider awareness about hereditary breast cancer risk to promote women’s ability to choose to access genetic counseling. PMID:22734169

  17. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations of triple-negative breast cancer patients in Xinjiang multiple ethnic region of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer, early-onset breast cancer and bilateral breast cancer patients. There is still some controversy about whether this screening should be done in triple-negative breast cancers. Therefore, we evaluated the BRCA mutation prevalence in patients with triple-negative breast cancer in a multi-ethnic region of China. Methods A total 96 women who were diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer in the Xinjiang region of China were enrolled in this study. BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening was performed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (PCR-DHPLC) sequencing analysis. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results The prevalence of a BRCA1/2 germline mutation was about 25% (24/96) in the Xinjiang region of China. Among 35 selected cases with a family history and/or bilateral breast cancers, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 25.7% (9/35). Of the remaining 61 patients with unselected triple-negative breast cancer, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 24.6% (15/61), and all 15 individuals with these mutations were premenopausal patients. Conclusions These results suggest that premenopausal women with triple-negative breast cancer may be candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1/2 in the Xinjiang region of China, even in the absence of a family history or bilateral breast cancer. PMID:24961674

  18. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Adank, Muriel A; Hes, Frederik J; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; van den Tol, M Petrousjka; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oosterwijk, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2-gene may explain the occurrence of breast cancer in about 5% of non-BRCA1/2 families in the Netherlands. In the general population the CHEK2*1100delC mutation confers a slightly increased breast cancer risk, but in a familial breast cancer setting this risk is between 35-55% for first degree female carriers. Female breast cancer patients with the CHEK2*1100delC mutation are at increased risk of contralateral breast cancer and may have a less favourable prognosis. Female heterozygous CHEK2*1100delC mutation carriers are offered annual mammography and specialist breast surveillance between the ages of 35-60 years. Prospective research in CHEK2-positive families is essential in order to develop more specific treatment and screening strategies.

  19. Mutation analysis of the PALB2 gene in unselected pancreatic cancer patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Borecka, M; Zemankova, P; Vocka, M; Soucek, P; Soukupova, J; Kleiblova, P; Sevcik, J; Kleibl, Z; Janatova, M

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among common solid cancer diagnoses. It has been shown that up to 10% of PDAC cases have a familial component. Characterization of PDAC-susceptibility genes could reveal high-risk individuals and patients that may benefit from tailored therapy. Hereditary mutations in PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene has been shown to predispose, namely to PDAC and breast cancers; however, frequencies of mutations vary among distinct geographical populations. Using the combination of sequencing, high-resolution melting and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses, we screened the entire PALB2 gene in 152 unselected Czech PDAC patients. Truncating mutations were identified in three (2.0%) patients. Genotyping of found PALB2 variants in 1226 control samples revealed one carrier of PALB2 truncating variant (0.08%; P = 0.005). The mean age at PDAC diagnosis was significantly lower among PALB2 mutation carriers (51 years) than in non-carriers (63 years; P = 0.016). Only one patient carrying germline PALB2 mutation had a positive family breast cancer history. Our results indicate that hereditary PALB2 mutation represents clinically considerable genetic factor increasing PDAC susceptibility in our population and that analysis of PALB2 should be considered not only in PDAC patients with familial history of breast or pancreatic cancers but also in younger PDAC patients without family cancer history. PMID:27106063

  20. BRCA-associated ovarian cancer: from molecular genetics to risk management.

    PubMed

    Girolimetti, Giulia; Perrone, Anna Myriam; Santini, Donatella; Barbieri, Elena; Guerra, Flora; Ferrari, Simona; Zamagni, Claudio; De Iaco, Pierandrea; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Turchetti, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) mostly arises sporadically, but a fraction of cases are associated with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The presence of a BRCA mutation in OC patients has been suggested as a prognostic and predictive factor. In addition, the identification of asymptomatic carriers of such mutations offers an unprecedented opportunity for OC prevention. This review is aimed at exploring the current knowledge on epidemiological and molecular aspects of BRCA-associated OC predisposition, on pathology and clinical behavior of OC occurring in BRCA mutation carriers, and on the available options for managing asymptomatic carriers.

