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Sample records for asymptomatic brca2 mutation

  1. Chronic Pancreatitis-Like Change in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Meir; Tseng, Jennifer F; Wong, Daniel; Tung, Nadine; Eskander, Mariam F; Berzin, Tyler M; Pleskow, Douglas K; Sawhney, Mandeep S

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions can appear as chronic pancreatitis-like changes on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The aim of our study was to determine if BRCA2 mutation carriers were more likely than noncarriers to demonstrate chronic pancreatitis-like changes on EUS. Patients with BRCA2 mutations referred for EUS were identified (cases) from an endoscopy database. Controls were matched with cases in a 2:1 ratio for sex, date EUS was performed, endoscopist, and echoendoscope. Data were extracted from medical records, EUS reports, and EUS images. Rosemont classification was used to categorize chronic pancreatitis-like changes. During the study period, 37 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 92 controls underwent EUS. Compared with controls, BRCA2 mutation carriers had a higher prevalence of solid pancreas lesions (16.2% vs 1.08%; P = 0.005), pancreatic cysts (21.6% vs 6.1%; P = 0.01), Rosemont "consistent with chronic pancreatitis" definition changes (13.5% vs 1%; P = 0.002), and Rosemont "suggestive of chronic pancreatitis" definition changes (16.2% vs 2.1%; P = 0.003). After adjusting for age, alcohol use, and smoking, BRCA2 mutation carriers were almost 25 times more likely to demonstrate chronic pancreatitis-like changes. Chronic pancreatitis-like changes, along with solid and cystic pancreatic lesions, were significantly more common in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in noncarriers.

  2. Clinical outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma associated with BRCA-2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ojas; Leung, Keith; Ledbetter, Leslie; Kaley, Kristin; Rodriguez, Teresa; Garcon, Marie C; Saif, Muhammad W

    2015-02-01

    Patients with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 germ line mutations are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). In particular, the BRCA-2 mutation has been associated with a relative risk of developing PAC of 3.51. The BRCA-2 protein is involved in repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Recent reports have suggested that in the setting of impaired DNA repair, chemotherapeutic agents that induce DNA damage, such as platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (platins) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitors), have improved efficacy. However, because of the relative rarity of BRCA-related PAC, studies evaluating such agents in this setting are scarce. Patients with a known BRCA-2 mutation and PAC were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients with PAC and BRCA-2 mutation were identified. Four patients (40%) were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Seven patients (70%) received platinum agents, two (20%) received mitomycin-C, one (10%) received a PARP inhibitor, and seven (70%) received a topoisomerase-I inhibitor. Overall, chemotherapy was well tolerated with expected side effects. Patients with a BRCA-2 mutation and PAC represent a group with a unique biology underlying their cancer. Chemotherapies such as platinum derivatives, mitomycin-C, topoisomerase-I inhibitors, and PARP inhibitors targeting DNA require further investigation in this population. Genetic testing may guide therapy in the future.

  3. Presymptomatic breast cancer in Egypt: role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes mutations detection.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Safinaz S; Hafez, Elsayed E; Hashishe, Mervat M

    2010-06-25

    Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases affecting women. Inherited susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are considered in breast, ovarian and other common cancers etiology. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified that confer a high degree of breast cancer risk. Our study was performed to identify germline mutations in some exons of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer in females. This study was applied on Egyptian healthy females who first degree relatives to those, with or without a family history, infected with breast cancer. Sixty breast cancer patients, derived from 60 families, were selected for molecular genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The study also included 120 healthy first degree female relatives of the patients, either sisters and/or daughters, for early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer mutation carriers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of all the studied subjects. Universal primers were used to amplify four regions of the BRCA1 gene (exons 2,8,13 and 22) and one region (exon 9) of BRCA2 gene using specific PCR. The polymerase chain reaction was carried out. Single strand conformation polymorphism assay and heteroduplex analysis were used to screen for mutations in the studied exons. In addition, DNA sequencing of the normal and mutated exons were performed. Mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were detected in 86.7% of the families. Current study indicates that 60% of these families were attributable to BRCA1 mutations, while 26.7% of them were attributable to BRCA2 mutations. Results showed that four mutations were detected in the BRCA1 gene, while one mutation was detected in the BRCA2 gene. Asymptomatic relatives, 80 (67%) out of total 120, were mutation carriers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer. BRCA mutations were found in individuals with and without family history.

  4. Characterization of BRCA2 Mutation in a Series of Functional Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    9 Appendices .................................................................................... 10 Abstract Mutations in the BRCA2 gene account for...approximately 20% of all hereditary breast cancer. Many individuals undergo expensive clinical testing for mutations in the BRCA2 gene in order to...BRCA2 breast and ovarian cancer predisposition gene was identified in 1995. Mutations in the gene account for approximately 20% of all hereditary breast

  5. Rare germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with early-onset prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Agalliu, I; Karlins, E; Kwon, E M; Iwasaki, L M; Diamond, A; Ostrander, E A; Stanford, J L

    2007-09-17

    Studies of families who segregate BRCA2 mutations have found that men who carry disease-associated mutations have an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly early-onset disease. A study of sporadic prostate cancer in the UK reported a prevalence of 2.3% for protein-truncating BRCA2 mutations among patients diagnosed at ages < or =55 years, highlighting the potential importance of this gene in prostate cancer susceptibility. To examine the role of protein-truncating BRCA2 mutations in relation to early-onset prostate cancer in a US population, 290 population-based patients from King County, Washington, diagnosed at ages <55 years were screened for germline BRCA2 mutations. The coding regions, intron-exon boundaries, and potential regulatory elements of the BRCA2 gene were sequenced. Two distinct protein-truncating BRCA2 mutations were identified in exon 11 in two patients. Both cases were Caucasian, yielding a mutation prevalence of 0.78% (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.09-2.81%) and a relative risk (RR) of 7.8 (95%CI 1.8-9.4) for early-onset prostate cancer in white men carrying a protein-truncating BRCA2 mutation. Results suggest that protein-truncating BRCA2 mutations confer an elevated RR of early-onset prostate cancer. However, we estimate that <1% of early-onset prostate cancers in the general US Caucasian population can be attributed to these rare disease-associated BRCA2 mutations.

  6. Effects of BRCA2 cis-regulation in normal breast and cancer risk amongst BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cis-acting regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at specific loci may modulate penetrance of germline mutations at the same loci by introducing different levels of expression of the wild-type allele. We have previously reported that BRCA2 shows differential allelic expression and we hypothesize that the known variable penetrance of BRCA2 mutations might be associated with this mechanism. Methods We combined haplotype analysis and differential allelic expression of BRCA2 in breast tissue to identify expression haplotypes and candidate cis-regulatory variants. These candidate variants underwent selection based on in silico predictions for regulatory potential and disruption of transcription factor binding, and were functionally analyzed in vitro and in vivo in normal and breast cancer cell lines. SNPs tagging the expression haplotypes were correlated with the total expression of several genes in breast tissue measured by Taqman and microarray technologies. The effect of the expression haplotypes on breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers was investigated in 2,754 carriers. Results We identified common haplotypes associated with differences in the levels of BRCA2 expression in human breast cells. We characterized three cis-regulatory SNPs located at the promoter and two intronic regulatory elements which affect the binding of the transcription factors C/EBPα, HMGA1, D-binding protein (DBP) and ZF5. We showed that the expression haplotypes also correlated with changes in the expression of other genes in normal breast. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence that the minor allele of SNP rs4942440, which is associated with higher BRCA2 expression, is also associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.048). Conclusions Our work provides further insights into the role of cis-regulatory variation in the penetrance of disease-causing mutations

  7. A comprehensive analysis of BRCA2 gene: focus on mechanistic aspects of its functions, spectrum of deleterious mutations, and therapeutic strategies targeting BRCA2-deficient tumors.

    PubMed

    Shailani, Anjali; Kaur, Raman Preet; Munshi, Anjana

    2018-01-31

    BRCA2is the main susceptibility gene known to be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. It plays an important role in maintaining the genome stability by homologous recombination through DNA double-strand breaks repairing, by interacting with various other proteins including RAD51, DSS1, RPA, MRE11, PALB2, and p53. BRCA2-deficient cells show the abnormalities of chromosome number. BRCA2 is also found to be involved in centrosome duplication specifically in the metaphase to anaphase transition. Inactivation or depletion of BRCA2 leads to centrosome amplification that results in unequal separation of chromosomes. BRCA2 localizes with central spindle and midbody during telophase and cytokinesis. Inactivation or depletion of BRCA2 leads to multinucleation of cell. Around 2000 mutations have been reported in BRCA2 gene. BRCA2-deficient tumors are being taking into consideration for targeted cancer therapy by using different inhibitors like poly ADP-ribose polymerase and thymidylate synthase. The present review focusses on the role of BRCA2 in various critical cellular processes based on the mechanistic approaches. Mutations reported in the BRCA2 gene in various ethnic groups till date have also been compiled with an insight into the functional aspects of these alterations. The therapeutic strategies for targeting BRCA2-deficient tumors have also been targeted.

  8. Implications of High Rates of Metastatic Prostate Cancer in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Gleicher, Stephanie; Kauffman, Eric C.; Kotula, Leszek; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Vourganti, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with germline BRCA2 gene mutations (BRCA2mut) have more aggressive prostate cancer. Analysis of all reported germline BRCA2mut prostate cancer cases allows better understanding of the clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes of these men. METHODS A systematic review was performed with the MEDLINE database to capture articles evaluating clinicopathologic characteristics of men with BRCA2mut associated prostate cancer. Inclusion criteria were at least five subjects, confirmation of BRCA2mut status, and data for at least 2 clinical parameters of disease. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes data. Chi-squared tests were used to compare disease features among men undergoing formal versus ad hoc screening, as well as an age of diagnosis less than versus greater than 65 years. Rates of metastatic disease among BRCA2mut cases were compared to rates among non-carrier control subjects and the general population using the SEER database. RESULTS Twelve out of 289 studies met our inclusion criteria, representing 261 BRCA2mut men. Among carriers, the median age at diagnosis was 62 years and median PSA was 15 ng/dl with 95% of men having a PSA>3. Over 40% of BRCA2mut patients had T3/T4 disease and over 25% were metastatic at presentation. Survival was worse in BRCA2mut men with prostate cancer when compared to non-BRCA2mut subjects. BRCA2mut carriers had significantly higher rates of metastatic disease (18%) versus non-carrier controls (8%) and the SEER population (4%). CONCLUSIONS BRCA2mut carriers are more likely to have poor risk of prostate cancer at presentation and exhibit worse oncologic outcomes relative to non-carriers, including a fourfold increase in metastatic disease. Younger men and those undergoing formal screening present with less advanced disease which supports a need for earlier identification and screening protocols. Additionally, this population may benefit from alternative therapeutic paradigms. PMID:27225637

  9. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5%–10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  10. Tumor mutation burden forecasts outcome in ovarian cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Izarzugaza, Jose M G; Eklund, Aron C; Li, Yang; Liu, Joyce; Szallasi, Zoltan; Matulonis, Ursula A; Richardson, Andrea L; Iglehart, J Dirk; Wang, Zhigang C

    2013-01-01

    Increased number of single nucleotide substitutions is seen in breast and ovarian cancer genomes carrying disease-associated mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The significance of these genome-wide mutations is unknown. We hypothesize genome-wide mutation burden mirrors deficiencies in DNA repair and is associated with treatment outcome in ovarian cancer. The total number of synonymous and non-synonymous exome mutations (Nmut), and the presence of germline or somatic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (mBRCA) were extracted from whole-exome sequences of high-grade serous ovarian cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to correlate Nmut with chemotherapy response and outcome. Higher Nmut correlated with a better response to chemotherapy after surgery. In patients with mBRCA-associated cancer, low Nmut was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), independent of other prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Patients with mBRCA-associated cancers and a high Nmut had remarkably favorable PFS and OS. The association with survival was similar in cancers with either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In cancers with wild-type BRCA, tumor Nmut was associated with treatment response in patients with no residual disease after surgery. Tumor Nmut was associated with treatment response and with both PFS and OS in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In the TCGA cohort, low Nmut predicted resistance to chemotherapy, and for shorter PFS and OS, while high Nmut forecasts a remarkably favorable outcome in mBRCA-associated ovarian cancer. Our observations suggest that the total mutation burden coupled with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in ovarian cancer is a genomic marker of prognosis and predictor of treatment response. This marker may reflect the degree of deficiency in BRCA-mediated pathways, or the extent of compensation for the deficiency by alternative

  11. Women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations survive ovarian cancer at higher rates

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored multicenter study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on January 25, 2012, provides strong evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers with ovarian cancer were more

  12. Screening for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results of a Disease Simulation Model.

    PubMed

    Pandharipande, Pari V; Jeon, Alvin; Heberle, Curtis R; Dowling, Emily C; Kong, Chung Yin; Chung, Daniel C; Brugge, William R; Hur, Chin

    2015-12-01

    BRCA2 mutation carriers are at increased risk for multiple cancers including pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). Our goal was to compare the effectiveness of different PAC screening strategies in BRCA2 mutation carriers, from the standpoint of life expectancy. A previously published Markov model of PAC was updated and extended to incorporate key aspects of BRCA2 mutation carrier status, including competing risks of breast- and ovarian-cancer specific mortality. BRCA2 mutation carriers were modeled and analyzed as the primary cohort for the analysis. Additional higher risk BRCA2 cohorts that were stratified according to the number of first-degree relatives (FDRs) with PAC were also analyzed. For each cohort, one-time screening and annual screening were evaluated, with screening starting at age 50 in both strategies. The primary outcome was net gain in life expectancy (LE) compared to no screening. Sensitivity analysis was performed on key model parameters, including surgical mortality and MRI test performance. One-time screening at age 50 resulted in a LE gain of 3.9 days for the primary BRCA2 cohort, and a gain of 5.8 days for those with BRCA2 and one FDR. Annual screening resulted in LE loss of 12.9 days for the primary cohort and 1.3 days for BRCA2 carriers with 1 FDR, but resulted in 20.6 days gained for carriers with 2 FDRs and 260 days gained for those with 3 FDRs. For patients with ≥ 3 FDRs, annual screening starting at an earlier age (i.e. 35-40) was optimal. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, aggressive screening regimens may be ineffective unless additional indicators of elevated risk (e.g., 2 or more FDRs) are present. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. American Cancer Society - New England Division - Ellison Foundation Research Scholar Grant (RSG-15-129-01-CPHPS).

  13. Evidence for SMAD3 as a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene approach, based on knowledge of gene functions, or the development of large genome-wide association studies. In this study, we evaluated 24 SNPs tagged to 14 candidate genes derived through a novel approach that analysed gene expression differences to prioritise candidate modifier genes for association studies. Methods We successfully genotyped 24 SNPs in a cohort of up to 4,724 BRCA1 and 2,693 BRCA2 female mutation carriers from 15 study groups and assessed whether these variants were associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results SNPs in five of the 14 candidate genes showed evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers (P < 0.05). Notably, the minor alleles of two SNPs (rs7166081 and rs3825977) in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.77), located at the SMAD3 locus (15q22), were each associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 1.45, Ptrend = 0.004; and relative risk = 1.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.40, Ptrend = 0.018). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the SMAD3 gene, which encodes a key regulatory protein in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and is known to interact directly with BRCA2, may contribute to increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This finding suggests that genes with expression associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status are enriched for the presence of common genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk in these populations. PMID:21114847

  14. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks: impact in the western Danish population.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne; Ladelund, Steen; Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Hansen, Thomas V O; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Borg, Åke; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G>A and c.8474delC] were found to account for 23 % of the BRCA1 mutations and for 32 % of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 mutation c.3319G>T was, compared to other BRCA1 mutations, associated with a higher risk for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to up to one-third of the families in western Denmark and among these the BRCA1 c.3319G>T mutation is potentially linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

  15. Mutational spectrum in breast cancer associated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Díaz-Dussán, Natalia Andrea; Noguera-Santamaría, María Claudia; Díaz-Rincón, Diego; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer is higher in families that carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, and timely mutation detection is critical. Objective: To identify the presence of mutations in the Colombian population and evaluate two testing strategies. Methods: From a total universe of 853 individual blood samples referred for BRCA1 and BRCA2 typing, 256 cases were analyzed by complete direct sequencing of both genes in Myriad Genetics, and the remaining 597 cases were studied by partial sequencing based on founder mutations in a PCR test designed by ourselves ("Profile Colombia"). Results: We found 107 patients carrying deleterious mutations in this group of patients, 69 (64.5%) located in BRCA1, and 38 (35.5%) in BRCA2. Overall, we detected 39 previously unreported mutations in Colombia (22 in BRCA1 and 17 in BRCA2) and only 4 out of the 6 previously reported founder mutations. Sixty four out of 597 patients (10.7%) studied by "Profile Colombia" showed mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, and 41/256 patients (16%) showed mutations by complete BRCA1-BRCA2 sequencing. Conclusions: The spectrum of 44 different mutations in Colombia as detected in our study is broader than the one previously reported for this country. "Profile Colombia" is a useful screening test to establish both founder and new mutations (detection rate of 10.7%) in cases with family history of breast cancer. Complete sequencing shows a detection rate of 16.0%, and should complement the study of the genetic basis of this disease. PMID:29021639

  16. Recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexican women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Royer, Robert; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Akbari, Mohammad R.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Martínez-Matsushita, Louis; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ziv, Elad; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an estimated 58–80% lifetime risk of breast cancer. In general, screening is done for cancer patients if a relative has been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer. There are few data on the prevalence of mutations in these genes in Mexican women with breast cancer and this hampers efforts to develop screening policies in Mexico. Methods We screened 810 unselected women with breast cancer from three cities in Mexico (Mexico City, Veracruz and Monterrey) for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including a panel of 26 previously reported mutations. Results Thirty-five mutations were identified in 34 women (4.3% of total) including 20 BRCA1 mutations and 15 BRCA2 mutations. Twenty-two of the 35 mutations were recurrent mutations (62.8%). Only five of the 34 mutation carriers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (three with BRCA1 and two with BRCA2 mutations). Conclusion These results support the rationale for a strategy of screening for recurrent mutations in all women with breast cancer in Mexico, as opposed to restricting screening to those with a sister or mother with breast or ovarian cancer. Impact These results will impact cancer genetic testing in Mexico and the identification of at-risk individuals who will benefit from increased surveillance. PMID:25371446

  17. Recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexican women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Royer, Robert; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Akbari, Mohammad R; Giuliano, Anna R; Martínez-Matsushita, Louis; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Ziv, Elad; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Phelan, Catherine M; Narod, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an estimated 58% to 80% lifetime risk of breast cancer. In general, screening is done for cancer patients if a relative has been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer. There are few data on the prevalence of mutations in these genes in Mexican women with breast cancer and this hampers efforts to develop screening policies in Mexico. We screened 810 unselected women with breast cancer from three cities in Mexico (Mexico City, Veracruz, and Monterrey) for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including a panel of 26 previously reported mutations. Thirty-five mutations were identified in 34 women (4.3% of total) including 20 BRCA1 mutations and 15 BRCA2 mutations. Twenty-two of the 35 mutations were recurrent mutations (62.8%). Only five of the 34 mutation carriers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (three with BRCA1 and two with BRCA2 mutations). These results support the rationale for a strategy of screening for recurrent mutations in all women with breast cancer in Mexico, as opposed to restricting screening to those with a sister or mother with breast or ovarian cancer. These results will impact cancer genetic testing in Mexico and the identification of at-risk individuals who will benefit from increased surveillance. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 498-505. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Oestrogen receptor status, treatment and breast cancer prognosis in Icelandic BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Jon G; Stefansson, Olafur A; Johannsson, Oskar T; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Alexiusdottir, Kristin K; Stefansdottir, Hrefna; Munoz Mitev, Rodrigo; Olafsdottir, Katrin; Olafsdottir, Kristrun; Arason, Adalgeir; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Narod, Steven A; Tryggvadóttir, Laufey

    2016-09-27

    The impact of an inherited BRCA2 mutation on the prognosis of women with breast cancer has not been well documented. We studied the effects of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, other prognostic factors and treatments on survival in a large cohort of BRCA2 mutation carriers. We identified 285 breast cancer patients with a 999del5 BRCA2 mutation and matched them with 570 non-carrier patients. Clinical information was abstracted from patient charts and pathology records and supplemented by evaluation of tumour grade and ER status using archived tissue specimens. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival using Cox regression. The effects of various therapies were studied in patients treated from 1980 to 2012. Among mutation carriers, positive ER status was associated with higher risk of death than negative ER status (HR=1.94; 95% CI=1.22-3.07, P=0.005). The reverse association was seen for non-carriers (HR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.97; P=0.03). Among BRCA2 carriers, ER-positive status is an adverse prognostic factor. BRCA2 carrier status should be known at the time when treatment decisions are made.

  19. Increased rate of phenocopies in all age groups in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation kindred, but increased prospective breast cancer risk is confined to BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth R; Ingham, Sarah L; Buchan, Iain; Woodward, Emma R; Byers, Helen; Howell, Anthony; Maher, Eamonn R; Newman, William G; Lalloo, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    To establish, if among unaffected noncarrier relatives in a family with an established BRCA1/2 mutation, there is an increased risk of breast cancer. We identified 49 women with breast cancer who were first-degree relatives of a pathogenic mutation carrier among 807 BRCA1/2 families but who tested negative for the specific mutation. A prospective analysis of breast cancer from date of family ascertainment was performed for first-degree relatives of proven BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and compared with population-expected incidence rates. Women who prospectively test negative for BRCA1/2 mutations showed excess risk of breast cancer to be confined to BRCA2 noncarriers with an observed:expected (O/E) ratio of 4.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50-7.67; P < 0.0001; O/E in BRCA1 noncarriers, 1.77]; this dropped to 2.01 for BRCA2 [relative risk (RR), 1.99; 95% CI, 0.54-5.10] from date of predictive test. Genotyping of 18 breast cancer susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) defined an RR of 1.31 for BRCA2 breast cancer phenocopies with a breast cancer diagnosis at age less than 60 years. Noncarriers remain at risk in the prospective follow-up of women who tested negative for BRCA1/2. Women testing negative in BRCA2 families may have increased risk of breast cancer compared with population levels, particularly with strong breast cancer history in close relatives. Any increased risk in BRCA1 families is likely to be insufficient to recommend additional interventions. Our work can help with counseling women from BRCA1/2 families who have tested negative, and could impact on how individual breast cancer risk is related back to these women. ©2013 AACR.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and the risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopik, V; Phelan, C; Cybulski, C; Narod, S A

    2015-05-01

    Women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and may be at moderately increased risk of other cancer types. This review examines studies to date that have evaluated the risk of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations for colorectal cancer. Accurate knowledge of colorectal cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers is important, because colonoscopy screening can prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of adenomatous polyps. Most studies that have identified an increased risk for colorectal cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were in high-risk cancer families, while studies that found no association were conducted in specific populations and involved the analysis of founder mutations. A recent prospective study of 7015 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation identified significant fivefold increased risk of colorectal cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers younger than 50 years [standardized incidence ratio (SIR): 4.8; 95% CI: 2.2-9], but not in women with a BRCA2 mutation or in older women. Based on this evidence, women with BRCA1 mutations should be counseled about their increased risk for early-onset colorectal cancer, and offered colonoscopy at 3- to 5-year intervals between the ages of 40 and 50 years, and should follow population guidelines thereafter. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Screening for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results of a Disease Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Pandharipande, Pari V.; Jeon, Alvin; Heberle, Curtis R.; Dowling, Emily C.; Kong, Chung Yin; Chung, Daniel C.; Brugge, William R.; Hur, Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background BRCA2 mutation carriers are at increased risk for multiple cancers including pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). Our goal was to compare the effectiveness of different PAC screening strategies in BRCA2 mutation carriers, from the standpoint of life expectancy. Methods A previously published Markov model of PAC was updated and extended to incorporate key aspects of BRCA2 mutation carrier status, including competing risks of breast- and ovarian-cancer specific mortality. BRCA2 mutation carriers were modeled and analyzed as the primary cohort for the analysis. Additional higher risk BRCA2 cohorts that were stratified according to the number of first-degree relatives (FDRs) with PAC were also analyzed. For each cohort, one-time screening and annual screening were evaluated, with screening starting at age 50 in both strategies. The primary outcome was net gain in life expectancy (LE) compared to no screening. Sensitivity analysis was performed on key model parameters, including surgical mortality and MRI test performance. Findings One-time screening at age 50 resulted in a LE gain of 3.9 days for the primary BRCA2 cohort, and a gain of 5.8 days for those with BRCA2 and one FDR. Annual screening resulted in LE loss of 12.9 days for the primary cohort and 1.3 days for BRCA2 carriers with 1 FDR, but resulted in 20.6 days gained for carriers with 2 FDRs and 260 days gained for those with 3 FDRs. For patients with ≥ 3 FDRs, annual screening starting at an earlier age (i.e. 35–40) was optimal. Interpretation Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, aggressive screening regimens may be ineffective unless additional indicators of elevated risk (e.g., 2 or more FDRs) are present. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. Funding American Cancer Society – New England Division – Ellison Foundation Research Scholar Grant (RSG-15-129-01-CPHPS). PMID:26844277

  2. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Iranian high risk breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Andrea; Mehdipour, Parvin; Mehdipour, Parvin; Atri, Morteza; Hofmann, Wera; Hosseini-Asl, S Said; Scherneck, Siegfried; Mundlos, Stefan; Peters, Hartmut

    2005-08-01

    Germline mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. At present, over thousand distinct BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been identified. Specific mutations are found to be common within particular populations, resulting from genetic founder effects. To investigate the contribution of germline mutations in these two genes to inherited breast cancer in Iran, we performed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analyses in ten Iranian high risk breast cancer families. This is the first study analysing the complete coding sequences of both genes that concerns the Iranian population. BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation detection included sequencing of the coding and the 3' and 5' untranslated regions. To detect large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene semi-quantitative multiplex PCR was performed. Two pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene were detected: a novel deletion c.4415_4418delAGAA and a previously described insertion c.6033_6034insGT. In addition, one intronic variation g.5075-53C > T and a deletion/insertion g.*381_389del9ins29 in the 3' untranslated region of BRCA1 were found in two of the investigated families. Both sequence alterations were absent in an age matched Iranian control group. The BRCA2 homozygous variation p.N372H, previously associated with an increased risk for developing breast cancer, was not identified in this study. We did not detect large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 in patients tested negatively for disease causing mutations in both genes by standard sequencing. At present, the BRCA2 mutations c.4415_4418delAGAA and c.6033_6034insGT have not been identified in any investigated population except the Iranian. Whether both mutations are specific for the Iranian population or a special subgroup remains to be investigated in larger studies. The absence of BRCA1 mutations in the analysed families may suggest that penetrance or prevalence of BRCA1 mutations may be lower in Iran.

  3. Location of Mutation in BRCA2 Gene and Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Labidi-Galy, S Intidhar; Olivier, Timothée; Rodrigues, Manuel; Ferraioli, Domenico; Derbel, Olfa; Bodmer, Alexandre; Petignat, Patrick; Rak, Beata; Chopin, Nicolas; Tredan, Olivier; Heudel, Pierre-Etienne; Stuckelberger, Sarah; Meeus, Pierre; Meraldi, Patrick; Viassolo, Valeria; Ayme, Aurélie; Chappuis, Pierre O; Stern, Marc-Henri; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buisson, Adrien; Golmard, Lisa; Bonadona, Valérie; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2018-01-15

    Purpose: BRCA2 plays a central role in homologous recombination by loading RAD51 on DNA breaks. The objective of this study is to determine whether the location of mutations in the RAD51-binding domain (RAD51-BD; exon 11) of BRCA2 gene affects the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients.Experimental Design: A study cohort of 353 women with ovarian cancer who underwent genetic germline testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was identified. Progression-free survival (PFS), platinum-free interval (PFI), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of ovarian cancer (n = 316) was used as a validation cohort.Results: In the study cohort, 78 patients were carriers of germline mutations of BRCA2 After adjustment for FIGO stage and macroscopic residual disease, BRCA2 carriers with truncating mutations in the RAD51-BD have significantly prolonged 5-year PFS [58%; adjusted HR, 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.64; P = 0.001] and prolonged PFI (29.7 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.011), compared with noncarriers. BRCA2 carriers with mutations located in other domains of the gene do not have prolonged 5-year PFS (28%, adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.07; P = 0.094) or PFI (19 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.146). In the TCGA cohort, only BRCA2 carriers harboring germline or somatic mutations in the RAD51-BD have prolonged 5-year PFS (46%; adjusted HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.68; P = 0.004) and 5-year OS (78%; adjusted HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.38; P = 0.001).Conclusions: Among ovarian cancer patients, BRCA2 carriers with mutations located in the RAD51-BD (exon 11) have prolonged PFS, PFI, and OS. Clin Cancer Res; 24(2); 326-33. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Tumour diploidy and survival in breast cancer patients with BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Johannsson, Oskar T; Bjorgvinsson, Einar; Alexiusdottir, Kristin; Stefansson, Olafur A; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Narod, Steven A; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Jonasson, Jon G

    2013-07-01

    It is not well known to what extent carrying a BRCA2 mutation affects the survival of women with breast cancer and prognostic factors among BRCA2-positive women warrant investigation. Using a record linkage approach we compared the long-term survival in carriers and noncarriers of an inherited BRCA2 founder mutation (999del5), and sought to identify prognostic factors among the BRCA2 mutation-positive subset, including markers of genetic instability (aneuploidy) and mitotic activity (S-phase fraction). We established the genetic status of 2,967 Icelandic breast cancer patients (215 mutation carriers and 2,752 noncarriers) diagnosed from 1955 to 2004, representing 72 % of all cases diagnosed in the country during this period. Tumour ploidy and S-phase fraction were assessed on tumour cells by DNA flow cytometry. Prognostic factors were assessed blindly with respect to mutation status. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival by BRCA2 status, using Cox regression. After a median follow-up of 9.5 years, BRCA2 mutation carriers had a higher risk of death from breast cancer than noncarriers (HR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.24-2.16, p < 0.001). The risk increase was restricted to women with diploid tumours (HR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.91-4.79, p < 0.001). Among breast cancer patients with aneuploid tumours, survival of carriers was similar to that of noncarriers (HR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.41-1.41, p = 0.38). Increased tumour size and a positive nodal status predicted worse prognosis in all patients, whereas the highly correlated prognostic factors diploidy, low proliferative activity and a positive estrogen receptor status had reverse effects in mutation carriers and noncarriers. Breast cancer patients who carry the Icelandic founder BRCA2 mutation have inferior long-term survival than noncarriers, but the adverse prognosis is restricted to mutation carriers with diploid, slowly proliferating tumours.

  6. Tamoxifen and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Milne, Roger L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Daly, Mary B.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Easton, Douglas F.; Ellis, Steve; Friedlander, Michael L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Andrieu, Nadine; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Bonadona, Valérie; Pujol, Pascal; McLachlan, Sue Anne; John, Esther M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Goldgar, David E.; Beth Terry, Mary; Caldes, Trinidad; Weideman, Prue C.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Singer, Christian F.; Birch, Kate; Simard, Jacques; Southey, Melissa C.; Olsson, Håkan L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Olah, Edith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Foretova, Lenka; Hopper, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods Analysis of pooled observational cohort data, self-reported at enrollment and at follow-up from the International BRCA1, and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Family Registry. Eligible women were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers diagnosed with unilateral BC since 1970 and no other invasive cancer or tamoxifen use before first BC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CBC associated with tamoxifen use were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for year and age of diagnosis, country, and bilateral oophorectomy and censoring at contralateral mastectomy, death, or loss to follow-up. Results Of 1,583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after first BC diagnosis. There were 520 CBCs over 20,104 person-years of observation. The adjusted HR estimates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.55) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.50) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. After left truncating at recruitment to the cohort, adjusted HR estimates were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.13) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.05) based on 657 BRCA1 and 426 BRCA2 mutation carriers with 100 CBCs over 4,392 person-years of prospective follow-up. HRs did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the first BC (missing for 56% of cases). Conclusion This study provides evidence that tamoxifen use is associated with a reduction in CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further follow-up of these cohorts will provide increased statistical power for future prospective analyses. PMID:23918944

  7. Risks of Breast, Ovarian, and Contralateral Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Hopper, John L; Barnes, Daniel R; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Mooij, Thea M; Roos-Blom, Marie-José; Jervis, Sarah; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Milne, Roger L; Andrieu, Nadine; Goldgar, David E; Terry, Mary Beth; Rookus, Matti A; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; McGuffog, Lesley; Evans, D Gareth; Barrowdale, Daniel; Frost, Debra; Adlard, Julian; Ong, Kai-Ren; Izatt, Louise; Tischkowitz, Marc; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Ellis, Steve; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Faivre, Laurence; Berthet, Pascaline; Hooning, Maartje J; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Kets, Carolien M; Adank, Muriel A; John, Esther M; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Southey, Melissa; Daly, Mary B; Buys, Saundra S; Osorio, Ana; Engel, Christoph; Kast, Karin; Schmutzler, Rita K; Caldes, Trinidad; Jakubowska, Anna; Simard, Jacques; Friedlander, Michael L; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Machackova, Eva; Foretova, Lenka; Tan, Yen Y; Singer, Christian F; Olah, Edith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Arver, Brita; Olsson, Håkan

    2017-06-20

    The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44

  8. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Peru.

    PubMed

    Abugattas, J; Llacuachaqui, M; Allende, Y Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, A Arias; Velarde, R; Cotrina, J; Garcés, M; León, M; Calderón, G; de la Cruz, M; Mora, P; Royer, R; Herzog, J; Weitzel, J N; Narod, S A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Presymptomatic DNA testing and prophylactic surgery in families with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Meijers-Heijboer, E J; Verhoog, L C; Brekelmans, C T; Seynaeve, C; Tilanus-Linthorst, M M; Wagner, A; Dukel, L; Devilee, P; van den Ouweland, A M; van Geel, A N; Klijn, J G

    2000-06-10

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes highly predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. In families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, identification of mutation carriers is clinically relevant in view of the options for surveillance and prevention. We assessed presymptomatic DNA testing and prophylactic surgery in 53 consecutive families presenting to the Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic with a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We identified predictors for DNA testing and prophylactic surgery with univariate and multivariate analysis. 682 unaffected individuals with a 50% risk (275 women and 271 men) or with a 25% risk (136 women) for carrying a mutation were identified and offered a DNA test. Presymptomatic DNA testing was requested by 48% (198 of 411) of women and 22% (59 of 271) of men (odds ratio for difference between sexes 3.21 [95% CI 2.27-4.51]; p<0.001). In women, DNA testing was significantly more frequent at young age, in the presence of children, and at high pre-test genetic risk for a mutation. Of the unaffected women with an identified mutation who were eligible for prophylactic surgery, 51% (35 of 68) opted for bilateral mastectomy and 64% (29 of 45) for oophorectomy. Parenthood was a predictor for prophylactic mastectomy but not for prophylactic oophorectomy. Age was significantly associated with prophylactic oophorectomy, but not with prophylactic mastectomy, although there was a tendency towards mastectomy at younger ages. In a clinical setting, we show a high demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing by unaffected women at risk, and of prophylactic surgery by unaffected women with the mutation. Young women with children especially opt for DNA testing and prophylactic mastectomy.

  10. Mutational Spectrum in a Worldwide Study of 29,700 Families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Friebel, Tara M; Friedman, Eitan; Hamann, Ute; Huo, Dezheng; Kwong, Ava; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Solano, Angela R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thomassen, Mads; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Chan, T L; Couch, Fergus J; Goldgar, David E; Kruse, Torben A; Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Park, Sue Kyung; Torres, Diana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; McGuffog, Lesley; Parsons, Michael T; Leslie, Goska; Aalfs, Cora M; Abugattas, Julio; Adlard, Julian; Agata, Simona; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrews, Lesley; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Asseryanis, Ella; Auerbach, Leo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Balmaña, Judith; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Berger, Raanan; Blanco, Amie M; Blazer, Kathleen R; Blok, Marinus J; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caliebe, Almuth; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Caputo, Sandrine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Collée, J Margriet; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemarie; de la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ditsch, Nina; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Velazquez, Carolina; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eason, Jacqueline; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Ros; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Engert, Stefanie; Evans, D Gareth; Faivre, Laurence; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Foretova, Lenka; Fowler, Jeffrey; Frost, Debra; Galvão, Henrique C R; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Gesta, Paul; Giannini, Giuseppe; Giraud, Sophie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica; Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Henderson, Alex; Hentschel, Julia; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Honisch, Ellen; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joseph, Vijai; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Kim, Sung-Won; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Korach, Jacob; Laitman, Yael; Lasa, Adriana; Lasset, Christine; Lázaro, Conxi; Lee, Annette; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindor, Noralane M; Longy, Michel; Loud, Jennifer T; Lu, Karen H; Lubinski, Jan; Machackova, Eva; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mari, Véronique; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Matrai, Zoltan; Mebirouk, Noura; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Mickys, Ugnius; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Musinsky, Jacob; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ngeow, Joanne; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Niederacher, Dieter; Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Öfverholm, Anna; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Papp, Janos; Pasini, Barbara; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; MSc, Ana Peixoto; MSc, Nina Peruga; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pohl, Esther; Ba, Nisha Pradhan; Prajzendanc, Karolina; Prieur, Fabienne; Pujol, Pascal; Radice, Paolo; Ramus, Susan J; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rhiem, Kerstin; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rogers, Mark T; Rudaitis, Vilius; Schmidt, Ane Y; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Senter, Leigha; Shah, Payal D; Sharma, Priyanka; Side, Lucy E; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sobol, Hagay; Southey, Melissa; Steele, Linda; Steinemann, Doris; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tan, Yen Y; Teixeira, Manuel R; Terry, Mary Beth; Teulé, Alex; Thomas, Abigail; Thull, Darcy L; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Topka, Sabine; Trainer, Alison H; Tung, Nadine; van Asperen, Christi J; van der Hout, Annemieke H; van der Kolk, Lizet E; van der Luijt, Rob B; Van Heetvelde, Mattias; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Walker, Lisa; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H F; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Zanzottera, Cristina; Zidan, Jamal; Zorn, Kristin K; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Hulick, Peter J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Antoniou, Antonis C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2018-02-15

    The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on Caucasians in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on 6 continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. AURKA F31I Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: A CIMBA study

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Sinilnikova, Olga; Vierkant, Robert A; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Coupier, Isabelle; Hughes, David; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Baynes, Caroline; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Schmutzler, Rita; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Horst, Jurgen; Schaefer, Dieter; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ilyushik, Eduard; Glendon, Gordon; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Borg, Ake; Backenhorn, Katja; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Greene, Mark H.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine; Domchek, Susan; Wagner, Theresa; Garber, Judy E.; Szabo, Csilla; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Olson, Janet E.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lindor, Noralane; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tommiska, Johanna; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Torres, Diana; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine; Guenard, Frederic; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Narod, Steven; Daly, Mary B.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tomlinson, Gail; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniouon, Antonis C.

    2009-01-01

    The AURKA oncogene is associated with abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy and predisposition to cancer. Amplification of AURKA has been detected at higher frequency in tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers than in sporadic breast tumors, suggesting that overexpression of AURKA and inactivation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 co-operate during tumor development and progression. The F31I polymorphism in AURKA has been associated with breast cancer risk in the homozygous state in prior studies. We evaluated whether the AURKA F31I polymorphism modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). CIMBA was established to provide sufficient statistical power through increased numbers of mutation carriers to identify polymorphisms that act as modifiers of cancer risk and can refine breast cancer risk estimates in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. A total of 4935 BRCA1 and 2241 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 11 individuals carrying both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were genotyped for F31I. Overall, homozygosity for the 31I allele was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers combined (HR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.06). Similarly, no significant association was seen in BRCA1 (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.75-1.08) or BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.67-1.29) or when assessing the modifying effects of either bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy or menopausal status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In summary, the F31I polymorphism in AURKA is not associated with a modified risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. PMID:17627006

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported 44. The same germline p53 coding mutation and haplotype were detected in two Li ... Mutations in the BRCA1 gene in families with early-onset breast and ovarian cancer. Nat Genet 8:387-391 Easton DF (1994) The inherited component of cancer...Interpreting epidemiological research: blinded comparison of methods used to estimate the prevalence of inherited mutations in BRCA1. J Med Genet 38:824

  13. Whole exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in BRCA2 and FAT genes in acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Hitomi; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ameri, Mitra; Kuboki, Yuko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Masanori; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Michio; Shibata, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2015-03-06

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we identified recurrent mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. BRCA2 showed somatic or germline premature termination mutations, with loss of the wild-type allele in 3 of 7 tumors. FAT1, FAT3, and FAT4 showed somatic or germline missense mutations in 4 of 7 tumors. The germline FAT mutations were with loss of the wild-type allele. Loss of BRCA2 expression was observed in 5 of 11 tumors. One patient with a BRCA2-mutated tumor experienced complete remission of liver metastasis following cisplatinum chemotherapy. In conclusion, acinar cell carcinomas show a distinct mutation pattern and often harbor somatic or germline mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. This result may warrant assessment of BRCA2 abrogation in patients with the carcinoma to determine their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  14. Germline mutations of TP53 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer/sarcoma families.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Pensotti, Valeria; Barile, Monica; Cortesi, Laura; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Terenziani, Monica; Barbera, Floriana; Pasquini, Graziella; Frigerio, Simona; Pierotti, Marco A; Radice, Paolo; Della-Torre, Gabriella

    2007-02-01

    The genetic aetiology of familial aggregations of breast cancer and sarcomas has been elucidated only in part. In this study, 23 unrelated individuals from families with one case of sarcoma and at least one case of breast cancer were screened for mutations in the TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Families were classified according to their conformity to the criteria defining the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndrome and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC). Germline TP53 mutations were identified in three instances (13%), including one LFS and two LFL families, while none of the non-LFS/non-LFL families had a TP53 mutation. Three cases (13%), including one with a TP53 mutation, carried BRCA2 mutations. Of these, two were observed in LFL/HBOC families and the other one in a non-LFS/non-LFL/HBOC family, while none of the non-HBOC families tested positive. These findings suggest that the screening of BRCA2, in addition to TP53, may be appropriate for the molecular characterisation of breast cancer/sarcoma families, with practical implications for counselling and clinical management.