  1. BRCA-Associated Ovarian Cancer: From Molecular Genetics to Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Anna Myriam; Santini, Donatella; Ferrari, Simona; Zamagni, Claudio; De Iaco, Pierandrea

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) mostly arises sporadically, but a fraction of cases are associated with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The presence of a BRCA mutation in OC patients has been suggested as a prognostic and predictive factor. In addition, the identification of asymptomatic carriers of such mutations offers an unprecedented opportunity for OC prevention. This review is aimed at exploring the current knowledge on epidemiological and molecular aspects of BRCA-associated OC predisposition, on pathology and clinical behavior of OC occurring in BRCA mutation carriers, and on the available options for managing asymptomatic carriers. PMID:25136623

  2. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  3. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy.

  4. Germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene PTEN are rare in high-risk non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Frédéric; Labrie, Yvan; Ouellette, Geneviève; Beauparlant, Charles Joly; Bessette, Paul; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Laframboise, Rachel; Lépine, Jean; Lespérance, Bernard; Pichette, Roxane; Plante, Marie; Durocher, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Cowden syndrome is a disease associated with an increase in breast cancer susceptibility. Alleles in PTEN and other breast cancer susceptibility genes would be responsible for approximately 25% of the familial component of breast cancer risk, BRCA1 and BRCA2 being the two major genes responsible for this inherited risk. In order to evaluate the proportion of high-risk French Canadian non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families potentially harboring a PTEN germline mutation, the whole coding and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in a series of 98 breast cancer cases. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, our study led to the identification of four intronic variants. Further investigations were performed to analyze the effect of these variants, alone and/or in combination, on splicing and PTEN protein levels. Despite suggestive evidence emerging from in silico analyses, the presence of these intronic variants do not seem to alter RNA splicing or PTEN protein levels. In addition, as loss of PTEN or part of it has been reported, Western blot analysis has also been performed. No major deletion could be identified in our cohort. Therefore, assuming a Poisson distribution for the frequency of deleterious mutation in our cohort, if the frequency of such deleterious mutation was 2%, we would have had a 90% or greater chance of observing at least one such mutation. These results suggest that PTEN germline mutations are rare and are unlikely to account for a significant proportion of familial breast cancer cases in the French Canadian population.

  5. Development of a novel PTT assay for mutation detection in PALB2 large exons and PALB2 screening in medullary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poumpouridou, Nikoleta; Goutas, Nikolaos; Tsionou, Christina; Dimas, Kleanthi; Lianidou, Evi; Kroupis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2) emerges as the third breast cancer susceptibility gene due to its role in the same DNA repair pathway: homologous recombination. In most populations studied so far, PALB2 mutations are detected in 1-2% of BRCA negative female patients. PALB2 gene contains 13 exons; exons 4 and 5 consist 65% of the coding area. We developed a protein truncation test (PTT) for quick screening of truncating pathogenic mutations of these two large exons. Specific primers were de novo, in silico designed and the PTT-PCR products were translated in the presence of biotinylated lysine and detected colorimetrically. The assay was initially tested in 30 patients with hereditary breast cancer, negative for BRCA mutations and then, in 17 patients with the rare medullary breast cancer subtype. Small PALB2 exons were screened with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA) and the large DNA rearrangements with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Any alterations detected were verified by Sanger DNA Sequencing. The developed PTT methodology is highly specific for clinical significant mutations; positive control samples that produce truncated PALB2 peptides were correctly identified and the method was accurate when compared to DNA sequencing. We did not detect any deleterious PALB2 mutation in both groups of patients. HRMA and MLPA were also negative for all tested samples. However, our novel, fast and cost-effective PTT method for pathogenic mutation detection of the two large PALB2 exons can be applied in screening of a large number of breast cancer patients. PMID:26573693

  6. Ramifications of four concurrent thrombophilic mutations and one hypofibrinolytic mutation.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping; Aregawi, Dawit

    2004-10-01

    A kindred was examined in which the 48-year-old white female proband with three deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary emboli events had four thrombophilic and one hypofibrinolytic mutations, and in which her 14-year-old asymptomatic daughter had four thrombophilic mutations. The proband was heterozygous for the G1691A factor V Leiden, G20210A prothrombin, and platelet glycoprotein IIIa PL A1/A2 mutations, had high factor VIII (221%), and was homozygous for the 4G4G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene mutation, with high plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (23.7 U/mL). Her 14-year-old daughter was homozygous for the G1691A factor V Leiden and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa PL A2/A2 mutations, compound heterozygous for the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations, and heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin mutation, a combination with an estimated likelihood of 1.6 x 10(-7). In 247 white healthy controls, there was no V Leiden homozygosity and no V Leiden-prothrombin gene compound heterozygosity. Heterozygosity for the V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutations was 3.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Homozygosity for the platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa PL A2A2, PAI-1 gene 4G4G, and C677T MTHFR mutations was 3.2%, 22.7%, and 12%, respectively. The proband will receive anticoagulation therapy for life. Beyond aspirin, avoidance of exogenous estrogens, and enoxaparin prophylaxis during pregnancy, it is not known whether the proband's daughter should have lifelong anticoagulation therapy, or only after her first thrombotic event. PMID:15497023

  7. BRCA-mutated Invasive Breast Carcinomas: Immunohistochemical Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor II mRNA-binding Protein (IMP3), Cytokeratin 8/18, and Cytokeratin 14.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Lai, Jin-Ping; Gordon, Ora K; Pradhan, Dinesh; Bose, Shikha; Dadmanesh, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP3), CK8/18, and CK14 in BRCA mutated and sporadic invasive breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 was performed on 39 cases of invasive breast carcinomas with BRCA mutation (24 BRCA1, 14 BRCA2, and 1 dual BRCA1/BRCA2) and 54 cases of sporadic invasive breast carcinomas. The relationship between the IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 and the tumor grade and molecular phenotypes were analyzed. IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 positivity were present in 20 (51%), 22 (56%), and 14 (36%) of 39 BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas, and 11 (20%), 53 (98%), and 24 (44%) of 54 sporadic breast carcinomas respectively. The rates of IMP3 expression and absence of CK8/18 (44% versus 2%) in BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas was significantly higher than the sporadic breast carcinomas (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed for CK14 among the two groups (p = 0.408). No significant difference was observed among BRCA1-related and BRCA2-related breast carcinomas in the immunoprofile for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14. No significant correlation was identified between the expression of IMP3 and CK8/18 and the tumor grade in both BRCA-mutated and sporadic breast carcinomas (p > 0.05). In cases with luminal A and B phenotypes, the rates of expression of IMP3 and loss of CK8/18 were significantly higher in BRCA-mutated as compared to sporadic breast carcinoma (p < 0.001). In cases with basal-like phenotype, the absence of CK8/18 expression was significantly higher in BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas (54% versus 0%, p = 0.001), while no difference was observed for IMP3 expression (p = 0.435). Regardless of mutation type, histologic grade, or molecular phenotype, the absence of CK8/18 expression and presence of IMP3 expression are seen at much higher rate in BRCA mutated breast carcinomas.

  8. Do mutator mutations fuel tumorigenesis?

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward J; Prindle, Marc J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-12-01

    The mutator phenotype hypothesis proposes that the mutation rate of normal cells is insufficient to account for the large number of mutations found in human cancers. Consequently, human tumors exhibit an elevated mutation rate that increases the likelihood of a tumor acquiring advantageous mutations. The hypothesis predicts that tumors are composed of cells harboring hundreds of thousands of mutations, as opposed to a small number of specific driver mutations, and that malignant cells within a tumor therefore constitute a highly heterogeneous population. As a result, drugs targeting specific mutated driver genes or even pathways of mutated driver genes will have only limited anticancer potential. In addition, because the tumor is composed of such a diverse cell population, tumor cells harboring drug-resistant mutations will exist prior to the administration of any chemotherapeutic agent. We present recent evidence in support of the mutator phenotype hypothesis, major arguments against this concept, and discuss the clinical consequences of tumor evolution fueled by an elevated mutation rate. We also consider the therapeutic possibility of altering the rate of mutation accumulation. Most significantly, we contend that there is a need to fundamentally reconsider current approaches to personalized cancer therapy. We propose that targeting cellular pathways that alter the rate of mutation accumulation in tumors will ultimately prove more effective than attempting to identify and target mutant driver genes or driver pathways.