  15. The incidence of leukaemia in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: an International Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Nussenzweig, Andre; Lubinski, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Eisen, Andrea; Bordeleau, Louise; Tung, Nadine M; Manoukian, Siranoush; Phelan, Catherine M; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-05-10

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the susceptibility to develop breast and ovarian cancers as well as increase the risk of some other cancers. Primary objective was to estimate the risk of leukaemia in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We followed 7243 women with a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation for incident cases of leukaemia. We used the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) to estimate the relative risk of leukaemia, according to mutation and history of breast cancer. We identified five incident cases of leukaemia (two BRCA1, three BRCA2). All five women had a prior history of breast cancer and four had received chemotherapy. The mean time from breast cancer diagnosis to the development of leukaemia was 10.2 years (range 3-18 years). The SIR for BRCA1 carriers was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.11-2.19, P=0.61) and the SIR for BRCA2 carriers was 2.42 (95% CI: 0.61-6.58, P=0.17). The SIR was significantly higher than expected for women with a BRCA2 mutation and breast cancer (SIR=4.76, 95% CI:1.21-12.96, P=0.03), in particular for women who received chemotherapy (SIR=8.11, 2.06-22.07, P=0.007). We observed an increased risk of leukaemia in women with a BRCA2 mutation who receive chemotherapy for breast cancer.

  16. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene in families with early-onset breast and ovarian cancer. Nat Genet 8:387-391 Easton DF (1994) The inherited component of...Americans but two African-American families with Cowden’s syndrome have been reported (Fackenthal et al, 2000). The same germline p53 coding mutation and...haplotype were detected in two Li - Fraumeni African American families, one of which exhibited primarily breast and ovarian cancer (Hung et al., 1999

  17. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Van Roozendaal, Cees E; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Klein, Robert J; Daly, Mark J; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G; Altshuler, David M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-11-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.

  18. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage dis-equilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:21597964

  19. Biallelic BRCA2 mutations in two black South African children with Fanconi anaemia.

    PubMed

    Feben, Candice; Spencer, Careni; Lochan, Anneline; Laing, Nakita; Fieggen, Karen; Honey, Engela; Wainstein, Tasha; Krause, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous genetic condition, characterized cytogenetically by chromosomal instability and breakage secondary to impaired DNA repair mechanisms. Affected individuals typically manifest growth restriction and congenital physical abnormalities and most progress to hematological disease including bone marrow aplasia. A rare genetic subtype of FA (FA-D1) is caused by biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Affected individuals manifest severe congenital anomalies and significant pigmentary changes and are additionally at risk for early onset leukemia and certain solid organ malignancies, including Wilms tumors and brain tumors. Parents of affected individuals are obligate carriers for heterozygous BRCA2 mutations and are thus potentially at risk for adult onset cancers which fall within the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer spectrum. We present two cases of black South African patients with FA diagnosed with biallelic BRCA2 mutations and discuss the phenotypic consequences and implications for them and their families. Recognition of this severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of FA is critical in allowing for confirmation of the diagnosis as well as cascade screening and appropriate care of family members.

  20. Prostate cancer in a man with a BRCA2 mutation and a personal history of bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, C; Sopik, V; Narod, S A

    2015-08-01

    Men with a BRCA2 mutation face substantial lifetime risks for the development of both breast and prostate cancer. A male who was initially diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 32 was subsequently diagnosed at age 77 with both contralateral breast cancer and prostate cancer. He was found to be BRCA2 mutation carrier. The patient was treated with contralateral mastectomy, breast irradiation, prostate irradiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy. At age 83 he died of metastatic prostate cancer. Our case underscores the observation that BRCA2 mutation carriers are at risk for multiple cancers, including contralateral breast cancer, and illustrates the need for current practice recommendations for the early detection of breast and prostate cancer in men with BRCA2 mutations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer families: Are there more breast cancer-susceptibility genes?

    SciTech Connect

    Serova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Putet, N.

    1997-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of breast cancer families due to BRCA1 or BRCA2, we performed mutation screening of the entire coding regions of both genes supplemented with linkage analysis of 31 families, 8 containing male breast cancers and 23 site-specific female breast cancer. A combination of protein-truncation test and SSCP or heteroduplex analyses was used for mutation screening complemented, where possible, by the analysis of expression level of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles. Six of the eight families with male breast cancer revealed frameshift mutations, two in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. Although most families with female site-specific breast cancers were thought to be due to mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, we identified only eight mutations in our series of 23 site-specific female breast cancer families (34%), four in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. According to the posterior probabilities calculated for mutation-negative families, based on linkage data and mutation screening results, we would expect 8-10 site-specific female breast cancer families of our series to be due to neither BRCA1 nor BRCA2. Thus, our results suggest the existence of at least one more major breast cancer-susceptibility gene. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Mutational analysis ofBRCA1andBRCA2genes in Peruvian families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Buleje, Jose; Guevara-Fujita, Maria; Acosta, Oscar; Huaman, Francia D P; Danos, Pierina; Murillo, Alexis; Pinto, Joseph A; Araujo, Jhajaira M; Aguilar, Alfredo; Ponce, Jaime; Vigil, Carlos; Castaneda, Carlos; Calderon, Gabriela; Gomez, Henry L; Fujita, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world. In Peru, breast cancer is the second cause of death among women. Five to ten percent of patients present a high genetic predisposition due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. We performed a comprehensive analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to detect large rearrangements in patients from 18 families, which met the criteria for hereditary breast cancer. In this series, we found four pathogenic mutations, three previously reported ( BRCA1 : c.302-1G>C and c.815_824dup10; BRCA2 : c.5946delT) and a duplication of adenines in exon 15 in BRCA1 gene (c.4647_4648dupAA, ClinVar SCV000256598.1). We also found two exonic and four intronic variants of unknown significance and 28 polymorphic variants. This is the first report to determine the spectrum of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in Peruvian families selected by clinical and genetic criteria. The alteration rate in BRCA1/BRCA2 with proven pathogenic mutation was 22.2% (4 out 18) and this finding could be influenced by the reduced sample size or clinical criteria. In addition, we found three known BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and a BRCA1 c.4647_4648dupAA as a novel pathogenic mutation.

  3. BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations account for 78% of germline carriers among hereditary breast cancer families in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carolina; Tapia, Teresa; Perez-Moreno, Elisa; Gajardo-Meneses, Patricia; Ruiz, Catalina; Rios, Mabel; Missarelli, Claudio; Silva, Mariela; Cruz, Adolfo; Matamala, Luis; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Camus, Mauricio; Carvallo, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Identifying founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in specific populations constitute a valuable opportunity for genetic screening. Several studies from different populations have reported recurrent and/or founder mutations representing a relevant proportion of BRCA mutation carriers. In Latin America, only few founder mutations have been described. We screened 453 Chilean patients with hereditary breast cancer for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. For recurrent mutations, we genotyped 11 microsatellite markers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in order to determine a founder effect through haplotype analysis. We found a total of 25 mutations (6 novel) in 71 index patients among which, nine are present exclusively in Chilean patients. Our analysis revealed the presence of nine founder mutations, 4 in BRCA1 and 5 in BRCA2, shared by 2 to 10 unrelated families and spread in different regions of Chile. Our panel contains the highest amount of founder mutations until today and represents the highest percentage (78%) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We suggest that the dramatic reduction of Amerindian population due to smallpox and wars with Spanish conquerors, a scarce population increase during 300 years, and the geographic position of Chile constituted a favorable scenario to establish founder genetic markers in our population. PMID:29088781

  4. Characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in a Large United States Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sining; Iversen, Edwin S.; Friebel, Tara; Finkelstein, Dianne; Weber, Barbara L.; Eisen, Andrea; Peterson, Leif E.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Corio, Camille; Leondaridis, Leoni; Tomlinson, Gail; Dutson, Debra; Kerber, Rich; Amos, Christopher I.; Strong, Louise C.; Berry, Donald A.; Euhus, David M.; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Purpose An accurate evaluation of the penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is essential to the identification and clinical management of families at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Existing studies have focused on Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) or on families from outside the United States. In this article, we consider the US population using the largest US-based cohort to date of both AJ and non-AJ families. Methods We collected 676 AJ families and 1,272 families of other ethnicities through the Cancer Genetics Network. Two hundred eighty-two AJ families were population based, whereas the remainder was collected through counseling clinics. We used a retrospective likelihood approach to correct for bias induced by oversampling of participants with a positive family history. Our approach takes full advantage of detailed family history information and the Mendelian transmission of mutated alleles in the family. Results In the US population, the estimated cumulative breast cancer risk at age 70 years was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.54) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.51) in BRCA2 carriers, whereas ovarian cancer risk was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.50) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.22 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.32) in BRCA2 carriers. We also reported the prospective risks of developing cancer for cancer-free carriers in 10-year age intervals. We noted a rapid decrease in the relative risk of breast cancer with age and derived its implication for genetic counseling. Conclusion The penetrance of BRCA mutations in the United States is largely consistent with previous studies on Western populations given the large CIs on existing estimates. However, the absolute cumulative risks are on the lower end of the spectrum. PMID:16484695

  5. Cost-effectiveness of alternating magnetic resonance imaging and digital mammography screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Cott Chubiz, Jessica E; Lee, Janie M; Gilmore, Michael E; Kong, Chung Y; Lowry, Kathryn P; Halpern, Elkan F; McMahon, Pamela M; Ryan, Paula D; Gazelle, G Scott

    2013-03-15

    Current clinical guidelines recommend earlier, more intensive breast cancer screening with both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mammography for women with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutations. Unspecified details of screening schedules are a challenge for implementing guidelines. A Markov Monte Carlo computer model was used to simulate screening in asymptomatic women who were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three dual-modality strategies were compared with digital mammography (DM) alone: 1) DM and MRI alternating at 6-month intervals beginning at age 25 years (Alt25), 2) annual MRI beginning at age 25 years with alternating DM added at age 30 years (MRI25/Alt30), and 3) DM and MRI alternating at 6-month intervals beginning at age 30 years (Alt30). Primary outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs (in 2010 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness (dollars per QALY gained). Additional outcomes included potential harms of screening, and lifetime costs stratified into component categories (screening and diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and patient time costs). All 3 dual-modality screening strategies increased QALYs and costs. Alt30 screening had the lowest incremental costs per additional QALY gained (BRCA1, $74,200 per QALY; BRCA2, $215,700 per QALY). False-positive test results increased substantially with dual-modality screening and occurred more frequently in BRCA2 carriers. Downstream savings in both breast cancer treatment and mortality costs were outweighed by increases in up-front screening and diagnosis costs. The results were influenced most by estimates of breast cancer risk and MRI costs. Alternating MRI and DM screening at 6-month intervals beginning at age 30 years was identified as a clinically effective approach to applying current guidelines, and was more cost-effective in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers compared with BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  6. Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Susan J; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Gismondi, Viviana; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Borg, Ake; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A; Vreeswijk, Maaike P; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Os, Theo A; Asperen, Christi J; Blok, Marinus J; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Dunning, Alison M; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Pichert, Gabriella; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary; Kennedy, M John; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Donaldson, Alan; Gregory, Helen; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Moncoutier, Virginie; Castera, Laurent; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Bonadona, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Lidereau, Rosette; Nogues, Catherine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Prieur, Fabienne; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Miron, Alex; Buys, Saundra S; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Dutra-Clarke, Ana V C; Przybylo, Jennifer A; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Janavicius, Ramunas; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi; Moysich, Kirsten B; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Beattie, Mary S; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Fiebig, Britta; Sutter, Christian; Arnold, Norbert; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Niederacher, Dieter; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2011-01-19

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. We genotyped rs3814113 in 10,029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10(-9)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10(-4)). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

  7. Genetic Variation at 9p22.2 and Ovarian Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Gismondi, Viviana; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Borg, Ake; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A.; Asperen, Christi J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Dunning, Alison M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Pichert, Gabriella; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Gregory, Helen; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Moncoutier, Virginie; Castera, Laurent; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Bonadona, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Lidereau, Rosette; Nogues, Catherine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Prieur, Fabienne; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Miron, Alex; Buys, Saundra S.; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Dutra-Clarke, Ana V. C.; Przybylo, Jennifer A.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Fiebig, Britta; Sutter, Christian; Arnold, Norbert; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Niederacher, Dieter; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Methods We genotyped rs3814113 in 10 029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10-9) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10-4). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PMID:21169536

  8. Development of primary early-onset colorectal cancers due to biallelic mutations of the FANCD1/BRCA2 gene.

    PubMed

    Degrolard-Courcet, Emilie; Sokolowska, Joanna; Padeano, Marie-Martine; Guiu, Séverine; Bronner, Myriam; Chery, Carole; Coron, Fanny; Lepage, Côme; Chapusot, Caroline; Loustalot, Catherine; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Hatem, Cyril; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Martin, Laurent; Coutant, Charles; Baurand, Amandine; Couillault, Gérard; Delignette, Alexandra; El Chehadeh, Salima; Lizard, Sarab; Arnould, Laurent; Fumoleau, Pierre; Callier, Patrick; Mugneret, Francine; Philippe, Christophe; Frebourg, Thierry; Jonveaux, Philippe; Faivre, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and predisposition to malignancy. In a minority of cases, FA results from biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations that are associated with early-onset leukaemia and solid tumours. Here, we describe the clinical and molecular features of a remarkable family presenting with multiple primary colorectal cancers (CRCs) without detectable mutations in genes involved in the Mendelian predisposition to CRCs. We unexpectedly identified, despite the absence of clinical cardinal features of FA, a biallelic mutation of the FANCD1/BRCA2 corresponding to a frameshift alteration (c.1845_1846delCT, p.Asn615Lysfs*6) and a missense mutation (c.7802A>G, p.Tyr2601Cys). The diagnosis of FA was confirmed by the chromosomal analysis of lymphocytes. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that the c.7802A>G BRCA2 variation was in fact a splicing mutation that creates an aberrant splicing donor site and results partly into an aberrant transcript encoding a truncated protein (p.Tyr2601Trpfs*46). The atypical FA phenotype observed within this family was probably explained by the residual amount of BRCA2 with the point mutation c.7802A>G in the patients harbouring the biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations. Although this report is based in a single family, it suggests that CRCs may be part of the tumour spectrum associated with FANCD1/BRCA2 biallelic mutations and that the presence of such mutations should be considered in families with CRCs, even in the absence of cardinal features of FA.

  9. Risk of uterine cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y C; Milne, R L; Lheureux, S; Friedlander, M; McLachlan, S A; Martin, K L; Bernardini, M Q; Smith, C; Picken, S; Nesci, S; Hopper, J L; Phillips, K A

    2017-10-01

    Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a clinically relevant elevated risk of uterine cancer has implications for risk-reducing surgery. This multicentre, prospective cohort study assessed uterine cancer risk for mutation carriers compared with the general population. Eligible mutation carriers were enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) cohort study, had a uterus present and no history of uterine cancer at cohort entry. Epidemiological, lifestyle and clinical data were collected at cohort entry and updated three-yearly. Cancer events were verified using pathology reports. Follow-up was censored at death or last contact. Relative risk of uterine cancer was estimated using the standardised incidence ratio (SIR), with the expected number of cases determined using population-based data for Australia. Of 1,111 mutation carriers in kConFab, 283 were excluded due to prior hysterectomy (N = 278), prior uterine cancer (N = 2) or being non-residents (N = 3). After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, five incident uterine cancers were reported in the 828 eligible women (419 had prior breast cancer and 160 had prior tamoxifen use), compared to 2.04 expected (SIR = 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-5.72; P = 0.11). In 438 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 390 BRCA2 mutation carriers, three and two incident cases of uterine cancer were reported, respectively, compared to 1.04 expected (SIR = 2.87; 95% CI: 0.59-8.43; P = 0.18) and 0.99 expected (SIR = 2.01; 95% CI: 0.24-7.30; P = 0.52), respectively. All cases were endometrioid subtype, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage I-II disease. No serous uterine cancers were reported. Our findings are consistent with those from most other reports and do not support routine risk-reducing hysterectomy for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of BRCA1- and BRCA2-related mutations on ovarian and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qian; Peng, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Lin; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on ovarian cancer and breast cancer survival. Experimental Design We searched PUBMED and EMBASE for studies that evaluated the associations between BRCA mutations and ovarian or breast cancer survival. Meta-analysis was conducted to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Results From 1201 unique citations, we identified 27 articles that compared prognosis between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers in ovarian or breast cancer patients. Fourteen studies examined ovarian cancer survival and 13 studies examined breast cancer survival. For ovarian cancer, meta-analysis demonstrated that both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had better OS (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.70-0.83 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.50-0.66 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) and PFS (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52-0.81 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47-0.80 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) compared to non-carriers, regardless of tumor stage, grade, or histologic subtype. Among breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutation carriers had worse OS (HR: 1.50, 95%CI: 1.11-2.04) than non-carriers, but were not significantly different from non-carriers in PFS. BRCA2 mutation was not associated with breast cancer prognosis. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that BRCA mutations are robust predictors of outcomes in both ovarian and breast cancer and these mutations should be taken into account when devising appropriate therapeutic strategies. PMID:25348513

  11. Identification of the prevalent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the female population of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Julie; Colon-Colon, Jose L; Matta, Jaime L; Sutphen, Rebecca; Echenique, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of BRCA mutations in a specific population or ethnic group is necessary to provide accurate genetic counseling for breast cancer patients and their families; however, these data have not been gathered in the population of Puerto Rico. We conducted a retrospective study of female breast cancer patients undergoing genetic testing for BRCA mutations in the highest-volume breast surgery practices in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Data collection includes three-generation family cancer history and results from complete BRCA sequencing. A total of six different deleterious mutations were observed, including one mutation in BRCA1 and five mutations in BRCA2. Three recurrent mutations (BRCA1 del exon1-2, BRCA2 4150G>T, and BRCA2 6027del4) account for over 70% of all the BRCA mutations observed in this study population. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico and assesses the accuracy of existing genetic risk assessment tools in that population. This data is expected to contribute to providing accurate and efficient tools for the clinical management of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The penetrance of ductal carcinoma in situ among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a precancerous lesion of the female breast and is strongly suspected to be a precursor of invasive breast cancer (IBC). Our goal is the estimation of the age-specific and lifetime penetrances of DCIS among carriers of either a BRCA1 or BRCA2 deleterious mutation. We jointly re-analyze the SEER9 database and a previous study by Claus et al. (JAMA 293:964–969, 2005). Estimation is performed via Bayes theorem after the evaluation of the ratio of age-specific DCIS incidences, and extrapolation to the general population of the study-specific penetrance obtained from Claus et al. From the SEER9 database, we estimate the lifetime risk of DCIS to be 0.98 %, in contrast to value of 12.5 % usually reported for IBC. By extending the result in Claus et al. to the general population, we obtain a lifetime risk for carriers of a deleterious mutation of either BRCA1 or BRCA2 of 6.21 % (95 % CI 6.09–6.33 %). The increase in lifetime risk of DCIS for a BRCA mutation carrier compared to a non-carrier is therefore about six-fold. Our quantification is directly relevant to the identification and genetic counseling of BRCA mutation carriers, and emphasizes the potential importance of including information on diagnoses of DCIS in counseling of individuals who are at familial risk for breast cancer. All these factors can contribute to a more specific and targeted prevention, potentially reducing the impact of IBC among BRCA mutation carriers. PMID:23184082

  13. Evaluation of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Lai, Kah Nyin; Wen, Wei Xiong; Park, Daniel Jonathan; Nguyen-Dumont, Tú; Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Ma'som, Mahirah; Lim, Boon Kiong; Southey, Melissa; Woo, Yin Ling; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2016-05-01

    Despite the discovery of breast and ovarian cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 more than two decades ago, almost all the available data relate to women of European ancestry, with only a handful of studies in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the frequency of germline alterations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ovarian cancer patients from a multi-ethnic cross-sectional cohort of Asian ovarian cancer patients from Malaysia. From October 2008 to February 2015, we established a hospital-based cohort of ovarian cancer patients and the germline status of all 218 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was tested using targeted amplification and sequencing of the intron-exon junctions and exonic sequences of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and TP53. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were found in 8% (17 cases) and 3% (7 cases) of the ovarian cancer patients, respectively. Mutation carriers were diagnosed at a similar age to non-carriers, but were more likely to be Indian, have serous ovarian cancer, and have more relatives with breast or ovarian cancer. Nonetheless, 42% (10/24) of mutation carriers did not have any family history of breast or ovarian cancer and offering genetic counselling and genetic testing only to women with family history would mean that 35% (6/17) of BRCA1 mutation carriers and 57% (4/7) of BRCA2 mutation carriers would not be offered genetic testing. Our data suggest that, similar to Caucasians, a significant proportion of Asian ovarian cancer was attributed to germline mutations in BRCA1 and to a lesser extent in BRCA2. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Young age at first pregnancy does protect against early onset breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Harkness, E F; Howel, S; Woodward, E R; Howell, A; Lalloo, F

    2018-02-01

    Previous research assessing the impact of pregnancy and age at first pregnancy on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has produced conflicting results, with some studies showing an increased risk following early first pregnancy in contrast to the reduced risk in the general population of women. The present study addresses these inconsistencies. Female BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from North West England were assessed for breast cancer incidence prior to 50 years of age comparing those with an early first full-term pregnancy (< 21 years) to those without a full-term pregnancy. Breast cancer incidence per decade from 20 years and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed. 2424 female mutation carriers (1278 BRCA1; 1146 BRCA2) developed 990 breast cancers under the age of 50 years. Women who had their first term pregnancy prior to age 21 (n = 441) had a lower cancer incidence especially between age 30-39 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an odds ratio of 0.78 for BRCA1 (p = 0.005) and 0.73 for BRCA2 (p = 0.002). The present study demonstrates a clear protective effect of early first pregnancy on breast cancer risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  15. A Survey of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutations in women with breast cancer in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Donenberg, Talia; Ahmed, Humayun; Royer, Robert; Zhang, Shiyu; Narod, Steven A; George, Sophia; Akbari, Mohammad R; Ali, Jameel; Hurley, Judith

    2016-08-01

    The mortality rate from breast cancer in the nation of Trinidad and Tobago is among the highest of any country in the Caribbean region. The contribution of inherited gene mutations to the burden of breast cancer in Trinidad and Tobago has not been studied. We examined the prevalence of mutations in three susceptibility genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2) in breast cancer patients in Trinidad and Tobago. We studied 268 unselected breast cancer patients from Trinidad and Tobago and looked for mutations across the entire coding sequences of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. Overall, 28 of 268 patients (10.4 %) had a mutation in one of the three genes, including 15 in BRCA1, ten in BRCA2, two in PALB2, and one in both BRCA2 and PALB2. There were 25 different mutations identified; of these, four mutations were seen in two patients each. Given the high prevalence of mutations, it is reasonable to offer genetic testing for these three genes to all breast cancer patients in Trinidad and Tobago.

  16. Contralateral breast cancer after radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a WECARE study report.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Thomas, Duncan C; Shore, Roy E; Robson, Mark; Boice, John D; Stovall, Marilyn; Andersson, Michael; Bernstein, Leslie; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Lynch, Charles F; Capanu, Marinela; Smith, Susan A; Tellhed, Lina; Teraoka, Sharon N; Begg, Colin B; Olsen, Jorgen H; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Liang, Xiaolin; Diep, Anh T; Borg, Ake; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with radiation treatment was higher among women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than among non-carriers. A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 52,536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Cases were 603 women with CBC and controls were 1199 women with UBC individually matched on age at diagnosis, race, year of first diagnosis and cancer registry. All women were tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Radiation absorbed dose from the initial radiotherapy (RT) to the CBC location within the contralateral breast was reconstructed from measurements in a tissue-equivalent phantom and details available in the therapy records. Among women treated with radiation, the mean radiation dose was 1.1 Gy (range = 0.02-6.2 Gy). Risk of developing CBC was elevated among women who carried a deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (rate ratio, RR = 4.5, confidence interval, CI = 3.0-6.8), and also among those treated with RT (RR = 1.2, CI = 1.0-1.6). However, among mutation carriers, an incremental increase in risk associated with radiation dose was not statistically significant. Multiplicative interaction of RT with mutation status would be reflected by a larger association of RT with CBC among carriers than among non-carriers, but this was not apparent. Accordingly, there was no clear indication that carriers of deleterious BRCA/BRCA2 mutations were more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation than non-carriers. These findings are reassuring and have important clinical implications for treatment decisions and the clinical management of patients harbouring deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. All work associated with this study was supported by

  17. Contralateral Breast Cancer after Radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: A WECARE Study Report

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonine L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Shore, Roy E.; Robson, Mark; Boice, John D.; Stovall, Marilyn; Andersson, Michael; Bernstein, Leslie; Malone, Kathleen E.; Reiner, Anne S.; Lynch, Charles F.; Capanu, Marinela; Smith, Susan A.; Tellhed, Lina; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Begg, Colin B.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Liang, Xiaolin; Diep, Anh T.; Borg, Ake; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with radiation treatment was higher among women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than among non-carriers. METHODS A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 52,536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Cases were 603 women with CBC and controls were 1199 women with UBC individually matched on age at diagnosis, race, year of first diagnosis and cancer registry. All women were tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Radiation absorbed dose from the initial radiotherapy (RT) to the CBC location within the contralateral breast was reconstructed from measurements in a tissue-equivalent phantom and details available in the therapy records. FINDINGS Among women treated with radiation, the mean radiation dose was 1.1 Gy (range=0.02-6.2 Gy). Risk of developing CBC was elevated among women who carried a deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (rate ratio, RR=4.5, confidence interval, CI=3.0-6.8), and also among those treated with RT (RR=1.2, CI=1.0-1.6). However, among mutation carriers, an incremental increase in risk associated with radiation dose was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION Multiplicative interaction of RT with mutation status would be reflected by a larger association of RT with CBC among carriers than among non-carriers, but this was not apparent. Accordingly, there was no clear indication that carriers of deleterious BRCA/BRCA2 mutations were more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation than non-carriers. These findings are reassuring and have important clinical implications for treatment decisions and the clinical management of patients harboring deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. FUNDING All work

  18. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  19. Chromosomal instability induced by mammography X-rays in primary human fibroblasts from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg-Schwager, Marlis; Gregus, Anke

    2012-11-01

    Mammography X-rays are known to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) whose error-free recombinational repair requires the function of the tumour repressor genes BRCA1 (breast-cancer-associated gene 1) and BRCA2 (breast-cancer-associated gene 2). Since un- or misrepaired DSB lead to chromosomal anomalies which may promote the development of breast cancer, we have studied the potential of mammography X-rays for immediate and delayed induction of chromosomal anomalies in human primary fibroblasts from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Primary human fibroblasts from three BRCA1, three BRCA2 mutation carriers, one BRCA2-deficient fanconi anemia (FA) patient and three normal individuals were exposed to various doses of mammography X-rays. Chromosomal anomalies at first mitosis and at several population doublings post-irradiation were assayed (Giemsa staining and Fish [fluorescence in situ hybridization]). No effect of the BRCA mutation status was observed on survival curves after exposure to mammography X-rays and on the dose-dependent increase of chromosomal anomalies at first mitosis post-irradiation. In contrast, several population doublings after exposure to a low dose of only 0.5 Gy chromosomal instability, manifested as gross chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy, had developed in BRCA2-deficient FA fibroblasts and in some - but not all - BRCA heterozygous fibroblasts. Low doses of mammography X-rays have the potential to induce chromosomal instability in fibroblasts from BRCA mutation carriers: Cells exhibit gross chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy similar to those observed in breast cancer cells. These results suggest that for women carrying a BRCA mutation early and frequent screening with mammography X-rays may not be the method of choice to detect breast cancer.

  20. Significant clinical impact of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Alvarez-Gómez, Rosa María; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Herrera, Luis A; Herzog, Josef; Castillo, Danielle; Mohar, Alejandro; Castro, Clementina; Gallardo, Lenny N; Gallardo, Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Blazer, Kathleen R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2015-02-01

    Frequent recurrent mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA) genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Hispanics, including a large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 exon 9-12 deletion [ex9-12del]), suggest that an ancestry-informed BRCA-testing strategy could reduce disparities and promote cancer prevention by enabling economic screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Mexico. In a multistage approach, 188 patients with cancer who were unselected for family cancer history (92 with ovarian cancer and 96 with breast cancer) were screened for BRCA mutations using a Hispanic mutation panel (HISPANEL) of 115 recurrent mutations in a multiplex assay (114 were screened on a mass spectroscopy platform, and a polymerase chain reaction assay was used to screen for the BRCA1 ex9-12del mutation). This was followed by sequencing of all BRCA exons and adjacent intronic regions and a BRCA1 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) for HISPANEL-negative patients. BRCA mutation prevalence was calculated and correlated with histology and tumor receptor status, and HISPANEL sensitivity was estimated. BRCA mutations were detected in 26 of 92 patients (28%) with ovarian cancer, in 14 of 96 patients (15%) with breast cancer overall, and in 9 of 33 patients (27%) who had tumors that were negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epithelial growth factor 2 (triple-negative breast cancer). Most patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with locally advanced disease. The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) accounted for 35% of BRCA-associated ovarian cancers and 29% of BRCA-associated breast cancers. At 2% of the sequencing and MLPA cost, HISPANEL detected 68% of all BRCA mutations. In this study, a remarkably high prevalence of BRCA mutations was observed among patients with ovarian cancer and breast cancer who were not selected for family history, and the BRCA1 ex9-12del mutation explained 33% of the

  1. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  2. Analysis of chromosomal radiosensitivity of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers in BRCA families with the G2 micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Baert, Annelot; Depuydt, Julie; Van Maerken, Tom; Poppe, Bruce; Malfait, Fransiska; Van Damme, Tim; De Nobele, Sylvia; Perletti, Gianpaolo; De Leeneer, Kim; Claes, Kathleen B M; Vral, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives. BRCA2 is active in homologous recombination, a DNA damage repair pathway, specifically active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. We found a significantly increased radiosensitivity in a cohort of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to individuals without a familial history of breast cancer (P=0.046; Mann-Whitney U test). At the individual level, 50% of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (radiosensitivity score of 1 or 2), whereas 83% of the controls showed no radiosensitivity (P=0.038; one-tailed Fisher's exact test). An odds ratio of 5 (95% CI, 1.07-23.47) indicated an association between the BRCA2 mutation and radiosensitivity in healthy mutation carriers. These results indicate the need for the gentle use of ionizing radiation for either diagnostic or therapeutic use in BRCA2 mutation carriers. We detected no increased radiosensitivity in the non-carrier relatives.

  3. Significant clinical impact of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Alvarez-Gómez, Rosa María; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Herrera, Luis A.; Herzog, Josef; Castillo, Danielle; Mohar, Alejandro; Castro, Clementina; Gallardo, Lenny N.; Gallardo, Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Frequent recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics, including a large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), suggest that an ancestry-informed BRCA-testing strategy could reduce disparities and promote cancer prevention by enabling economical screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Mexico. Methods In a multistage approach, 188 cancer cases unselected for family cancer history (92 ovarian cancer and 96 breast cancer) were screened for BRCA mutations using a Hispanic mutation panel (HISPANEL®) of 115 recurrent mutations in a multiplex assay (114 on a mass spectroscopy platform, and a PCR assay for the BRCA1 ex9-12del mutation), followed by sequencing of all BRCA exons and adjacent intronic regions, and BRCA1 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) for HISPANEL negative cases. BRCA mutation prevalence was calculated and correlated with histology and tumor receptor status, and HISPANEL sensitivity was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 28% (26/92) of ovarian cancer cases and 15% (14/96) of breast cancer cases overall and 27% (9/33) of triple negative breast cancer. Most breast cancer cases were diagnosed with locally advanced disease. The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) accounted for 35% of the BRCA-associated ovarian cancer cases and 29% of the BRCA-associated breast cancer cases. At 2% of the sequencing and MLPA cost, the HISPANEL detected 68% of all BRCA mutations. Conclusion In this study, we found a remarkably high prevalence of BRCA mutations among ovarian and breast cases not selected for family history, and BRCA1 ex9-12del explained one third of the total. The remarkable frequency of BRCA1 ex9-12del in Mexico City supports a nearby origin of this Mexican founder mutation and may constitute a regional public health problem. The HISPANEL presents a translational opportunity for cost-effective genetic testing to enable breast and ovarian cancer

  4. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Aalfs, Cora M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van Asperen, Christi J; van Roozendaal, K E P; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E; Kennedy, M John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D P; Gayther, Simon A; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-04-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10(-4), rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10(-4), rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10(-4). The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among young Mexican women with triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Garza, C.; Weitzel, J. N.; Llacuachaqui, M.; Sifuentes, E.; Magallanes-Hoyos, M. C.; Gallardo, L.; Alvarez-Gómez, R. M.; Herzog, J.; Castillo, D.; Royer, R.; Akbari, Mohammad; Lara-Medina, F.; Herrera, L. A.; Mohar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Various guidelines recommend that women with triple-negative breast cancer should be tested for BRCA1 mutations, but the prevalence of mutations may vary with ethnic group and with geographic region, and the optimal cutoff age for testing has not been established. We estimated the frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among 190 women with triple-negative breast cancer, unselected for family history, diagnosed at age 50 or less at a single hospital in Mexico City. Patients were screened for 115 recurrent BRCA mutations, which have been reported previously in women of Hispanic origin, including a common large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del). A BRCA mutation was detected in 44 of 190 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (23 %). Forty-three mutations were found in BRCA1 and one mutation was found in BRCA2. Seven different mutations accounted for 39 patients (89 % of the total mutations). The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was found 18 times and accounted for 41 % of all mutations detected. There is a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young triple-negative breast cancer patients in Mexico. Women with triple-negative breast cancer in Mexico should be screened for mutations in BRCA1. PMID:25716084

  6. Association of Type and Location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations With Risk of Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; McGuffog, Lesley; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19 581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11 900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. EXPOSURES Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Breast and ovarian cancer risks. RESULTS Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22–1.74; P = 2 × 10−6), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01–1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR23, RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22–1.55; P = 6 × 10−9). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56–0.70; P = 9 × 10−17). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR13; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10–2.40; P = .01

  7. Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; McGuffog, Lesley; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Nathanson, Katherine L; Laitman, Yael; Kushnir, Anya; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Berger, Raanan; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan; Ehrencrona, Hans; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Seldon, Joyce; Ganz, Patricia A; Nussbaum, Robert L; Chan, Salina B; Odunsi, Kunle; Gayther, Simon A; Domchek, Susan M; Arun, Banu K; Lu, Karen H; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Godwin, Andrew K; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Daly, Mary B; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas v O; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Godino, Javier; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Bobolis, Kristie A; Sand, Sharon R; Fontaine, Annette; Savarese, Antonella; Pasini, Barbara; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Vignolo-Lutati, Francesca; Scuvera, Giulietta; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Genuardi, Maurizio; Radice, Paolo; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Gismondi, Viviana; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy; Torres, Diana; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E; Kennedy, M John; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Donaldson, Alan; Ellis, Steve; Sharma, Priyanka; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Becker, Alexandra; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Engert, Stefanie; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Mundhenke, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Fleisch, Markus; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, C R; Dikow, Nicola; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Steinemann, Doris; Kast, Karin; Beer, Marit; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Weber, Bernhard H; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Belotti, Muriel; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Damiola, Francesca; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Lasset, Christine; Sobol, Hagay; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Isaacs, Claudine; De Paepe, Anne; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Wakely, Katie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie V; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Romero, Atocha; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Verhoef, Senno; Collée, J Margriet; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Gille, Johannes J P; Wijnen, Juul T; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Kets, Carolien M; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; Devilee, Peter; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Kwong, Ava; Olah, Edith; Papp, Janos; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Darder, Esther; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Mónica; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Menkiszak, Janusz; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Simard, Jacques; Laframboise, Rachel; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Alducci, Elisa; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Lee, Min Hyuk; Park, Sue K; Kim, Sung-Won; Friebel, Tara M; Couch, Fergus J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Guidugli, Lucia; Wang, Xianshu; Tischkowitz, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Vijai, Joseph; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Kauff, Noah; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A

    2015-04-07

    Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. Breast and ovarian cancer risks. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95

  8. Tracking of the origin of recurrent mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the North-East of Italy and improved mutation analysis strategy.

    PubMed

    Cini, Giulia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Della Puppa, Lara; Cupelli, Elisa; Fornasin, Alessio; D'Elia, Angela Valentina; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe; Bertok, Sara; Miolo, Gianmaria; Maestro, Roberta; de Paoli, Paolo; Amoroso, Antonio; Viel, Alessandra

    2016-02-06

    About 20 % of hereditary breast cancers are caused by mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Since BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations may be spread throughout the gene, genetic testing is usually performed by direct sequencing of entire coding regions. In some populations, especially if relatively isolated, a few number of recurrent mutations is reported, sometimes caused by founder effect. BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening for mutations was carried out on 1114 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients complying with the eligibility criteria for BRCA testing. Haplotype analysis was performed on the probands carrying recurrent mutations and their relatives, using two sets of microsatellite markers covering the BRCA1 (D17S588, D17S806, D17S902, D17S1325, D17S855, D17S1328, D17S800, and D17S250) and BRCA2 (D13S220, D13S267, D13S171, D13S1701, D13S1698, D13S260, D13S290, D13S1246) loci. The DMLE + 2.2 software was used to estimate the age of BRCA1 c.676delT and BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G. A multiplex PCR and two different primer extension assays were optimized and used for genotyping the recurrent mutations of the two genes. In the time frame of almost 20 years of genetic testing, we have found that five BRCA1 and three BRCA2 mutations are recurrent in a substantial subset of carriers from North-East Italy and neighboring Istria, where they represent more than 50 % of all mutations. Microsatellite analyses identified a common haplotype of different length for each mutation. Age estimation of BRCA1 c.676delT and BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G mutations revealed that they arose in the Friuli Venezia Giulia area about 86 and 94 generations ago, respectively. Suggestion of an association between BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G and risk of breast cancer in males has emerged. Finally, we developed a simple and efficient pre-screening test, performing an in-house primer extension SNaPshot® assay for the rapid identification of the eight recurrent mutations. Proofs of common ancestry has been obtained for the eight recurrent

  9. [Fullerene Doxorubicin Nanotransporter for Target Interaction with mutated gene BRCA2].