  9. Asymptomatic carriage of group A streptococcus is associated with elimination of capsule production.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Jewell, Brittany E; Olsen, Randall J; Shelburne, Samuel A; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2014-09-01

    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but despite decades of study, the underlying molecular contributors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a group A streptococcus carriage strain contains a frameshift mutation in the hasA gene resulting in loss of hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. This mutation was repaired by allelic replacement, resulting in restoration of capsule production in the isogenic derivative strain. The "repaired" isogenic strain was significantly more virulent than the carriage strain in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis and had enhanced growth ex vivo in human blood. Importantly, the repaired isogenic strain colonized the mouse oropharynx with significantly greater bacterial burden and had significantly reduced ability to internalize into cultured epithelial cells than the acapsular carriage strain. We conducted full-genome sequencing of 81 strains cultured serially from 19 epidemiologically unrelated human subjects and discovered the common theme that mutations negatively affecting capsule biosynthesis arise in vivo in the has operon. The significantly decreased capsule production is a key factor contributing to the molecular détente between pathogen and host. Our discoveries suggest a general model for bacterial pathogens in which mutations that downregulate or ablate virulence factor production contribute to carriage.

  10. Asymptomatic Carriage of Group A Streptococcus Is Associated with Elimination of Capsule Production

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Brittany E.; Olsen, Randall J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B.; Musser, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans commonly carry pathogenic bacteria asymptomatically, but despite decades of study, the underlying molecular contributors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a group A streptococcus carriage strain contains a frameshift mutation in the hasA gene resulting in loss of hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. This mutation was repaired by allelic replacement, resulting in restoration of capsule production in the isogenic derivative strain. The “repaired” isogenic strain was significantly more virulent than the carriage strain in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis and had enhanced growth ex vivo in human blood. Importantly, the repaired isogenic strain colonized the mouse oropharynx with significantly greater bacterial burden and had significantly reduced ability to internalize into cultured epithelial cells than the acapsular carriage strain. We conducted full-genome sequencing of 81 strains cultured serially from 19 epidemiologically unrelated human subjects and discovered the common theme that mutations negatively affecting capsule biosynthesis arise in vivo in the has operon. The significantly decreased capsule production is a key factor contributing to the molecular détente between pathogen and host. Our discoveries suggest a general model for bacterial pathogens in which mutations that downregulate or ablate virulence factor production contribute to carriage. PMID:25024363

  11. Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia following cold provocation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.

    1987-09-01

    Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes.

  12. Brain glucose metabolism in adults with ataxia-telangiectasia and their asymptomatic relatives.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Margus, Brad; Crawford, Thomas O

    2014-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a recessive genetic disorder (ATM is the mutated gene) of childhood with severe motor impairments and whereas homozygotes manifest the disorder, heterozygotes are asymptomatic. Structural brain imaging and post-mortem studies in individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia have reported cerebellar atrophy; but abnormalities of motor control characteristic of extrapyramidal dysfunction suggest impairment of broader motor networks. Here, we investigated possible dysfunction in other brain areas in individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia and tested for brain changes in asymptomatic relatives to assess if heterozygocity affects brain function. We used positron emission tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (quantified as µmol/100 g/min), which serves as a marker of brain function, in 10 adults with ataxia-telangiectasia, 19 non-affected adult relatives (12 siblings, seven parents) and 29 age-matched healthy controls. Statistical parametric mapping and region of interest analyses were used to compare individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia, asymptomatic relatives, and unrelated controls. We found that participants with ataxia-telangiectasia had lower metabolism in cerebellar hemispheres (14%, P < 0.001), anterior vermis (40%, P < 0.001) and fusiform gyrus (20%, P < 0.001) compared with controls or siblings, and lower metabolism in hippocampus (12%, P = 0.05) compared with controls, and showed significant intersubject variability (decreases in vermis ranged from 18% to 60%). Participants with ataxia-telangiectasia also had higher metabolism in globus pallidus (16%, P = 0.05), which correlated negatively with motor performance. Asymptomatic relatives had lower metabolism in anterior vermis (12%; P = 0.01) and hippocampus (19%; P = 0.002) than controls. Our results indicate that, in addition to the expected decrease in cerebellar metabolism, participants with ataxia-telangiectasia had widespread changes in metabolic

  13. Brain glucose metabolism in adults with ataxia-telangiectasia and their asymptomatic relatives.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Margus, Brad; Crawford, Thomas O

    2014-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a recessive genetic disorder (ATM is the mutated gene) of childhood with severe motor impairments and whereas homozygotes manifest the disorder, heterozygotes are asymptomatic. Structural brain imaging and post-mortem studies in individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia have reported cerebellar atrophy; but abnormalities of motor control characteristic of extrapyramidal dysfunction suggest impairment of broader motor networks. Here, we investigated possible dysfunction in other brain areas in individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia and tested for brain changes in asymptomatic relatives to assess if heterozygocity affects brain function. We used positron emission tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (quantified as µmol/100 g/min), which serves as a marker of brain function, in 10 adults with ataxia-telangiectasia, 19 non-affected adult relatives (12 siblings, seven parents) and 29 age-matched healthy controls. Statistical parametric mapping and region of interest analyses were used to compare individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia, asymptomatic relatives, and unrelated controls. We found that participants with ataxia-telangiectasia had lower metabolism in cerebellar hemispheres (14%, P < 0.001), anterior vermis (40%, P < 0.001) and fusiform gyrus (20%, P < 0.001) compared with controls or siblings, and lower metabolism in hippocampus (12%, P = 0.05) compared with controls, and showed significant intersubject variability (decreases in vermis ranged from 18% to 60%). Participants with ataxia-telangiectasia also had higher metabolism in globus pallidus (16%, P = 0.05), which correlated negatively with motor performance. Asymptomatic relatives had lower metabolism in anterior vermis (12%; P = 0.01) and hippocampus (19%; P = 0.002) than controls. Our results indicate that, in addition to the expected decrease in cerebellar metabolism, participants with ataxia-telangiectasia had widespread changes in metabolic

  14. RANKL/RANK control Brca1 mutation-driven mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Sigl, Verena; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo; Joshi, Purna A; Kavirayani, Anoop; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Novatchkova, Maria; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Schramek, Daniel; Edokobi, Nnamdi; Hersl, Jerome; Sampson, Aishia; Odai-Afotey, Ashley; Lazaro, Conxi; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Pujana, Miguel A; Cimba, For; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Cruickshank, Jennifer; Berman, Hal; Sarao, Renu; Ticevic, Melita; Uribesalgo, Iris; Tortola, Luigi; Rao, Shuan; Tan, Yen; Pfeiler, Georg; Lee, Eva Yhp; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Kenner, Lukas; Popper, Helmuth; Singer, Christian; Khokha, Rama; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic inactivation of the key osteoclast differentiation factor RANK in the mammary epithelium markedly delayed onset, reduced incidence, and attenuated progression of Brca1;p53 mutation-driven mammary cancer. Long-term pharmacological inhibition of the RANK ligand RANKL in mice abolished the occurrence of Brca1 mutation-driven pre-neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, genetic inactivation of Rank or RANKL/RANK blockade impaired proliferation and expansion of both murine Brca1;p53 mutant mammary stem cells and mammary progenitors from human BRCA1 mutation carriers. In addition, genome variations within the RANK locus were significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 mutations. Thus, RANKL/RANK control progenitor cell expansion and tumorigenesis in inherited breast cancer. These results present a viable strategy for the possible prevention of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutant patients. PMID:27241552