    PubMed

    Skaličková, S; Löfelmann, M; Gargulák, M; Dočekalová, M; Ruttkay-Nedecký, B; Suchý, P; Kepinská, M; Kizek, R

    2017-01-01

    Malignant breast tumors are in developed countries, the most common cancer affecting mainly women. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are conditioned by genetic family burdens, caused by mutation in the BRCA2 gene. In the course of the treatment doxorubicin is frequently used therapeutics. Despite its therapeutic efficacy, however, it shows high cardiotoxicity. Possibility to increase the therapeutic window, represent nanotransporters. Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms whose physical-chemical properties indicate high stability. The complex of fullerene and doxorubicin enables the targeted method for the treatment. The aim of this work is to develop a nanotransporter system with an expected cytostatic effect without significant toxic effects. To 5mg of fullerene 0.5ml of distilled water was added and solution was subsequently placed for 30 min in an ultrasonic bath (50 W). Fullerenes with bound doxorubicin (DOXO) were purified from unbound DOXO by centrifugation (16,000g). For DOXO analysis acetate buffer was used. Fe2O3-NPs were prepared by reduction with borohydride and ammonia. Thereafter Fe2O3-AuNPs were prepared by thermal synthesis. Carbon nanotransporter (fullerene) for binding of doxorubicin (FULLER-DOXO) was designed and subsequently studied by biophysical methods. We have found that FULLER-DOXO size is larger than 100 nm and the zeta potential is around 24 mV. DOXO, interacts with FULLER by the electrostatic interaction, and its volume increases with the applied concentration (R2 = 0.96). In the following experiment FULLER-DOXO was modified with oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN; 10 µg/ml), and this way was FULLER-DOXO-ODN1 complex prepared. Bound ODN represents a specific sequence for targeting the complex to a point mutation in the BRCA2 gene. In order to prove the interaction magnetic gold nanoparticle modified with the complementary sequence to the test nanotransporter was designed (ODN2-Fe2O3-AuNPs). Formed complex

  10. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    strategies for women at inherited risk secondary to a mutation in either BRCA1 or BRCA2. In order to address some of these issues, with the assistance of...due to inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Science 302:643-646, 2003 13. Lakhani SR, Van De Vijver MJ, Jacquemier J, et al: The pathology of...women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: Na- tional Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) breast cancer prevention trial. JAMA

  11. Evaluation of Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Soucy, Penny; Healey, Sue; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael; Robson, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Ramus, Susan J.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Terry, Mary Beth; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hamann, Ute; Southey, Melissa; John, Esther M.; Chung, Wendy K.; Daly, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra S.; Goldgar, David E.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Slager, Susan; Hallberg, Emily; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Cohen, Nancy; Lawler, William; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Barile, Monica; Bonanni, Bernardo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Radice, Paolo; Savarese, Antonella; Papi, Laura; Giannini, Giuseppe; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Adlard, Julian; Brewer, Carole; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Hodgson, Shirley; Izatt, Louise; Lalloo, Fiona; Ong, Kai-ren; Godwin, Andrew K.; Arnold, Norbert; Dworniczak, Bernd; Engel, Christoph; Gehrig, Andrea; Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Kast, Karin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Barjhoux, Laure; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Elan, Camille; Golmard, Lisa; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sokolowska, Joanna; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Poppe, Bruce; de la Hoya, Miguel; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; de Lange, J. L.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Kets, Carolien M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Rookus, Matti A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A. M.; Kwong, Ava; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Brunet, Joan; Lazaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Lubinski, Jan; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Agata, Simona; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Park, Sue Kyung; Olswold, Curtis; Tischkowitz, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Gaddam, Pragna; Vijai, Joseph; Pfeiler, Georg; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Hulick, Peter J.; Hays, John L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Martyn, Julie; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Kruse, Torben A.; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Caligo, Maria A.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Berger, Raanan; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Arver, Brita; Borg, Ake; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rantala, Johanna; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Bradbury, Angela R.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Arun, Banu K.; James, Paul; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lester, Jenny; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 94 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk and 18 associated with ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Several of these are also associated with risk of BC or OC for women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the high-risk BC and OC genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. The combined effects of these variants on BC or OC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have not yet been assessed while their clinical management could benefit from improved personalized risk estimates. Methods: We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using BC and OC susceptibility SNPs identified through population-based GWAS: for BC (overall, estrogen receptor [ER]–positive, and ER-negative) and for OC. Using data from 15 252 female BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 carriers, the association of each PRS with BC or OC risk was evaluated using a weighted cohort approach, with time to diagnosis as the outcome and estimation of the hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation increase in the PRS. Results: The PRS for ER-negative BC displayed the strongest association with BC risk in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31, P = 8.2×10−53). In BRCA2 carriers, the strongest association with BC risk was seen for the overall BC PRS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.28, P = 7.2×10−20). The OC PRS was strongly associated with OC risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These translate to differences in absolute risks (more than 10% in each case) between the top and bottom deciles of the PRS distribution; for example, the OC risk was 6% by age 80 years for BRCA2 carriers at the 10th percentile of the OC PRS compared with 19% risk for those at the 90th percentile of PRS. Conclusions: BC and OC PRS are predictive of cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Incorporation of the PRS into risk prediction models has promise to better inform decisions on cancer risk management. PMID

  12. Evaluation of Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Soucy, Penny; Dennis, Joe; Domchek, Susan M; Robson, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B; Ramus, Susan J; Mavaddat, Nasim; Terry, Mary Beth; Neuhausen, Susan L; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 94 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk and 18 associated with ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Several of these are also associated with risk of BC or OC for women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the high-risk BC and OC genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. The combined effects of these variants on BC or OC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have not yet been assessed while their clinical management could benefit from improved personalized risk estimates. We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using BC and OC susceptibility SNPs identified through population-based GWAS: for BC (overall, estrogen receptor [ER]-positive, and ER-negative) and for OC. Using data from 15 252 female BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 carriers, the association of each PRS with BC or OC risk was evaluated using a weighted cohort approach, with time to diagnosis as the outcome and estimation of the hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation increase in the PRS. The PRS for ER-negative BC displayed the strongest association with BC risk in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31, P =  8.2×10 -53 ). In BRCA2 carriers, the strongest association with BC risk was seen for the overall BC PRS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.28, P =  7.2×10 -20 ). The OC PRS was strongly associated with OC risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These translate to differences in absolute risks (more than 10% in each case) between the top and bottom deciles of the PRS distribution; for example, the OC risk was 6% by age 80 years for BRCA2 carriers at the 10th percentile of the OC PRS compared with 19% risk for those at the 90th percentile of PRS. BC and OC PRS are predictive of cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Incorporation of the PRS into risk prediction models has promise to better inform decisions on cancer risk management.

  13. Identification of a new complex deleterious mutation in exon 18 of the BRCA2 gene in a hereditary male/female breast cancer family.

    PubMed

    Diez, Orland; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Masas, Miriam; Tenés, Anna; Yagüe, Carme; Arcusa, Angels; Llort, Gemma

    2010-09-01

    We report a novel complex mutation that consists of a deletion of 12 bp and an insertion of 2 bp (c.8402_8413del12ins2bp) in the exon 18 of the BRCA2 gene. This is a frameshift mutation that causes a disruption of the translational reading frame resulting in a stop codon downstream in the 2729 position of the BRCA2 protein. The mutation was present in a Spanish hereditary male/female breast cancer family.

  14. Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tom; Casadei, Silvia; Coats, Kathryn Hale; Swisher, Elizabeth; Stray, Sunday M; Higgins, Jake; Roach, Kevin C; Mandell, Jessica; Lee, Ming K; Ciernikova, Sona; Foretova, Lenka; Soucek, Pavel; King, Mary-Claire

    2006-03-22

    Genetic testing for inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has become integral to the care of women with a severe family history of breast or ovarian cancer, but an unknown number of patients receive negative (ie, wild-type) results when they actually carry a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Furthermore, other breast cancer genes generally are not evaluated. To determine the frequency and types of undetected cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, TP53, and PTEN among patients with breast cancer from high-risk families with negative (wild-type) genetic test results for BRCA1 and BRCA2. Between 2002-2005, probands from 300 US families with 4 or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer but with negative (wild-type) commercial genetic test results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were screened by multiple DNA-based and RNA-based methods to detect genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and germline mutations of all classes in CHEK2, TP53, and PTEN. Previously undetected germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, TP53, and PTEN that predispose to breast cancer; frequencies of these mutations among families with negative genetic test results. Of the 300 probands, 52 (17%) carried previously undetected mutations, including 35 (12%) with genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 or BRCA2, 14 (5%) with CHEK2 mutations, and 3 (1%) with TP53 mutations. At BRCA1 and BRCA2, 22 different genomic rearrangements were found, of sizes less than 1 kb to greater than 170 kb; of these, 14 were not previously described and all were individually rare. At CHEK2, a novel 5.6-kb genomic deletion was discovered in 2 families of Czechoslovakian ancestry. This deletion was found in 8 of 631 (1.3%) patients with breast cancer and in none of 367 healthy controls in the Czech and Slovak Republics. For all rearrangements, exact genomic breakpoints were determined and diagnostic primers validated. The 3 families with TP53 mutations included cases of childhood sarcoma or brain tumors in addition to

  15. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    PubMed

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with <10 % a priori risk, and found 1 BRCA1 (0.2 %) and 5 BRCA2 (0.9 %) carriers. Testing in a hospital-based unselected cohort of 532 Singaporean breast cancer cases revealed 6 BRCA1 (1.1 %) and 3 BRCA2 (0.6 %) carriers. Overall, 2 recurrent BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutations in Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.

  16. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Japanese patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ikuko; Hirotsu, Yosuke; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Ouchi, Hidetaka; Ikegami, Atsushi; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Amemiya, Kenji; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Omata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to ovarian cancer in Japanese patients is still unclear. This study investigated the frequency of germline mutations in BRCA1/2 in Japanese patients with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer, regardless of their family histories, which were suggestive of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Ninety-five unselected women with ovarian cancer who were seen from 2013 to 2015 at Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital were enrolled. Analyses of BRCA1/2 gene mutations were performed with next-generation sequencing. Twelve of the 95 patients (12.6%), including 5 in the BRCA1 (5.3%) and 7 in the BRCA2 (7.4%), had deleterious mutations. Among the 36 cases with a family history, 6 (16.7%) were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Notably, 6 of the 59 cases (10.2%) without a family history also had BRCA1/2 germline mutations. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P = .36). The presence of mutations and their clinical relevance were studied. Mutation carriers were diagnosed at advanced stages (100% of positive cases among stage III or IV cases) and had poor prognostic histological subtypes (100% of positive cases had high-grade serous adenocarcinomas). In this unselected Japanese population, approximately 13% of the cases with ovarian cancer appeared to be associated with an inherited risk, regardless of a family history. This finding indicates that BRCA1/2 genetic testing should be performed for all patients with ovarian cancers. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O’Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas v O; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benítez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de al Hoya, Miguel; Cañadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D’Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Bob; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous small studies found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian and contralateral breast cancers. Results There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (p-trend=1.2×10−5) but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2 carriers (p-trend=6.8×10−6). The proportion of triple negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histological grade than ER-positive tumors (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1, p=1.2×10−13 for BRCA1 and p=0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status (ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2=9.4, 95%CI:7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.3-2.3, under joint analysis). Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2=3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.4, p=4.4×10−14), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2=0.25, 95%CI:0.18-0.35, p=2.3×10−15). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (p=0.0004 for BRCA1; p=0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous:67%; mucinous:1%; endometriod:12%; clear-cell:2%). Conclusions/Impact Pathology characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis. PMID:22144499

  18. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

    PubMed

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L; Domchek, Susan M; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O'Malley, Frances; John, Esther M; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas V O; Nielsen, Finn C; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benítez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U; Hogervorst, Frans B; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Side, Lucy E; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Cañadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D'Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nussbaum, Robert; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2012-01-01

    Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancers. There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (P-trend = 1.2 × 10(-5)), but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2, carriers (P-trend = 6.8 × 10(-6)). The proportion of triple-negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histologic grade than ER-positive tumors (grade 3 vs. grade 1; P = 1.2 × 10(-13) for BRCA1 and P = 0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status [ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2 = 9.4, 95% CI: 7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.3, under joint analysis]. Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2 = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.4-4.4; P = 4.4 × 10(-14)), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2 = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18-0.35; P = 2.3 × 10(-15)). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (P = 0.0004 for BRCA1; P = 0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous: 67%; mucinous: 1%; endometrioid: 12%; clear-cell: 2%). CONCLUSIONS/IMPACT: Pathologic characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk-prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis.

  19. Refined histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status: a large-scale analysis of breast cancer characteristics from the BCAC, CIMBA, and ENIGMA consortia.

    PubMed

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J; Parsons, Michael T; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Healey, Sue; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Perkins, Jo; Evans, D Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Balleine, Rosemary; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Offitt, Kenneth; Jakubowska, Anna; Lindor, Noralane; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Rantala, Johanna; Borg, Åke; Andrulis, Irene L; Miron, Alexander; Hansen, Thomas V O; Caldes, Trinidad; Neuhausen, Susan L; Toland, Amanda E; Nevanlinna, Heli; Montagna, Marco; Garber, Judy; Godwin, Andrew K; Osorio, Ana; Factor, Rachel E; Terry, Mary B; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Karlan, Beth Y; Southey, Melissa; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Tung, Nadine; Pharoah, Paul D P; Blows, Fiona M; Dunning, Alison M; Provenzano, Elena; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Verhoef, Senno; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Slamon, Dennis J; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Olson, Janet E; Pankratz, Vernon S; John, Esther M; Whittemore, Alice S; West, Dee W; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Rüdiger, Thomas; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Eccles, Diana M; Tapper, William J; Durcan, Lorraine; Jones, Louise; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Dwek, Miriam; Swann, Ruth; Bane, Anita L; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Carpenter, Jane; Clarke, Christine; Scott, Rodney; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surovy, Harald; Yang, Rongxi; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hooning, Maartje J; Collée, J Margriet; Martens, John W M; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M A; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volke; Stegmaier, Christa; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Joseph, Vijai; Robson, Mark; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; González-Neira, Anna; Arias, José Ignacio; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Peterlongo, Paolo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo H; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goldgar, David E

    2014-12-23

    The distribution of histopathological features of invasive breast tumors in BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation carriers differs from that of individuals with no known mutation. Histopathological features thus have utility for mutation prediction, including statistical modeling to assess pathogenicity of BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance. We analyzed large pathology datasets accrued by the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) to reassess histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, and provide robust likelihood ratio (LR) estimates for statistical modeling. Selection criteria for study/center inclusion were estrogen receptor (ER) status or grade data available for invasive breast cancer diagnosed younger than 70 years. The dataset included 4,477 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 2,565 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 47,565 BCAC breast cancer cases. Country-stratified estimates of the likelihood of mutation status by histopathological markers were derived using a Mantel-Haenszel approach. ER-positive phenotype negatively predicted BRCA1 mutation status, irrespective of grade (LRs from 0.08 to 0.90). ER-negative grade 3 histopathology was more predictive of positive BRCA1 mutation status in women 50 years or older (LR = 4.13 (3.70 to 4.62)) versus younger than 50 years (LR = 3.16 (2.96 to 3.37)). For BRCA2, ER-positive grade 3 phenotype modestly predicted positive mutation status irrespective of age (LR = 1.7-fold), whereas ER-negative grade 3 features modestly predicted positive mutation status at 50 years or older (LR = 1.54 (1.27 to 1.88)). Triple-negative tumor status was highly predictive of BRCA1 mutation status for women younger than 50 years (LR = 3.73 (3.43 to 4.05)) and 50 years or older (LR = 4.41 (3.86 to 5.04)), and modestly predictive of positive BRCA2 mutation status in women 50 years or older (LR = 1.79 (1.42 to 2

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000690.htm BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing To use the sharing features on this ... br east ca ncer. What is the BRCA Gene Mutation? BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  2. Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea in Patients With Breast Cancer With a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Adriana; Finch, Amy; Lubiński, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Ghadirian, Parviz; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Lynch, Henry T.; Ainsworth, Peter J.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Greenblatt, Ellen; Singer, Christian; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the likelihood of long-term amenorrhea after treatment with chemotherapy in women with breast cancer who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Patients and Methods We conducted a multicenter survey of 1,954 young women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation who were treated for breast cancer. We included premenopausal women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 26 and 47 years of age. We determined the age of onset of amenorrhea after breast cancer for women who were and were not treated with chemotherapy, alone or with tamoxifen. We considered chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea to have occurred when the patient experienced ≥ 2 years of amenorrhea, commencing within 2 years of initiating chemotherapy, with no resumption of menses. Results Of the 1,426 women who received chemotherapy, 35% experienced long-term amenorrhea. Of the 528 women who did not receive chemotherapy, 5.3% developed long-term amenorrhea. The probabilities of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea were 7.2% for women diagnosed before age 30 years, 33% for women age 31 to 44 years, and 79% for women diagnosed after age 45 years (P trend < .001). The probability of induced amenorrhea was higher for women who received tamoxifen than for those who did not (52% v 29%; P < .001). Conclusion Age at treatment and use of tamoxifen are important predictors of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The risk of induced long-term amenorrhea does not seem to be greater among mutation carriers than among women who do not carry a mutation. PMID:23980083

  3. Evaluation of chromosome 6p22 as a breast cancer risk modifier locus in a follow-up study of BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Caligo, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Osorio, Ana; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S.; Singer, Christian F.; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Arason, Adalgeir; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Montagna, Marco; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Sucheston, Lara; Beattie, Mary; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differences in the absolute risk of developing breast cancer for mutation carriers, suggesting that additional modifier loci may further enhance individual risk assessment for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recently, a common variant on 6p22 (rs9393597) was found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% CI 1.25–1.92, p=6.0×10−5]. This observation was based on data from GWAS studies in which, despite statistical correction for multiple comparisons, the possibility of false discovery remains a concern. Here we report on an analysis of this variant in an additional 6,165 BRCA1 and 3,900 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). In this replication analysis, rs9393597 was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.96–1.24, p=0.18]. No association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers was observed. This follow-up study suggests that, contrary to our initial report, this variant is not associated with breast cancer risk among individuals with germline BRCA2 mutations. PMID:23011509

  4. Nonequivalent gene expression and copy number alterations in high-grade serous ovarian cancers with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    George, Joshy; Alsop, Kathryn; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Hondow, Heather; Mikeska, Thomas; Dobrovic, Alexander; deFazio, Anna; Smyth, Gordon K; Levine, Douglas A; Mitchell, Gillian; Bowtell, David D

    2013-07-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) accounts for the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer deaths. Genomic and functional data suggest that approximately half of unselected HGSC have disruption of the BRCA pathway and defects in homologous recombination repair (HRR). Pathway disruption is regarded as imparting a BRCAness phenotype. We explored the molecular changes in HGSC arising in association with specific BRCA1/BRCA2 somatic or germline mutations and in those with BRCA1 DNA promoter methylation. We describe gene expression and copy number analysis of two large cohorts of HGSC in which both germline and somatic inactivation of HRR has been measured. BRCA1 disruptions were associated with the C2 (immunoreactive) molecular subtype of HGSC, characterized by intense intratumoral T-cell infiltration. We derived and validated a predictor of BRCA1 mutation or methylation status, but could not distinguish BRCA2 from wild-type tumors. DNA copy number analysis showed that cases with BRCA1 mutation were significantly associated with amplification both at 8q24 (frequencies: BRCA1 tumors 50%, BRCA2 tumors 32%, and wild-type tumors 9%) and regions of the X-chromosome specifically dysregulated in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC; BRCA1 62%, BRCA2 34%, and wild-type 35%). Tumors associated with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations shared a negative association with amplification at 19p13 (BRCA1 0%, BRCA2 3%, and wild-type 20%) and 19q12 (BRCA1 6%, BRCA2 3%, and wild-type 29%). The molecular differences between tumors associated with BRCA1 compared with BRCA2 mutations are in accord with emerging clinical and pathologic data and support a growing appreciation of the relationship between HGSC and BLBC. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Breast-feeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Jernström, H; Lubinski, J; Lynch, H T; Ghadirian, P; Neuhausen, S; Isaacs, C; Weber, B L; Horsman, D; Rosen, B; Foulkes, W D; Friedman, E; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Ainsworth, P; Daly, M; Garber, J; Olsson, H; Sun, P; Narod, S A

    2004-07-21

    Several studies have reported that the risk of breast cancer decreases with increasing duration of breast-feeding. Whether breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk of hereditary breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is currently unknown. We conducted a case-control study of women with deleterious mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene. Study participants, drawn from an international cohort, were matched on the basis of BRCA mutation (BRCA1 [n = 685] or BRCA2 [n = 280]), year of birth (+/-2 years), and country of residence. The study involved 965 case subjects diagnosed with breast cancer and 965 control subjects who had no history of breast or ovarian cancer. Information on pregnancies and breast-feeding practices was derived from a questionnaire administered to the women during the course of genetic counseling. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among women with BRCA1 mutations, the mean total duration of breast-feeding was statistically significantly shorter for case subjects than for control subjects (6.0 versus 8.7 months, respectively; mean difference = 2.7 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4 to 4.0; P<.001). The total duration of breast-feeding was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (for each month of breast-feeding, OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99; P(trend)<.001). Women with BRCA1 mutations who breast-fed for more than 1 year were less likely to have breast cancer than those who never breast-fed (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.80; P =.001), although no such association was seen for BRCA2 (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.59; P =.83). Women with deleterious BRCA1 mutations who breast-fed for a cumulative total of more than 1 year had a statistically significantly reduced risk of breast cancer.

  6. An Exploratory Study to Determine Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Have Higher Risk of Cardiac Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Monique; Fradley, Michael; Sun, Weihong; Kim, Jongphil; Zhao, Xiuhua; Pal, Tuya; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Anthracycline-based cardiotoxicity is concerning for women with breast cancer and portends a dose-dependent risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction. Overall, the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is ≈2% of the total US population; however, BRCA-deficient mice have shown increased HF. We evaluated for the inherent risk of HF in women with BRCA mutations to determine whether treatment with anthracycline-based therapy increased this risk. We obtained results on BRCA mutation carriers regarding cancer treatment and HF, identified through the BRCA patient advocacy organization Facing Our Risk for Cancer Empowered (FORCE) and the Moffitt-based Inherited Cancer Registry. In our patient group (232 BRCA1 and 159 BRCA2 patients; 10 with both mutations), 7.7% reported HF, with similar proportions in BRCA1 versus BRCA2 carriers (7.4% and 8.2%, respectively). These proportions are significantly higher than published rates (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in HF rates comparing anthracycline-treated versus anthracycline-naïve patients however (7.1% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.67). In addition, 9.1% of BRCA1 carriers and 8.2% of BRCA2 carriers reported arrhythmias. BRCA mutation carriers showed increased risk of cardiotoxicity versus the general population and an overall increased risk of cardiotoxicity from anthracycline-based therapy. Our study supports data that BRCA carriers have increased non-cancer mortality from cardiotoxicity. A prospective trial to determine HF and conduction abnormalities in this population is warranted. PMID:28157161

  7. An Exploratory Study to Determine Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Have Higher Risk of Cardiac Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Monique; Fradley, Michael; Sun, Weihong; Kim, Jongphil; Zhao, Xiuhua; Pal, Tuya; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-02-02

    Anthracycline-based cardiotoxicity is concerning for women with breast cancer and portends a dose-dependent risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction. Overall, the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is ≈2% of the total US population; however, BRCA-deficient mice have shown increased HF. We evaluated for the inherent risk of HF in women with BRCA mutations to determine whether treatment with anthracycline-based therapy increased this risk. We obtained results on BRCA mutation carriers regarding cancer treatment and HF, identified through the BRCA patient advocacy organization Facing Our Risk for Cancer Empowered (FORCE) and the Moffittbased Inherited Cancer Registry. In our patient group (232 BRCA1 and 159 BRCA2 patients; 10 with both mutations), 7.7% reported HF, with similar proportions in BRCA1 versus BRCA2 carriers (7.4% and 8.2%, respectively). These proportions are significantly higher than published rates (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in HF rates comparing anthracycline-treated versus anthracycline-naïve patients however (7.1% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.67). In addition, 9.1% of BRCA1 carriers and 8.2% of BRCA2 carriers reported arrhythmias. BRCA mutation carriers showed increased risk of cardiotoxicity versus the general population and an overall increased risk of cardiotoxicity from anthracycline-based therapy. Our study supports data that BRCA carriers have increased noncancer mortality from cardiotoxicity. A prospective trial to determine HF and conduction abnormalities in this population is warranted.

  8. Association of BRCA Mutation Types, Imaging Features, and Pathologic Findings in Patients With Breast Cancer With BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Ha, Su Min; Chae, Eun Young; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Woo Jung

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the relationships between the BRCA mutation types, imaging features, and pathologic findings of breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We identified patients with breast cancer with BRCA gene mutations from January 2000 to December 2014. After excluding patients who underwent lesion excision before MRI, 99 BRCA1 and 103 BRCA2 lesions in 187 women (mean age, 39.7 and 40.4 years, respectively) were enrolled. Mammographic, sonographic, and MRI scans were reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon (5th edition). Pathologic data were reviewed, including the immunohistochemistry findings. The relationships between the BRCA mutations and both imaging and pathologic findings were analyzed. The distribution of molecular subtypes of tumors significantly differed by the mutation type. BRCA1 tumors were associated with the triple-negative subtype, whereas BRCA2 tumors were associated with the luminal B subtype (p = 0.002). At MRI, breast cancers with BRCA1 mutations exhibited a circumscribed margin (p = 0.032) and rim enhancement (p = 0.013). No significant differences in mass shape or kinetic features were observed at MRI. Cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers tended to develop in the posterior location in the breast (p = 0.034). At mammography, no significant difference in the prevalence of calcifications was observed according to the mutation type. At sonography, BRCA1 lesions were found to be associated with posterior acoustic enhancement (p < 0.0001). Breast cancers with BRCA1 mutations tend to exhibit benign morphologic features at MRI, mammography, and sonography, compared with BRCA2 mutations. Lesion location may represent another difference on imaging among various genetic phenotypes.

  9. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Heikkinen, T; Simard, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Healey, S; Neuhausen, S L; Ding, Y C; Couch, F J; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Manoukian, S; Barile, M; Viel, A; Tizzoni, L; Szabo, C I; Foretova, L; Zikan, M; Claes, K; Greene, M H; Mai, P; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Barnett-Griness, O; Andrulis, I L; Ozcelik, H; Weerasooriya, N; Gerdes, A-M; Thomassen, M; Cruger, D G; Caligo, M A; Friedman, E; Kaufman, B; Laitman, Y; Cohen, S; Kontorovich, T; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Dagan, E; Jernström, H; Askmalm, M S; Arver, B; Malmer, B; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Brunet, J; Ramón y Cajal, T; Yannoukakos, D; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; Verhoef, S; García, EB Gómez; Wijnen, J T; van den Ouweland, A; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Cook, J; Hodgson, S; Morrison, P J; Douglas, F; Godwin, A K; Sinilnikova, O M; Barjhoux, L; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Moncoutier, V; Giraud, S; Cassini, C; Olivier-Faivre, L; Révillion, F; Peyrat, J-P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Lynch, H T; John, E M; Buys, S; Daly, M; Hopper, J L; Terry, M B; Miron, A; Yassin, Y; Goldgar, D; Singer, C F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Pfeiler, G; Spiess, A-C; Hansen, Thomas v O; Johannsson, O T; Kirchhoff, T; Offit, K; Kosarin, K; Piedmonte, M; Rodriguez, G C; Wakeley, K; Boggess, J F; Basil, J; Schwartz, P E; Blank, S V; Toland, A E; Montagna, M; Casella, C; Imyanitov, E N; Allavena, A; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Ditsch, N; Arnold, N; Niederacher, D; Deißler, H; Fiebig, B; Varon-Mateeva, R; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Caldes, T; de la Hoya, M; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Nevanlinna, H; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out. PMID:19920816

  10. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA).

    PubMed

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Heikkinen, T; Simard, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Healey, S; Neuhausen, S L; Ding, Y C; Couch, F J; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Manoukian, S; Barile, M; Viel, A; Tizzoni, L; Szabo, C I; Foretova, L; Zikan, M; Claes, K; Greene, M H; Mai, P; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Barnett-Griness, O; Andrulis, I L; Ozcelik, H; Weerasooriya, N; Gerdes, A-M; Thomassen, M; Cruger, D G; Caligo, M A; Friedman, E; Kaufman, B; Laitman, Y; Cohen, S; Kontorovich, T; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Dagan, E; Jernström, H; Askmalm, M S; Arver, B; Malmer, B; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Brunet, J; Ramón Y Cajal, T; Yannoukakos, D; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; Verhoef, S; Gómez García, E B; Wijnen, J T; van den Ouweland, A; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Cook, J; Hodgson, S; Morrison, P J; Douglas, F; Godwin, A K; Sinilnikova, O M; Barjhoux, L; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Moncoutier, V; Giraud, S; Cassini, C; Olivier-Faivre, L; Révillion, F; Peyrat, J-P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Lynch, H T; John, E M; Buys, S; Daly, M; Hopper, J L; Terry, M B; Miron, A; Yassin, Y; Goldgar, D; Singer, C F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Pfeiler, G; Spiess, A-C; Hansen, Thomas V O; Johannsson, O T; Kirchhoff, T; Offit, K; Kosarin, K; Piedmonte, M; Rodriguez, G C; Wakeley, K; Boggess, J F; Basil, J; Schwartz, P E; Blank, S V; Toland, A E; Montagna, M; Casella, C; Imyanitov, E N; Allavena, A; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Ditsch, N; Arnold, N; Niederacher, D; Deissler, H; Fiebig, B; Varon-Mateeva, R; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Caldes, T; de la Hoya, M; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Nevanlinna, H; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2009-12-15

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P = 0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P = 0.5) mutation carriers. This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out.

  11. Modeling Impact of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    mastectomy , and have now collected a total of 16 samples. Epithelial cell isolation and immortalization is underway – we have one verified BRCA2...breast cancer burden in the US [1]. Prophylactic mastectomy , in concert with increased mammographic surveillance, remains the standard of care for BRCA1...lines, called MCK cells, from women opting for prophylactic mastectomy . These lines have been isolated from pre-neoplastic breast tissue that is not

  12. Health care provider recommendations for reducing cancer risks among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, K A; Kim-Sing, C; Ghadirian, P; Sun, P; Narod, S A

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant variation in the uptake of cancer risk reducing options by women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. It is currently unclear why these differences exist and it is possible that recommendations vary between providers and these influence patient decisions. Eligible health care providers who provide genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families in Canada were identified. Each provider was asked to complete a study specific questionnaire that included their opinion of various cancer risk reduction options and their recommendations for specific cases. Respondents recommended prophylactic oophorectomy more often than prophylactic mastectomy or tamoxifen for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (p < 0.0001). Fewer than half of the respondents agreed with the recommendation for prophylactic mastectomy, and a minority of the respondents supported the recommendation for tamoxifen for chemoprevention. The majority of Canadian genetics health care providers adhere to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guideline of recommending prophylactic oophorectomy to mutation carriers, however, the minority of genetics health care providers recommend either prophylactic mastectomy or tamoxifen. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Experience of Norwegian Female BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation-Carrying Participants in Educational Support Groups: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Myklebust, Marion; Gjengedal, Eva; Strømsvik, Nina

    2016-12-01

    Women identified as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are advised to manage their cancer risk through intensive screening programs and/or by undergoing risk-reducing surgery. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers living with cancer risk and their experiences with participation in educational support groups (ESG). This qualitative study enrolled 17 (10 + 7) ESG participants in two different ESGs. The focus group interviews were performed immediately prior to and following two ESGs. The data were analyzed using John Knodel's (1993) practical approach. Three main themes were identified; the women's expectation and experience with ESG, the feeling of loneliness and isolation, and the feelings of living with "something else." In this paper we have focused on one of the main themes- the women's expectation and experience with ESG. This main theme presents four subthemes: the women's need for unambiguous, clear and unified information from health professionals, the need for social support, the important role of the patient representative, and increased knowledge potentially raising concern. Participation in an ESG for women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can provide relevant information and support in the decision-making process related to risk-reducing surgery.

  14. Patient-derived xenografts reveal that intraductal carcinoma of the prostate is a prominent pathology in BRCA2 mutation carriers with prostate cancer and correlates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Risbridger, Gail P; Taylor, Renea A; Clouston, David; Sliwinski, Ania; Thorne, Heather; Hunter, Sally; Li, Jason; Mitchell, Gillian; Murphy, Declan; Frydenberg, Mark; Pook, David; Pedersen, John; Toivanen, Roxanne; Wang, Hong; Papargiris, Melissa; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Bolton, Damien M

    2015-03-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). PCa patients carrying a breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) germline mutation exhibit highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. To investigate the presence and implications of IDC-P in men with a strong family history of PCa who either carry a BRCA2 pathogenic mutation or do not carry the mutation (BRCAX). Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were generated from three germline BRCA2 mutation carriers and one BRCAX patient. Specimens were examined for histologic evidence of IDC-P. Whole-genome copy number analysis (WG-CNA) was performed on IDC-P from a primary and a matched PDX specimen. The incidence of IDC-P and association with overall survival for BRCA2 and BRCAX patients were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. PDXs from BRCA2 tumours showed increased incidence of IDC-P compared with sporadic PCa (p=0.015). WG-CNA confirmed that the genetic profile of IDC-P from a matched (primary and PDX) BRCA2 tumour was similar. The incidence of IDC-P was significantly increased in BRCA2 carriers (42%, n=33, p=0.004) but not in BRCAX patients (25.8%, n=62, p=0.102) when both groups were compared with sporadic cases (9%, n=32). BRCA2 carriers and BRCAX patients with IDC-P had significantly worse overall and PCa-specific survival compared with BRCA2 carriers and BRCAX patients without IDC-P (hazard ratio [HR]: 16.9, p=0.0064 and HR: 3.57, p=0.0086, respectively). PDXs revealed IDC-P in patients with germline BRCA2 mutations or BRCAX classification, identifying aggressive tumours with poor survival even when the stage and grade of cancer at diagnosis were similar. Further studies of the prognostic significance of IDC-P in sporadic PCa are warranted. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate is common in patients with familial prostate cancer and is associated with poor outcomes. This finding affects genetic counselling and identifies patients

  15. No association of TGFB1 L10P genotypes and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a multi-center cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Llopis, Trinidad Caldes; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J; Pereira, Lutecia H Mateus; Greene, Mark H; Andrulis, Irene L; Pasche, Boris; Kaklamani, Virginia; Hamann, Ute; Szabo, Csilla; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Harrington, Patricia A; Donaldson, Alan; Male, Allison M; Gardiner, Carol Anne; Gregory, Helen; Side, Lucy E; Robinson, Anne C; Emmerson, Louise; Ellis, Ian; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Schaefer, Dieter; Froster, Ursula G; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-05-01

    The transforming growth factor beta-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-beta, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population. To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers. We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92-1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81-1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  16. Modifiers of Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Friebel, Tara M.; Domchek, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is substantial variability in cancer risk in women who have inherited a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation. Numerous factors have been hypothesized to modify these risks, but studies are of variable quality, and it remains unclear which of these may be of value in clinical risk assessment. Methods PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for articles published through September 2013. Fixed effects meta-analysis was done using the hazard ratios and/or odds ratios to estimate the pooled effect estimates (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to identify factors that are associated with cancer risk modification in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Results We identified 44 nonoverlapping studies that met predefined quality criteria. Sufficient evidence is available to make clinically relevant inferences about a number of cancer risk modifiers. The only variable examined that produced a probable association was late age at first live birth, a meta-analysis showed a decrease in the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers with women aged 30 years or older vs. women younger than 30 years (ES = 0.65; 95% CI =0.42 to 0.99). The same was shown for women aged 25 to 29 years versus those aged less than 25 years (ES = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99). Breastfeeding and tubal ligation were associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers; oral contraceptives were associated with reduced risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Smoking was associated with increased breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers only. Conclusions Data assessing many potential risk modifiers are inadequate, and many have not been externally validated. Although additional studies are required to confirm some associations, sufficient information is available for some risk factors to be used in risk counseling or lifestyle modification to minimize cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:24824314

  17. Fertility treatments and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk in Jewish Israeli BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Perri, Tamar; Lifshitz, Dror; Sadetzki, Siegal; Oberman, Bernice; Meirow, Dror; Ben-Baruch, Gilad; Friedman, Eitan; Korach, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether BRCA mutation carriers who undergo fertility treatments are at increased risk of developing invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (IEOC). Historical cohort study. Tertiary university-affiliated medical center and the National Cancer Registry. A total of 1,073 Jewish Israeli BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed in a single institution between 1995 and 2013, including 164 carriers (15.2%) who had fertility treatments that included clomiphene citrate (n = 82), gonadotropin (n = 69), in vitro fertilization (IVF) (n = 66), or a combination (n = 50), and 909 carriers not treated for infertility. None. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for IEOC association with fertility treatments and other hormone and reproductive variables. In 175 (16.3%) mutation carriers, IEOC was diagnosed; 139 women carried BRCA1, 33 carried BRCA2, and 3 had unknown mutations. Fertility treatments were not associated with IEOC risk (age-adjusted OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.38-1.05) regardless of treatment type (with clomiphene citrate, OR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.46-1.63; with gonadotropin, OR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.26-1.31; with IVF, OR 1.08, 95% CI, 0.57-2.06). Multivariate analysis indicated an increased risk of IEOC with hormone-replacement therapy (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.33-3.69) and a reduced risk with oral contraceptives (OR 0.19; 95% CI, 0.13-0.28) in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Parity was a risk factor for IEOC by univariate but not multivariate analysis. According to our results, treatments for infertile BRCA mutation carriers should not be contraindicated or viewed as risk modifiers for IEOC. Parity as a risk factor in BRCA mutation carriers warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a Brazilian population sample at-risk for hereditary breast cancer and characterization of its genetic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gabriela C; Michelli, Rodrigo A D; Galvão, Henrique C R; Paula, André E; Pereira, Rui; Andrade, Carlos E; Felicio, Paula S; Souza, Cristiano P; Mendes, Deise R P; Volc, Sahlua; Berardinelli, Gustavo N; Grasel, Rebeca S; Sabato, Cristina S; Viana, Danilo V; Mauad, Edmundo C; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Arun, Banu; Reis, Rui M; Palmero, Edenir I

    2016-12-06

    There are very few data about the mutational profile of families at-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) from Latin America (LA) and especially from Brazil, the largest and most populated country in LA. Of the 349 probands analyzed, 21.5% were BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated, 65.3% at BRCA1 and 34.7% at BRCA2 gene. The mutation c.5266dupC (former 5382insC) was the most frequent alteration, representing 36.7% of the BRCA1 mutations and 24.0% of all mutations identified. Together with the BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG mutation, these mutations constitutes about 35% of the identified mutations and more than 50% of the BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. Interestingly, six new mutations were identified. Additionally, 39 out of the 44 pathogenic mutations identified were not previously reported in the Brazilian population. Besides, 36 different variants of unknown significance (VUS) were identified. Regarding ancestry, average ancestry proportions were 70.6% European, 14.5% African, 8.0% Native American and 6.8% East Asian. This study characterized 349 Brazilian families at-risk for HBOC regarding their germline BRCA1/BRCA2 status and genetic ancestry. This is the largest report of BRCA1/BRCA2 assessment in an at-risk HBOC Brazilian population. We identified 21.5% of patients harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and characterized the genetic ancestry of a sample group at-risk for hereditary breast cancer showing once again how admixed is the Brazilian population. No association was found between genetic ancestry and mutational status. The knowledge of the mutational profile in a population can contribute to the definition of more cost-effective strategies for the identification of HBOC families.

  19. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in males with familial breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Results of a Spanish multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Juan, Inmaculada; Palanca, Sarai; Domenech, Asunción; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Segura, Ángel; Osorio, Ana; Chirivella, Isabel; de la Hoya, Miguel; Sánchez, Ana Beatriz; Infante, Mar; Tena, Isabel; Díez, Orland; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Vega, Ana; Teulé, Àlex; Barroso, Alicia; Pérez, Pedro; Durán, Mercedes; Carrasco, Estela; Juan-Fita, M José; Murria, Rosa; Llop, Marta; Barragan, Eva; Izquierdo, Ángel; Benítez, Javier; Caldés, Trinidad; Salas, Dolores; Bolufer, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that represents <1% of all breast cancers (BCs). We analyze the results of a multicenter study performed in Spanish familial MBC including family history of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS) and clinicopathological features. We also study the relationship between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutational status in male relatives affected with cancer (MAC) and, family history and tumor types. The study included 312 men index cases with family history of HBOCS and 61 MAC BRCA1/2 mutation-carriers. Family history, histological grade (HG), clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry data were collected. BRCA1/2 mutation analyses were performed by direct sequencing or screening methods and the large rearrangements by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. We found 49 mutation-carriers (15.7%), 95.9% with BRCA2 mutations. BRCA2 mutation-carriers were associated with families with at least one MBC and one BC in female (type II; p = 0.05). Strong association were found between the presence of pathogenic mutations in MBCs and the advanced HG (p = 0.003). c.658_659delTG, c.2808_2811delACAA, c.6275_6276delTT and c.9026_9030delATCAT were the most prevalent mutations. In 61 MAC we found 20 mutations in BRCA1 and 41 in BRCA2. For MAC we show that mutational status was differentially associated with family history (p = 0.018) and tumor type, being BRCA2 mutations linked with BC and prostatic cancer (p = 0.018). MBC caused by BRCA1/2 mutations define two types of MBCs. The most frequent caused by BRCA2 mutation linked to type II families and the rarest one attributed to BRCA1 mutation. Tumor associated with MAC suggest that only BRCA2 mutations have to do with a specific type of cancer (BC and prostatic cancer); but the linkage to tumors is questionable for BRCA1 mutations .

  20. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E.P.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deißler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25, P-trend = 2.8 × 10−4]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04–1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98–1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case–control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not. PMID:19656774

  1. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Collee, J Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; van der Luijt, Rob B; Aalfs, Cora M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E P; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Singer, Christian; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v O; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-11-15

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 x 10(-4)]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case-control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not.

  2. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan C; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Paluch-Shimon, Shani-; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M; de Lange, Judith L; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Asperen, Christi J; Gómez García, Encarna B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V O; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar T; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L; Narod, Steven A; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Couch, Fergus J; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Loud, Jennifer T; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Neuhausen, Susan L

    2012-08-01

    We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 (HR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.92; P = 0.019) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.52, P = 0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class II mutations than class I mutations (class II HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.70; class I HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.69-1.09; P(difference), 0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers (HR, 2.42; P = 0.03). The IRS1 Gly972Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers. These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. ©2012 AACR.