  15. RANKL/RANK control Brca1 mutation-driven mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Sigl, Verena; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo; Joshi, Purna A; Kavirayani, Anoop; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Novatchkova, Maria; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Schramek, Daniel; Edokobi, Nnamdi; Hersl, Jerome; Sampson, Aishia; Odai-Afotey, Ashley; Lazaro, Conxi; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Pujana, Miguel A; Cimba, For; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Cruickshank, Jennifer; Berman, Hal; Sarao, Renu; Ticevic, Melita; Uribesalgo, Iris; Tortola, Luigi; Rao, Shuan; Tan, Yen; Pfeiler, Georg; Lee, Eva Yhp; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Kenner, Lukas; Popper, Helmuth; Singer, Christian; Khokha, Rama; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic inactivation of the key osteoclast differentiation factor RANK in the mammary epithelium markedly delayed onset, reduced incidence, and attenuated progression of Brca1;p53 mutation-driven mammary cancer. Long-term pharmacological inhibition of the RANK ligand RANKL in mice abolished the occurrence of Brca1 mutation-driven pre-neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, genetic inactivation of Rank or RANKL/RANK blockade impaired proliferation and expansion of both murine Brca1;p53 mutant mammary stem cells and mammary progenitors from human BRCA1 mutation carriers. In addition, genome variations within the RANK locus were significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 mutations. Thus, RANKL/RANK control progenitor cell expansion and tumorigenesis in inherited breast cancer. These results present a viable strategy for the possible prevention of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutant patients.

  16. Mutational hotspots in the TP53 gene and, possibly, other tumor suppressors evolve by positive selection

    PubMed Central

    Glazko, Galina V; Babenko, Vladimir N; Koonin, Eugene V; Rogozin, Igor B

    2006-01-01

    Background The mutation spectra of the TP53 gene and other tumor suppressors contain multiple hotspots, i.e., sites of non-random, frequent mutation in tumors and/or the germline. The origin of the hotspots remains unclear, the general view being that they represent highly mutable nucleotide contexts which likely reflect effects of different endogenous and exogenous factors shaping the mutation process in specific tissues. The origin of hotspots is of major importance because it has been suggested that mutable contexts could be used to infer mechanisms of mutagenesis contributing to tumorigenesis. Results Here we apply three independent tests, accounting for non-uniform base compositions in synonymous and non-synonymous sites, to test whether the hotspots emerge via selection or due to mutational bias. All three tests consistently indicate that the hotspots in the TP53 gene evolve, primarily, via positive selection. The results were robust to the elimination of the highly mutable CpG dinucleotides. By contrast, only one, the least conservative test reveals the signature of positive selection in BRCA1, BRCA2, and p16. Elucidation of the origin of the hotspots in these genes requires more data on somatic mutations in tumors. Conclusion The results of this analysis seem to indicate that positive selection for gain-of-function in tumor suppressor genes is an important aspect of tumorigenesis, blurring the distinction between tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Sandor Pongor, Christopher Lee and Mikhail Blagosklonny. PMID:16542006

  17. Detection of novel germline mutations for breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 families.

    PubMed

    Aloraifi, Fatima; McDevitt, Trudi; Martiniano, Rui; McGreevy, Jonah; McLaughlin, Russell; Egan, Chris M; Cody, Nuala; Meany, Marie; Kenny, Elaine; Green, Andrew J; Bradley, Daniel G; Geraghty, James G; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-09-01

    The identification of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 enhanced clinicians' ability to select high-risk individuals for aggressive surveillance and prevention, and led to the development of targeted therapies. However, BRCA1/2 mutations account for only 25% of familial breast cancer cases. To systematically identify rare, probably pathogenic variants in familial cases of breast cancer without BRCA1/2 mutations, we developed a list of 312 genes, and performed targeted DNA enrichment coupled to multiplex next-generation sequencing on 104 'BRCAx' patients and 101 geographically matched controls in Ireland. As expected, this strategy allowed us to identify mutations in several well-known high-susceptibility and moderate-susceptibility genes, including ATM (~ 5%), RAD50 (~ 3%), CHEK2 (~ 2%), TP53 (~ 1%), PALB2 (~ 1%), and MRE11A (~ 1%). However, we also identified novel pathogenic variants in 30 other genes, which, when taken together, potentially explain the etiology of the missing heritability in up to 35% of BRCAx patients. These included novel potential pathogenic mutations in MAP3K1, CASP8, RAD51B, ZNF217, CDKN2B-AS1, and ERBB2, including a splice site mutation, which we predict would generate a constitutively active HER2 protein. Taken together, this work extends our understanding of the genetics of familial breast cancer, and supports the need to implement hereditary multigene panel testing to more appropriately orientate clinical management. PMID:26094658

  18. Asymptomatic encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-5

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Allan Jürgen; Cosenza, Mariana; da Costa, Marcio Carvalho; Médici, Kerlei Cristina; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV)-5 infected calves can develop encephalitis and remain asymptomatic. Seven calves were infected intranasally and monitored for 30 days. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was performed from the onset of neurological signs. Multiple sections of brain and the trigeminal ganglion were submitted to histopathology. Virus detection (PCR and isolation) was performed on CSF and tissues. Four calves developed signs of neurologic disease and died. Three calves remained asymptomatic and were euthanized 30 days post-infection. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear pleocytosis occurred in symptomatic and asymptomatic calves. BoHV-5 was isolated and viral DNA was detected in multiple areas of the encephalon of all calves. The viral DNA was detected in the CSF of 2 calves showing neurological signs. Histologically, inflammation was noted in the brain of all calves and confirmed that the encephalitis caused by BoHV-5 may be mild and asymptomatic. PMID:22654135

  19. Neuropsychological abnormalities in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I

    1993-01-01

    Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104

  20. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Sowy, Stanley; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Soares, Tânia Cristina Benetti; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to Bartonella clarridgeiae has been reported only on the basis of antibody detection. We report for the first time an asymptomatic human blood donor infected with B. clarridgeiae, as documented by enrichment blood culture, PCR, and DNA sequencing.

  1. [Asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet].

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Kalawski, Ryszard; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We presented a case of asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet. The tumour was diagnosed accidentally during rutine transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography. It was resected and the septal leaflet repaired during surgery.

  2. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  3. Neuron-Specific Enolase Is Elevated in Asymptomatic Carriers of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Kenneth M.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Lee, Jeong Goo; Da Rosa, Arlon Bastos; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Chicani, Filipe; Moraes-Filho, Milton; Sebag, Jerry; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a biomarker for neuronal stress. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC). These RGCs and their axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head may show subclinical pathology in unaffected mutation carriers, or undergo cell death in affected patients. We hypothesize that increased levels of blood NSE may characterize LHON carriers as a biomarker of ongoing RGC stress. Methods. Serum was obtained from 74 members of a Brazilian pedigree with LHON carrying the homoplasmic 11778/ND4 mitochondrial DNA mutation. Classified by symptoms and psychophysical metrics, 46/74 patients were unaffected mutation “carriers,” 14/74 were “affected,” and 14/74 were “off-pedigree” controls. Serum NSE levels were determined by ELISA specific for the γ subunit of NSE. Results. Serum NSE concentrations in carriers (27.17 ± 39.82 μg/L) were significantly higher than affected (5.66 ± 4.19 μg/L; P = 0.050) and off-pedigree controls (6.20 ± 2.35 μg/L; P = 0.047). Of the 14/46 (30.4 %) carriers with significantly elevated NSE levels (mean = 75.8 ± 42.3 μg/L), 9/14 (64.3%) were male. Furthermore, NSE levels were nearly three times greater in asymptomatic male carriers (40.65 ± 51.21 μg/L) than in asymptomatic female carriers (15.85 ± 22.27 μg/L; P = 0.034). Conclusions. Serum NSE levels are higher in LHON carriers compared with affected and off-pedigree individuals. A subgroup of mostly male carriers had significantly elevated serum NSE levels. Thus, male carriers are at higher risk for LHON-related neuronal stress. PMID:22893673