  3. The relative contribution of point mutations and genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in high risk breast cancer families

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Maurizia Dalla; Domchek, Susan M.; Stopfer, Jill; Erlichman, Julie; Siegfried, Jill D.; Tigges-Cardwell, Jessica; Mason, Bernard A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening is increasing, as their identification will impact medical management. However, both the contribution of different mutation types in BRCA1 and BRCA2, and whom should be offered testing for large genomic rearrangements, have not been well established in the United States high risk population. We define the prevalence and spectrum of point mutations and genomic rearrangements in BRCA genes in a large US high-risk clinic population of both non-Ashkenazi and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, using a sample set representative of the US genetic testing population. Two hundred and fifty-one probands ascertained through the University of Pennsylvania high-risk clinic, all with commercial testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, an estimated prevalence of BRCA mutation ≥ 10% using the Myriad II model and a DNA sample available, were studied. Individuals without deleterious point mutations were screened for genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the 136 non-Ashkenazi Jewish probands, 36 (26%) BRCA point mutations and 8 (6%) genomic rearrangements, seven in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2, were identified. Forty-seven (40%) of the 115 Ashkenazi Jewish probands had point mutations; no genomic rearrangements were identified the group without mutations. In the non-Ashkenazi Jewish probands, genomic rearrangements constituted 18% of all identified BRCA mutations; estimated mutation prevalence (Myriad II model) was not predictive of their presence. While these findings should be confirmed in larger sample sets, our data suggest that genomic rearrangement testing be considered in all non-Ashkenazi Jewish women with an estimated mutation prevalence ≥ 10%. PMID:18703817

  4. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shani-Shimon–Paluch; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; García, Encarna B. Gómez; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Maria, Muy-Kheng Tea; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. Results Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06–1.92; p = 0.019] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.39–3.52, p=0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class 2 mutations than class 1 (mutations (class 2 HR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70; class 1 HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.69–1.09; p-for difference=0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers (HR = 2.42; p = 0.03). Conclusion The IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22729394

  5. Interpersonal Responses Among Sibling Dyads Tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Heidi A.; Croyle, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy W.; Smith, Ken R.; Ruiz, John M.; Kircher, John C.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The familial context plays an important role in psychosocial responses to genetic testing. The purpose of this study was to compare sibling pairs with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results on measures of affect, interpersonal responses, and physiological reactions. Design Forty-nine sibling dyads with different combinations of BRCA1/BRCA2 test results (i.e., mixed, positive, negative) completed a questionnaire, and 35 of the dyads also participated in a laboratory-based discussion of genetic testing. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variables included participant reports of supportive actions toward their sibling, state anger and anxiety, perceptions of sibling behavior, and electrodermal responses. Results Compared to positive and negative dyads, mixed pairs reported less friendly general support actions, noted more anger, and perceived their sibling to be less friendly and more dominant during the interactions. In comparisons between same-result (i.e., positive, negative) pairs, positive dyads reported more dominant support behaviors and perceived their sibling to be friendlier during the interactions. Conclusion Data suggest that siblings who have different test results may experience more interpersonal strain than siblings who have the same test result. Future research on genetic testing and family relationships can expand upon these findings. PMID:18230020

  6. Oophorectomy after menopause and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Lynch, Henry T; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Neuhausen, Susan; Demsky, Rochelle; Foulkes, William D; Ghadirian, Parviz; Tung, Nadine; Ainsworth, Peter; Senter, Leigha; Karlan, Beth; Eisen, Andrea; Eng, Charis; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Gilchrist, Dawna M; Blum, Joanne L; Zakalik, Dana; Singer, Christian; Fallen, Taya; Ginsburg, Ophira; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles and its contributing components on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. We conducted a matched case-control study on 2,854 pairs of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the number of ovulatory cycles and various exposures and the risk of breast cancer. Information from a subset of these women enrolled in a prospective cohort study was used to calculate age-specific breast cancer rates. The annual risk of breast cancer decreased with the number of ovulatory cycles experienced (ρ = -0.69; P = 0.03). Age at menarche and duration of breastfeeding were inversely related with risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 (P(trend) < 0.0001) but not among BRCA2 (P(trend) ≥ 0.28) mutation carriers. The reduction in breast cancer risk associated with surgical menopause [OR, 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.66; P(trend) < 0.0001] was greater than that associated with natural menopause (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.62-1.07; P(trend) = 0.14). There was a highly significant reduction in breast cancer risk among women who had an oophorectomy after natural menopause (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.54; P = 0.006). These data challenge the hypothesis that breast cancer risk can be predicted by the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles in women with a BRCA mutation. Both pre- and postmenopausal oophorectomy protect against breast cancer. Understanding the basis for the protective effect of oophorectomy has important implications for chemoprevention. ©2012 AACR

  7. Oophorectomy after Menopause and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Lynch, Henry T.; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Neuhausen, Susan; Demsky, Rochelle; Foulkes, William D.; Ghadirian, Parviz; Tung, Nadine; Ainsworth, Peter; Senter, Leigha; Karlan, Beth; Eisen, Andrea; Eng, Charis; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Gilchrist, Dawna M.; Blum, Joanne L.; Zakalik, Dana; Singer, Christian; Fallen, Taya; Ginsburg, Ophira; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles and its contributing components on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods We conducted a matched case-control study on 2,854 pairs of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the number of ovulatory cycles and various exposures and the risk of breast cancer. Information from a subset of these women enrolled in a prospective cohort study was used to calculate age-specific breast cancer rates. Results The annual risk of breast cancer decreased with the number of ovulatory cycles experienced (ρ = −0.69; P = 0.03). Age at menarche and duration of breastfeeding were inversely related with risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 (P-trend < 0.0001) but not among BRCA2 (P-trend ≥ 0.28) mutation carriers. The reduction in breast cancer risk associated with surgical menopause (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.40–0.66; P-trend < 0.0001) was greater than that associated with natural menopause (OR = 0.81; 95%CI 0.62–1.07; P-trend = 0.14). There was a highly significant reduction in breast cancer risk among women who had an oophorectomy after natural menopause (OR = 0.13; 95%CI 0.02–0.54; P = 0.006). Conclusions These data challenge the hypothesis that breast cancer risk can be predicted by the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles in women with a BRCA mutation. Both pre- and post-menopausal oophorectomy protect against breast cancer. Impact Understanding the basis for the protective effect of oophorectomy has important implications for chemoprevention. PMID:22564871

  8. Efficacy versus effectiveness of clinical genetic testing criteria for BRCA1 and BRCA2 hereditary mutations in incident breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martin P; Winter, Christof; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Rehn, Martin; Larsson, Christer; Saal, Lao H; Loman, Niklas

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence supports the benefit of identifying BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in early breast cancer. Selection of patients for genetic testing is based on defined criteria taking individual and family history related factors into account. It is important to make a distinction between efficacy and effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria. Efficacy can be defined as the performance under ideal circumstances, whereas effectiveness refers to its real life performance. To allow for an unbiased and detailed evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Swedish BRCA testing criteria, we retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 273 breast cancer patients from the well-characterized, population-based, single-site All Breast Cancer in Malmö (ABiM) study. The patients were diagnosed with breast cancer during the years 2007 through 2009. Out of 20 mutation carriers identified, 13 fulfilled Swedish criteria at time of diagnosis. Thus, the efficacy of these criteria was 65%. Excluding three patients in whom a mutation was already known at time of diagnosis, only 3/17 had been identified in the clinical routine, corresponding to an effectiveness of 18%. Here we detail the reasons why mutation carriers in our cohort were not detected though routine health care. In conclusion, effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria was much lower than efficacy. Our results indicate that current testing criteria and procedures associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing are insufficient. There is room for improvement of their efficacy, but even more so regarding effectiveness. Clinical BRCA testing routines need to be critically revised.

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  10. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  11. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; den Enden, Apollonia T. Helderman-van; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful

  12. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2014-09-01

    Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrollment in the study. We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrollment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the

  13. Diagnostic chest X-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; McGuire, Valerie; Thomas, Duncan; Haile, Robert; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Milne, Roger L; Felberg, Anna; West, Dee W; Miron, Alexander; Knight, Julia A; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra S; Andrulis, Irene L; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Apicella, Carmel; Thorne, Heather; Whittemore, Alice S

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low-dose medical radiation on breast cancer risk are uncertain, and few studies have included genetically susceptible women, such as those who carry germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. We studied 454 BRCA1 and 273 BRCA2 mutation carriers ages younger than 50 years from three breast cancer family registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with diagnostic chest X-rays by comparing mutation carriers with breast cancer (cases) with those without breast cancer (controls). Exposure to chest X-rays was self-reported. Mammograms were not considered in the analysis. After adjusting for known risk factors for breast cancer, the ORs for a history of diagnostic chest X-rays, excluding those for tuberculosis or pneumonia, were 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-2.11] for BRCA1 mutations carriers and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.62-2.42) for BRCA2 mutations carriers. The OR was statistically elevated for BRCA2 mutation carriers with three to five diagnostic chest X-rays (P = 0.01) but not for those with six or more chest X-rays. Few women reported chest fluoroscopy for tuberculosis or chest X-rays for pneumonia; the OR estimates were elevated, but not statistically significant, for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Our findings do not support a positive association between diagnostic chest X-rays and breast cancer risk before the ages of 50 years for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the increasing use of diagnostic imaging involving higher ionizing radiation doses, further studies of genetically predisposed women are warranted. ©2013 AACR.

  14. Diagnostic chest x-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; McGuire, Valerie; Thomas, Duncan; Haile, Robert; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Milne, Roger L.; Felberg, Anna; West, Dee W.; Miron, Alexander; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra S.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Apicella, Carmel; Thorne, Heather; Whittemore, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of low-dose medical radiation on breast cancer risk are uncertain, and few studies have included genetically susceptible women, such as those who carry germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Methods We studied 454 BRCA1 and 273 BRCA2 mutation carriers aged <50 years from three breast cancer family registries in the USA, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with diagnostic chest x-rays by comparing mutation carriers with breast cancer (cases) with those without breast cancer (controls). Exposure to chest x-rays was self-reported. Mammograms were not considered in the analysis. Results After adjusting for known risk factors for breast cancer, the odds ratio (OR) for a history of diagnostic chest x-rays, excluding those for tuberculosis or pneumonia, was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64–2.11) for BRCA1 mutations carriers and 1.22 (95% CI=0.62–2.42) for BRCA2 mutations carriers. The OR was statistically elevated for BRCA2 mutation carriers with 3–5 diagnostic chest x-rays (p = 0.01), but not for those with 6 or more chest x-rays. Few women reported chest fluoroscopy for tuberculosis or chest x-rays for pneumonia; the OR estimates were elevated, but not statistically significant, for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Conclusions Our findings do not support a positive association between diagnostic chest x-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Given the increasing use of diagnostic imaging involving higher ionizing radiation doses, further studies of genetically predisposed women are warranted. PMID:23853209

  15. The impact of contralateral mastectomy on mortality in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Narod, Steven A

    2011-07-01

    Among women with breast cancer and a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, the lifetime risk of breast cancer may be as high as 40%. Many physicians recommend prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, which is an effective measure of minimising the risk of contralateral cancer. The benefits of preventive contralateral mastectomy are apparent within 10 years, in terms of preventing cancer, but a much longer time period is required in order to demonstrate a reduction in mortality. Under the simple model presented here, among women who retain the contralateral breast, 0.4% of women are expected to die of contralateral breast cancer within 5 years, but 6.8% are expected to die at 20 years from diagnosis. These unnecessary deaths can be prevented by bilateral mastectomy.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Population-Based BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D, BRIP1, PALB2 Mutation Testing in Unselected General Population Women.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Patel, Shreeya; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Antoniou, Antonis C; Smith, Shantel; Lee, Andrew; Hopper, John L; MacInnis, Robert J; Turnbull, Clare; Ramus, Susan J; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Legood, Rosa

    2018-01-18

    The cost-effectiveness of population-based panel testing for high- and moderate-penetrance ovarian cancer (OC)/breast cancer (BC) gene mutations is unknown. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of population-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 mutation testing compared with clinical criteria/family history (FH) testing in unselected general population women. A decision-analytic model comparing lifetime costs and effects of criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing is compared with BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 testing in those fulfilling clinical criteria/strong FH of cancer (≥10% BRCA1/BRCA2 probability) and all women age 30 years or older. Analyses are presented for UK and US populations. Identified carriers undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 carriers can opt for magnetic resonance imaging/mammography, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing mastectomy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) enabled model uncertainty evaluation. Outcomes include OC, BC, and additional heart disease deaths. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), OC incidence, BC incidence, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. The time horizon is lifetime and perspective is payer. Compared with clinical criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing, clinical criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 testing is cost-effective (ICER = £7629.65/QALY or $49 282.19/QALY; 0.04 days' life-expectancy gained). Population-based testing for BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 mutations is the most cost-effective strategy compared with current policy: ICER = £21 599.96/QALY or $54 769.78/QALY (9.34 or 7.57 days' life-expectancy gained). At £30 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY willingness-to-pay thresholds, population-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 panel testing is the preferred strategy in 83.7% and 92.7% of PSA simulations; criteria/FH-based panel testing is preferred in 16.2% and 5.8% of simulations

  17. RAD51 135G→C Modifies Breast Cancer Risk among BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from a Combined Analysis of 19 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C. ; Sinilnikova, Olga M. ; Simard, Jacques ; Léoné, Mélanie ; Dumont, Martine ; Neuhausen, Susan L. ; Struewing, Jeffery P. ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique ; Barjhoux, Laure ; Hughes, David J. ; Coupier, Isabelle ; Belotti, Muriel ; Lasset, Christine ; Bonadona, Valérie ; Bignon, Yves-Jean ; Rebbeck, Timothy R. ; Wagner, Theresa ; Lynch, Henry T. ; Domchek, Susan M. ; Nathanson, Katherine L. ; Garber, Judy E. ; Weitzel, Jeffrey ; Narod, Steven A. ; Tomlinson, Gail ; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. ; Godwin, Andrew ; Isaacs, Claudine ; Jakubowska, Anna ; Lubinski, Jan ; Gronwald, Jacek ; Górski, Bohdan ; Byrski, Tomasz ; Huzarski, Tomasz ; Peock, Susan ; Cook, Margaret ; Baynes, Caroline ; Murray, Alexandra ; Rogers, Mark ; Daly, Peter A. ; Dorkins, Huw ; Schmutzler, Rita K. ; Versmold, Beatrix ; Engel, Christoph ; Meindl, Alfons ; Arnold, Norbert ; Niederacher, Dieter ; Deissler, Helmut ; Spurdle, Amanda B. ; Chen, Xiaoqing ; Waddell, Nicola ; Cloonan, Nicole ; Kirchhoff, Tomas ; Offit, Kenneth ; Friedman, Eitan ; Kaufmann, Bella ; Laitman, Yael ; Galore, Gilli ; Rennert, Gad ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Raskin, Leon ; Andrulis, Irene L. ; Ilyushik, Eduard ; Ozcelik, Hilmi ; Devilee, Peter ; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G. ; Greene, Mark H. ; Prindiville, Sheila A. ; Osorio, Ana ; Benítez, Javier ; Zikan, Michal ; Szabo, Csilla I. ; Kilpivaara, Outi ; Nevanlinna, Heli ; Hamann, Ute ; Durocher, Francine ; Arason, Adalgeir ; Couch, Fergus J. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia 

    2007-01-01

    RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA–repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G→C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G→C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25–2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83–1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91–1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39–7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G→C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5′ UTR. Thus, 135G→C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:17999359

  18. Genomic patterns resembling BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers predict benefit of intensified carboplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction BRCA-mutated breast cancer cells lack the DNA-repair mechanism homologous recombination that is required for error-free DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) may cause hypersensitivity to DNA DSB-inducing agents, such as bifunctional alkylating agents and platinum salts. HRD can be caused by BRCA mutations, and by other mechanisms. To identify HRD, studies have focused on triple-negative (TN) breast cancers as these resemble BRCA1-mutated breast cancer closely and might also share this hypersensitivity. However, ways to identify HRD in non-BRCA-mutated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers have remained elusive. The current study provides evidence that genomic patterns resembling BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated breast cancers can identify breast cancer patients with TN as well as ER-positive, HER2-negative tumors that are sensitive to intensified, DSB-inducing chemotherapy. Methods Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to classify breast cancers. Patients with tumors with similar aCGH patterns as BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-mutated breast cancers were defined as having a BRCA-likeCGH status, others as non-BCRA-likeCGH. Stage-III patients (n = 249) had participated in a randomized controlled trial of adjuvant high-dose (HD) cyclophosphamide-thiotepa-carboplatin (CTC) versus 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FE90C) chemotherapy. Results Among patients with BRCA-likeCGH tumors (81/249, 32%), a significant benefit of HD-CTC compared to FE90C was observed regarding overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.48) that was not seen for patients with non-BRCA-likeCGH tumors (adjusted hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.54) (P = 0.004). Half of all BRCA-likeCGH tumors were ER-positive. Conclusions Distinct aCGH patterns differentiated between HER2-negative patients with a markedly improved outcome after adjuvant treatment with an intensified DNA-DSB-inducing regimen

  19. Invasive breast cancer following bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy in a BRCA2 mutation carrier: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Lidia; Mesurolle, Benoit; Tremblay, Francine; Galvez, Maria; Halwani, Fawaz; Foulkes, William D

    2005-01-01

    Background Primary prevention of breast cancer through prophylactic mastectomy can reduce the risk of malignancy in high-risk individuals. No type of mastectomy completely removes all breast tissue, but a subcutaneous mastectomy leaves more tissue in situ than does a simple mastectomy. Case presentation We report a case of invasive breast cancer in a BRCA2-positive woman 33 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy. To our knowledge, only one case of primary breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy in a BRCA1-positive patient has been reported in the literature and none in BRCA2-positive individuals. Conclusion Careful documentation and long follow-up is essential to fully assess the benefits and risks of preventive surgical procedures in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:16079000

  20. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in Central and South American populations.

    PubMed

    Jara, Lilian; Morales, Sebastian; de Mayo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Hormazabal, Patricio; Carrasco, Valentina; Godoy, Raul

    2017-10-06

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. A major advance in the understanding of the genetic etiology of BC was the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes, which are considered high-penetrance BC genes. In non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, disease susceptibility may be explained of a small number of mutations in BRCA1/2 and a much higher proportion of mutations in ethnicity-specific moderate- and/or low-penetrance genes. In Central and South American populations, studied have focused on analyzing the distribution and prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations and other susceptibility genes that are scarce in Latin America as compared to North America, Europe, Australia, and Israel. Thus, the aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenic BRCA variants and other BC susceptibility genes. We conducted a comprehensive review of 47 studies from 12 countries in Central and South America published between 2002 and 2017 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of mutations and pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and other BC susceptibility genes. The studies on BRCA1/2 mutations screened a total of 5956 individuals, and studies on susceptibility genes analyzed a combined sample size of 11,578 individuals. To date, a total of 190 different BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations in Central and South American populations have been reported in the literature. Pathogenic mutations or variants that increase BC risk have been reported in the following genes or genomic regions: ATM, BARD1, CHECK2, FGFR2, GSTM1, MAP3K1, MTHFR, PALB2, RAD51, TOX3, TP53, XRCC1, and 2q35.

  1. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Vaclová, Tereza; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, Rosario; Peterlongo, Paolo; Blanco, Ignacio; de la Hoya, Miguel; Duran, Mercedes; Díez, Orland; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Andrés Conejero, Raquel; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; SWE-BRCA; Arver, Brita; Rantala, Johanna; Loman, Niklas; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Beattie, Mary S.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John; Terry, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Infante, Mar; Herráez, Belén; Moreno, Leticia Thais; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Herzog, Josef; Weeman, Kisa; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariette, Frederique; Volorio, Sara; Viel, Alessandra; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Garber, Judy; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Eccles, Diana; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Morrison, Patrick; Donaldson, Alan; Kennedy, John; Foo, Claire; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Damiola, Francesca; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Tucker, Kathy; Backes, Floor; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Brewster, Wendy; Wakeley, Katie; Rutherford, Thomas; Caldés, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Rookus, Matti A.; van Os, Theo A. M.; van der Kolk, Lizet; de Lange, J. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, A. H.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Devilee, Peter; HEBON; Olah, Edith; Lázaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Menéndez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Maugard, Christine; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Healey, Sue; Investigators, kConFab; Olswold, Curtis; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane; Slager, Susan; Szabo, Csilla I.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Zhang, Liying; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shimon, Shani Paluch; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Benitez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03–1.16), p = 2.7×10−3) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03–1.21, p = 4.8×10−3). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied. PMID:24698998

  2. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Vaclová, Tereza; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, Rosario; Peterlongo, Paolo; Blanco, Ignacio; de la Hoya, Miguel; Duran, Mercedes; Díez, Orland; Ramón Y Cajal, Teresa; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Andrés Conejero, Raquel; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Swe-Brca; Arver, Brita; Rantala, Johanna; Loman, Niklas; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Beattie, Mary S; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; John, Esther M; Whittemore, Alice S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John; Terry, Mary B; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Infante, Mar; Herráez, Belén; Moreno, Leticia Thais; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Herzog, Josef; Weeman, Kisa; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariette, Frederique; Volorio, Sara; Viel, Alessandra; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Garber, Judy; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Eccles, Diana; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Morrison, Patrick; Donaldson, Alan; Kennedy, John; Foo, Claire; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Damiola, Francesca; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Tucker, Kathy; Backes, Floor; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Brewster, Wendy; Wakeley, Katie; Rutherford, Thomas; Caldés, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Rookus, Matti A; van Os, Theo A M; van der Kolk, Lizet; de Lange, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van der Hout, A H; van Asperen, Christi J; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van der Luijt, Rob B; Devilee, Peter; Hebon; Olah, Edith; Lázaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Menéndez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Maugard, Christine; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R; Healey, Sue; Investigators, Kconfab; Olswold, Curtis; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane; Slager, Susan; Szabo, Csilla I; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Zhang, Liying; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Phelan, Catherine M; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shimon, Shani Paluch; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Benitez, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  3. Novel and recurrent BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in early onset and familial breast and ovarian cancer detected in the Program of Genetic Counseling in Cancer of Valencian Community (eastern Spain). Relationship of family phenotypes with mutation prevalence.

    PubMed

    de Juan Jiménez, Inmaculada; García Casado, Zaida; Palanca Suela, Sarai; Esteban Cardeñosa, Eva; López Guerrero, José Antonio; Segura Huerta, Ángel; Chirivella González, Isabel; Sánchez Heras, Ana Beatriz; Juan Fita, Ma José; Tena García, Isabel; Guillen Ponce, Carmen; Martínez de Dueñas, Eduardo; Romero Noguera, Ignacio; Salas Trejo, Dolores; Goicoechea Sáez, Mercedes; Bolufer Gilabert, Pascual

    2013-12-01

    During the first 6 years of the Program of Genetic Counselling in Cancer of Valencia (eastern Spain), 310 mutations (155 in BRCA1 and 155 in BRCA2) in 1,763 hereditary breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) families were identified. Of the mutations found 105 were distinct (53 in BRCA1 and 52 in BRCA2), eight new and 37 recurrent. Two of the novel mutations were frame-shift placed in exons 2 and 11 of BRCA1 and the remaining six were placed in BRCA2; four frame-shift (three in exon 11 and one in exon 23), one deletion of the entire exon 19 and one in the intervening sequence of exon 22. The BRCA1 mutations with higher recurrence were c.66_68delAG, c.5123C > A, c.1961delA, c.3770_3771delAG and c.5152+5G > A that covered 45.2% of mutations of this gene. The age of onset of BCs of c.68_69delAG mutation carriers occurs later than for the other recurrent mutations of this gene (45 vs. 37 years; p = 0.008). The BRCA2 mutations with higher recurrence were c.9026_9030delATCAT, c.3264insT and c.8978_8991del14 which represented 43.2% of all mutations in this gene, being the most recurrent mutation by far c.9026_9030delATCAT that represents 21.3% of BRCA2 mutations and 10.6% of all mutations. Probands with family histories of BC and OC, or OC and/or BC in at least two first degree relatives, were the more likely to have BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (35.2% of the total mutations). And that most BRCA1mutations (73.19% mutations) occurred in probands with early-onset BC or with family history of OC.

  4. DHPLC/SURVEYOR nuclease: a sensitive, rapid and affordable method to analyze BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Papadimitriou, Stavros; Zaccagna, Paolo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for about 10% of all breast cancers and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified as validated susceptibility genes for this pathology. Testing for BRCA gene mutations is usually based on a pre-screening approach, such as the partial denaturation DHPLC method, and capillary direct sequencing. However, this approach is time consuming due to the large size of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been developed to analyze gene mutations by using SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease digestion and DHPLC analysis. A subset of 90 patients, enrolled in the Genetic Counseling Program of the National Cancer Centre of Bari (Italy), was performed to validate this approach. Previous retrospective analysis showed that 9/90 patients (10%) were mutated in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and these data were confirmed by the present approach. DNA samples underwent touchdown PCR and, subsequently, SURVEYOR(®) nuclease digestion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 amplicons were divided into groups depending on amplicon size to allow multiamplicon digestion. The product of this reaction were analyzed on Transgenomic WAVE Nucleic Acid High Sensitivity Fragment Analysis System. The operator who performed the DHPLC surveyor approach did not know the sequencing results at that time. The SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease DHPLC approach was able to detect all alterations with a sensitivity of 95%. Furthermore, in order to save time and reagents, a multiamplicon setting preparation was validated.

  5. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Hooning, Maartje J; Nelen, Marcel R; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo A M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine S; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L; Beattie, Mary S; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Sluiter, Michelle D; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-08-15

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r(2) = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women.

  6. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Laura Putignano, Anna; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Gareth Evans, D.; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; John Kennedy, M.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Catharina Dressler, Anne; Hansen, Thomas v.O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bjork Barkardottir, Rosa; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r2 = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10−9 for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10−8 for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women. PMID:21593217

  7. Tamoxifen and risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyun; Zhao, Yansheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yujiao; Chen, Lin; Wang, Shui

    2015-07-01

    Given the greatly elevated risks of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) observed in breast cancer patients who carry mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, the present meta-analysis was addressed to determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer is associated with reduced CBC risk for these patients. We searched the database of PubMed for eligible studies about the effectiveness of tamoxifen on CBC risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and we calculated the pooled relative risks (RRs) for CBC risk along with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Fixed- or random-effects model was conducted according to study heterogeneity. Four non-overlapping studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Tamoxifen was found to be significantly associated with reduced risk of CBC among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (summary RR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.41-0.76). Similar findings were observed in BRCA1 mutation carriers (summary RR = 0.47, 95 % CI = 0.37-0.60) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (summary RR = 0.39, 95 % CI = 0.28-0.54), respectively. In conclusion, tamoxifen significantly reduces the incidence of CBC among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with primary unilateral breast cancer. It can reasonably be offered to breast cancer patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation for the prevention of CBC. Further studies are required to get a more precise estimation of the benefits and harms of tamoxifen in these patients.

  8. A novel loss-of-function heterozygous BRCA2 c.8946_8947delAG mutation found in a Chinese woman with family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Yang, Jichun; Jian, Wenjing; Wang, Xianming; Xiao, Deyong; Xia, Wenjun; Xiong, Likuan; Ma, Duan

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Among them, some cases have hereditary susceptibility in two leading genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Heterozygous germ line mutations in them are related with increased risk of breast, ovarian and other cancer, following autosomal dominant inheritance mode. For purpose of early finding, early diagnosis and early treatment, mutation detecting of BRCA1/2 genes was performed in unselected 300 breast or ovarian patients and unaffected women using next-generation sequencing and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A non-previously reported heterozygous mutation c.8946_8947delAG (p.D2983FfsX34) of BRCA2 gene was identified in an unaffected Chinese woman with family history of breast cancer (her breast cancer mother, also carrying this mutation). The BRCA2-truncated protein resulted from the frame shift mutation was found to lose two putative nuclear localization signals and a Rad51-binding motif in the extreme C-terminal region by bioinformatic prediction. And then in vitro experiments showed that nearly all the mutant protein was unable to translocate to the nucleus to perform DNA repair activity. This novel mutant BRCA2 protein is dysfunction. We classify the mutation into disease causing and conclude that it is the risk factor for breast cancer in this family. So, conducting the same mutation test and providing genetic counseling for this family is practically meaningful and significant. Meanwhile, the identification of this new mutation enriches the Breast Cancer Information Core database, especially in China.

  9. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lynch, Henry T; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary E; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2010-12-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.

  10. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  11. The impact of pregnancy on breast cancer survival in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Adriana; Lubinski, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Ghadirian, Parviz; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Ainsworth, Peter; Neuhausen, Susan L; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Singer, Christian F; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Saal, Howard; Lyonnet, Dominique Stoppa; Foulkes, William D; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Manoukian, Siranoush; Zakalik, Dana; Armel, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Eng, Charis; Grunfeld, Eva; Chiarelli, Anna M; Poll, Aletta; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2013-11-01

    Physicians are often approached by young women with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer who wish to have a baby. They wish to know if pregnancy impacts upon their future risks of cancer recurrence and survival. To date, there is little information on the survival experience of women who carry a mutation in one of the BRCA genes and who become pregnant. From an international multi-center cohort study of 12,084 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, we identified 128 case subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant or who became pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer. These women were age-matched to 269 mutation carriers with breast cancer who did not become pregnant (controls). Subjects were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis until the date of last follow-up or death from breast cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 15-year survival rates. The hazard ratio for survival associated with pregnancy was calculated using a left-truncated Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer when pregnant or who became pregnant thereafter, the 15-year survival rate was 91.5 %, compared to a survival of 88.6 % for women who did not become pregnant (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.31-1.91; p = 0.56). Pregnancy concurrent with or after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not appear to adversely affect survival among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  12. The impact of pregnancy on breast cancer survival in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Adriana; Lubinski, Jan; Byrski, Tomasz; Ghadirian, Parviz; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T.; Ainsworth, Peter; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Singer, Christian F.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Saal, Howard; Lyonnet, Dominique Stoppa; Foulkes, William D.; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Manoukian, Siranoush; Zakalik, Dana; Armel, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Eng, Charis; Grunfeld, Eva; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Poll, Aletta; Sun, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Physicians are often approached by young women with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer who wish to have a baby. They wish to know if pregnancy impacts upon their future risks of cancer recurrence and survival. To date, there is little information on the survival experience of women who carry a mutation in one of the BRCA genes and who become pregnant. From an international multi-center cohort study of 12,084 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, we identified 128 case subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant or who became pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer. These women were age-matched to 269 mutation carriers with breast cancer who did not become pregnant (controls). Subjects were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis until the date of last follow-up or death from breast cancer. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate 15-year survival rates. The hazard ratio for survival associated with pregnancy was calculated using a left-truncated Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer when pregnant or who became pregnant thereafter, the 15-year survival rate was 91.5 %, compared to a survival of 88.6 % for women who did not become pregnant (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.31–1.91; p = 0.56). Pregnancy concurrent with or after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not appear to adversely affect survival among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:24136669

  13. Effects of oestrogens and anti-oestrogens on normal breast tissue from women bearing BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bramley, M; Clarke, R B; Howell, A; Evans, D G R; Armer, T; Baildam, A D; Anderson, E

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether anti-oestrogens can be used to prevent breast cancer in women bearing mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The effects of oestradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TAM) and fulvestrant (FUL) on proliferation and steroid receptor expression were assessed in normal breast epithelium taken from women at varying risks of breast cancer and implanted into athymic nude mice, which were treated with E2 in the presence and absence of TAM or FUL. Tissue samples were taken at various time points thereafter for assessment of proliferative activity and expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ERα and PgR) by immunohistochemistry. Oestradiol increased proliferation in the breast epithelium from women carrying mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes, those otherwise at increased risk and those at population risk of breast cancer. This increase was reduced by both TAM and FUL in all risk groups. In the absence of E2, PgR expression was reduced in all risk groups but significantly more so in the BRCA-mutated groups. Subsequent E2 treatment caused a rapid, complete induction of PgR expression in the population-risk group but not in the high-risk or BRCA-mutated groups in which PgR induction was significantly delayed. These data suggest that the mechanisms by which E2 induces breast epithelial PgR expression are impaired in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, whereas those regulating proliferation remain intact. We conclude that early anti-oestrogen treatment should prevent breast cancer in very high-risk women. PMID:16538216

  14. Seeking balance: decision support needs of women without cancer and a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Meghan L; Crotser, Cheryl B

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations for women with a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation include complex medical approaches related to cancer risk reduction and detection. Current science has not yet fully elucidated decision support needs that women face when living with medical consequences associated with known hereditary cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to describe health communication and decision support needs in healthy women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations. The original researchers completed an interpretive secondary qualitative data analysis of 23 phenomenological narratives collected between 2008 and 2010. The Ottawa Decision Support and Patient Centered Communication frameworks guided the study design and analysis. Women described a pattern wherein breast and ovarian cancer risk, health related recommendations and decisions, and personal values were prioritized over time based on life contexts. Knowing versus acting on cancer risk was not a static process but an ongoing balancing act of considering current and future personal and medical values, further compounded by the complexity of recommendations. Women shared stories of anticipatory, physical and psychosocial consequences of the decision making experience. The findings have potential to generate future research questions and guide intervention development. Importantly, findings indicate a need for ongoing, long-term, support from genetics professionals and decision support interventions, which challenges the current practice paradigm.

  15. Altered gene expression in morphologically normal epithelial cells from heterozygous carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Bellacosa, Alfonso; Godwin, Andrew K; Peri, Suraj; Devarajan, Karthik; Caretti, Elena; Vanderveer, Lisa; Bove, Betsy; Slater, Carolyn; Zhou, Yan; Daly, Mary; Howard, Sharon; Campbell, Kerry S; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Yeung, Anthony T; Clapper, Margie L; Crowell, James A; Lynch, Henry T; Ross, Eric; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred G

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that cells bearing a single inherited "hit" in a tumor suppressor gene express an altered mRNA repertoire that may identify targets for measures that could delay or even prevent progression to carcinoma. We report here on the transcriptomes of primary breast and ovarian epithelial cells cultured from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. Our comparison analyses identified multiple changes in gene expression, in both tissues for both mutations, which were validated independently by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Several of the differentially expressed genes had been previously proposed as cancer markers, including mammaglobin in breast cancer and serum amyloid in ovarian cancer. These findings show that heterozygosity for a mutant tumor suppressor gene can alter the expression profiles of phenotypically normal epithelial cells in a gene-specific manner; these detectable effects of "one hit" represent early molecular changes in tumorigenesis that may serve as novel biomarkers of cancer risk and as targets for chemoprevention.

  16. Phenocopy breast cancer rates in Israeli BRCA1 BRCA2 mutation carrier families: is the risk increased in non-carriers?

    PubMed

    Bernholtz, Shiri; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon-Paluch, Shnai; Friedman, Eitan

    2012-04-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have an increased risk for developing breast (and ovarian) cancer. Non-carriers from within such families (=true negatives) are counseled that their risk for developing breast cancer is similar to that of the average-risk population. Breast cancer diagnosed in a non-carrier from a family with a known mutation is coined phenocopy. The rate of breast cancer phenocopy and the risk for breast cancer in true negatives are unsettled. The rate of phenocopy breast cancer was assessed in non-carriers from Jewish families with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, identified at the Sheba medical center. Analysis was performed by t test for comparison of mean age at counseling or breast cancer diagnosis, and by calculating a standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Overall, 1318 females from 884 mutation carrying families (620 with BRCA1 264 with BRCA2 mutations) were genotyped, of whom 307 women from 245 families were assigned a true negative status (mean age at counseling 43.01 ± 13.03 years (range 19.7-92.8 years). Of these true negatives, 20 women (6.51-2.26% of families) developed breast cancer at a mean age of 54.1 ± 12.9 years (range 48.1 -60.1 years). The SIR for breast cancer in true negatives was not significantly different than the expected in the average-risk Israeli population [observed 20-expected 23.8 cases SIR = 0.84, 95% CI (0.51, 1.30)]. The rate of phenocopy breast cancer in non-carriers from Israeli BRCA1 BRCA2 mutation carrier families is 2.26% with no increased breast cancer risk over the average-risk population.

  17. Prediction of Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks in Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Lecarpentier, Julie; Silvestri, Valentina; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; McGuffog, Lesley; Soucy, Penny; Leslie, Goska; Rizzolo, Piera; Navazio, Anna Sara; Valentini, Virginia; Zelli, Veronica; Lee, Andrew; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Southey, Melissa; John, Esther M; Conner, Thomas A; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Steele, Linda; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L; Hansen, Thomas V O; Osorio, Ana; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Toss, Angela; Medici, Veronica; Cortesi, Laura; Zanna, Ines; Palli, Domenico; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Azzollini, Jacopo; Viel, Alessandra; Cini, Giulia; Damante, Giuseppe; Tommasi, Stefania; Peterlongo, Paolo; Fostira, Florentia; Hamann, Ute; Evans, D Gareth; Henderson, Alex; Brewer, Carole; Eccles, Diana; Cook, Jackie; Ong, Kai-Ren; Walker, Lisa; Side, Lucy E; Porteous, Mary E; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Frost, Debra; Adlard, Julian; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Ellis, Steve; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Dworniczak, Bernd; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Rhiem, Kerstin; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Ditsch, Nina; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wand, Dorothea; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Damiola, Francesca; Barjhoux, Laure; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Van Heetvelde, Mattias; Poppe, Bruce; De Leeneer, Kim; Claes, Kathleen B M; de la Hoya, Miguel; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez Segura, Pedro; Kiiski, Johanna I; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Asperen, Christi J; Vaszko, Tibor; Kasler, Miklos; Olah, Edith; Balmaña, Judith; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Diez, Orland; Teulé, Alex; Izquierdo, Angel; Darder, Esther; Brunet, Joan; Del Valle, Jesús; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Lazaro, Conxi; Arason, Adalgeir; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Alducci, Elisa; Tognazzo, Silvia; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pinto, Pedro; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Zisun; Sharma, Priyanka; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Lincoln, Anne; Musinsky, Jacob; Gaddam, Pragna; Tan, Yen Y; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F; Loud, Jennifer T; Greene, Mark H; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Bojesen, Anders; Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Sunde, Lone; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Krogh, Lotte; Kruse, Torben A; Caligo, Maria A; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Teo, Soo-Hwang; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Huo, Dezheng; Nielsen, Sarah M; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Lorenchick, Christa; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Campbell, Ian; James, Paul; Mitchell, Gillian; Orr, Nick; Park, Sue Kyung; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K; Antoniou, Antonis C; Ottini, Laura

    2017-07-10

    Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10 -6 ). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10 -9 ). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.

  18. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D.P.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additional risk modifiers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be identified from promising signals discovered in breast cancer GWAS. A total of 350 SNPs identified as candidate breast cancer risk factors (P < 1 × 10−3) in two breast cancer GWAS studies were genotyped in 3451 BRCA1 and 2006 BRCA2 mutation carriers from nine centers. Associations with breast cancer risk were assessed using Cox models weighted for penetrance. Eight SNPs in BRCA1 carriers and 12 SNPs in BRCA2 carriers, representing an enrichment over the number expected, were significantly associated with breast cancer risk (Ptrend < 0.01). The minor alleles of rs6138178 in SNRPB and rs6602595 in CAMK1D displayed the strongest associations in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69–0.90, Ptrend = 3.6 × 10−4 and HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.41, Ptrend = 4.2 × 10−4), whereas rs9393597 in LOC134997 and rs12652447 in FBXL7 showed the strongest associations in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25–1.92, Ptrend = 6 × 10−5 and HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16–1.62, Ptrend = 1.7 × 10−4). The magnitude and direction of the associations were consistent with the original GWAS. In subsequent risk assessment studies, the loci appeared to interact multiplicatively for breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Promising candidate SNPs from GWAS were identified as modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Upon further validation, these SNPs together with other genetic and environmental factors may improve breast cancer risk assessment in these populations. PMID:20418484

  19. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Marquart, Louise; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga; Wan, Fei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne-Catharine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Weitzel, Jeff; Lynch, Henry; Garber, Judy; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Selkirk, Christina G.; Daly, Mary; Isaacs, Claudine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Pujol, Pascal; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Os, Theo A.; Wijnen, Juul; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Durocher, Francine; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Thomassen, Mads; Domchek, Susan; Nathanson, Kate; Caligo, MA; Jernström, Helena; Liljegren, Annelie; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Ganz, Patricia A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tomlinson, Gail; Neuhausen, Susan; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies. Methods A cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser. In a second non-independent cohort of 1,537 of BRCA1 and 839 BRCA2 mutation carriers, BARD1 haplotypes were also evaluated. Results The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer from single SNP analysis, with a pooled effect estimate of 0.90 (95%CI: 0.71-1.15) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.59-1.29) in BRCA2 carriers. Further analysis of haplotypes at BARD1 also revealed no evidence that additional common genetic variation not captured by Cys557Ser was associated with breast cancer risk. Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a role for BARD1 variation, including the Cy557Ser variant, as a modifier of risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Impact Interactors of BRCA1/2 have been implicated as modifiers of BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. Our finding that BARD1 does not contribute to this risk modification may focus research on other genes that do modify BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. PMID:21393566

  20. Adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers in a population-based study of risk of contralateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reding, Kerryn W; Bernstein, Jonine L; Langholz, Bryan M; Bernstein, Leslie; Haile, Robert W; Begg, Colin B; Lynch, Charles F; Concannon, Patrick; Borg, Ake; Teraoka, Sharon N; Törngren, Therese; Diep, Anh; Xue, Shanyan; Bertelsen, Lisbeth; Liang, Xiaolin; Reiner, Anne S; Capanu, Marinela; Malone, Kathleen E

    2010-09-01

    Given the greatly elevated risks of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) observed in breast cancer patients who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is critical to determine the effectiveness of standard adjuvant therapies in preventing CBC in mutation carriers. The WECARE study is a matched, case-control study of 708 women with CBC as cases and 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) as controls, including 181 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Interviews and medical record reviews provided detailed information on risk factors and breast cancer therapy. All study participants were screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to detect genetic variants in the coding and flanking regions of the genes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the risk of CBC associated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Chemotherapy was associated with lower CBC risk both in non-carriers (RR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.7]) and carriers (RR = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-1.0]; P value = 0.04). Tamoxifen was associated with a reduced CBC risk in non-carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.6-1.0]; P value = 0.03). We observed a similar but non-significant reduction associated with tamoxifen in mutation carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.3-1.8]). The tests of heterogeneity comparing carriers to non-carriers did not provide evidence for a difference in the associations with chemotherapy (P value = 0.51) nor with tamoxifen (P value = 0.15). Overall, we did not observe a difference in the relative risk reduction associated with adjuvant treatment between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, given the higher absolute CBC risk in mutation carriers, the potentially greater impact of adjuvant therapy in reducing CBC risk among mutation carriers should be considered when developing treatment plans for these patients.

  1. Adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers in a population-based study of risk of contralateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Langholz, Bryan M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Haile, Robert W.; Begg, Colin B.; Lynch, Charles F.; Concannon, Patrick; Borg, Ake; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Törngren, Therese; Diep, Anh; Xue, Shanyan; Bertelsen, Lisbeth; Liang, Xiaolin; Reiner, Anne S.; Capanu, Marinela; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the greatly elevated risks of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) observed in breast cancer patients who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is critical to determine the effectiveness of standard adjuvant therapies in preventing CBC in mutation carriers. Methods The WECARE study is a matched, case-control study of 708 women with CBC as cases and 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) as controls, including 181 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Interviews and medical record reviews provided detailed information on risk factors and breast cancer therapy. All study participants were screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to detect genetic variants in the coding and flanking regions of the genes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the risk of CBC associated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Results Chemotherapy was associated with lower CBC risk both in non-carriers (RR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.7]) and carriers (RR = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-1.0]; p-value = 0.04). Tamoxifen was associated with a reduced CBC risk in non-carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.6-1.0]; p-value = 0.03). We observed a similar but non-significant reduction associated with tamoxifen in mutation carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.3-1.8]). The tests of heterogeneity comparing carriers to non-carriers did not provide evidence for a difference in the associations with chemotherapy (p-value = 0.51) nor with tamoxifen (p-value = 0.15). Conclusions Overall, we did not observe a difference in the relative risk reduction associated with adjuvant treatment between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, given the higher absolute CBC risk in mutation carriers, the potentially greater impact of adjuvant therapy in reducing CBC risk among mutation carriers should be considered when developing treatment plans for these patients. PMID:20135344

  2. Mutation status of RAD51C, PALB2 and BRIP1 in 100 Japanese familial breast cancer cases without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Koyasu, Mio; Nomura, Sachio; Sato, Yuri; Kita, Mizuho; Ashihara, Yuumi; Adachi, Yasue; Ohno, Shinji; Iwase, Takuji; Kitagawa, Dai; Nakashima, Eri; Yoshida, Reiko; Miki, Yoshio; Arai, Masami

    2017-11-01

    In addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2, RAD51C, PALB2 and BRIP1 are known as breast cancer susceptibility genes. However, the mutation status of these genes in Japanese familial breast cancer cases has not yet been evaluated. To this end, we analyzed the exon sequence and genomic rearrangement of RAD51C, PALB2 and BRIP1 in 100 Japanese patients diagnosed with familial breast and ovarian cancer and without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. We detected a large deletion from exons 6 to 9 in RAD51C, 4 novel BRIP1 missense variants containing 3 novel non-synonymous variants, c.89A>C, c.736A>G and c.2131A>G, and a splice donor site variant c.918+2T>C. No deleterious variant of PALB2 was detected. The results of pedigree analysis showed that the proband with a large deletion on RAD51C had a family history of both breast and ovarian cancer, and the families of probands with novel BRIP1 missense variants included a male patient with breast cancer or many patients with breast cancer within the second-degree relatives. We showed that the mutation frequency of RAD51C in Japanese familial breast cancer cases was similar to that in Western countries and that the prevalence of deleterious mutation of PALB2 was possibly lower. Furthermore, our results suggested that BRIP1 mutation frequency in Japan might differ from that in Western countries. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation predictions using the BOADICEA and BRCAPRO models and penetrance estimation in high-risk French-Canadian families.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Durocher, Francine; Smith, Paula; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F

    2006-01-01

    Several genetic risk models for breast and ovarian cancer have been developed, but their applicability to specific populations has not been evaluated. We used data from French-Canadian families to evaluate the mutation predictions given by the BRCAPRO and BOADICEA models. We also used this data set to estimate the age-specific risks for breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. A total of 195 families with multiple affected individuals with breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through the INHERIT (INterdisciplinary HEalth Research International Team on BReast CAncer susceptibility) BRCAs research program. Observed BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status was compared with predicted carrier probabilities under the BOADICEA and BRCAPRO models. The models were assessed using Brier scores, attributes diagrams and receiver operating characteristic curves. Log relative risks for breast and ovarian cancer in mutation carriers versus population risks were estimated by maximum likelihood, using a modified segregation analysis implemented in the computer program MENDEL. Twenty-five families were eligible for inclusion in the BRCA1 penetrance analysis and 27 families were eligible for the BRCA2 penetrance analysis. The BOADICEA model predicted accurately the number of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations for the various groups of families, and was found to discriminate well at the individual level between carriers and noncarriers. BRCAPRO over-predicted the number of mutations in almost all groups of families, in particular the number of BRCA1 mutations. It significantly overestimated the carrier frequency for high predicted probabilities. However, it discriminated well between carriers and noncarriers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicate similar sensitivity and specificity for BRCAPRO and BOADICEA. The estimated risks for breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were consistent with previously published estimates. The BOADICEA

  4. Germ-line TP53 mutations in Finnish cancer families exhibiting features of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Huusko, P; Castrén, K; Launonen, V; Soini, Y; Pääkkönen, K; Leisti, J; Vähäkangas, K; Winqvist, R

    1999-07-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a large portion of the inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. It was recently discovered that mutations in these two genes are less common in the Finnish population than expected. Because the genetic background of breast cancer, in particular, is largely obscure, it became necessary to search for mutations in other susceptibility genes. Because seven of our BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative families fulfilled the criteria of either Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFL), we decided to screen them for germ-line TP53 mutations in exons 5-8 using a dual-temperature single-strand conformation polymorphism assay (SSCP). Two missense mutations (Asn235Ser and Tyr220Cys) were identified. The clinical significance of these findings was evaluated by comparison to previously reported germ-line TP53 mutation data, and by using the tumor loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis. In addition, an immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens from mutation-positive individuals was performed. Our results suggest that the observed missense mutations confer susceptibility to cancer, and that germ-line TP53 mutations would therefore explain an additional fraction of hereditary breast cancer in Finland.

  5. Male breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: pathology data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Valentina; Barrowdale, Daniel; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Neuhausen, Susan L; Fox, Stephen; Karlan, Beth Y; Mitchell, Gillian; James, Paul; Thull, Darcy L; Zorn, Kristin K; Carter, Natalie J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ramus, Susan J; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Rantala, Johanna; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Caligo, Maria A; Spugnesi, Laura; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Kramer, Gero; Vijai, Joseph; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Machackova, Eva; Foretova, Lenka; Navratilova, Marie; Vasickova, Petra; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sharma, Priyanka; Kim, Sung-Won; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pinto, Pedro; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Izquierdo, Angel; Pujana, Miguel Angel; Balmaña, Judith; Diez, Orland; Ivady, Gabriella; Papp, Janos; Olah, Edith; Kwong, Ava; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Perez Segura, Pedro; Caldes, Trinidad; Van Maerken, Tom; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen B M; Isaacs, Claudine; Elan, Camille; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Hahnen, Eric; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wand, Dorothea; Godwin, Andrew K; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Perkins, Jo; Adlard, Julian; Izatt, Louise; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Ellis, Steve; Hamann, Ute; Garber, Judy; Fostira, Florentia; Fountzilas, George; Pasini, Barbara; Giannini, Giuseppe; Rizzolo, Piera; Russo, Antonio; Cortesi, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Palli, Domenico; Zanna, Ines; Savarese, Antonella; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pensotti, Valeria; Tommasi, Stefania; Peterlongo, Paolo; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Hansen, Thomas V O; Steele, Linda; Ding, Yuan Chun; Tung, Nadine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Bane, Anita; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Ottini, Laura

    2016-02-09

    BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.

  6. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in ovarian cancer patients from China: ethnic-related mutations in BRCA1 associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tingyan; Wang, Pan; Xie, Caixia; Yin, Sheng; Shi, Di; Wei, Congchong; Tang, Wenbin; Jiang, Rong; Cheng, Xi; Wei, Qingyi; Wang, Qing; Zang, Rongyu

    2017-05-01

    BRCA1/2 are cancer predisposition genes involved in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Mutation carriers display an increased sensitivity to inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Despite a number of small-size hospital-based studies being previously reported, there is not yet, to our knowledge, precise data of BRCA1/2 mutations among Chinese ovarian cancer patients. We performed a multicenter cohort study including 916 unselected consecutive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from eastern China to screen for BRCA1/2 mutations using the next-generation sequencing approach. A total of 153 EOC patients were found to carry pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1/2, accounting for an overall mutation incidence of 16.7% with the predominance in BRCA1 (13.1%) compared with BRCA2 (3.9%). We identified 53 novel pathogenic mutations, among which the c.283_286delCTTG and the c.4573C > T of BRCA1 were both found in two unrelated patients. More importantly, the most common mutation found in this study, c.5470_5477del8 was most likely to be Chinese population-related without an apparent founder origin. This hot-spot mutation was presumably associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Taken together, germline BRCA1/2 mutations were common in Chinese EOC patients with distinct mutational spectrum compared to Western populations. Our study contributes to the current understanding of BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence worldwide. We recommend BRCA1/2 genetic testing to all Chinese women diagnosed with EOC to identify HBOC families, to provide genetic counseling and clinical management for at-risk relatives. Mutation carriers may also benefit from PARP-targeted therapies. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Meta-analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 penetrance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sining; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2007-04-10

    Genetic counseling is now routinely offered to individuals at high risk of carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Risk prediction provided by the counselor requires reliable estimates of the mutation penetrance. Such penetrance has been investigated by studies worldwide. The reported estimates vary. To facilitate clinical management and counseling of the at-risk population, we address this issue through a meta-analysis. We conducted a literature search on PubMed and selected studies that had nonoverlapping patient data, contained genotyping information, used statistical methods that account for the ascertainment, and reported risks in a useable format. We subsequently combined the published estimates using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects modeling approach. Ten studies were eligible under the selection criteria. Between-study heterogeneity was observed. Study population, mutation type, design, and estimation methods did not seem to be systematic sources of heterogeneity. Meta-analytic mean cumulative cancer risks for mutation carriers at age 70 years were as follows: breast cancer risk of 57% (95% CI, 47% to 66%) for BRCA1 and 49% (95% CI, 40% to 57%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers; and ovarian cancer risk of 40% (95% CI, 35% to 46%) for BRCA1 and 18% (95% CI, 13% to 23%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also report the prospective risks of developing cancer for currently asymptomatic carriers. This article provides a set of risk estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers that can be used by counselors and clinicians who are interested in advising patients based on a comprehensive set of studies rather than one specific study.

  8. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Robson, Mark; Barrowdale, Daniel; McGuffog, Lesley; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Andrulis, Irene L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Engel, Christoph; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Nevanlinna, Heli; Thomassen, Mads; Southey, Melissa; Radice, Paolo; Ramus, Susan J; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Nussbaum, Robert L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; James, Paul; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Cass, Ilana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Steele, Linda; v O Hansen, Thomas; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Finn C; Dennis, Joe; Cunningham, Julie; Hart, Steven; Slager, Susan; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Tafur, Isaac; Hander, Mary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Roversi, Gaia; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariani, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Giuseppe; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Ong, Kai-ren; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Ellis, Steve; Godwin, Andrew K; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Steinemann, Doris; Bogdanova-Markov, Nadja; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Gehrig, Andrea; Markiefka, Birgid; Buecher, Bruno; Lefol, Cédrick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Barjhoux, Laure; Faivre, Laurence; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Isaacs, Claudine; Van Maerken, Tom; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Andrews, Lesley; Hays, John; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Aalfs, Cora M; de Lange, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Wijnen, Juul T; van Roozendaal, K E P; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van der Luijt, Rob B; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Teulé, Alex; Menendez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Arason, Adalgeir; Maugard, Christine; Soucy, Penny; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Teixeira, Manuel R; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane; Pankratz, Vernon S; Hallberg, Emily; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I; Vijai, Joseph; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Lincoln, Anne; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Phelan, Catherine M; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Berger, Raanan; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Borg, Ake; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2014-12-31

    More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and the general population for several loci, no study has comprehensively evaluated the associations of all known BC susceptibility alleles with risk of BC subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. We used data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 carriers to analyze the associations between approximately 200,000 genetic variants on the iCOGS array and risk of BC subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative- (TN) status; morphologic subtypes; histological grade; and nodal involvement. The estimated BC hazard ratios (HRs) for the 74 known BC alleles in BRCA1 carriers exhibited moderate correlations with the corresponding odds ratios from the general population. However, their associations with ER-positive BC in BRCA1 carriers were more consistent with the ER-positive associations in the general population (intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45 to 0.74), and the same was true when considering ER-negative associations in both groups (ICC = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72). Similarly, there was strong correlation between the ER-positive associations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.78), whereas ER-positive associations in any one of the groups were generally inconsistent with ER-negative associations in any of the others. After stratifying by ER status in mutation carriers, additional significant associations were observed. Several previously unreported variants exhibited associations at P <10(-6) in the analyses by PR status, HER2 status, TN phenotype, morphologic subtypes, histological grade and nodal involvement. Differences in

  9. Study of Selected BRCA1, BRCA2, and PIK3CA Mutations in Benign and Malignant Lesions of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Shelekhova, Ksenya V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Iyevleva, Aglaya; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-05-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLGs) are nowadays considered a normal component of the anogenital area. Lesions involving AGMLGs are histopathologically very similar to their mammary counterparts, but the information on molecular biological mechanisms in these vulvar/perianal tumors is scarce. Mutations in the PI3K-AKT cascade have been found in hidradenoma papilliferum. The authors studied selected BRCA1, BRCA2, and PIK3CA mutations in series of benign and malignant neoplasms thought to be associated with AGMLGs, including 9 cases of primary extramammary Paget disease, 3 different cases of mammary-type carcinoma (adenoid cystic like, tubulolobular, and invasive ductal like), and 5 cases of hidradenoma papilliferum. No BRCA mutation was detected, whereas 3 neoplasms yielded PIK3CA mutation, including extramammary Paget disease, mammary-type invasive ductal carcinoma, and tubulolobular carcinoma. Our study expands the spectrum of lesions of AGMLGs harboring mutations in genes encoding the PI3K-AKT cascade. Further studies of the whole BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes using a larger cohort are needed to clarify their role in the pathogenesis of AGMLG lesions.

  10. Analysis of cancer risk and BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence in the kConFab familial breast cancer resource

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Graham J; Thorne, Heather; Balleine, Rosemary L; Butow, Phyllis N; Clarke, Christine L; Edkins, Edward; Evans, Gerda M; Fereday, Sián; Haan, Eric; Gattas, Michael; Giles, Graham G; Goldblatt, Jack; Hopper, John L; Kirk, Judy; Leary, Jennifer A; Lindeman, Geoffrey; Niedermayr, Eveline; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Picken, Sandra; Pupo, Gulietta M; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Suthers, Graeme; Tucker, Kathy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) is a multidisciplinary, collaborative framework for the investigation of familial breast cancer. Based in Australia, the primary aim of kConFab is to facilitate high-quality research by amassing a large and comprehensive resource of epidemiological and clinical data with biospecimens from individuals at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and from their close relatives. Methods Epidemiological, family history and lifestyle data, as well as biospecimens, are collected from multiple-case breast cancer families ascertained through family cancer clinics in Australia and New Zealand. We used the Tyrer-Cuzick algorithms to assess the prospective risk of breast cancer in women in the kConFab cohort who were unaffected with breast cancer at the time of enrolment in the study. Results Of kConFab's first 822 families, 518 families had multiple cases of female breast cancer alone, 239 had cases of female breast and ovarian cancer, 37 had cases of female and male breast cancer, and 14 had both ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer. Data are currently held for 11,422 people and germline DNAs for 7,389. Among the 812 families with at least one germline sample collected, the mean number of germline DNA samples collected per family is nine. Of the 747 families that have undergone some form of mutation screening, 229 (31%) carry a pathogenic or splice-site mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Germline DNAs and data are stored from 773 proven carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA1 mutations. kConFab's fresh tissue bank includes 253 specimens of breast or ovarian tissue – both normal and malignant – including 126 from carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Conclusion These kConFab resources are available to researchers anywhere in the world, who may apply to kConFab for biospecimens and data for use in ethically approved, peer-reviewed projects. A high calculated risk

  11. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas Vo; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Conejero, Raquel Andrés; Segota, Ena; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Thelander, Margo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Varesco, Liliana; Capone, Gabriele L; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brady, Angela; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Cook, Jackie; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Tischkowitz, Marc; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schmutzler, Rita K; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Markov, Nadja Bogdanova; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; de Pauw, Antoine; Lefol, Cédrick; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Damiola, Francesca; Dreyfus, Hélène; Barjhoux, Laure; Golmard, Lisa; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Sornin, Valérie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Carter, Jonathan; Van Le, Linda; Piedmonte, Marion; DiSilvestro, Paul A; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans Mw; Kets, Carolien M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Hogervorst, Frans Bl; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne Ej; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Roozendaal, Kees Ep; Rookus, Matti A; Devilee, Peter; van der Luijt, Rob B; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Del Valle, Jesús; Jakubowska, Anna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Maugard, Christine; Amadori, Alberto; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Foulkes, William; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Szabo, Csilla I; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Robson, Mark; Vijai, Joseph; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Zidan, Jamal; Laitman, Yael; Lindblom, Annika; Melin, Beatrice; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Ramus, Susan J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Thomas, Gilles; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Phelan, Catherine M; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Cox, David G

    2015-04-25

    Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.

  12. Founder and Recurrent Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Latin American Countries: State of the Art and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Torres, Diana

    2016-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological factors affect the probability of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but no predictor is as determinant as inheriting a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The concept of the founder effect explains the reduced genetic variability in some populations, according to the theory that new populations can be formed from a reduced number of individuals, so the new population would carry only a small fraction of the genetic variability of the original population. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the art in founder mutations and some recurrent mutations that have recently been described in Latin America. A literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, and BIREME using the terms BRCA1, BRCA2, founder mutation, Latin American population, and Hispanic. Sixty-two papers were identified, of which 38 were considered relevant for this review. Each result is shown per country. In Latin America, clear founder effects have been reported in Mexico (BRCA1 del exons 9-12), Brazil (BRCA1 5382insC and BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu), and Colombia (BRCA1 3450del4, A1708E, and BRCA2 3034del4) and in Latinas residing in Southern California (BRCA1 185delAG, IVS5+1G>A, S955x, and R1443x). Of these, mutation BRCA1 3450del4 has also been reported in Brazil and Chile, whereas mutation BRCA2 3034del4 has been reported in Argentina and Peru. These data support the idea that although most Hispanic populations are the result of a mixture between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians, the relative proportion of each genetic component varies throughout the Hispanic populations, making it necessary to identify the mutations characteristic of each population to generate mutation profiles adjusted to each one of them. In Latin American countries, and even among regions of the same country, there is great heterogeneity of ancestors. Therefore, Latinas should not be analyzed like other population groups without taking

  13. Founder and Recurrent Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Latin American Countries: State of the Art and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background. Numerous epidemiological factors affect the probability of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but no predictor is as determinant as inheriting a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The concept of the founder effect explains the reduced genetic variability in some populations, according to the theory that new populations can be formed from a reduced number of individuals, so the new population would carry only a small fraction of the genetic variability of the original population. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the art in founder mutations and some recurrent mutations that have recently been described in Latin America. Methods. A literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, and BIREME using the terms BRCA1, BRCA2, founder mutation, Latin American population, and Hispanic. Sixty-two papers were identified, of which 38 were considered relevant for this review. Each result is shown per country. Results. In Latin America, clear founder effects have been reported in Mexico (BRCA1 del exons 9–12), Brazil (BRCA1 5382insC and BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu), and Colombia (BRCA1 3450del4, A1708E, and BRCA2 3034del4) and in Latinas residing in Southern California (BRCA1 185delAG, IVS5+1G>A, S955x, and R1443x). Of these, mutation BRCA1 3450del4 has also been reported in Brazil and Chile, whereas mutation BRCA2 3034del4 has been reported in Argentina and Peru. These data support the idea that although most Hispanic populations are the result of a mixture between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians, the relative proportion of each genetic component varies throughout the Hispanic populations, making it necessary to identify the mutations characteristic of each population to generate mutation profiles adjusted to each one of them. Conclusion. In Latin American countries, and even among regions of the same country, there is great heterogeneity of ancestors. Therefore, Latinas should not be analyzed

  14. Genetic analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast/ovarian cancer families from Aragon (Spain): two novel truncating mutations and a large genomic deletion in BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Miramar, M D; Calvo, M T; Rodriguez, A; Antón, A; Lorente, F; Barrio, E; Herrero, A; Burriel, J; García de Jalón, A

    2008-11-01

    We screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in 60 high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer patients and 20 relatives from Aragon (Spain) by DHPLC (Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography) and direct sequencing of the entire coding sequence and the splicing sites of both genes. We have identified 17 different pathogenic mutations: 8 in BRCA1 and 9 in BRCA2 in 60 unrelated patients and 50% of relatives were carriers. The prevalence of pathogenic mutations in this study was 33.33%. Two truncating mutations are novel: c.5024_5025delGA in exon 16 of BRCA1 and c.2929delC in exon 11 of BRCA2 (numbered after GenBank U14680 and U43746). Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) was performed for large mutational scanning of both genes and a large genomic deletion in BRCA1 was found (DelEx8-13). Furthermore, five mutations are described for the first time in Spanish population: c.1191delC, c.3478_3479delTT and c.6633_6637delCTTAA (BRCA1) and c.3972_3975delTGAG and 3908_3909delTG (BRCA2). Three mutations have been reported previously once in Spain: c.3600_3610del11 (BRCA1), c.5804_5807delTTAA (BRCA2) and c.9246C>A (BRCA2). The mutation c.5374_5377delTATG has been found before only in two unrelated families from Castilla-Leon, Spain (BRCA2). Frequent mutations described in Spanish population have also been present: c.187_188delAG, c.5242C>A and c.5385insC in BRCA1 and c.3492_3493insT and c.9254_9258delATCAT in BRCA2. c.5242C>A, 3972_3975delTGAG and c.5804_5807delTTAA were the recurrent mutations found. Fifteen different unclassified variants were identified (25% families). Although specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are recurrently reported as a result of genetic founder effects we conclude that heterogeneous ethnicity increases the variety of mutations that can be found in Spanish populations.

  15. Screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among French-Canadian breast cancer cases attending an outpatient clinic in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Robidoux, A; Nassif, E; Martin, G; Potvin, C; Patocskai, E; Younan, R; Larouche, N; Venne, A; Zhang, S; Royer, R; Narod, S A

    2014-01-01

    Study subjects were French-Canadian women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer (incident or prevalent) who were treated and followed at a single breast cancer clinic affiliated with the Research Center of University of Montreal (CRCHUM), who were either aged less than 50 years at diagnosis or who were 50 years or older and with at least two affected first- or second-degree relatives. Subjects were tested for six founder mutations (three in BRCA1 and three in BRCA2); 1093 eligible cases were tested. Of these, 56 women (5.1%) were mutation carriers, including 43 BRCA2 carriers and 13 BRCA1 carriers. The prevalence of mutations was 5.3% for unselected women aged 50 and less and was 4.6% for familial cases over age 50. The prevalence of mutations was 3.3% for women with DCIS and was 5.3% for women with invasive cancer. It is rational to offer genetic testing to all French-Canadian women diagnosed recently or in the past with either DCIS or invasive breast cancer before age 50 or with familial breast cancer above age 50. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Management of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier

    PubMed Central

    Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K

    2010-01-01

    Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. PMID:23776357

  17. Management of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier.

    PubMed

    Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K

    2010-01-01

    Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery.

  18. Underestimation of Risk of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation in Women With High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by BRCAPRO: A Multi-Institution Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Molly S.; Babb, Sheri A.; King, Robin H.; Urbauer, Diana L.; Batte, Brittany A.L.; Brandt, Amanda C.; Amos, Christopher I.; Buchanan, Adam H.; Mutch, David G.; Lu, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identification of the 10% to 15% of patients with ovarian cancer who have germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations is important for management of both patients and relatives. The BRCAPRO model, which estimates mutation likelihood based on personal and family cancer history, can inform genetic testing decisions. This study's purpose was to assess the accuracy of BRCAPRO in women with ovarian cancer. Methods BRCAPRO scores were calculated for 589 patients with ovarian cancer referred for genetic counseling at three institutions. Observed mutations were compared with those predicted by BRCAPRO. Analysis of variance was used to assess factors impacting BRCAPRO accuracy. Results One hundred eighty (31%) of 589 patients with ovarian cancer tested positive. At BRCAPRO scores less than 40%, more mutations were observed than expected (93 mutations observed v 34.1 mutations expected; P < .001). If patients with BRCAPRO scores less than 10% had not been tested, 51 (28%) of 180 mutations would have been missed. BRCAPRO underestimated the risk for high-grade serous ovarian cancers but overestimated the risk for other histologies (P < .001), underestimation increased as age at diagnosis decreased (P = .02), and model performance varied by institution (P = .02). Conclusion Patients with ovarian cancer classified as low risk by BRCAPRO are more likely to test positive than predicted. The risk of a mutation in patients with low BRCAPRO scores is high enough to warrant genetic testing. This study demonstrates that assessment of family history by a validated model cannot effectively target testing to a high-risk ovarian cancer patient population, which strongly supports the recommendation to offer BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing to all patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer regardless of family history. PMID:24638001

  19. Treatment of infertility does not increase the risk of ovarian cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, Jacek; Glass, Karen; Rosen, Barry; Karlan, Beth; Tung, Nadine; Neuhausen, Susan L; Moller, Pal; Ainsworth, Peter; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between use of fertility medication (i.e., selective estrogen receptor [ER] modulator, gonadotropin, or other) or infertility treatment (i.e., IVF or IUI) and the risk of ovarian cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. A matched case-control study of 941 pairs of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with and without a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Genetic clinics. Detailed information regarding treatment of infertility was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. None. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with fertility treatment. There was no significant relationship between the use of any fertility medication or IVF treatment (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.18-2.33) and the subsequent risk of ovarian cancer. Our findings suggest that treatment for infertility does not significantly increase the risk of ovarian cancer among women with a BRCA mutation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the XRCC1 gene as a phenotypic modifier in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Results from the consortium of investigators of modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Alonso, R; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Teulé, A; Nathanson, K L; Domchek, S M; Rebbeck, T; Lasa, A; Konstantopoulou, I; Hogervorst, F B; Verhoef, S; van Dooren, M F; Jager, A; Ausems, M G E M; Aalfs, C M; van Asperen, C J; Vreeswijk, M; Waisfisz, Q; Van Roozendaal, C E; Ligtenberg, M J; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Curzon, B; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Izatt, L; Davidson, R; Adlard, J; Eccles, D; Ong, K-r; Douglas, F; Downing, S; Brewer, C; Walker, L; Nevanlinna, H; Aittomäki, K; Couch, F J; Fredericksen, Z; Lindor, N M; Godwin, A; Isaacs, C; Caligo, M A; Loman, N; Jernström, H; Barbany-Bustinza, G; Liljegren, A; Ehrencrona, H; Stenmark-Askmalm, M; Feliubadaló, L; Manoukian, S; Peissel, B; Zaffaroni, D; Bonanni, B; Fortuzzi, S; Johannsson, O T; Chenevix-Trench, G; Chen, X-C; Beesley, J; Spurdle, A B; Sinilnikova, O M; Healey, S; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Brunet, J; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair are good candidates to be tested as phenotypic modifiers for carriers of mutations in the high-risk susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. The base excision repair (BER) pathway could be particularly interesting given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the pathway, PARP1, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this study, we have evaluated the XRCC1 gene that participates in the BER pathway, as phenotypic modifier of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Methods: Three common SNPs in the gene, c.-77C>T (rs3213245) p.Arg280His (rs25489) and p.Gln399Arg (rs25487) were analysed in a series of 701 BRCA1 and 576 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results: An association was observed between p.Arg280His-rs25489 and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers, with rare homozygotes at increased risk relative to common homozygotes (hazard ratio: 22.3, 95% confidence interval: 14.3–34, P<0.001). This association was further tested in a second series of 4480 BRCA1 and 3016 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Conclusions and inte No evidence of association was found when the larger series was analysed which lead us to conclude that none of the three SNPs are significant modifiers of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. PMID:21427728

  1. Which screening strategy should be offered to women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations? A simulation of comparative cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    de Bock, G H; Vermeulen, K M; Jansen, L; Oosterwijk, J C; Siesling, S; Dorrius, M D; Feenstra, T; Houssami, N; Greuter, M J W

    2013-04-30

    There is no consensus on the most effective strategy (mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) for screening women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Dutch, UK and US screening strategies, which involve mammography and MRI at different ages and intervals were evaluated in high-risk women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Into a validated simulation screening model, outcomes and cost parameters were integrated from published and cancer registry data. Main outcomes were life-years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The simulation was situated in the Netherlands as well as in the United Kingdom, comparing the Dutch, UK and US strategies with the population screening as a reference. A discount rate of 3% was applied to both costs and health benefits. In terms of life-years gained, the strategies from least to most cost-effective were the UK, Dutch and US screening strategy, respectively. However, the differences were small. Applying the US strategy in the Netherlands, the costs were €43 800 and 68 800 for an additional life-year gained for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. At a threshold of €20 000 per life-year gained, implementing the US strategy in the Netherlands has a very low probability of being cost-effective. Stepping back to the less-effective UK strategy would save relatively little in costs and results in life-years lost. When implementing the screening strategies in the United Kingdom, the Dutch, as well as the US screening strategy have a high probability of being cost-effective. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, the Dutch screening strategy is preferred for screening high-risk women in the Netherlands as well as in the United Kingdom.

  2. Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Ramus, Susan J.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianshu; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A.; Caligo, Maria A.; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, María Isabel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; van Os, Theo A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Wijnen, Juul; Blok, Marinus J.; Kets, Marleen; Hooning, Maartje J.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana M.; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Bove, Betsy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Castera, Laurent; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Delnatte, Capucine; Akloul, Linda; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, MaryBeth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Goldgar, David E.; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Arason, Aðalgeir; Vijai, Joseph; Shah, Sohela; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly; Basil, Jack; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Boggess, John; Wakeley, Katie; Ewart-Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Brunet, Joan; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul PD; Odunsi, Kunle O.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tischkowitz, Marc D.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Lindor, Noralane M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Methods Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. Results We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.07–1.27; p=7.42×10−4) and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR=0.84; 95%CI 0.73–0.97; p=0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR=1.11; 95%CI 0.94–1.31; p=0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR=1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.29; p=3.8×10−4) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=1.30; 95%CI 1.10–1.52; p=1.8×10−3). Conclusions 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22351618

  3. Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Couch, Fergus J; Gaudet, Mia M; Antoniou, Antonis C; Ramus, Susan J; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianshu; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Caligo, Maria A; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Domchek, Susan M; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zlowocka, Elzbieta; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, María Isabel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B L; van Os, Theo A; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Wijnen, Juul; Blok, Marinus J; Kets, Marleen; Hooning, Maartje J; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Rosalind A; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana M; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley V; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E; Kennedy, M John; Side, Lucy E; Bove, Betsy; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Castera, Laurent; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Delnatte, Capucine; Akloul, Linda; Lynch, Henry T; Snyder, Carrie L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Marybeth; Chung, Wendy K; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Goldgar, David E; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Tea, Muy-Kheng M; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V O; Nielsen, Finn C; Arason, Aðalgeir; Vijai, Joseph; Shah, Sohela; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark E; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly; Basil, Jack; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Boggess, John; Wakeley, Katie; Ewart-Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Brunet, Joan; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul P D; Odunsi, Kunle O; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine S; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Dorfling, Cecelia M; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Lindor, Noralane M; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers [HR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.27; P = 7.42 × 10(-4)] and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = 0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.31; P = 0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52; P = 1.8 × 10(-3)). 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. ©2012 AACR.

  4. Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 and TP53 in patients at high-risk for HBOC: characterizing a Northeast Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Gabriela ES; Abe-Sandes, Camila; Machado-Lopes, Taísa MB; Bomfim, Thaís F; Guindalini, Rodrigo Santa Cruz; Santos, Vanessa Catarine SAR; Meyer, Lorena; Oliveira, Polyanna C; Cláudio Neiva, João; Meyer, Roberto; Romeo, Maura; Betânia Toralles, Maria; Nascimento, Ivana; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 and TP53 in the development of hereditary early-onset breast and ovarian cancer and that the genetic susceptibility profile of the Northeast population from Brazil has never been analyzed, this study aimed to verify the frequency of mutations of clinical significance in these genes in high-risk hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome patients from that region. DNA samples from 106 high-risk unrelated patients mostly from Bahia, the biggest state in the Northeast region, were analyzed. These patients underwent full BRCA1 gene sequencing, screening for common founder mutations in the BRCA2, CHEK2 and TP53 genes and genetic ancestry analysis with nine ancestry informative markers. The positive results were confirmed by two sequencing reactions. Three mutations of clinical significance were found: BRCA1 p.R71G (4.71%), 3450del4 (3.77%) and TP53 p.R337H (0.94%). The genetic ancestry analysis showed a high European ancestry contribution (62.2%) as well as considerable African (31.2%) and Amerindian (6.6%) ancestry contributions (r2=0.991); this degree of heterogeneity was also significant in the population structure analysis (r=0.604). This population is highly admixed with a different spectrum of genetic susceptibility, with the Galician founder mutation BRCA1 p.R71G accounting for 50% of all identified mutations in high-risk HBOC patients. TP53 p.R337H was also significantly frequent; thus, the combined screening of BRCA1/2 and TP53 should be offered to high-risk HBOC patients from Northeast Brazil. PMID:27081505

  5. Genetic testing in an ethnically diverse cohort of high-risk women: a comparative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in American families of European and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rita; Schumm, L Philip; Cummings, Shelly; Fackenthal, James D; Sveen, Lise; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Cobleigh, Melody; Esserman, Laura; Lindor, Noralane M; Neuhausen, Susan L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2005-10-19

    Ten years after BRCA1 and BRCA2 were first identified as major breast cancer susceptibility genes, the spectrum of mutations and modifiers of risk among many ethnic minorities remain undefined. To characterize the clinical predictors, spectrum, and frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in an ethnically diverse high-risk clinic population and to evaluate the performance of the BRCAPRO statistical model in predicting the likelihood of a mutation. Comparative analysis of families (white, Ashkenazi Jewish, African American, Hispanic, Asian) with 2 or more cases of breast and/or ovarian cancer among first- and second-degree relatives. Families were identified at US sites between February 1992 and May 2003; in each family, the individual with the highest probability of being a mutation carrier was tested. Frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the BRCAPRO model. The mutation spectrum was vastly different between families of African and European ancestry. Compared with non-Hispanic, non-Jewish whites, African Americans had a lower rate of deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations but a higher rate of sequence variations (27.9% vs 46.2% and 44.2% vs 11.5%; P<.001 for overall comparison). Deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were highest for Ashkenazi Jewish families (69.0%). Early age at diagnosis of breast cancer and number of first- and second-degree relatives with breast and ovarian cancer were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. In discriminating between mutation carriers, BRCAPRO performed as well in African American families as it did in white and Jewish families, with an area under the curve of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.88) for African American families and 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.79) for white and Jewish families combined. These data support the use of BRCAPRO and genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the

  6. Role of BRCA2 in the Expressions of IRF9-regulated Genes in Human Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    by BRCA2 positive and BRCA2 negative human breast tumor cells in the nude mice xenograft model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer , BRCA2, Interferon...whose inactivation is associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer predisposition, is essential for DNA repair in mammalian cells [1-5]. BRCA2...of cell proliferation [6]. However, how BRCA2 mutations predispose women specifically to breast and ovarian cancer remains undefined. One of the

  7. Average Risks of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations Detected in Case Series Unselected for Family History: A Combined Analysis of 22 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, A.; Pharoah, P. D. P.; Narod, S.; Risch, H. A.; Eyfjord, J. E.; Hopper, J. L.; Loman, N.; Olsson, H.; Johannsson, O.; Borg, Å.; Pasini, B.; Radice, P.; Manoukian, S.; Eccles, D. M.; Tang, N.; Olah, E.; Anton-Culver, H.; Warner, E.; Lubinski, J.; Gronwald, J.; Gorski, B.; Tulinius, H.; Thorlacius, S.; Eerola, H.; Nevanlinna, H.; Syrjäkoski, K.; Kallioniemi, O.-P.; Thompson, D.; Evans, C.; Peto, J.; Lalloo, F.; Evans, D. G.; Easton, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but the average magnitude of these risks is uncertain and may depend on the context. Estimates based on multiple-case families may be enriched for mutations of higher risk and/or other familial risk factors, whereas risk estimates from studies based on cases unselected for family history have been imprecise. We pooled pedigree data from 22 studies involving 8,139 index case patients unselected for family history with female (86%) or male (2%) breast cancer or epithelial ovarian cancer (12%), 500 of whom had been found to carry a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence rates for mutation carriers were estimated using a modified segregation analysis, based on the occurrence of these cancers in the relatives of mutation-carrying index case patients. The average cumulative risks in BRCA1-mutation carriers by age 70 years were 65% (95% confidence interval 44%–78%) for breast cancer and 39% (18%–54%) for ovarian cancer. The corresponding estimates for BRCA2 were 45% (31%–56%) and 11% (2.4%–19%). Relative risks of breast cancer declined significantly with age for BRCA1-mutation carriers (P trend .0012) but not for BRCA2-mutation carriers. Risks in carriers were higher when based on index breast cancer cases diagnosed at <35 years of age. We found some evidence for a reduction in risk in women from earlier birth cohorts and for variation in risk by mutation position for both genes. The pattern of cancer risks was similar to those found in multiple-case families, but their absolute magnitudes were lower, particularly for BRCA2. The variation in risk by age at diagnosis of index case is consistent with the effects of other genes modifying cancer risk in carriers. PMID:12677558

  8. Outcome of unexpected adnexal neoplasia discovered during risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomy in women with germ-line BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Conner, James R.; Meserve, Emily; Pizer, Ellen; Garber, Judy; Roh, Michael; Urban, Nicole; Drescher, Charles; Quade, Bradley J.; Muto, Michael; Howitt, Brooke E.; Pearlman, Mark D.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Horowitz, Neil; Crum, Christopher P.; Feltmate, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study computed the risk of clinically silent adnexal neoplasia in women with germ-line BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAm+) and determined recurrence risk. Methods We analyzed risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies (RRSOs) from 349 BRCAm+ women processed by the SEE-FIM protocol and addressed recurrence rates for 29 neoplasms from three institutions. Results Nineteen neoplasms (5.4%) were identified at one institution, 9.2% of BRCA1 and 3.4% of BRCA2 mutation-positive women. Fourteen had a high-grade tubal intraepithelial neoplasm (HGTIN, 74%). Mean age (54.4) was higher than the BRCAm+ cohort without neoplasia (47.8) and frequency increased with age (p<0.001). Twenty-nine BRCA m+ patients with neoplasia from three institutions were followed for a median of 5 years (1–8 yrs.). One of 11 with HGTIN alone (9%) recurred at 4 years, in contrast to 3 of 18 with invasion or involvement of other sites (16.7%). All but two, are currently alive. Among the 29 patients in the three institution cohort, mean ages for HGTIN and advanced disease were 49.2 and 57.7 (p = 0.027). Conclusions Adnexal neoplasia is present in 5–6% of RRSOs, is more common in women with BRCA1 mutations, and recurs in 9% of women with HGTIN alone. The lag in time from diagnosis of the HGTIN to pelvic recurrence (4 years) and differences in mean age between HGTIN and advanced disease (8.5 years) suggest an interval of several years from the onset of HGTIN until pelvic cancer develops. However, some neoplasms occur in the absence of HGTIN. PMID:24333842

  9. Defects in recombination activity caused by somatic and germline mutations in the multimerization/BRCA2 binding region of human RAD51 protein.