  4. Novel α-spectrin mutation in trans with α-spectrin causing severe neonatal jaundice from hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Christensen, Robert D; Prchal, Josef T; Yaish, Hassan M; Agarwal, Archana M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a neonate with severe jaundice but a negative family history. Spherocytes were present and suspected hereditary spherocytosis was confirmed by osmotic fragility and eosin-5-maleimide erythrocyte staining. We found he was a compound heterozygote for two pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding α-spectrin: a previously reported α(LEPRA) inherited from his asymptomatic mother, and a novel α-spectrin mutation in intron 45 +1 disrupting the consensus splice site, from his asymptomatic father. PMID:25277063

  5. CDH1 germline mutations and hereditary lobular breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Corso, Giovanni; Intra, Mattia; Trentin, Chiara; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-04-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated of CDH1 germline mutations (that encodes for the E-cadherin protein), and lobular breast cancer is the second most frequent type of neoplasia. Recently, novel E-cadherin constitutional alterations have been identified in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast carcinoma without evidence of diffuse gastric tumors and in absence of BRCA1/2 mutations. This first evidence opens novel questions about the inherited correlation between diffuse gastric and lobular breast cancers. In this brief review we revise the literature data about the CDH1 mutation frequency affecting exclusively lobular breast cancer, providing clinical recommendation for asymptomatic mutation carriers.

  6. Effect of BRCA germline mutations on breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Baretta, Zora; Mocellin, Simone; Goldin, Elena; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Huo, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The contribution of BRCA germline mutational status to breast cancer patients’ prognosis is unclear. We aimed to systematically review and perform meta-analysis of the available evidence of effects of BRCA germline mutations on multiple survival outcomes of breast cancer patients as a whole and in specific subgroups of interest, including those with triple negative breast cancer, those with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, and patients with stage I–III disease. Methods: Sixty studies met all inclusion criteria and were considered for this meta-analysis. These studies involved 105,220 breast cancer patients, whose 3588 (3.4%) were BRCA mutations carriers. The associations between BRCA genes mutational status and overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were evaluated using random-effect models. Results: BRCA1 mutation carriers have worse OS than BRCA-negative/sporadic cases (hazard ratio, HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.52) and worse BCSS than sporadic/BRCA-negative cases among patients with stage I–III breast cancer (HR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01–2.07). BRCA2 mutation carriers have worse BCSS than sporadic/BRCA-negative cases (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03–1.62), although they have similar OS. Among triple negative breast cancer, BRCA1/2 mutations carriers had better OS than BRCA-negative counterpart (HR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26–0.92). Among Ashkenazi Jewish women, BRCA1/2 mutations carriers presented higher risk of death from breast cancer (HR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.05–1.97) and of distant metastases (HR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.05–3.16) than sporadic/BRCA-negative patients. Conclusion: Our results support the evaluation of BRCA mutational status in patients with high risk of harboring BRCA germline mutations to better define the prognosis of breast cancer in these patients. PMID:27749552

  7. A previously unknown mutation in the pyruvate kinase gene (PKLR) identified from a neonate with severe jaundice.

    PubMed

    Yaish, Hassan M; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M; Siddiqui, Abdul H; Christensen, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    We report a neonate with early and severe hemolytic jaundice and low erythrocyte pyruvate kinase enzymatic activity (<2 U/g hemoglobin, reference interval 9-22). We found her asymptomatic mother to be heterozygous for a novel PKLR mutation (c.1573delT) with an erythrocyte PK activity of 6.2 U/g hemoglobin. Her asymptomatic father was heterozygous for the common Northern European PKLR mutation (c.1529A) with an erythrocyte PK activity of 3.6 U/g. The neonate was a compound heterozygote with both mutations, but with no other mutations identified by sequencing a panel of 27 genes involved in sever