    PubMed

    Silva, Michelle C; Bryan, Katie E; Morrical, Milagros D; Averill, April M; Dragon, Julie; Wiegmans, Adrian P; Morrical, Scott W

    2017-12-01

    The human RAD51 recombinase possesses DNA pairing and strand exchange activities that are essential for the error-free, homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The recombination activities of RAD51 are activated upon its assembly into presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA at resected DSB ends. Defects in filament assembly caused by mutations in RAD51 or its regulators such as BRCA2 are associated with human cancer. Here we describe two novel RAD51 missense variants located in the multimerization/BRCA2 binding region of RAD51. F86L is a breast tumor-derived somatic variant that affects the interface between adjacent RAD51 protomers in the presynaptic filament. E258A is a germline variant that maps to the interface region between the N-terminal and RecA homology domains of RAD51. Both variants exhibit abnormal biochemistry including altered DNA strand exchange activity. Both variants inhibit the DNA strand exchange activity of wild-type RAD51, suggesting a mechanism for negative dominance. The inhibitory effect of F86L on wild-type RAD51 is surprising since F86L alone exhibits robust DNA strand exchange activity. Our findings indicate that even DNA strand exchange-proficient variants can have negative functional interactions with wild-type RAD51. Thus heterozygous F86L or E258 mutations in RAD51 could promote genomic instability, and thereby contribute to tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Worse Breast Cancer Prognosis of BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: What's the Evidence? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conflicting conclusions have been published regarding breast cancer survival of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Here we provide an evidence-based systematic literature review. Methods Eligible publications were observational studies assessing the survival of breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation compared to non-carriers or the general breast cancer population. We performed meta-analyses and best-evidence syntheses for survival outcomes taking into account study quality assessed by selection bias, misclassification bias and confounding. Results Sixty-six relevant studies were identified. Moderate evidence for a worse unadjusted recurrence-free survival for BRCA1 mutation carriers was found. For BRCA1 and BRCA2 there was a tendency towards a worse breast cancer-specific and overall survival, however, results were heterogeneous and the evidence was judged to be indecisive. Surprisingly, only 8 studies considered adjuvant treatment as a confounder or effect modifier while only two studies took prophylactic surgery into account. Adjustment for tumour characteristics tended to shift the observed risk estimates towards a relatively more favourable survival. Conclusions In contrast to currently held beliefs of some oncologists, current evidence does not support worse breast cancer survival of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the adjuvant setting; differences if any are likely to be small. More well-designed studies are awaited. PMID:25816289

  11. Smoking and physical inactivity increase cancer prevalence in BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutation carriers: results from a retrospective observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Grill, Sabine; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Dukatz, Ricarda; Lammert, Jacqueline; Ullrich, Mirjam; Engel, Christoph; Pfeifer, Katharina; Basrai, Maryam; Siniatchkin, Michael; Schmidt, Thorsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Schmutzler, Rita; Bischoff, Stephan C; Halle, Martin; Kiechle, Marion

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this analysis in a pilot study population was to investigate whether we can verify seemingly harmful lifestyle factors such as nicotine and alcohol indulgence, obesity, and physical inactivity, as well as a low socioeconomic status for increased cancer prevalence in a cohort of BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. The analysis data are derived from 68 participants of the lifestyle intervention study LIBRE-1, a randomized, prospective trial that aimed to test the feasibility of a lifestyle modification in BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. At study entry, factors such as medical history, lifestyle behavior, and socioeconomic status were retrospectively documented by interview and the current BMI was determined by clinical examination. The baseline measurements were compared within the cohort, and presented alongside reference values for the German population. Study participants indicating a higher physical activity during their adolescence showed a significantly lower cancer prevalence (p = 0.019). A significant difference in cancer occurrence was observed in those who smoked prior to the disease, and those who did not smoke (p < 0.001). Diseased mutation carriers tended to have a lower BMI compared to non-diseased mutation carriers (p = 0.079), whereas non-diseased revealed a significantly higher physical activity level than diseased mutation carriers (p = 0.046). The present data in this small cohort of 68 mutation carriers suggest that smoking and low physical activity during adolescence are risk factors for developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Further data of the ongoing LIBRE 2 study are necessary to confirm these findings in a larger cohort of 600 mutation carriers.

  12. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel; Domchek, Susan M; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Lee, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Janavicius, Ramunas; Hansen, Thomas vO; Nielsen, Finn C; Ejlertsen, Bent; Osorio, Ana; Muñoz-Repeto, Iván; Durán, Mercedes; Godino, Javier; Pertesi, Maroulio; Benítez, Javier; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Verheus, Martijn; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez García, Encarna B; Nelen, Marcel R; Kets, C Marleen; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M A; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo; Rookus, Matti; Frost, Debra; Jones, J Louise; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cook, Jackie; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Gregory, Helen; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Barwell, Julian; Side, Lucy E; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Kast, Karin; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Schäfer, Dieter; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Soucy, Penny; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; D'Andrea, Emma; Fox, Stephen; Yan, Max; Rebbeck, Tim; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lynch, Henry T; Ganz, Patricia A; Tomlinson, Gail E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia; Bhatia, Jasmine; Kauff, Noah; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Imyanitov, Evgeny; O'Malley, Frances P; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gordon; Toland, Amanda E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A; Soller, Maria; Henriksson, Karin; Wachenfeldt, von Anna; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Karlsson, Per; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L; Beattie, Mary; Pharoah, Paul D P; Moysich, Kirsten B; Nathanson, Katherine L; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B; Buys, Saundra M; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; Miron, Alexander F; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Andrulis, Irene L; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for

  13. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. Methods We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. Results The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. Conclusions The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models

  14. Two new CHEK2 germ-line variants detected in breast cancer/sarcoma families negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Frigerio, Simona; Lecis, Daniele; Bartkova, Jirina; Roversi, Gaia; Radice, Paolo; Bartek, Jiri; Delia, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    CHEK2 gene mutations occur in a subset of patients with familial breast cancer, acting as moderate/low penetrance cancer susceptibility alleles. Although CHEK2 is no longer recognized as a major determinant of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a hereditary condition predisposing to cancer at multiple sites, it cannot be ruled out that mutations of this gene play a role in malignancies arising in peculiar multi-cancer families. To assess the contribution of CHEK2 to the breast cancer/sarcoma phenotype, we screened for germ-line sequence variations of the gene among 12 probands from hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families with one case of sarcoma that tested wild-type for mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes. Two cases harbored previously unreported mutations in CHEK2, the c.507delT and c.38A>G, leading to protein truncation (p.Phe169LeufsX2) and amino acid substitution (p.His13Arg), respectively. These mutations were not considered common polymorphic variants, as they were undetected in 230 healthy controls of the same ethnic origin. While the c.38A>G encodes a mutant protein that behaves in biochemical assays as the wild-type form, the c.507delT is a loss-of-function mutation. The identification of two previously unreported CHEK2 variants, including a truncating mutation leading to constitutional haploinsufficiency, in individuals belonging to families selected for breast cancer/sarcoma phenotype, supports the hypothesis that the CHEK2 gene may act as a factor contributing to individual tumor development in peculiar familial backgrounds.

  15. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). Methods To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). Conclusions The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22348646

  16. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caligo, Maria A; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Rosenquist, Richard; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Tim; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowowcka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andrés, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B; van Os, Theo A; Verhoef, Senno; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Kriege, Mieke; Collée, J Margriet; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Godwin, Andrew K; Bove, Betsy; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Buecher, Bruno; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Calender, Alain; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Sobol, Hagay; Frenay, Marc; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra U; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alexander; Terry, Mary U; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Kaulich, Daphne U; Hansen, Thomas V; Nielsen, Finn C; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Gaudet, Mia; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Joseph, Vijai; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Kirk, Judy; Cohn, David; Hurteau, Jean; Byron, John; Fiorica, James; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Oliani, Cristina; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Valle, J Del; Gayther, Simon A; Odunsi, Kunle; Gross, Jenny; Karlan, Beth Y; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth U; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Lespérance, Bernard; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Loud, Jennifer T; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna U; Glendon, Gord; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe B; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F

    2012-02-20

    Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  17. The risk of primary and contralateral breast cancer after ovarian cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers: Implications for counseling.

    PubMed

    Vencken, Peggy M L H; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, Bernadette A M; van Doorn, Lena C; Collée, Margriet M; Jager, Agnes; van Montfort, Cees; Burger, Curt W; Seynaeve, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of primary breast cancer (PBC) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in patients who had BRCA1/BRCA2-associated epithelial ovarian cancer (OC). From the database of the Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic, patients who had BRCA-associated OC without a history of unilateral breast cancer (BC) (at risk of PBC; n = 79) or with a history of unilateral BC (at risk of CBC; n = 37) were selected. The control groups consisted of unaffected BRCA mutation carriers (n = 351) or mutation carriers who had a previous unilateral BC (n = 294), respectively. The risks of PBC and CBC were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier survival method with death considered as a competing risk event. Women with BRCA-associated OC had lower 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year risks of PBC (3%, 6%, and 11%, respectively) compared with unaffected mutation carriers (6%, 16%, and 28%, respectively; P = .03), although they had a considerably higher mortality rate at similar time points (13%, 33%, and 61%, respectively, vs 1%, 2%, and 2%, respectively; P < .001). In BRCA mutation carriers with a previous unilateral BC, the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year risks of CBC were nonsignificantly lower in patients with OC than in those without OC (0%, 7%, and 7%, respectively, vs 6%, 16%, and 34%, respectively; P = .06), whereas the mortality rate was higher in patients with OC (19%, 34%, and 55%, respectively, vs 4%, 11%, and 21%, respectively; P < .001). Patients with BRCA-associated OC had a lower risk of developing a subsequent PBC or CBC than mutation carriers without OC, whereas the risk of dying from OC was greater than the risk of developing BC. These data may facilitate more tailored counseling for this patient subgroup, although confirmative studies are warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  18. Hereditary truncating mutations of DNA repair and other genes in BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2-negatively tested breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lhota, F; Zemankova, P; Kleiblova, P; Soukupova, J; Vocka, M; Stranecky, V; Janatova, M; Hartmannova, H; Hodanova, K; Kmoch, S; Kleibl, Z

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer comprises a minor but clinically meaningful breast cancer (BC) subgroup. Mutations in the major BC-susceptibility genes are important prognostic and predictive markers; however, their carriers represent only 25% of high-risk BC patients. To further characterize variants influencing BC risk, we performed SOLiD sequencing of 581 genes in 325 BC patients (negatively tested in previous BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 analyses). In 105 (32%) patients, we identified and confirmed 127 truncating variants (89 unique; nonsense, frameshift indels, and splice site), 19 patients harbored more than one truncation. Forty-six (36 unique) truncating variants in 25 DNA repair genes were found in 41 (12%) patients, including 16 variants in the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes. The most frequent variant in FA genes was c.1096_1099dupATTA in FANCL that also show a borderline association with increased BC risk in subsequent analysis of enlarged groups of BC patients and controls. Another 81 (53 unique) truncating variants were identified in 48 non-DNA repair genes in 74 patients (23%) including 16 patients carrying variants in genes coding proteins of estrogen metabolism/signaling. Our results highlight the importance of mutations in the FA genes' family, and indicate that estrogen metabolism genes may reveal a novel candidate genetic component for BC susceptibility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of the Variants CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Christoph; Versmold, Beatrix; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Mayes, Rebecca; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Barjhoux, Laure; Frenay, Marc; Michel, Cécile; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Helene; Toulas, Christine; Gladieff, Laurence; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ehrencrona, Hans; Liljegren, Annelie; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramón y; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Benítez, Javier; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Szabo, Csilla I.; Caldes, Trinidad; Couch, Fergus J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hamann, Ute; Schmutzler, Rita K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genes caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) functionally cooperate and play a key role in the initiation of apoptosis. Suppression of apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of cancer. Previous case-control studies have indicated that the polymorphisms CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population. Methods To evaluate whether the CASP8 D302H (CASP10 V410I) polymorphisms modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we analyzed 7,353 (7,227) subjects of white European origin provided by 19 (18) study groups that participate in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIM-BA). A weighted cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The minor allele of CASP8 D302H was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76–0.97; Ptrend = 0.011) and ovarian cancer (per-allele HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53–0.89; Ptrend = 0.004) for BRCA1 but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The CASP10 V410I polymorphism was not associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Conclusions CASP8 D302H decreases breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact The combined application of these and other recently identified genetic risk modifiers could in the future allow better individual risk calculation and could aid in the individualized counseling and decision making with respect to preventive options in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:20978178

  20. Uptake and timing of bilateral prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Dignam, James J.; Cummings, Shelly A.; Verp, Marion; White, Melody A.; Artioli, Grazia; Dudlicek, Laura; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy uptake and timing among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in a cancer risk assessment program. Methods Clinical records of female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who received cancer genetic counseling between 1996 and 2003 were reviewed to determine the completion and the timing of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between subject characteristics and surgery. Survival analysis methods were used to estimate the distribution of time to surgery. Results Among 88 women, 70% underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy was associated with older age, white race, having children, and a family history of ovarian cancer. Many women waited more than 12 months to undergo surgery and some delayed by several years. Younger age and not having children were associated with delays to surgery. Conclusion Prophylactic salpingo-ooporectomy is an acceptable risk reduction measure for many BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Some women make this decision many years after genetic testing. Continued discussion of the risks and benefits of risk reduction options may facilitate the uptake of recommended risk reduction interventions among BRCA mutation carriers. PMID:18344704

  1. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; dos Santos, Patricia Koehler; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; de Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil. PMID:27223485

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psychosocial Telephone Counseling Intervention in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Wenzel, Lari; Schwartz, Marc D.; Luta, George; Wileyto, Paul; Narod, Steven; Peshkin, Beth N.; Marcus, Alfred; Cella, David; Emsbo, Susan Powell; Barnes, Denise; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Responses following BRCA1/2 genetic testing are relevant for comprehension of risk status and may play a role in risk management decision making. The objective of this study was to evaluate a Psychosocial Telephone Counseling (PTC) intervention delivered to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers following standard genetic counseling (SGC). We examined the impact of the intervention on distress and concerns related to genetic testing. Patients and Methods This prospective randomized clinical trial included 90 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We measured anxiety, depression, and genetic testing distress outcomes at intervention baseline and 6- and 12-months following disclosure. We evaluated the effects of SGC versus SGC plus PTC on psychological outcomes using intention-to-treat analyses through Generalized Estimating Equations. Results At 6 months, PTC reduced depressive symptoms (Z = −2.25, P = .02) and genetic testing distress (Z = 2.18, P = .02) compared to standard genetic counseling. Further, women in the intervention condition reported less clinically-significant anxiety at 6 months (χ21 = 4.11, P = .04) than women who received SGC. We found no differences in outcomes between the intervention groups at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions As an adjunct to SGC, psychosocial telephone counseling delivered following disclosure of positive BRCA1/2 test results appears to offer modest benefits for distress and anxiety. These results build upon a growing literature of psychosocial interventions for BRCA1/2 carriers and, given the potential impact of affect on risk management decision making, suggest that some carriers may derive benefits from adjuncts to traditional genetic counseling. PMID:20200423

  3. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)-based testing. In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn't adversely affect short-term psychological

  4. Population Testing for Cancer Predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish Community: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Conclusion: Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn

  5. Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence, risk prediction models and a multistep testing approach in French‐Canadian families with high risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Moisan, Anne‐Marie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Vézina, Hélène; Durocher, Francine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Plante, Marie; Avard, Denise; Bessette, Paul; Brousseau, Claire; Dorval, Michel; Godard, Béatrice; Houde, Louis; Joly, Yann; Lajoie, Marie‐Andrée; Leblanc, Gilles; Lépine, Jean; Lespérance, Bernard; Malouin, Hélène; Parboosingh, Jillian; Pichette, Roxane; Provencher, Louise; Rhéaume, Josée; Sinnett, Daniel; Samson, Carolle; Simard, Jean‐Claude; Tranchant, Martine; Voyer, Patricia; BRCAs, INHERIT; Easton, Douglas; Tavtigian, Sean V; Knoppers, Bartha‐Maria; Laframboise, Rachel; Bridge, Peter; Goldgar, David

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective In clinical settings with fixed resources allocated to predictive genetic testing for high‐risk cancer predisposition genes, optimal strategies for mutation screening programmes are critically important. These depend on the mutation spectrum found in the population under consideration and the frequency of mutations detected as a function of the personal and family history of cancer, which are both affected by the presence of founder mutations and demographic characteristics of the underlying population. The results of multistep genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in a large series of families with breast cancer in the French‐Canadian population of Quebec, Canada are reported. Methods A total of 256 high‐risk families were ascertained from regional familial cancer clinics throughout the province of Quebec. Initially, families were tested for a panel of specific mutations known to occur in this population. Families in which no mutation was identified were then comprehensively tested. Three algorithms to predict the presence of mutations were evaluated, including the prevalence tables provided by Myriad Genetics Laboratories, the Manchester Scoring System and a logistic regression approach based on the data from this study. Results 8 of the 15 distinct mutations found in 62 BRCA1/BRCA2‐positive families had never been previously reported in this population, whereas 82% carried 1 of the 4 mutations currently observed in ⩾2 families. In the subset of 191 families in which at least 1 affected individual was tested, 29% carried a mutation. Of these 27 BRCA1‐positive and 29 BRCA2‐positive families, 48 (86%) were found to harbour a mutation detected by the initial test. Among the remaining 143 inconclusive families, all 8 families found to have a mutation after complete sequencing had Manchester Scores ⩾18. The logistic regression and Manchester Scores provided equal predictive power, and both were significantly better

  6. Risk of Asynchronous Contralateral Breast Cancer in Noncarriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations With a Family History of Breast Cancer: A Report From the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Anne S.; John, Esther M.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Mellemkjær, Lene; Malone, Kathleen E.; Knight, Julia A.; Capanu, Marinela; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Concannon, Patrick; Liang, Xiaolin; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Smith, Susan A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Pike, Malcolm C.; Haile, Robert W.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Begg, Colin B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To fully characterize the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in patients with breast cancer with a family history who test negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Patients and Methods From our population-based case-control study comparing women with CBC to women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC), we selected women who tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (594 patients with CBC/1,119 control patients with UBC). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated to examine the association between family history of breast cancer and risk of asynchronous CBC. Age- and family history–specific 10-year cumulative absolute risks of CBC were estimated. Results Family history of breast cancer was associated with increased CBC risk; risk was highest among young women (< 45 years) with first-degree relatives affected at young ages (< 45 years; RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3) or women with first-degree relatives with bilateral disease (RR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.4). Women diagnosed with UBC before age 55 years with a first-degree family history of CBC had a 10-year risk of CBC of 15.6%. Conclusion Young women with breast cancer who have a family history of breast cancer and who test negative for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are at significantly greater risk of CBC than other breast cancer survivors. This risk varies with diagnosis age, family history of CBC, and degree of relationship to an affected relative. Women with a first-degree family history of bilateral disease have risks of CBC similar to mutation carriers. This has important implications for the clinical management of patients with breast cancer with family history of the disease. PMID:23269995

  7. A case of familial breast cancer with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

    PubMed

    Nomizu, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Sakuma, Takeshi; Monma, Tomoyuki; Saito, Motonobu; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Midorikawa, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko

    2015-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of familial breast cancer with deleterious germline mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, of which, to date, no such case has been reported among Japanese breast/ovarian cancer patients. Genetic testing of the family members indicated that the same double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was transmitted to the paternal cousin, and the same BRCA2 mutation to the younger sister with bilateral breast cancer, younger brother with stomach cancer, and proband's son and daughter without cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA protein expression was performed using breast cancer tissues from the proband with double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and from her sibling without BRCA1 mutation but with BRCA2 mutation. There was no staining of either BRCA in the proband and no staining of BRCA2 in the sibling.

  8. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B; Pastinen, Tomi; Droit, Arnaud; Lemaçon, Audrey; Adlard, Julian; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bane, Anita; Barjhoux, Laure; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berthet, Pascaline; Blok, Marinus J; Bobolis, Kristie; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caligo, Maria A; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; De la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Gareth Evans, D; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganschow, Pamela; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Hahnen, Eric; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hays, John L; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joseph, Vijai; Just, Walter; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kets, Carolien M; Kirk, Judy; Kriege, Mieke; Laitman, Yael; Laurent, Maïté; Lazaro, Conxi; Leslie, Goska; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Loman, Niklas; Loud, Jennifer T; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mariani, Milena; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park, Sue Kyung; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Segura, Pedro Perez; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Sevenet, Nicolas; Shah, Payal D; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sokolowska, Johanna; Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Tan, Yen; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teulé, Alex; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tung, Nadine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wijnen, Juul T; Rebbeck, Timothy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Nord, Silje; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Simard, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.

  9. Quantitative analysis of γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Staff, Synnöve; Tolonen, Teemu; Laasanen, Satu-Leena; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Isola, Jorma; Mäenpää, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an increased lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Increased lifetime ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers can be substantially decreased by risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which also provides material for molecular research on early pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer. RRSO studies have suggested fallopian tube as a primary site of serous high-grade ovarian cancer. In this study, the nuclear expression levels of γ-H2AX and p53 using immunohistochemical (IHC) study was quantitatively assessed in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSOs in 29 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and in 1 patient with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer but showing an unknown BRCA status. Both p53 and γ-H2AX nuclear staining levels were significantly higher in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with the control fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.006 and P=0.011, respectively). Nuclear expression levels of p53 and γ-H2AX were similar between the BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium and controls. Both γ-H2AX and p53 showed significantly higher nuclear expression levels in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium showed a positive correlation between the γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels (Pearson r=0.508, P=0.003). Our results of quantitative nuclear p53 and γ-H2AX expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSO in high-risk patients support the previously suggested role of fallopian tube epithelium serving as a possible site of initial serous ovarian carcinogenesis.

  10. Comparable frequency of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutations in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort suggests TP53 screening should be offered together with BRCA1/2 screening to early-onset breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Germline TP53 mutations cause an increased risk to early-onset breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) families and the majority of carriers identified through breast cancer cohorts have LFS or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) features. However, in Asia and in many low resource settings, it is challenging to obtain accurate family history and we, therefore, sought to determine whether the presence of early-onset breast cancer is an appropriate selection criteria for germline TP53 testing. Methods A total of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer (≤ 35 years) treated at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2003 and 2009, were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 by full DNA sequencing. Of the mutations identified, we examined their likely pathogenicity on the basis of prevalence in a case-control cohort, co-segregation analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor tissues. Results We identified 11 BRCA1 (11%) and 6 BRCA2 (6%) germline carriers among early-onset breast cancer patients. Of the 83 BRCA-negative patients, we identified four exonic variants and three intronic variants in TP53. Of these, two exonic variants are clinically relevant (E346X and p. G334_R335dup6) and two novel missense mutations (A138V and E285K) are likely to be clinically relevant, on the basis of co-segregation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Notably, E285K was found in two unrelated individuals and haplotype analyses suggest a founder effect. Two of the three intronic variants are likely benign based on their prevalence in a control population. Clinically relevant TP53 germline mutations were identified in three of the four patients (75%) with a family history of at least two LFS-linked cancers (breast, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors or adrenocortical cancer); 1 of the 17 patients (6%) with a family history of breast cancer only, and 1 of the 62 patients (< 2%) with no family history of breast or LFS-linked cancers. Conclusions Our

  11. The importance of proper bioinformatics analysis and clinical interpretation of tumor genomic profiling: a case study of undifferentiated sarcoma and a constitutional pathogenic BRCA2 mutation and an MLH1 variant of uncertain significance.

    PubMed

    Varga, Elizabeth; Chao, Elizabeth C; Yeager, Nicholas D

    2015-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is increasingly utilized to identify therapeutic targets for patients with malignancy. This technology also has the capability to reveal the presence of constitutional genetic alterations, which may have significant implications for patients and their family members. Here we present the case of a 23 year old Caucasian patient with recurrent undifferentiated sarcoma who had NGS-based tumor analysis using an assay which simultaneously analyzed the entire coding sequence of 236 cancer-related genes (3769 exons) plus 47 introns from 19 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer. Pathogenic alterations were reported in tumor as the predicted protein alterations, BRCA2 "R645fs*15″ and MLH1 "E694*". Because constitutional BRCA2 and MLH1 gene mutations are associated with Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Lynch syndrome respectively, sequence analysis of DNA isolated from peripheral blood was performed. The presence of the alterations, BRCA2 c.1929delG and MLH1 c.2080G>T, corresponding to the previously reported predicted protein alterations, were confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the constitutional DNA. An additional DNA finding was reported in this analysis, MLH1 c.2081A>C at the neighboring nucleotide. Further evaluation of the family revealed that all alterations were paternally inherited and the two MLH1 substitutions were in cis, more appropriately referred to as MLH1 c.2080_2081delGAinsTC, which is classified as a variant of uncertain significance. This case illustrates important considerations related to appropriate interpretation of NGS tumor results and follow-up of patients with potentially deleterious constitutional alterations.

  12. Up-regulation of the interferon-related genes in BRCA2 knockout epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Xian, Jian; Vire, Emmanuelle; McKinney, Steven; Wong, Jason; Wei, Vivien; Tong, Rebecca; Kouzarides, Tony; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 mutations are significantly associated with early onset breast cancer, and the tumour suppressing function of BRCA2 has been attributed to its involvement in homologous recombination [1]-mediated DNA repair. In order to identify additional functions of BRCA2, we generated BRCA2-knockout HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Using genome-wide microarray analyses, we have discovered a link between the loss of BRCA2 and the up-regulation of a subset of interferon (IFN)-related genes, including APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. The over-expression of IFN-related genes was confirmed in different human BRCA2−/− and mouse Brca2−/− tumour cell lines, and was independent of either senescence or apoptosis. In isogenic wild type BRCA2 cells, we observed over-expression of IFN-related genes after treatment with DNA-damaging agents, and following ionizing radiation. Cells with endogenous DNA damage because of defective BRCA1 or RAD51 also exhibited over-expression of IFN-related genes. Transcriptional activity of the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was increased in BRCA2 knockout cells, and the expression of BRCA2 greatly decreased IFN-α stimulated ISRE reporter activity, suggesting that BRCA2 directly represses the expression of IFN-related genes through the ISRE. Finally, the colony forming capacity of BRCA2 knockout cells was significantly reduced in the presence of either IFN-β or IFN-γ, suggesting that IFNs may have potential as therapeutic agents in cancer cells with BRCA2 mutations. PMID:25043256

  13. Frequent occurrence of BRCA2 linkage in Icelandic breast cancer families and segregation of a common BRCA2 haplotype

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J.; Johannesdottir, G.; Arason, A.; Bergthorsson, J.T.

    1996-04-01

    Cloning of a breast cancer-predisposing gene (BRCA2) on chromosome 13q12-14 has been reported recently. We analyzed seven large Icelandic breast cancer families with markers from the BRCA2 region. Five families showed strong evidence of linkage. The maximum two-point LOD scores for the five BRCA2-linked families ranged from 1.06 to 3.19. Haplotype analyses revealed a region with identical allele sizes between the families, suggesting that they have inherited the mutation from a common ancestor. Cancer types other than breast cancer occur in individuals, segregating the affected haplotype within these families. This suggests that mutations in the gene may also confer some risk of other malignancies in both males and females. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. BRCA2 Acts as RAD51 Loader to Facilitate Telomere Replication and Capping

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Sophie; Escandell, Jose M.; Bouwman, Peter; Carlos, Ana Rita; Thanasoula, Maria; Gallardo, Maria M.; Suram, Anitha; Jaco, Isabel; Benitez, Javier; Herbig, Utz; Blasco, Maria A.; Jonkers, Jos; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2010-01-01

    BRCA2 is a key component of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA repair, acting as the loader of RAD51 recombinase at sites of double-strand breaks. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA2 associates with telomeres during S/G2 and facilitates RAD51 loading onto telomeres. Conditional Brca2 deletion and Rad51 inhibition in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not Brca1 inactivation, led to telomere shortening and accumulation of fragmented telomeric signals, a hallmark of telomere fragility associated with replication defects. This suggests that BRCA2-mediated HR reactions contribute to telomere length maintenance by facilitating telomere replication and implies an essential role for BRCA2 in telomere integrity during unchallenged cell proliferation. Mouse mammary tumors lacking Brca2 accumulated telomere dysfunction-induced foci. BRCA2-mutated human breast tumors had shorter telomeres than BRCA1-mutated ones, suggesting that the genomic instability observed in BRCA2-deficient tumors is due in part to telomere dysfunction. PMID:21076401

  15. Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Wilson, Catherine; Titus, Tom A; Cañestro, Cristian; BreMiller, Ruth A; Yan, Yi-Lin; Nanda, Indrajit; Johnston, Adam; Kanki, John P; Gray, Erin M; He, Xinjun; Spitsbergen, Jan; Schindler, Detlev; Postlethwait, John H

    2011-03-01

    Mild mutations in BRCA2 (FANCD1) cause Fanconi anemia (FA) when homozygous, while severe mutations cause common cancers including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers when heterozygous. Here we report a zebrafish brca2 insertional mutant that shares phenotypes with human patients and identifies a novel brca2 function in oogenesis. Experiments showed that mutant embryos and mutant cells in culture experienced genome instability, as do cells in FA patients. In wild-type zebrafish, meiotic cells expressed brca2; and, unexpectedly, transcripts in oocytes localized asymmetrically to the animal pole. In juvenile brca2 mutants, oocytes failed to progress through meiosis, leading to female-to-male sex reversal. Adult mutants became sterile males due to the meiotic arrest of spermatocytes, which then died by apoptosis, followed by neoplastic proliferation of gonad somatic cells that was similar to neoplasia observed in ageing dead end (dnd)-knockdown males, which lack germ cells. The construction of animals doubly mutant for brca2 and the apoptotic gene tp53 (p53) rescued brca2-dependent sex reversal. Double mutants developed oocytes and became sterile females that produced only aberrant embryos and showed elevated risk for invasive ovarian tumors. Oocytes in double-mutant females showed normal localization of brca2 and pou5f1 transcripts to the animal pole and vasa transcripts to the vegetal pole, but had a polarized rather than symmetrical nucleus with the distribution of nucleoli and chromosomes to opposite nuclear poles; this result revealed a novel role for Brca2 in establishing or maintaining oocyte nuclear architecture. Mutating tp53 did not rescue the infertility phenotype in brca2 mutant males, suggesting that brca2 plays an essential role in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture.

  16. Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in Oocyte Nuclear Architecture, Gametogenesis, Gonad Tumors, and Genome Stability in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Wilson, Catherine; Titus, Tom A.; Cañestro, Cristian; BreMiller, Ruth A.; Yan, Yi-Lin; Nanda, Indrajit; Johnston, Adam; Kanki, John P.; Gray, Erin M.; He, Xinjun; Spitsbergen, Jan; Schindler, Detlev; Postlethwait, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Mild mutations in BRCA2 (FANCD1) cause Fanconi anemia (FA) when homozygous, while severe mutations cause common cancers including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers when heterozygous. Here we report a zebrafish brca2 insertional mutant that shares phenotypes with human patients and identifies a novel brca2 function in oogenesis. Experiments showed that mutant embryos and mutant cells in culture experienced genome instability, as do cells in FA patients. In wild-type zebrafish, meiotic cells expressed brca2; and, unexpectedly, transcripts in oocytes localized asymmetrically to the animal pole. In juvenile brca2 mutants, oocytes failed to progress through meiosis, leading to female-to-male sex reversal. Adult mutants became sterile males due to the meiotic arrest of spermatocytes, which then died by apoptosis, followed by neoplastic proliferation of gonad somatic cells that was similar to neoplasia observed in ageing dead end (dnd)-knockdown males, which lack germ cells. The construction of animals doubly mutant for brca2 and the apoptotic gene tp53 (p53) rescued brca2-dependent sex reversal. Double mutants developed oocytes and became sterile females that produced only aberrant embryos and showed elevated risk for invasive ovarian tumors. Oocytes in double-mutant females showed normal localization of brca2 and pou5f1 transcripts to the animal pole and vasa transcripts to the vegetal pole, but had a polarized rather than symmetrical nucleus with the distribution of nucleoli and chromosomes to opposite nuclear poles; this result revealed a novel role for Brca2 in establishing or maintaining oocyte nuclear architecture. Mutating tp53 did not rescue the infertility phenotype in brca2 mutant males, suggesting that brca2 plays an essential role in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture. PMID:21483806

  17. Do Ovarian Cancer Patients with a Family History of Cancer (Suspected BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation) Suffer Greater Chemotherapy Toxicity?

    PubMed

    Egloff, Heidi; Jatoi, Aminah

    2016-11-25

    Few studies have examined toxicity from potentially curative chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients at risk for breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA) mutation. Ninety-four of the 482 patients appeared at risk for a mutation based on family history and 23 had a confirmed mutation. Hospitalization or emergency department visits were not increased based on family history with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.88 (0.52, 1.45) (p =.62) and 0.90 (0.49, 1.58) (p =.71), respectively; similar findings were observed with confirmed mutations. Trends favored improved survival. Concern for a BRCA mutation should not preclude full dose chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients treated with curative intent.

  18. Olfactory functions in asymptomatic carriers of the Huntington disease mutation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria; Lundin, Anders; Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita

    2006-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder initially affecting the basal ganglia and especially the head of the caudate nucleus. Neuropsychological research has indicated that olfactory dysfunction may appear early in HD, prior to the onset of significant motor or cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether asymptomatic carriers of the Huntington disease mutation also exhibit olfactory dysfunction. To address this issue we presented an extensive olfactory test battery comprising tasks assessing olfactory sensitivity, intensity discrimination, quality discrimination, episodic odor memory, and odor identification, to a group of gene carriers and nonmutation carriers of the disease. The results showed that gene carriers were selectively impaired in discriminating odor quality, although performance did not differ from noncarriers across the other tasks. The role played by striatum and then in particular the caudate nucleus for olfactory processing in general, and for odor quality discrimination in particular, is discussed.

  19. Ductal Carcinoma in situ Detected during Prospective MR Imaging Screening of a Woman with a BRCA2 Mutation: The First Case Report in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Seigo; Kitagawa, Dai; Iwase, Takuji; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Arai, Masami

    2017-07-10

    The present case is the first report in Japan in which a breast cancer was discovered as a result of prospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening study for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who were free of breast or ovarian cancer. This case is significant and it verifies the importance of MRI screening in breast or ovarian cancer-free BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who do not exhibit positive mammographic or ultrasonographic findings.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational profile and prevalence in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) probands from Southern Brazil: Are international testing criteria appropriate for this specific population?

    PubMed

    Alemar, Bárbara; Gregório, Cleandra; Herzog, Josef; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Artigalas, Osvaldo; D Schwartz, Ida Vanessa; Coffa, Jordy; Alves Camey, Suzi; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) are the main cause of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC). In this study we evaluated the mutational profile and prevalence of BRCA pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants among probands fulfilling the NCCN HBOC testing criteria. We characterized the clinical profile of these individuals and explored the performance of international testing criteria. A pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant was detected in 19.1% of 418 probands, including seven novel frameshift variants. Variants of uncertain significance were found in 5.7% of individuals. We evaluated 50 testing criteria and mutation probability algorithms. There was a significant odds-ratio (OR) for mutation prediction (p ≤ 0.05) for 25 criteria; 14 of these had p ≤ 0.001. Using a cutoff point of four criteria, the sensitivity is 83.8%, and the specificity is 53.5% for being a carrier. The prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants for each criterion ranged from 22.1% to 55.6%, and criteria with the highest ORs were those related to triple-negative breast cancer or ovarian cancer. This is the largest study of comprehensive BRCA testing among Brazilians to date, and the first to analyze clinical criteria for genetic testing. Several criteria that are not included in the NCCN achieved a higher predictive value. Identification of the most informative criteria for each population will assist in the development of a rational approach to genetic testing, and will enable the prioritization of high-risk individuals as a first step towards offering testing in low-income countries.

  1. Suppression of BRCA2 by Mutant Mitochondrial DNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    PNT1A/C4-2 cybrids versus PNT1A wild-type by RT-PCR (Month 13) We have analyzed BRCA2 mRNA levels and found no difference in mtDNA-mutated cells...LNCaP Rho-, PNT1A/C4-2 cybrids and PNT1A Rho0 cells stably overexpressing BRCA2 (Months 19-21) 1.a Stably transfect mtDNA mutant cells with BRCA2...in mtDNA-mutated cells. A, BRCA2 mRNA levels were quantified in PNT1A wild-type, Rho(0) and cybrids cells by real-time RT-PCR and expressed as

  2. Structure and Mechanism of Action of the BRCA2 Breast Cancer Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Malivert, Laurent; McIlwraith, Michael J.; Pape, Tillman; West, Stephen C.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in BRCA2 increase susceptibility to breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. The product of human BRCA2, BRCA2 protein, plays a key role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and interstrand crosslinks by RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. Here, we present a biochemical and structural characterization of full length (3,418 amino acid) BRCA2, alone and in complex with RAD51. We show that BRCA2 facilitates nucleation of RAD51 filaments at multiple sites on single-stranded DNA. Three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstructions revealed that BRCA2 exists as a dimer and that two oppositely-oriented sets of RAD51 molecules bind the dimer. Single stranded DNA binds along the long axis of BRCA2, such that only one set of RAD51 monomers can form a productive complex with DNA and establish filament formation. Our data define the molecular mechanism by which this tumor suppressor facilitates RAD51-mediated homologous recombinational repair. PMID:25282148

  3. Hidden Dangers: A Cryptic Exon Disrupts BRCA2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Fackenthal, James D.; Lee, Younghee; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first mutation that disrupts BRCA2 mRNA by including a novel, cryptic exon is reported in this issue. The mutation lies deep within an intron and would not have been detected by conventional screening methods. In the future, more mutations may be discovered by direct mRNA analysis. PMID:22869870

  4. Feasibility of structured endurance training and Mediterranean diet in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers - an interventional randomized controlled multicenter trial (LIBRE-1).

    PubMed

    Kiechle, Marion; Dukatz, Ricarda; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Berling, Anika; Basrai, Maryam; Staiger, Vera; Niederberger, Uwe; Marter, Nicole; Lammert, Jacqueline; Grill, Sabine; Pfeifer, Katharina; Rhiem, Kerstin; Schmutzler, Rita K; Laudes, Matthias; Siniatchkin, Michael; Halle, Martin; Bischoff, Stephan C; Engel, Christoph

    2017-11-10

    Women with pathogenic BRCA germline mutations have an increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer that seems to be modified by life-style factors. Though, randomized trials investigating the impact of lifestyle interventions on cancer prevention and prognosis in BRCA carriers are still missing. We implemented a multicenter, prospective randomized controlled trial in BRCA1/2 patients, comparing a lifestyle intervention group (IG) with a control group (CG) with the primary aim to prove feasibility. Intervention comprised a structured, individualized endurance training alongside nutrition education based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) for 3 months, plus monthly group training and regular telephone contact during the subsequent 9 months. The CG attended one session on healthy nutrition and the benefits of physical activity. Primary endpoints were feasibility, acceptance and satisfaction over 12 months. Furthermore, effects on physical fitness, diet profile, body mass index (BMI), quality of life and perceived stress were investigated. Sixty-eight participants (mean age 41, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled, of whom 55 (81%, 26 IG, 29 CG) completed 12 months. 73% (n = 26) participated in at least 70% of all intervention sessions. Predictors for drop-outs (19%; n = 13) or non-adherence (27%; n = 7) were not found. 73% rated the program highly and 80% would participate again. Severe adverse events did not occur. Positive effects in the IG compared to the CG were observed for secondary endpoints: BMI, MD eating pattern and stress levels. This lifestyle intervention was feasible, safe and well accepted. Positive results on eating habits, physical fitness and stress levels warrant a larger randomized trial. The study has been retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (reference: NCT02087592 ) on March 12, 2014. The first patient was included on February 24, 2014.

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a small increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Your ob-gyn ... the presence of some cancerous tumors. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot ...

  6. A phase I followed by a randomized phase II trial of two cycles carboplatin-olaparib followed by olaparib monotherapy versus capecitabine in BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as first line treatment (REVIVAL): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Philip C; Dackus, Gwen M H E; Marchetti, Serena; van Tinteren, Harm; Sonke, Gabe S; Schellens, Jan H M; Linn, Sabine C

    2016-06-21

    Preclinical studies in breast cancer models showed that BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficient cell lines, when compared to BRCA proficient cell lines, are extremely sensitive to PARP1 inhibition. When combining the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib with cisplatin in a BRCA1-mutated breast cancer mouse model, the combination induced a larger response than either of the two compounds alone. Several clinical studies have investigated single agent therapy or combinations of both drugs, but no randomized clinical evidence exists for the superiority of carboplatin-olaparib versus standard of care therapy in patients with BRCA1- or BRCA2--mutated metastatic breast cancer. This investigator-initiated study contains two parts. Part 1 is a traditional 3 + 3 dose escalation study of the carboplatin-olaparib combination followed by olaparib monotherapy. The carboplatin dose will be escalated from area under the curve (AUC) 3 to AUC 4 with an olaparib dose of 25 mg BID. Olaparib is subsequently escalated to 50, 75, and 100 mg BID until >1/6 of patients develop dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The dose level below will be the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). It is expected that 15-20 patients are needed in Part I. In Part 2 BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated HER2-negative breast cancer patients will be randomized between standard capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) BID day 1-14 q day 22, versus 2 cycles carboplatin-olaparib followed by olaparib monotherapy 300 mg BID. In total 104 events in 110 patients need to be observed to detect a 75 % clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), from a median of 4 months (control) to 7 months (experimental) assuming a 2-year accrual and ≥6 months of follow-up with 80 % power (5 %, two-sided significance level). After progression on first line treatment, patients will receive physician's best choice of paclitaxel, vinorelbine, eribulin, or capecitabine (experimental arm only) at standard dose. A compassionate use program of olaparib is available

  7. A comprehensive model for familial breast cancer incorporating BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, A C; Pharoah, P D P; McMullan, G; Day, N E; Stratton, M R; Peto, J; Ponder, B J; Easton, D F

    2002-01-01

    In computing the probability that a woman is a BRCA1 or BRCA2 carrier for genetic counselling purposes, it is important to allow for the fact that other breast cancer susceptibility genes may exist. We used data from both a population based series of breast cancer cases and high risk families in the UK, with information on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, to investigate the genetic models that can best explain familial breast cancer outside BRCA1 and BRCA2 families. We also evaluated the evidence for risk modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. We estimated the simultaneous effects of BRCA1, BRCA2, a third hypothetical gene ‘BRCA3’, and a polygenic effect using segregation analysis. The hypergeometric polygenic model was used to approximate polygenic inheritance and the effect of risk modifiers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 could not explain all the observed familial clustering. The best fitting model for the residual familial breast cancer was the polygenic, although a model with a single recessive allele produced a similar fit. There was also significant evidence for a modifying effect of other genes on the risks of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Under this model, the frequency of BRCA1 was estimated to be 0.051% (95% CI: 0.021–0.125%) and of BRCA2 0.068% (95% CI: 0.033–0.141%). The breast cancer risk by age 70 years, based on the average incidence over all modifiers was estimated to be 35.3% for BRCA1 and 50.3% for BRCA2. The corresponding ovarian cancer risks were 25.9% for BRCA1 and 9.1% for BRCA2. The findings suggest that several common, low penetrance genes with multiplicative effects on risk may account for the residual non-BRCA1/2 familial aggregation of breast cancer. The modifying effect may explain the previously reported differences between population based estimates for BRCA1/2 penetrance and estimates based on high-risk families. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 76–83. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600008 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The

  8. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner in the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  9. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook, E-mail: HL212@snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner inmore » the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.« less

  10. Nuclear localization of Rad51B is independent of BRCA2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K A; Hinz, J M; Yamada, A; Thompson, L H; Albala, J S

    2005-06-28

    Human Rad51 is critical for the maintenance of genome stability through its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Rad51B (Rad51L1/hRec2) is one of the five known paralogs of human Rad51 found in a multi-protein complex with three other Rad51 paralogs, Rad51C, Rad51D and Xrcc2. Examination of EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in HeLa S3 cells and immunofluorescence in several human cell lines confirms the nuclear localization of Rad51B. This is the first report to detail putative interactions of a Rad51 paralog protein with BRCA2. Utilization of a BRCA2 mutant cell line, CAPAN-1 suggests that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of BRCA2. Although both Rad51B and BRCA2 are clearly involved in the homologous recombinational repair pathway, Rad51B and BRCA2 do not appear to associate directly. Furthermore, mutations in the KKLK motif of Rad51B, amino acid residues 4-7, mislocalizes Rad51B to the cytoplasm suggesting that this is the nuclear localization signal for the Rad51B protein. Examination of wild-type EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in mammalian cells deficient in Rad51C showed that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of Rad51C; further suggesting that Rad51B, like Rad51C, contains its own nuclear localization signal.

  11. Paradoxical delay of senescence upon depletion of BRCA2 in telomerase-deficient worms.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Sun; Min, Jaewon; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Hwang, Kwangwoo; Kim, Chuna; Lee, Junho; Joung, Je-Gun; Park, Woong-Yang; Lee, Hyunsook

    2016-10-01

    BRCA2 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in homologous recombination (HR), mitotic checkpoint regulation, and telomere homeostasis. Absence of Brca2 in mice results in progressive shortening of telomeres and senescence, yet cells are prone to neoplastic transformation with elongated telomeres, suggesting that BRCA2 has positive and negative effects on telomere length regulation along the path to tumorigenesis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we show here that depletion of BRC-2, an ortholog of BRCA2, paradoxically delays senescence in telomerase-deficient mutant worms. Telomerase-deficient worms (trt-1) exhibit early replication senescence due to short telomeres. It should be noted that worms mutated in brc-2 are not viable as well due to massive genotoxic insults. However, when BRC-2 is depleted by RNA interference in trt-1 mutant worms, the number of generations is unexpectedly increased with telomere length maintained, compared to telomerase mutants. Interestingly, depletion of other HR genes such as rad-51 and rad-54 exhibited similar effects. In worms doubly deficient of telomerase and brc-2, rad-51, or rad-54, extra telomeric C-circles were generated, suggesting that abrogation of HR induces an alteration in telomere environment favorable to illegitimate telomere maintenance when telomerase is absent. Collectively, absence of BRC-2 in telomerase-deficient background first leads to telomere shortening, followed by an induction of an as-yet-unknown telomere maintenance pathway, resulting in delay of senescence. The results have implications in the understanding of dysfunctional BRCA2-associated tumorigenesis.

  12. Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoho, Greg; Brenneman, Mark A.; Cui, Tracy X.; Donoviel, Dorit; Vogel, Hannes; Goodwin, Edwin H.; Chen, David J.; Hasty, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2(lex1)) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2(lex1) mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2(lex1) mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. BRCA2 is a moderate penetrance gene contributing to young-onset prostate cancer: implications for genetic testing in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kote-Jarai, Z; Leongamornlert, D; Saunders, E; Tymrakiewicz, M; Castro, E; Mahmud, N; Guy, M; Edwards, S; O'Brien, L; Sawyer, E; Hall, A; Wilkinson, R; Dadaev, T; Goh, C; Easton, D; Goldgar, D; Eeles, R

    2011-10-11

    A family history of prostate cancer (PrCa) is a strong risk factor for the disease, indicating that inherited factors are important in this disease. We previously estimated that about 2% of PrCa cases diagnosed ≤ 55 years harbour a BRCA2 mutation and PrCa among BRCA2 carriers has been shown to be more aggressive, with poorer survival. To further evaluate the role of BRCA2 in PrCa predisposition, we screened 1864 men with PrCa aged between 36 and 88 years. We analysed the BRCA2 gene using a novel high-throughput multiplex fluorescence heteroduplex detection system developed for the ABI3130xl genetic analyzer. We identified 19 protein-truncating mutations, 3 in-frame deletions and 69 missense variants of uncertain significance (UV) in our sample set. All the carriers of truncating mutations developed PrCa at ≤ 65 years, with a prevalence of BRCA2 mutation of 1.20% for cases in this age group. Based on the estimated frequency of BRCA2 mutations in the United Kingdom we estimate that germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene confer an ∼ 8.6-fold increased risk of PrCa by age 65, corresponding to an absolute risk of ∼ 15% by age 65. These results suggest that routine testing of early onset PrCa cases for germline BRCA2 mutations will further help to refine the prevalence and risk associated with BRCA2 mutations and may be useful for guiding management options.

  14. Inactivation of Brca2 cooperates with Trp53R172H to induce invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in mice

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Georg; Karikari, Collins; dal Molin, Marco; Duringer, Stephanie; Volkmann, Petra; Bartsch, Detlef K; Bisht, Savita; Koorstra, Jan-Bart; Brossart, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An inactivating germline mutation in BRCA2 is the most common known genetic basis for familial pancreatic cancer (FPC), accounting for 5–10% of inherited cases. A genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) arising on the backdrop of Brca2 deficiency is likely to elucidate valuable diagnostic and therapeutic insights for FPC. Both Brca2 alleles were conditionally deleted during development within the pancreatic epithelium by generating Pdx1-Cre; Brca2f/f (CB) mice; in addition, triple transgenic Pdx1-Cre; Brca2f/f; LSL-Trp53R172H (CBP) mice were generated, in order to determine the impact of p53 deregulation on Brca2-deficient carcinogenesis. Both CB and CBP mice developed non-invasive ductal precursor lesions (murine pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia or mPanIN), although these were observed at an earlier time point (5 versus 8 months) and with higher prevalence in CBP mice. A minority of CB mice (15%) developed invasive and metastatic PDAC at a latency of 15 months or greater; in contrast, CBP mice of comparable age uniformly developed PDAC with variable histological features. Mortality in the absence of neoplasia in CB and CBP mice was associated with profound loss of pancreatic parenchyma, consistent with progressive elimination of Brca2-deficient cells. Widespread DNA damage, as evidenced by overexpression of the phosphorylated histone H2AXSer139, was observed in the non-neoplastic exocrine pancreas, as well as in the mPanIN and PDAC lesions of Brca2-deficient mice, independent of p53 status. Loss of Brca2 function predisposes the exocrine pancreas to profound DNA damage, and the frequency of invasive neoplasia is accentuated by the concomitant deregulation of p53. PMID:21455033

  15. Chromosome 8p alterations in sporadic and BRCA2 999del5 linked breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sigbjornsdottir, B. I.; Ragnarsson, G.; Agnarsson, B. A.; Huiping, C.; Barkardottir, R. B.; Egilsson, V.; Ingvarsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal losses involving the short arm of chromosome 8 are frequent in a variety of tumour types, including breast cancer, suggesting the presence of one or more tumour suppressor genes in this region. In this study, we have used 11 microsatellite markers to analyse loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 8p in 151 sporadic breast tumours and 50 tumours from subjects carrying the BRCA2 999del5 mutation. Fifty percent of sporadic tumours compared to 78% of BRCA2 linked tumours exhibit LOH at one or more markers at 8p showing that chromosome 8p alterations in breast tumours from BRCA2 999del5 carriers are more pronounced than in sporadic breast tumours. The pattern of LOH is different in the two groups and a higher proportion of BRCA2 tumours have LOH in a large region of chromosome 8p. In the total patient material, LOH of 8p is associated with LOH at other chromosome regions, for example, 1p, 3p, 6q, 7q, 9p, 11p, 13q, 17p, and 20q, but no association is found between LOH at 8p and chromosome regions 11q, 16q, 17q, and 18q. Furthermore, an association is detected between LOH at 8p and positive node status, large tumour size, aneuploidy, and high S phase fraction. Breast cancer patients with LOH at chromosome 8p have a worse prognosis than patients without this defect. Multivariate analysis suggests that LOH at 8p is an independent prognostic factor. We conclude that chromosome 8p carries a tumour suppressor gene or genes, the loss of which results in growth advantage of breast tumour cells, especially in carriers of the BRCA2 999del5 mutation.


Keywords: chromosome 8; BRCA2; LOH; breast cancer PMID:10807692

  16. Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Green, Todd; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua M; Guiducci, Candace; Segrè, Ayellet V; McGee, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Sobol, Hagay; Longy, Michel; Frenay, Marc; GEMO Study Collaborators; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Collée, J Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy; Nerenstone, Stacy; Van Le, Linda; Blank, Stephanie V; Caldés, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar T; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olofunmilayo I; Neuhausen, Susan L; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M; Narod, Steven; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Flugelman, Anath; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Borg, Ake; Beattie, Mary; Ramus, Susan J; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Tim; Spurdle, Amanda B; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary Beth; Tung, Nadine; Overeem Hansen, Thomas V; Nielsen, Finn C; Greene, Mark H; Greene, Mark I; Mai, Phuong L; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andres, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Walker, Lisa; Eason, Jacqueline; Barwell, Julian; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engert, Stefanie; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Dean, Michael; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J; Couch, Fergus J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Daly, Mark J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Altshuler, David M; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-10-28

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10(-5) and 39 SNPs had p-values<10(-4). These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.

  17. Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guiducci, Candace; Segrè, Ayellet V.; McGee, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Sobol, Hagay; Longy, Michel; Frenay, Marc; GEMO Study Collaborators; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy; Nerenstone, Stacy; Van Le, Linda; Blank, Stephanie V.; Caldés, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar T.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olofunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Flugelman, Anath; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Borg, Ake; Beattie, Mary; Ramus, Susan J.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Tim; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tung, Nadine; Overeem Hansen, Thomas V.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Greene, Mark I.; Mai, Phuong L.; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andres, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Walker, Lisa; Eason, Jacqueline; Barwell, Julian; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engert, Stefanie; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Dean, Michael; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Daly, Mark J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Altshuler, David M.; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10−5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10−4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer. PMID:21060860

  18. First description of a double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a French metastatic breast cancer patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Guillaume; Mansi, Laura; Lebahar, Pierre; Villanueva, Cristian; Klajer, Elodie; Calcagno, Fabien; Vivalta, Adrian; Chaix, Marie; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Populaire, Céline; Algros, Marie-Paule; Colpart, Prudence; Neidich, Julie; Pivot, Xavier; Curtit, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused primarily by germline mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Rare cases of double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been reported quite exceptionally in non-Ashkenazi individuals. We describe the case of a woman who developed a bilateral breast cancer, discovered concomitantly, at 46 years old. Biopsies confirmed the presence of two breast cancers with distinct histology. BRCA analysis was tested due to a positive family history of breast cancer, and two pathogenic monoallelic mutations were detected, one in the BRCA1 gene and one in the BRCA2 gene. There is no known Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. We report the first description of a never described double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a French metastatic breast cancer patient, with two distinct histology, and two distinct mutations.

  19. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dörk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80–0.90, P = 3.9×10−8). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical

  20. The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliovich, D.; Lerer, I.; Weinberg, N.

    1997-03-01

    The mutations 185delAG, 188del11, and 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene were analyzed in 199 Ashkenazi and 44 non-Ashkenazi Jewish unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Of the Jewish Ashkenazi women with ovarian cancer, 62% (13/21) had one of the target mutations, as did 30% (13/43) of women with breast cancer alone diagnosed before the age 40 years and 10% (15/141) of those with breast cancer diagnosed after the age 40 years. Age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not associated with carrier status. Of 99 Ashkenazi patients with no family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 10% carried one of the mutations; in two of them the mutation was proved to be paternally transmitted. One non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patient from Iraq carried the 185delAG mutation. Individual mutation frequencies among breast cancer Ashkenazi patients were 6.7% for 185delAG, 2.2% for 5382insC, and 4.5% for 6174delT, among ovarian cancer patients; 185delAG and 6174delT were about equally common (33% and 29%, respectively), but no ovarian cancer patient carried the 5382insC. More mutations responsible for inherited breast and ovarian cancer probably remain to be found in this population, since 79% of high-incidence breast cancer families and 35% of high-incidence breast/ovarian cancer families had none of the three known founder mutations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliovich, D.; Lerer, I.; Weinberg, N.

    1997-03-01

    The mutations 185delAG, 188del11, and 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in the BRCA2 gene were analyzed in 199 Ashkenazi and 44 non-Ashkenazi Jewish unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Of the Jewish Ashkenazi women with ovarian cancer, 62% (13/21) had one of the target mutations, as did 30% (13/43) of women with breast cancer alone diagnosed before the age 40 years and 10% (15/141) of those with breast cancer diagnosed after the age 40 years. Age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not associated with carrier status. Of 99 Ashkenazi patients with no family history of breast and/ormore » ovarian cancer, 10% carried one of the mutations; in two of them the mutation was proved to be paternally transmitted. One non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patient from Iraq carried the 185delAG mutation. Individual mutation frequencies among breast cancer Ashkenazi patients were 6.7% for 185delAG, 2.2% for 5382insC, and 4.5% for 6174delT, among ovarian cancer patients; 185delAG and 6174delT were about equally common (33% and 29%, respectively), but no ovarian cancer patient carried the 5382insC. More mutations responsible for inherited breast and ovarian cancer probably remain to be found in this population, since 79% of high-incidence breast cancer families and 35% of high-incidence breast/ovarian cancer families had none of the three known founder mutations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  2. Effect of the expression of BRCA2 on spontaneous homologous recombination and DNA damage-induced nuclear foci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spugnesi, Laura; Balia, Cristina; Collavoli, Anita; Falaschi, Elisabetta; Quercioli, Valentina; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    The tumour-suppressor gene BRCA2 has been demonstrated to be involved in maintenance of genome integrity by affecting DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination. Protein-truncating mutations in BRCA2 predispose women to early onset breast and ovarian cancers and account for 15-30% of familial breast cancer risk. In contrast, the human cancer risk due to missense mutations, intronic variants, and in-frame deletions and insertions in the BRCA2 gene, called unclassified variants, has not been determined. Here, we want to define if the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model to study the role of BRCA2 in DNA recombination and repair and to characterise the unclassified BRCA2 missense variants. Therefore, we expressed the wild-type BRCA2 in yeast and determined the effect of BRCA2 on yeast homologous recombination, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS)-induced Rad51 and Rad52 foci and MMS sensitivity. The expression of BRCA2 induces a high increase in both intra- and inter-recombination events and confers a higher MMS resistance as compared with the negative control. This may suggest that BRCA2 gets involved in DNA repair pathways in yeast. Moreover, the expression of BRCA2 did not affect the number of cells carrying Rad51 or Rad52 nuclear foci. Finally, we aimed to investigate if yeast could be reliable system to set up a functional assay to distinguish a mutated protein from a neutral polymorphism. Therefore, we have expressed two neutral (M1915T and A2951T) and one pathogenic variant (G2748D) in yeast and checked the effect on recombination. The neutral M1915T variant increased intra-chromosomal recombination by almost 2-fold and the other neutral A2975T variant increased intra-chromosomal recombination 2.5-fold as compared with the control. On the other end, the pathogenic variant G2748D did not increase intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination in yeast and, consequently, confers a phenotype very different from the wild-type BRCA2. Moreover, we

  3. Identification of Rad51 regulation by BRCA2 using Caenorhabditis elegans BRCA2 and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Jaewon; Park, Pil-gu; Ko, Eunkyong; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Hyunsook

    2007-11-03

    BRCA2 is involved in double-stranded DNA break repair by binding and regulating Rad51-mediated homologous recombination. Insights as to how BRCA2 regulates Rad51-mediated DNA repair arose from in vitro biochemical studies on fragments of BRCA2. However, the large 400-kDa BRCA2 protein has hampered our ability to understand the entire process by which full-length BRCA2 regulates Rad51. Here, we show that CeBRC-2, which is only one tenth the size of mammalian BRCA2, complemented BRCA2-deficiency in Rad51 regulation. CeBRC-2 was able to bind to mammalian Rad51 (mRad51) and form distinct nuclear foci when they interacted. In our bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis (BiFC), we show that the strength of the interaction between CeBRC-2 and mRad51 increased markedly after DNA damage. The BRC motif of CeBRC-2 was responsible for binding mRad51, but without the OB fold, the complex was unable to target damaged DNA. When CeBRC-2 was introduced into BRCA2-deficient cells, it restored Rad51 foci after DNA damage. Our study suggests a mode of action for BRCA2 with regard to DNA repair.

  4. Intracellular location of BRCA2 protein expression and prostate cancer progression in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Jordahl, Kristina M; Flavin, Richard; Epstein, Mara Meyer; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andren, Ove; Rider, Jennifer R; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Ingoldsby, Helen; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer patients with inherited BRCA2 mutations have a survival disadvantage. However, it is unknown whether progression is associated with BRCA2 protein expression in diagnostic prostate cancer tissue, among men without inherited mutations. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The case group included all 71 patients who died from prostate cancer within 5 years from diagnosis and controls were all patients (n = 165) who lived at least 7 years after diagnosis. Tissue microarrays were stained using antibodies for C- and N-terminal domains of the BRCA2 protein. Location (nuclear, cytoplasmic and membranous) and magnitude (intensity and percentage) of expression were assessed. Logistic regression models produced odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, year of diagnosis and Gleason score. Positive BRCA2 staining at the cell membrane was associated with reduced risk of death within 5 years (N-terminal: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.21-1.04, P = 0.06; C-terminal: OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.18-0.91, P = 0.03) and low Gleason scores (P = 0.006). Positive cytoplasmic C-terminal staining was associated with higher Gleason scores and increased lethality (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.61-8.07, P = 0.002). BRCA2 protein expression at the cell membrane and lack of C-terminal expression in the cytoplasm were associated with a reduced risk of rapidly fatal prostate cancer. BRCA2 protein expression in prostate cancer tissue may have independent prognostic value. The potential biological significance of BRCA2 expression at the cell membrane warrants further investigation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Morphometric fingerprint of asymptomatic Parkin and PINK1 mutation carriers in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Binkofski, F; Reetz, K; Gaser, C; Hilker, R; Hagenah, J; Hedrich, K; van Eimeren, T; Thiel, A; Büchel, C; Pramstaller, P P; Siebner, H R; Klein, C

    2007-08-28

    Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 genes can cause parkinsonism. Since asymptomatic carriers of a single mutant allele of the Parkin or PINK1 gene display a presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in the striatum, they provide a unique in vivo model to study structural and functional reorganization in response to latent nigrostriatal dysfunction. We hypothesized that subclinical nigrostriatal neurodegeneration caused by these mutations would induce morphologic changes in the dysfunctional striatal gray matter. In asymptomatic carriers of a heterozygous Parkin (n = 13) or PINK1 (n = 10) mutation and 23 age-and sex-matched individuals without a mutation, we applied observer independent region-of-interest and voxel-based morphometry to high-resolution structural MRIs. Relative to controls without a mutation, Parkin and PINK1 mutation carriers displayed a bilateral increase in gray matter volume in the putamen and the internal globus pallidus. In 8 of the 13 Parkin mutation carriers, the presynaptic dopaminergic function was studied with (18)F-DOPA PET. The metabolic-morphometric regression analysis revealed that the linear decrease in individual presynaptic striatal (18)F-DOPA uptake was linked to a reciprocal decrease in the striatal gray matter volume in the putamen bilaterally and in the left caudate nucleus. The alternative causes of the increased striatal gray matter volume may be either due to excessive levels of neuronal activity caused by chronic dopaminergic dysfunction or due to long-term adaptation to chronic nigrostriatal dysfunction actively compensating for the dopaminergic denervation. In any case, the results indicate that a genetically driven regional dysfunction may be imprinted in the structure of the dysfunctional brain region, for example in the striatum.

  6. Clinical impact of unclassified variants of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad R; Zhang, Shiyu; Fan, Isabel; Royer, Robert; Li, Song; Risch, Harvey; McLaughlin, John; Rosen, Barry; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2011-11-01

    Women who carry a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have high risks of developing breast and ovarian cancers. The functional effect of many missense variants on BRCA1 and BRCA2 protein function is not known. Here, the authors construct a historical cohort of 4030 female first-degree relatives of 1345 unselected patients with ovarian cancer who have been screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The authors compared the risks by the age of 80 years for all cancers combined in female first-degree relatives of women with a pathogenic mutation, women with a variant of unknown significance (unclassified variant) and non-carriers. The cumulative risk of cancer among the relatives of patients with a pathogenic mutation was much higher than the risk in relatives of non-carriers (50.2% vs 28.5%; HR=2.87, p<10(-4)). In contrast, the cumulative risk of cancer among relatives of patients carrying an unclassified variant was similar to the risk of cancer for relatives of non-carriers (27.6% vs 28.5%; HR=1.08, p=0.79). The authors used three different algorithms to predict the pathogenicity of unclassified variants and compared their penetrance with non-carriers. In this sample, only Align Grantham Variation Grantham Deviation appeared to predict penetrance based on first-degree relatives.

  7. Pattern of structural and functional brain abnormalities in asymptomatic granulin mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Pievani, Michela; Paternicò, Donata; Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Orlandini, Alberto; Cobelli, Milena; Magnaldi, Silvia; Ghidoni, Roberta; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the patterns of brain atrophy, white matter (WM) tract changes, and functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in asymptomatic granulin (GRN) mutation carriers. Ten cognitively normal subjects (five mutation carriers, GRN+; years to estimated disease onset: 12±7; five mutation noncarriers, GRN-) underwent a clinical and imaging (structural, diffusion tensor, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging) assessment. Brain atrophy was measured with cortical thickness analysis, WM abnormalities with tract-based spatial statistics, and FC with independent component analysis. GRN+ showed smaller cortical thickness than GRN- in the right orbitofrontal and precentral gyrus and left rostral middle frontal gyrus. WM tracts abnormalities were limited to increased axial diffusivity in the right cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract. There were no differences in FC of resting-state networks. Brain atrophy and WM tract abnormalities in frontal-parietal circuits can be detected at least a decade before the estimated symptom onset in asymptomatic mutation carriers. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased ventilatory response to exercise in symptomatic and asymptomatic LMNA mutation carriers: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ollila, Laura; Heliö, Tiina; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Jalanko, Mikko; Kaartinen, Maija; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Jurkko, Raija; Reissell, Eeva; Palojoki, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    LMNA mutations are an important cause of cardiomyopathy often leading to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and even heart transplantation. An increasing number of asymptomatic mutation carriers are identified, as family members of the index patients are screened. Our aim was to study the disease progression in asymptomatic LMNA mutation carriers and in patients with symptomatic cardiolaminopathy by repeated spiroergometric testing in a prospective clinical follow-up study. We studied 26 LMNA mutation carriers once a year during 5 years up to 6 times by spiroergometry, clinical assessment, laboratory tests and echocardiography. The 23 control subjects underwent clinical assessment and spiroergometry once. Twelve of the mutation carriers were asymptomatic, and 14 had some clinical manifestations of the mutation ranging from clinically relevant rhythm disturbances to DCM and heart failure. Compared to controls, the symptomatic carriers showed a higher slope of the ventilatory equivalent for CO 2 (V˙E/V˙CO 2 slope) and a lower fraction of end-tidal CO 2 (FetCO 2 ). The asymptomatic mutation carriers also showed an increased ventilatory response to exercise during the follow-up as indicated by increased V˙E/V˙CO 2 slope and decreased FetCO 2 . The study suggests that an increased ventilatory response during exercise might reveal a preclinical manifestation of DCM in LMNA mutation carriers. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  9. The association between germline BRCA2 variants and sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy among men with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Spisák, Sandor; Jia, Li; Cronin, Angel M; Csabai, Istvan; Ledet, Elisa; Sartor, A Oliver; Rainville, Irene; O'Connor, Edward P; Herbert, Zachary T; Szállási, Zoltan; Oh, William K; Kantoff, Philip W; Garber, Judy E; Schrag, Deborah; Kibel, Adam S; Freedman, Matthew L

    2017-09-15

    Breast cancer 2 (BRCA2)-associated breast and ovarian cancers are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. It is unknown whether BRCA2-associated prostate cancer responds favorably to such treatment. A retrospective analysis of a single-institution cohort of men with castration-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer was performed to determine the association between carrier status of pathogenic BRCA2 germline variants and prostate-specific antigen response to carboplatin-based chemotherapy. From 2001 through 2015, 8081 adult men with prostate cancer who had a consultation and/or underwent treatment at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute provided blood samples and consented to analyses of biologic material and clinical records. A subgroup of 141 men received at least 2 doses of carboplatin and docetaxel for castration-resistant disease (94% were also taxane refractory). These patients were categorized according to the absence or presence of pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA2 based on DNA sequencing from whole blood. The primary outcome was the response rate to carboplatin/docetaxel chemotherapy, defined according to a decline in prostate-specific antigen that exceeded 50% within 12 weeks of initiating this regimen. Associations between BRCA2 mutation status and response to carboplatin-based chemotherapy were tested using the Fisher exact test, with a 2-sided P value < .05 as the threshold for significance. Pathogenic germline BRCA2 variants were observed in 8 of 141 men (5.7%; 95% confidence interval, 2.5%-10.9%). Six of 8 BRCA2 carriers (75%) experienced prostate-specific antigen declines >50% within 12 weeks, compared with 23 of 133 noncarriers (17%; absolute difference, 58%; 95% confidence interval, 27%-88%; P < .001). Prostate cancer cell lines functionally corroborated these clinical findings. BRCA2-associated, castration-resistant prostate cancer is associated with a higher likelihood of response to carboplatin-based chemotherapy than non-BRCA2-associated

  10. Interleukin-2-induced graft-versus-leukemia for the treatment of AML in a BRCA2 Fanconi anemia patient.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Crystal J J; Gilman, Andrew L

    2014-03-01

    Biallelic BRCA2 mutations occur in 2% of patients with Fanconi anemia and are associated with a high risk of acute leukemia at an early age and a poor prognosis. For the first time, we report the use of interleukin-2 to stimulate a graft-versus-leukemia effect and induce complete remission in a patient with BRCA2 Fanconi anemia and refractory acute myelogenous leukemia, suggesting the potential of immunotherapy in this setting. Interleukin-2 was associated with significant infusion-related toxicity.

  11. Accurate prediction of BRCA1 and BRCA2 heterozygous genotype using expression profiling after induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Matthews, Lucy; Osorio, Ana; Shanley, Susan; Giddings, Ian; Moreews, Francois; Locke, Imogen; Evans, D Gareth; Eccles, Diana; Williams, Richard D; Girolami, Mark; Campbell, Colin; Eeles, Ros

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the differential gene expression changes following radiation-induced DNA damage in healthy cells from BRCA1/BRCA1 mutation carriers have been compared with controls using high-density microarray technology. We aimed to establish if BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers could be distinguished from noncarriers based on expression profiling of normal cells. Short-term primary fibroblast cultures were established from skin biopsies from 10 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 10 controls, all of whom had previously had breast cancer. The cells were subjected to 15 Gy ionizing irradiation to induce DNA damage. RNA was extracted from all cell cultures, preirradiation and at 1 hour postirradiation. For expression profiling, 15 K spotted cDNA microarrays manufactured by the Cancer Research UK DNA Microarray Facility were used. Statistical feature selection was used with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine the best feature set for predicting BRCA1 or BRCA2 heterozygous genotype. To investigate prediction accuracy, a nonprobabilistic classifier (SVM) and a probabilistic Gaussian process classifier were used. In the task of distinguishing BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from noncarriers and from each other following radiation-induced DNA damage, the SVM achieved 90%, and the Gaussian process classifier achieved 100% accuracy. This effect could not be achieved without irradiation. In addition, the SVM identified a set of BRCA genotype predictor genes. We conclude that after irradiation-induced DNA damage, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier cells have a distinctive expression phenotype, and this may have a future role in predicting genotypes, with application to clinical detection and classification of mutations.

  12. An entire exon 3 germ-line rearrangement in the BRCA2 gene: pathogenic relevance of exon 3 deletion in breast cancer predisposition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are major contributors to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Large rearrangements are less frequent in the BRCA2 gene than in BRCA1. We report, here, the first total deletion of exon 3 in the BRCA2 gene that was detected during screening of 2058 index cases from breast/ovarian cancer families for BRCA2 large rearrangements. Deletion of exon 3, which is in phase, does not alter the reading frame. Low levels of alternative transcripts lacking exon 3 (Δ3 delta3 transcript) have been reported in normal tissues, which raises the question whether deletion of exon 3 is pathogenic. Methods Large BRCA2 rearrangements were analysed by QMPSF (Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments) or MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification). The exon 3 deletion was characterized with a "zoom-in" dedicated CGH array to the BRCA2 gene and sequencing. To determine the effect of exon 3 deletion and assess its pathogenic effect, three methods of transcript quantification were used: fragment analysis of FAM-labelled PCR products, specific allelic expression using an intron 2 polymorphism and competitive quantitative RT-PCR. Results Large rearrangements of BRCA2 were detected in six index cases out of 2058 tested (3% of all deleterious BRCA2 mutations). This study reports the first large rearrangement of the BRCA2 gene that includes all of exon 3 and leads to an in frame deletion of exon 3 at the transcriptional level. Thirty five variants in exon 3 and junction regions of BRCA2 are also reported, that contribute to the interpretation of the pathogenicity of the deletion. The quantitative approaches showed that there are three classes of delta3 BRCA2 transcripts (low, moderate and exclusive). Exclusive expression of the delta3 transcript by the mutant allele and segregation data provide evidence for a causal effect of the exon 3 deletion. Conclusion This paper highlights that large rearrangements and total

  13. Post-transcriptional Regulation of BRCA2 through Interactions with miR-19a and miR-19b

    PubMed Central

    Mogilyansky, Elena; Clark, Peter; Quann, Kevin; Zhou, Honglei; Londin, Eric; Jing, Yi; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer type 2, early onset susceptibility gene (BRCA2) is a major component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. It acts as a tumor suppressor whose function is often lost in cancers. Patients with specific mutations in the BRCA2 gene often display discrete clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. However, a subset of sporadic cancers has wild type BRCA2 and display defects in the homology-directed repair pathway, which is the hallmark of ‘BRCAness.’ The mechanisms by which BRCAness arises are not well understood but post-transcriptional regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenotype. Here, we examine the post-transcriptional effects that some members of the six-miRNA cluster known as the miR-17/92 cluster have on the abundance of BRCA2’s messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We discuss two interactions involving the miR-19a and miR-19b members of the cluster and the 3′UTR of BRCA2’s mRNA. We investigated these miRNA:mRNA interactions in 15 cell lines derived from pancreatic, breast, colon, and kidney tissue. We show that over-expression of these two miRNAs results in a concomitant decrease of BRCA2’s mRNA and protein expression in a subset of the tested cell lines. Additionally, using luciferase reporter assays we identified direct interactions between miR-19a/miR-19b and a miRNA response element (MRE) in BRCA2’s 3′UTR. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is subject to a complex post-transcriptional regulatory program that has specific dependencies on the genetic and phenotypic background of cell types. PMID:27630665

  14. Penetrance estimates forBRCA1,BRCA2(also applied to Lynch syndrome) based on presymptomatic testing: a new unbiased method to assess risk?

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth; Woodward, Emma; Harkness, Elaine F; Howell, Anthony; Plaskocinska, Inga; Maher, Eamonn R; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Lalloo, Fiona

    2018-02-26

    The identification of BRCA1 , BRCA2 or mismatch repair (MMR) pathogenic gene variants in familial breast/ovarian/colorectal cancer families facilitates predictive genetic testing of at-risk relatives. However, controversy still exists regarding overall lifetime risks of cancer in individuals testing positive. We assessed the penetrance of BRCA1 , BRCA2, MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in men and women using Bayesian calculations based on ratios of positive to negative presymptomatic testing by 10-year age cohorts. Mutation position was also assessed for BRCA1 / BRCA2. RESULTS: Using results from 2264 presymptomatic tests in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of mutation carriers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and 646 FDRs of patients with MMR mutations, we assessed overall associated cancer penetrance to age of 68 years as 73% (95% CI 61% to 82%) for BRCA1 , 60% (95% CI 49% to 71%) for BRCA2 , 95% (95% CI 76% to 99%) for MLH1% and 61% (95% CI 49% to 76%) for MSH2 . There was no evidence for significant penetrance for males in BRCA1 or BRCA2 families and males had equivalent penetrance to females with Lynch syndrome. Mutation position and degree of family history influenced penetrance in BRCA2 but not BRCA1. CONCLUSION: We describe a new method for assessing penetrance in cancer-prone syndromes. Results are in keeping with published prospective series and present modern-day estimates for overall disease penetrance that bypasses retrospective series biases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Nafa K, Diaz LR, Kauff N, Huang H, Robson M, Ellis N, Offit K. The TP53 mutational spectrum and frequency of CHEK2*1100delC in Li - Fraumeni -like...women at inherited risk secondary to a mutation in either BRCA1 or BRCA2. In order to address some of these issues, with the assistance of the PSTA...Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  16. Polymorphisms of canine BRCA2 BRC repeats affecting interaction with RAD51.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Udagawa, Chihiro; Kato, Yuiko; Watanabe, Masami; Bonkobara, Makoto; Morimatsu, Masami; Omi, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 leading to the failure of interactions with the recombinase RAD51 are associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. This interaction depends on the eight BRC repeat (BRC1-8) sequences in BRCA2. We previously reported that canine BRC3 has two polymorphisms (T1425P and K1435R) influencing the interaction with RAD51, and 1435R was identified in mammary tumor dog samples. In this study, we investigated the sequence variations of BRC3 and 4 in 236 dogs of five breeds. Allele frequencies of 1425P and 1435R were 0.063 and 0.314, respectively, and there was no other polymorphism in the sequenced region. A mammalian two-hybrid assay using BRC3-4 sequences demonstrated that 1425P allele reduced the binding strength with RAD51 but 1435R had no effect. These results may provide an insight into the functions of not only individual but also multiple BRC repeats of BRCA2 in dogs.

  17. Next-generation sequencing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the genetic diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Trujillano, Daniel; Weiss, Maximilian E R; Schneider, Juliane; Köster, Julia; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Saviouk, Viatcheslav; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Nahavandi, Nahid; Kovacevic, Lejla; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-03-01

    Genetic testing for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer mostly relies on laborious molecular tools that use Sanger sequencing to scan for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We explored a more efficient genetic screening strategy based on next-generation sequencing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 210 hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer patients. We first validated this approach in a cohort of 115 samples with previously known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and polymorphisms. Genomic DNA was amplified using the Ion AmpliSeq BRCA1 and BRCA2 panel. The DNA Libraries were pooled, barcoded, and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencer. The combination of different robust bioinformatics tools allowed detection of all previously known pathogenic mutations and polymorphisms in the 115 samples, without detecting spurious pathogenic calls. We then used the same assay in a discovery cohort of 95 uncharacterized hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA1 and BRCA2. In addition, we describe the allelic frequencies across 210 hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer patients of 74 unique definitely and likely pathogenic and uncertain BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants, some of which have not been previously annotated in the public databases. Targeted next-generation sequencing is ready to substitute classic molecular methods to perform genetic testing on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and provides a greater opportunity for more comprehensive testing of at-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Rare Case of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leidhin, C Nf; Heeney, A; Connolly, C; Swan, N; Foster, A; Geraghty, J

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year old woman was referred to our department with symptomatic breast cancer at 35 weeks gestation. Genetic testing revealed a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation. Labour was induced at 38 weeks. Mastectomy and axillary clearance were performed with a view to adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy. Multidisciplinary involvement is crucial for management of BRCA-associated breast cancer, especially in the context of pregnancy. Bilateral mastectomy may be indicated given the increased risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancers. Tamoxifen may lower contralateral breast cancer risk in those in whom risk-reducing surgery is not performed.

  19. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Missense Variants of High and Low Clinical Significance Influence Lymphoblastoid Cell Line Post-Irradiation Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Nic; Ten Haaf, Anette; Marsh, Anna; Johnson, Julie; Walker, Logan C.; Investigators, kConFab; Gongora, Milena; Brown, Melissa; Grover, Piyush; Girolami, Mark; Grimmond, Sean; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2008-01-01

    The functional consequences of missense variants in disease genes are difficult to predict. We assessed if gene expression profiles could distinguish between BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic truncating and missense mutation carriers and familial breast cancer cases whose disease was not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAX cases). 72 cell lines from affected women in high-risk breast ovarian families were assayed after exposure to ionising irradiation, including 23 BRCA1 carriers, 22 BRCA2 carriers, and 27 BRCAX individuals. A subset of 10 BRCAX individuals carried rare BRCA1/2 sequence variants considered to be of low clinical significance (LCS). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had similar expression profiles, with some subclustering of missense mutation carriers. The majority of BRCAX individuals formed a distinct cluster, but BRCAX individuals with LCS variants had expression profiles similar to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Gaussian Process Classifier predicted BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX status, with a maximum of 62% accuracy, and prediction accuracy decreased with inclusion of BRCAX samples carrying an LCS variant, and inclusion of pathogenic missense carriers. Similarly, prediction of mutation status with gene lists derived using Support Vector Machines was good for BRCAX samples without an LCS variant (82–94%), poor for BRCAX with an LCS (40–50%), and improved for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when the gene list used for prediction was appropriate to mutation effect being tested (71–100%). This study indicates that mutation effect, and presence of rare variants possibly associated with a low risk of cancer, must be considered in the development of array-based assays of variant pathogenicity. PMID:18497862

  20. Novel asymptomatic CNS findings in patients with ACVR1/ALK2 mutations causing fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    PubMed

    Severino, Mariasavina; Bertamino, Marta; Tortora, Domenico; Morana, Giovanni; Uccella, Sara; Bocciardi, Renata; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Rossi, Andrea; Di Rocco, Maja

    2016-12-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is an autosomal dominant disorder due to germline mutations of ACVR1/ALK2 causing progressive heterotopic endochondral ossifications. Evidence of central nervous system involvement has emerged only recently. We performed an observational cross-sectional brain MRI study in 13 patients (8 females, mean age 20 years), examining the relationship of clinical and neuroradiological findings. All patients presented small asymptomatic lesions similar to hamartomas at the level of the dorsal medulla and ventral pons, associated with minor brainstem dysmorphisms and abnormal origin of the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves. The size of the brainstem lesions did not correlate with patient's age (p=0.061), age at first flare-up (p=0.733), severity of disability (p=0.194), history of head trauma (p=0.415) or hearing loss (p=0.237). The radiologic features and the absence of neurological symptoms were consistent with a benign process. Variable signal abnormalities and/or calcifications of the dentate nuclei were noted in all patients, while basal ganglia abnormalities were present in nine subjects. Brain calcifications positively correlated with patient's age (p<0.001) and severity of disability (p=0.002). Our data support the hypothesis that the effects of mutation of the ACVR1/ALK2 gene are extended to the central nervous system. Brainstem hamartomatous lesions and dysmorphisms, variably associated with dentate nucleus and basal ganglia signal abnormalities and/or calcifications, may represent useful disease hallmarks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Hereditary predisposition to ovarian cancer, looking beyond BRCA1/BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Minion, Lindsey E; Dolinsky, Jill S; Chase, Dana M; Dunlop, Charles L; Chao, Elizabeth C; Monk, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer is well documented. With the advent of next generation sequencing, hereditary panel testing provides an efficient method for evaluating multiple genes simultaneously. Therefore, we sought to investigate the contribution of 19 genes identified in the literature as increasing the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in a BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative population of patients with a personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer by means of a hereditary cancer panel. Subjects were referred for multi-gene panel testing between February 2012 and March 2014. Clinical data was ascertained from requisition forms. The incidence of pathogenic mutations (including likely pathogenic), and variant of unknown significance were then calculated for each gene and/or patient cohort. In this cohort of 911 subjects, panel testing identified 67 mutations. With 7.4% of subjects harboring a mutation on this multi-gene panel, the diagnostic yield was increased, compared to testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations alone. In the ovarian cancer probands, the most frequently mutated genes were BRIP1 (n=8; 1.72%) and MSH6 (n=6; 1.29%). In the breast cancer probands, mutations were most commonly observed in CHEK2 (n=9; 2.54%), ATM (n=3; 0.85%), and TP53 (n=3; 0.85%). Although further studies are needed to clarify the exact management of patients with a mutation in each gene, this study highlights information that can be captured with panel testing and provides support for incorporation of panel testing into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Molecular characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of the R2787H missense variation in BRCA2 gene: Association with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Aouatef; Messaoudi, Abdelmonem; Mrad, Ridha; Fourati, Asma; Chabouni-Bouhamed, Habiba; Kharrat, Maher

    2016-08-21

    The significance of many BRCA unclassified variants (UVs) has not been evaluated. Classification of these variations as neutral or pathogenic presents a significant challenge and has important implications for breast and ovarian cancer genetic counseling. Here we report a combined molecular and computational approach to classify BRCA UVs missense variations. By using the LOH (Loss of heterozygosity) analysis at the BRCA1/BRCA2 loci, five bioinformatics approaches namely fathmm, PhD-SNP, SNAP, MutationTaster and Human Splicing Finder and the association with the clinico-pathological characteristics related to BRCA tumors, we were able to classify the R2787H (in BRCA2 gene) variant as pathogenic. Then, to investigate the functional role of the R2787H variation in altering BRCA2 structure, the homology model of this variant was constructed using the Rattus norvegicus BRCA2 (PDB ID: 1IYJ) as a template. The predicted model was then assessed for stereochemical quality and side chain environment. Furthermore, docking and binding free energy simulations were performed to investigate the ssDNA-BRCA2 complex interaction. Binding energy value calculation proves that this substitution affects the complex stability. Moreover, this alteration was not found in one hundred healthy controls. These findings suggest that R2787H variant could have potential functional impact. Our approach might be useful for evaluation of BRCA unclassified variants. However additional functional analyzes may provide appropriate assessment to classify such variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripherin mutations cause a distinct form of recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and dominant phenotypes in asymptomatic parents heterozygous for the mutation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O; Al Rashaed, Saba; Neuhaus, Christine; Bergmann, Carsten; Bolz, Hanno J

    2016-02-01

    Dominant mutations in peripherin (PRPH2) are associated with a spectrum of retinal dystrophy phenotypes, many of which are adult onset and involve the macula. Recessive PRPH2 mutations cause retinal dystrophy associated with prominent maculopathy in adulthood; however, the presenting childhood phenotype has not been defined. We characterise this phenotype. Retrospective case series of families harbouring bi-allelic PRPH2 mutations (2010-2014). Three children (two families; assessed at 2 years old) and two adults (one family; assessed at 24 and 35 years old) with homozygous PRPH2 mutations (c.497G>A (p.Cys166Tyr) or c.136C>T (p.Arg46*)) all had infantile nystagmus and decreased vision noted soon after birth and a history of staring at lights during infancy (photophilia). The three children had high hyperopia, a normal or near normal fundus, and non-recordable electroretinographies (ERGs). The two adults had slight myopia, macular and peripheral retinal changes, and non-recordable ERGs. All five available carrier parents had macular±peripheral retinal findings, although they considered themselves asymptomatic except for one mother who had developed visual loss in one eye at 48 years old and had an associated subfoveal lesion. Bi-allelic PRPH2 mutations cause a distinct Leber congenital amaurosis phenotype in infancy; affected adults have prominent maculopathy. Heterozygous parents can be asymptomatic but have clinically obvious macular phenotypes with or without peripheral retinal findings, which can be helpful in making the genetic diagnosis in affected children. The difference between the heterozygous and homozygous phenotypes is likely related to gene product dosage effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Analysis of PALB2 Gene in BRCA1/BRCA2 Negative Spanish Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families with Pancreatic Cancer Cases

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoya, Miguel; Osorio, Ana; Diez, Orland; Miramar, María Dolores; Infante, Mar; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Torres, Asunción; Lasa, Adriana; Llort, Gemma; Brunet, Joan; Graña, Begoña; Perez Segura, Pedro; Garcia, María José; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Carracedo, Ángel; Tejada, María-Isabel; Velasco, Eladio A.; Calvo, María-Teresa; Balmaña, Judith; Benitez, Javier; Caldés, Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Background The PALB2 gene, also known as FANCN, forms a bond and co-localizes with BRCA2 in DNA repair. Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of familial breast cancer and 3–4% of familial pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a population of BRCA1/BRCA2 negative breast cancer patients selected from either a personal or family history of pancreatic cancer. Methods 132 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one pancreatic cancer case were included in the study. PALB2 mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results Two PALB2 truncating mutations, the c.1653T>A (p.Tyr551Stop) previously reported, and c.3362del (p.Gly1121ValfsX3) which is a novel frameshift mutation, were identified. Moreover, several PALB2 variants were detected; some of them were predicted as pathological by bioinformatic analysis. Considering truncating mutations, the prevalence rate of our population of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients with pancreatic cancer is 1.5%. Conclusions The prevalence rate of PALB2 mutations in non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families, selected from either a personal or family pancreatic cancer history, is similar to that previously described for unselected breast/ovarian cancer families. Future research directed towards identifying other gene(s) involved in the development of breast/pancreatic cancer families is required. PMID:23935836

  5. Role of BRCA2 in the Expressions of IRF9-regulated Genes in Human Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    cells in the nude mice xenograft model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer , BRCA2, Interferon alpha, Interferon beta, STAT1, STAT2, IRF9, ISGF3 16...ovarian cancer predisposition, is essential for DNA repair in mammalian cells [1-5]. BRCA2-deficient cells are defective in the repair of DNA double...predispose women specifically to breast and ovarian cancer remains undefined. One of the possible pathways for the antiproliferative effect of BRCA2 is

  6. Assessment of rare BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants of unknown significance using hierarchical modeling.

    PubMed

    Capanu, Marinela; Concannon, Patrick; Haile, Robert W; Bernstein, Leslie; Malone, Kathleen E; Lynch, Charles F; Liang, Xiaolin; Teraoka, Sharon N; Diep, Anh T; Thomas, Duncan C; Bernstein, Jonine L; Begg, Colin B

    2011-07-01

    Current evidence suggests that the genetic risk of breast cancer may be caused primarily by rare variants. However, while classification of protein-truncating mutations as deleterious is relatively straightforward, distinguishing as deleterious or neutral the large number of rare missense variants is a difficult on-going task. In this article, we present one approach to this problem, hierarchical statistical modeling of data observed in a case-control study of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in which all the participants were genotyped for variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Hierarchical modeling permits leverage of information from observed correlations of characteristics of groups of variants with case-control status to infer with greater precision the risks of individual rare variants. A total of 181 distinct rare missense variants were identified among the 705 cases with CBC and the 1,398 controls with unilateral breast cancer. The model identified three bioinformatic hierarchical covariates, align-GV, align-GD, and SIFT scores, each of which was modestly associated with risk. Collectively, the 11 variants that were classified as adverse on the basis of all the three bioinformatic predictors demonstrated a stronger risk signal. This group included five of six missense variants that were classified as deleterious at the outset by conventional criteria. The remaining six variants can be considered as plausibly deleterious, and deserving of further investigation (BRCA1 R866C; BRCA2 G1529R, D2665G, W2626C, E2663V, and R3052W). Hierarchical modeling is a strategy that has promise for interpreting the evidence from future association studies that involve sequencing of known or suspected cancer genes. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Breast Stem Cell Markers and Tumor Stem Cells in BRCA1, BRCA2 and Non-BRCA 1/2 Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    gene mutation often exhibit a basal phenotype that may reflect their origin in the breast stem cell . We therefore hypothesized that the breast stem ...expression of putative stem cell markers and investigated means to derive short-term in vitro cultures. Our preliminary findings indicate that it is... cell pool is aberrant in breast tissue of BRCA1 (or BRCA2)carriers versus noncarriers and that it becomes progressively and distinctively expanded in

  8. Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: risks of breast/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth; Shenton, Andrew; Woodward, Emma; Lalloo, Fiona; Howell, Anthony; Maher, Eamonn R

    2008-05-30

    The identification of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in familial breast cancer kindreds allows genetic testing of at risk relatives. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the cancer risks in women who test positive for the family mutation. We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We estimated the penetrance for both breast and ovarian cancer in female mutation carriers (904 proven mutation carriers - 1442 females in total assumed to carry the mutation) and also assessed the effect on penetrance of mutation position and birth cohort. Breast cancer penetrance to 70 and to 80 years was 68% (95%CI 64.7-71.3%) and 79.5% (95%CI 75.5-83.5%) respectively for BRCA1 and 75% (95%CI 71.7-78.3%) and 88% (95%CI 85.3-91.7%) for BRCA2. Ovarian cancer risk to 70 and to 80 years was 60% (95%CI 65-71%) and 65% (95%CI 75-84%) for BRCA1 and 30% (95%CI 25.5-34.5%) and 37% (95%CI 31.5-42.5%) for BRCA2. These risks were borne out by a prospective study of cancer in the families and genetic testing of unaffected relatives. We also found evidence of a strong cohort effect with women born after 1940 having a cumulative risk of 22% for breast cancer by 40 years of age compared to 8% in women born before 1930 (p = 0.0005). In high-risk families, selected in a genetics service setting, women who test positive for the familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation are likely to have cumulative breast cancer risks in keeping with the estimates obtained originally from large families. This is particularly true for women born after 1940.

  9. BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian Cancers.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Huong D; Song, Honglin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Barrowdale, Daniel; Frost, Debra; McGuffog, Lesley; Ellis, Steve; Feng, Bingjian; Buys, Saundra S; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tesoriero, Andrea; James, Paul A; Bruinsma, Fiona; Campbell, Ian G; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Beckman, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Riboli, Elio; Banerjee, Susana; Menon, Usha; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Hamann, Ute; Marme, Frederik; Rudolph, Anja; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy; Cramer, Daniel; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Godwin, Andrew K; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Isaacs, Claudine; Maugard, Christine; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jensen, Allen; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Osorio, Ana; Hoya, Miguel de la; Segura, Pedro Perez; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Eunjung, Lee; John, Esther M; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Castillo, Danielle; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Ganz, Patricia A; Nussbaum, Robert L; Chan, Salina B; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Wu, Anna; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J; Sieh, Weiva; Whittermore, Alice S; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Phelan, Catherine M; Terry, Mary Beth; Piedmonte, Marion; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Levine, Douglas; Moysich, Kirsten B; Cannioto, Rikki; Olson, Sara H; Daly, Mary B; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Lu, Karen H; Liang, Dong; Hildebrant, Michelle A T; Ness, Roberta; Modugno, Francesmary; Pearce, Leigh; Goodman, Marc T; Thompson, Pamela J; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Meindl, Alfons; Hahnen, Eric; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Rantala, Johanna; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Claes, Kathleen B M; Maerken, Tom Van; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heitz, Florian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Viel, Alessandra; Barile, Monica; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Montagna, Marco; Oliani, Cristina; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Collavoli, Anita; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E; Goode, Ellen L; Hart, Steven N; Shimelis, Hermela; Cunningham, Julie M; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Healey, Sue; Tucker, Kathy; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Goldberg, Mark S; Tischkowitz, Marc; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eccles, Diana M; Le, Nhu; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela; Salvesen, Helga B; Bjorge, Line; Bandera, Elisa V; Risch, Harvey; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Cai, Hui; Pylkäs, Katri; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Ouweland, Ans M W van der; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Narod, Steven; Devilee, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Figueroa, Jonine; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Loud, Jennifer T; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; McNeish, Iain; Siddiquil, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Kwong, Ava; Park, Sue K; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Woo, Yin Ling; Gao, Yu-Tang; Foretova, Lenka; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport-Feurhauser, Christine; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Hulick, Peter J; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Senter, Leigha; Olah, Edith; Doherty, Jennifer A; Schildkraut, Joellen; Koppert, Linetta B; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Cook, Linda S; Pejovic, Tanja; Li, Jingmei; Borg, Ake; Öfverholm, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Henriksson, Karin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Pasini, Barbara J; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Slager, Susan; Jones, Michael; Antoniou, Antonis C; Berchuck, Andrew; Swerdlow, Anthony; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Spurdle, Amanda B; Goldgar, David E

    2016-02-01

    The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers. Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10(-) (6)) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10(-3)). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10(-5) and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10(-5), respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  10. BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Huong D.; Song, Honglin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Barrowdale, Daniel; Frost, Debra; McGuffog, Lesley; Ellis, Steve; Feng, Bingjian; Buys, Saundra S.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tesoriero, Andrea; James, Paul A.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Campbell, Ian G.; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Beckman, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Riboli, Elio; Banerjee, Susana; Menon, Usha; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Hamann, Ute; Marme, Frederik; Rudolph, Anja; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy; Cramer, Daniel; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Isaacs, Claudine; Maugard, Christine; Bojesen, Stig E.; Flyger, Henrik; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jensen, Allen; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Osorio, Ana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Eunjung, Lee; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Castillo, Danielle; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Chan, Salina B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lester, Jenny; Wu, Anna; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J.; Sieh, Weiva; Whittermore, Alice S.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Piedmonte, Marion; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Levine, Douglas; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Cannioto, Rikki; Olson, Sara H.; Daly, Mary B.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Lu, Karen H.; Liang, Dong; Hildebrant, Michelle A. T.; Ness, Roberta; Modugno, Francesmary; Pearce, Leigh; Goodman, Marc T.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Meindl, Alfons; Hahnen, Eric; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Rantala, Johanna; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Maerken, Tom Van; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heitz, Florian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Viel, Alessandra; Barile, Monica; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Montagna, Marco; Oliani, Cristina; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Collavoli, Anita; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Goode, Ellen L.; Hart, Steven N.; Shimelis, Hermela; Cunningham, Julie M.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Healey, Sue; Tucker, Kathy; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eccles, Diana M.; Le, Nhu; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bjorge, Line; Bandera, Elisa V.; Risch, Harvey; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Cai, Hui; Pylkäs, Katri; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; van der Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Narod, Steven; Devilee, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Figueroa, Jonine; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; McNeish, Iain; Siddiquil, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Kwong, Ava; Park, Sue K.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Woo, Yin Ling; Gao, Yu-Tang; Foretova, Lenka; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport-Feurhauser, Christine; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Hulick, Peter J.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Senter, Leigha; Olah, Edith; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Koppert, Linetta B.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Cook, Linda S.; Pejovic, Tanja; Li, Jingmei; Borg, Ake; Öfverholm, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Henriksson, Karin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Pasini, Barbara J.; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Slager, Susan; Jones, Michael; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Berchuck, Andrew; Swerdlow, Anthony; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers. Methods: Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10- 6) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10-3). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10-5 and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10-5, respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations. PMID:26586665

  11. Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability

    DOE PAGES

    Trego, Kelly S.; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R.; ...

    2016-01-28

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. In this paper, we identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatinmore » binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. Finally, these unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging.« less

  12. Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Trego, Kelly S; Groesser, Torsten; Davalos, Albert R; Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Nelson, Michael R; Hlaing, Ayesu; Shih, Brian; Rydberg, Björn; Pluth, Janice M; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K

    2016-02-18

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatin binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA copy number profiling reveals extensive genomic loss in hereditary BRCA1 and BRCA2 ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kamieniak, M M; Muñoz-Repeto, I; Rico, D; Osorio, A; Urioste, M; García-Donas, J; Hernando, S; Robles-Díaz, L; Ramón y Cajal, T; Cazorla, A; Sáez, R; García-Bueno, J M; Domingo, S; Borrego, S; Palacios, J; van de Wiel, M A; Ylstra, B; Benítez, J; García, M J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to characterise genomic changes occurring in hereditary epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs) and inconsistent results have been obtained. Given the relevance of DNA copy number alterations in ovarian oncogenesis and growing clinical implications of the BRCA-gene status, we aimed to characterise the genomic profiles of hereditary and sporadic ovarian tumours. Methods: High-resolution array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation profiling of 53 familial (21 BRCA1, 6 BRCA2 and 26 non-BRCA1/2) and 15 sporadic tumours in combination with supervised and unsupervised analysis was used to define common and/or specific copy number features. Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering did not stratify tumours according to their familial or sporadic condition or to their BRCA1/2 mutation status. Common recurrent changes, spanning genes potentially fundamental for ovarian carcinogenesis, regardless of BRCA mutations, and several candidate subtype-specific events were defined. Despite similarities, greater contribution of losses was revealed to be a hallmark of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumours. Conclusion: Somatic alterations occurring in the development of familial EOCs do not differ substantially from the ones occurring in sporadic carcinomas. However, some specific features like extensive genomic loss observed in BRCA1/2 tumours may be of clinical relevance helping to identify BRCA-related patients likely to respond to PARP inhibitors. PMID:23558894

  14. [Genes beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Simon, Katharina; Geigl, Jochen B; Pristauz, Gunda

    2010-11-01

    germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are identified in less than 50% of hereditary breast cancer cases. Besides BRCA1/2 further high-risk breast cancer genes are known; however they account only for a small fraction of inherited breast cancer cases. Most of them are involved in rare cancer predisposition syndromes. Moderate and low-risk breast cancer genes confer modest cancer risk up to 10% and may be more relevant due to polygenic inheritance. The majority of hereditary breast cancer cases are still caused by unknown genes. genetic testing of other known genes is not yet routinely performed in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations, but can be recommended in special patients. In case of a calculated high-risk situation, participation in an early-detection screening program should be recommended. genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is heterogeneous and conferred by a large number of identified and yet undetected genes.

  15. Changes in gene expression variability reveal a stable synthetic lethal interaction network in BRCA2-ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Raymund; Mar, Jessica C

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic lethal interactions (SLIs) are robust mechanisms that provide cells with the ability to remain viable despite having mutations in genes critical to the DNA damage response, a core cellular process. Studies in model organisms such as S. cerevisiae showed that thousands of genes important in maintaining DNA integrity cooperated in a SLI network. Two genes participate in a SLI when a mutation in one gene has no effect on the cell, but mutations in both interacting genes are lethal. Furthermore in C. elegans, a mutation in a critical gene that is important for development induced a change in expression variability in the synthetic lethal interactor. In cancer, targeting SLIs shows promise in selectively killing cancer cells. For example, targeting PARP1 is an effective treatment for BRCA1/2- breast and ovarian cancers. Although PARP1 is already identified as having a SLI with BRCA1/2-, computationally searching for other genes that cooperate in the SLI network could highlight genes that may have promise for being a cancer-specific drug target. Using RNA sequencing data for ovarian cancer patients with BRCA2 mutations and the R Bioconductor package pathVar, we showed that genes whose expression changes to an invariant, stable expression state are likely candidates for SLIs with BRCA2. Our results highlight the interactions between the genes with predicted SLIs and protein-coding genes that are functionally important in the DNA damage response. The method of analyzing expression variability to computationally identify genes with SLIs can be applied to query SLIs in other tumor types. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic Lethality Triggered by Combining Olaparib with BRCA2-Rad51 Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Federico; Giacomini, Elisa; Masini, Tiziana; Boutard, Nicolas; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Manerba, Marcella; Farabegoli, Fulvia; Rossini, Lara; Robertson, Janet; Minucci, Saverio; Pallavicini, Isabella; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Roberti, Marinella; Pellicciari, Roberto; Cavalli, Andrea

    2017-10-20

    In BRCA2-defective cells, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitors can trigger synthetic lethality, as two independent DNA-repairing mechanisms are simultaneously impaired. Here, we have pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality, which was triggered by combining two different small organic molecules. When administered with a BRCA2-Rad51 disruptor in nonmutant cells, Olaparib showed anticancer activity comparable to that shown when administered alone in BRCA2-defective cells. This strategy could represent an innovative approach to anticancer drug discovery and could be extended to other synthetic lethality pathways.

  17. Association of the germline BRCA2 missense variation Glu2663Lys with high sensitivity to trabectedin-based treatment in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Miolo, Gianmaria; Viel, Alessandra; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Baresic, Tania; Buonadonna, Angela; Santeufemia, Davide Adriano; Lara, Della Puppa; Corona, Giuseppe

    2016-10-02

    We report an interesting clinical case of a patient carrying a specific BRCA2 germline variant affected by bone and hepatic metastases from a high grade uterine stromal sarcoma who obtained a complete metabolic response after only 3 cycles of trabectedin treatment (1.5 mg/m2 given intravenously over 24 hours every 21 days). Molecular investigations linked this outstanding positive pharmacological response with the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the mutated BRCA2 gene. These data support the hypothesis that the response to trabectedin may be positively conditioned by the different DNA repair defects present in the neoplasm and that BRCAness tumor genotype is important in determining the efficacy of trabectedin-based chemotherapy.

  18. Breast cancer genes: beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Sandra E; Vega, Ana

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease. The majority of breast cancer cases (about 70 percent) are considered sporadic. Familial breast cancer (about 30 percent of patients), often seen in families with a high incidence of BC, has been associated with a number of high-, moderate-, and low-penetrance susceptibility genes. Family linkage studies have identified high-penetrance genes, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN and TP53, that are responsible for inherited syndromes. Moreover, a combination of family-based and population-based approaches indicated that genes involved in DNA repair, such as CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 (FANCJ), PALB2 (FANCN) and RAD51C (FANCO), are associated with moderate BC risk. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in BC revealed a number of common low penetrance alleles associated with a slightly increased or decreased risk of BC. Currently, only high penetrance genes are used in clinical practice on a wide scale. Due to the development of next generation sequencing technologies, it is envisaged that all familial breast cancer genes will be included in the genetic test. However, additional research in clinical management of moderate and low-risk variants is needed before full implementation of multi-gene panel testing into clinical work-flows. In this review, we focus on the different components of familial breast cancer risk.

  19. BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression patterns and prognostic significance in digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Hua; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is mainly to maintain genome integrity in response to DNA damage through different mechanisms. Deregulation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is associated with the development of tumor and altered sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we determined protein expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 4 digestive system cancers (gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer) by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. A total of 1546 samples of 4 types of cancer tissues, their matched adjacent nontumor tissues, and corresponding benign tissues were studied, respectively. Immunohistochemistry expression patterns of the 2 proteins and their correlation with patients' clinical parameters and overall survival were analyzed. The results showed that low expression of cytoplasmic BRCA1 and BRCA2 was commonly associated with advanced tumor-lymph node-metastasis stage, whereas high expression of nuclear BRCA1 was generally correlated with advanced tumor stages in these cancers. High expression of cytoplasmic BRCA1 and BRCA2 had significantly favorable overall survival in digestive system cancers; in contrast, BRCA1 nuclear expression usually predicted poor outcomes. We conclude that BRCA1 and BRCA2 could be used as clinicopathological biomarkers to evaluate the prognosis of digestive system cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Double Heterozygosity for BRCA1 Pathogenic Variant and BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X: A Case Report in a Southern Italian Family.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Lovero, Domenica; Stucci, Luigia Stefania; Silvestris, Erica; Quaresmini, Davide; Cardascia, Angela; Silvestris, Franco

    2018-01-18

    Here, we describe a patient with bilateral breast cancer and melanoma, and with a concomitant double variant, namely p.Gln563Ter in BRCA1 and p.Lys3326Ter in BRCA2. The BRCA2 p.Lys3326Ter (K3326X) (rs11571833) mutation identified in our patient is a debated substitution of thymidine for adenine which is currently regarded as benign polymorphism in main gene databases. Recent studies, however, describe this variant as associated with breast and ovarian tumors. Based on the observation of the cancer's earliest age of onset in this subject, our purpose was to reevaluate this variant according to recent papers indicating a role of powerful modifier of the genetic penetrance. Genetic testing was performed in all consenting patient's relatives, and in the collection of the clinical data particular attention was paid to the age of onset of the neoplasia. Following our observation that the our patient with double heterozygosis had an early age of onset for cancer similar to a few rare cases of double mutation for BRCA1 and BRCA2, we also performed an extensive review of the literature relative to patients carrying a double heterozygosity for both genes. In line with previous studies relative to the rare double heterozygosity in both BRCA1/2 genes, we found the earlier onset of breast cancer in our patient with both BRCA1/2 mutations with respect to other relatives carrying the single BRCA1 mutation. The presence of the second K3326X variant in our case induces a phenotype characterized by early onset of the neoplasia in a manner similar to the other cases of double heterozygosity previously described. Therefore, we suggest that during the genetic counseling, it should be recommendable to evaluate the presence of the K3326X variant in association with other pathogenic mutations.

  1. Lack of association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants with breast cancer in an ethnic population of Saudi Arabia, an emerging high-risk area.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Tarique Noorul; Shafi, Gowhar; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Alsaif, Mohammed Abdullah; Alsaif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer shows geographical variation, even within areas of ethnic homogeneity. Saudi Arabia has witnessed an increase in occurrence of breast cancer in its unexplored ethnic populations over the past few years. We aimed at determining whether any association exists between single nucleotide polymorphisms in breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) and the risk of breast cancer. TaqMan based Real Time Polymerase chain reaction genotyping assays were used to determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms in BRCA1 (rs799917) and BRCA2 (rs144848) in a group of 100 breast cancer patients and unaffected age matched controls of Saudi Arabian origin. The present data revealed that neither BRCA1 nor the BRCA2 studied variant show any significant association with the disease. This study failed to find any role of the concerned variants in breast cancer either as risk or as prognostic factors. The small number of patients registered was one of the limitations of this study. In summary, comparison of mutation profile with other ethnic populations and regions reflected both differences and similarities indicating co-exposure to a unique set of risk factors. The differences could be due to exposure to particular environmental carcinogens; different lifestyle, reproductive pattern; dietary or cultural practices of Saudi Arabian women that need further investigations.

  2. Description and analysis of genetic variants in French hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families recorded in the UMD-BRCA1/BRCA2 databases

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Sandrine; Benboudjema, Louisa; Sinilnikova, Olga; Rouleau, Etienne; Béroud, Christophe; Lidereau, Rosette

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two main genes responsible for predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers, as a result of protein-inactivating monoallelic mutations. It remains to be established whether many of the variants identified in these two genes, so-called unclassified/unknown variants (UVs), contribute to the disease phenotype or are simply neutral variants (or polymorphisms). Given the clinical importance of establishing their status, a nationwide effort to annotate these UVs was launched by laboratories belonging to the French GGC consortium (Groupe Génétique et Cancer), leading to the creation of the UMD-BRCA1/BRCA2 databases (http://www.umd.be/BRCA1/ and http://www.umd.be/BRCA2/). These databases have been endorsed by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) and are designed to collect all variants detected in France, whether causal, neutral or UV. They differ from other BRCA databases in that they contain co-occurrence data for all variants. Using these data, the GGC French consortium has been able to classify certain UVs also contained in other databases. In this article, we report some novel UVs not contained in the BIC database and explore their impact in cancer predisposition based on a structural approach. PMID:22144684

  3. Enhancement of synthetic lethality via combinations of ABT-888 (a PARP inhibitor) and carboplatin in vitro and in vivo using BRCA1 and BRCA2 isogenic models

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caroline C.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; O’Connor, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have an elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). The resulting tumors typically lack homologous recombination repair, as do a subset of sporadic tumors with acquired BRCA deficiency. Clinical responses to monotherapy with platinum drugs or poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) have been demonstrated for BRCA-associated cancers. However, there is limited data on combination therapy with PARPi and platinum drugs, the mechanism of action of this combination and the role of BRCA1 or BRCA2 in chemosensitivity. We compared the efficacy of ABT-888 (a PARPi) with that of cisplatin or carboplatin (platinum drugs) alone or in combinations by examining survival of treated Brca-proficient and -deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In addition, drug-induced growth inhibition of a BRCA1 and a BRCA2 null cell line were compared to their isogenic BRCA-complemented lines. Whereas each monotherapy killed or inhibited proliferation of Brca/BRCA-deficient cells, an enhanced effect was observed after treatment with ABT-888 in combination with carboplatin. Moreover, the ABT-888/carboplatin combination delayed tumor growth in Brca2 xenografts. The drugs caused DNA damage, apoptosis and greater PARP activity in Brca/BRCA-deficient cells, and these effects correlated with increased chemosensitivity. Our data suggest that ABT-888 and carboplatin combination treatment will be more successful than monotherapy in addressing many BRCA-associated cancers. A randomized phase II trial has recently been initiated to test this hypothesis to assist in the discovery of more effective therapies for BRCA patients. PMID:22778154

  4. Rapid evolution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in humans and other primates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The maintenance of chromosomal integrity is an essential task of every living organism and cellular repair mechanisms exist to guard against insults to DNA. Given the importance of this process, it is expected that DNA repair proteins would be evolutionarily conserved, exhibiting very minimal sequence change over time. However, BRCA1, an essential gene involved in DNA repair, has been reported to be evolving rapidly despite the fact that many protein-altering mutations within this gene convey a significantly elevated risk for breast and ovarian cancers. Results To obtain a deeper understanding of the evolutionary trajectory of BRCA1, we analyzed complete BRCA1 gene sequences from 23 primate species. We show that specific amino acid sites have experienced repeated selection for amino acid replacement over primate evolution. This selection has been focused specifically on humans and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). After examining BRCA1 polymorphisms in 7 bonobo, 44 chimpanzee, and 44 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) individuals, we find considerable variation within each of these species and evidence for recent selection in chimpanzee populations. Finally, we also sequenced and analyzed BRCA2 from 24 primate species and find that this gene has also evolved under positive selection. Conclusions While mutations leading to truncated forms of BRCA1 are clearly linked to cancer phenotypes in humans, there is also an underlying selective pressure in favor of amino acid-altering substitutions in this gene. A hypothesis where viruses are the drivers of this natural selection is discussed. PMID:25011685

  5. Large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among patients referred for genetic analysis in Galicia (NW Spain): delimitation and mechanism of three novel BRCA1 rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Fachal, Laura; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Vega, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainly Spain and Portugal, large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have respectively been found in up to 2.33% and 8.4% of families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) that lack point mutations and small indels. In Galicia (Northwest Spain), the spectrum and frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations differs from the rest of the Iberian populations. However, to date there are no Galician frequency reports of BRCA1/BRCA2 LGRs. Here we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to screen 651 Galician index cases (out of the 830 individuals referred for genetic analysis) without point mutations or small indels. We identified three different BRCA1 LGRs in four families. Two of them have been previously classified as pathogenic LGRs: the complete deletion of BRCA1 (identified in two unrelated families) and the deletion of exons 1 to 13. We also identified the duplication of exons 1 and 2 that is a LGR with unknown pathogenicity. Determination of the breakpoints of the BRCA1 LGRs using CNV/SNP arrays and sequencing identified them as NG_005905.2:g.70536_180359del, NG_005905.2:g.90012_97270dup, and NC_000017.10:g.41230935_41399840delinsAluSx1, respectively; previous observations of BRCA1 exon1-24del, exon1-2dup, and exon1-13del LGRs have not characterized them in such detail. All the BRCA1 LGRs arose from unequal homologous recombination events involving Alu elements. We also detected, by sequencing, one BRCA2 LGR, the Portuguese founder mutation c.156_157insAluYa5. The low frequency of BRCA1 LGRs within BRCA1 mutation carriers in Galicia (2.34%, 95% CI: 0.61-7.22) seems to differ from the Spanish population (9.93%, 95% CI: 6.76-14.27, P-value = 0.013) and from the rest of the Iberian population (9.76%, 95% CI: 6.69-13.94, P-value = 0.014).

  6. Deletion of exons 3-9 encompassing a mutational hot spot in the DMD gene presents an asymptomatic phenotype, indicating a target region for multiexon skipping therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akinori; Fueki, Noboru; Shiba, Naoko; Motoki, Hirohiko; Miyazaki, Daigo; Nishizawa, Hitomi; Echigoya, Yusuke; Yokota, Toshifumi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2016-07-01

    Few cases of dystrophinopathy show an asymptomatic phenotype with mutations in the 5' (exons 3-7) hot spot in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene. Our patient showed increased serum creatine kinase levels at 12 years of age. A muscle biopsy at 15 years of age led to a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. The patient showed a slight decrease in cardiac function at the age of 21 years and was administered a β-blocker, but there was no muscle involvement even at the age of 27 years. A deletion of exons 3-9 encompassing a mutational hot spot in the DMD gene was detected, and dystrophin protein expression was ∼15% that of control level. We propose that in-frame deletion of exons 3-9 may produce a functional protein, and that multiexon skipping therapy targeting these exons may be feasible for severe dystrophic patients with a mutation in the 5' hot spot of the DMD gene.

  7. Direct isolation of human BRCA2 gene by transformation-associated recombination in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, Vladimir; Kouprina, Natalya; Solomon, Gregory; Barrett, J. Carl; Resnick, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Mutant forms of the BRCA2 gene contribute significantly to hereditary breast cancer. Isolation of the normal and mutant forms of the BRCA2 gene with its natural promoter would greatly facilitate analysis of the gene and its contribution to breast cancer. We have accomplished the direct isolation of the 90-kb gene from total human DNA by transformation-associated recombination in yeast using a small amount of 5′ and 3′ BRCA2 sequence information. Because the entire isolation procedure of a single chromosomal gene could be accomplished in approximately 2 weeks, the transformation-associated recombination cloning approach is readily applicable to studies of chromosome alterations and human genetic diseases. PMID:9207100

  8. About 1% of the breast and ovarian Spanish families testing negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 are carriers of RAD51D pathogenic variants.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Bonache, Sandra; de Garibay, Gorka Ruíz; Osorio, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Esteban-Cardeñosa, Eva; Tenés, Anna; Yanowsky, Kira; Barroso, Alicia; Montalban, Gemma; Blanco, Ana; Cornet, Mònica; Gadea, Neus; Infante, Mar; Caldés, Trinidad; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Balmaña, Judith; Lasa, Adriana; Vega, Ana; Benítez, Javier; de la Hoya, Miguel; Diez, Orland

    2014-05-01

    RAD51D mutations have been recently identified in breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) families. Although an etiological role in OC appears to be present, the association of RAD51D mutations and BC risk is more unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of germline RAD51D mutations in Spanish BC/OC families negative for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. We analyzed 842 index patients: 491 from BC/OC families, 171 BC families, 51 OC families and 129 patients without family history but with early-onset BC or OC or metachronous BC and OC. Mutation detection was performed with high-resolution melting, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography or Sanger sequencing. Three mutations were found in four families with BC and OC cases (0.82%). Two were novel: c.1A>T (p.Met1?) and c.667+2_667+23del, leading to the exon 7 skipping and one previously described: c.674C>T (p.Arg232*). All were present in BC/OC families with only one OC. The c.667+2_667+23del cosegregated in the family with one early-onset BC and two bilateral BC cases. We also identified the c.629C>T (p.Ala210Val) variant, which was predicted in silico to be potentially pathogenic. About 1% of the BC and OC Spanish families negative for BRCA1/BRCA2 are carriers of RAD51D mutations. The presence of several BC mutation carriers, albeit in the context of familial OC, suggests an increased risk for BC, which should be taken into account in the follow-up and early detection measures. RAD51D testing should be considered in clinical setting for families with BC and OC, irrespective of the number of OC cases in the family.

  9. BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... genes include several that are associated with the inherited disorders Cowden syndrome , Peutz-Jeghers syndrome , Li-Fraumeni syndrome , and Fanconi anemia , which increase the risk of many cancer types. Most mutations in these other genes do not increase breast ...

  10. The risk of contralateral breast cancer in patients from BRCA1/2 negative high risk families as compared to patients from BRCA1 or BRCA2 positive families: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction While it has been reported that the risk of contralateral breast cancer in patients from BRCA1 or BRCA2 positive families is elevated, little is known about contralateral breast cancer risk in patients from high risk families that tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods A retrospective, multicenter cohort study was performed from 1996 to 2011 and comprised 6,235 women with unilateral breast cancer from 6,230 high risk families that had tested positive for BRCA1 (n = 1,154) or BRCA2 (n = 575) mutations or tested negative (n = 4,501). Cumulative contralateral breast cancer risks were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and were compared between groups using the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was applied to assess the impact of the age at first breast cancer and the familial history stratified by mutation status. Results The cumulative risk of contralateral breast cancer 25 years after first breast cancer was 44.1% (95%CI, 37.6% to 50.6%) for patients from BRCA1 positive families, 33.5% (95%CI, 22.4% to 44.7%) for patients from BRCA2 positive families and 17.2% (95%CI, 14.5% to 19.9%) for patients from families that tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations. Younger age at first breast cancer was associated with a higher risk of contralateral breast cancer. For women who had their first breast cancer before the age of 40 years, the cumulative risk of contralateral breast cancer after 25 years was 55.1% for BRCA1, 38.4% for BRCA2, and 28.4% for patients from BRCA1/2 negative families. If the first breast cancer was diagnosed at the age of 50 or later, 25-year cumulative risks were 21.6% for BRCA1, 15.5% for BRCA2, and 12.9% for BRCA1/2 negative families. Conclusions Contralateral breast cancer risk in patients from high risk families that tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations is similar to the risk in patients with sporadic breast cancer. Thus, the mutation status should guide decision making for contralateral mastectomy. PMID

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 Testing in UK Women with Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, Anthony; Bentley, Anthony; Dyer, Matthew; Strydom, Ann; Vereecken, Wim; George, Angela; Rahman, Nazneen

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (collectively termed "BRCA") testing in women with epithelial ovarian cancer, and testing for the relevant mutation in first- and second-degree relatives of BRCA mutation-positive individuals, compared with no testing. Female BRCA mutation-positive relatives of patients with ovarian cancer could undergo risk-reducing mastectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A cost-effectiveness model was developed that included the risks of breast and ovarian cancer; the costs, utilities, and effects of risk-reducing surgery on cancer rates; and the costs, utilities, and mortality rates associated with cancer. BRCA testing of all women with epithelial ovarian cancer each year is cost-effective at a UK willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) compared with no testing, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £4,339/QALY. The result was primarily driven by fewer cases of breast cancer (142) and ovarian cancer (141) and associated reductions in mortality (77 fewer deaths) in relatives over the subsequent 50 years. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust to variations in the input parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of germline BRCA mutation testing being cost-effective at a threshold of £20,000/QALY was 99.9%. Implementing germline BRCA testing in all patients with ovarian cancer would be cost-effective in the United Kingdom. The consequent reduction in future cases of breast and ovarian cancer in relatives of mutation-positive individuals would ease the burden of cancer treatments in subsequent years and result in significantly better outcomes and reduced mortality rates for these individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, and HER2 gene polymorphisms with the breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Salma; Islam, Md Siddiqul; Al-Mamun, Mir Md Abdullah; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Kabir, Eva Rahman; Hasnat, Abul

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is considered as the most frequent female malignancy. Altered gene expressions due to genetic polymorphisms in the BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, and HER2 contribute toward the development of breast cancer, and yet, no such type of study has been conducted in the Bangladeshi population. This study was designed to evaluate the role of BRCA1rs80357713, BRCA1rs80357906, BRCA2rs11571653, RAD51rs1801320, and HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms as risk factors in the development of breast cancer in the Bangladeshi population. A total 310 patients with invasive breast cancers were recruited as cases from different public and private hospitals of Bangladesh, and 250 Bangladeshi healthy women matching age with the patients were recruited as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to analyze the genetic polymorphisms. Patients carrying BRCA1/2 mutations, GC and GC plus CC genotypes of RAD51rs1801320, and AG plus GG genotype of HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer. In subgroup analysis, AG plus GG genotype of HER2rs1136201 was found to be associated with the breast cancer risk in the patients younger than 45 years of age compared with the older patients having more than 45 years of age, and RAD51rs1801320 was related to the tumor size and tumor aggressiveness (higher graded tumor). Our results indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2, RAD51rs1801320 and HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms were associated with breast cancer in the studied population.

  13. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Analyses of Soft Tissue Sarcomas From brca2-Mutant/ tp53-Mutant Zebrafish Are Consistent With Neural Crest (Schwann Cell) Origin.

    PubMed

    White, L A; Sexton, J M; Shive, H R

    2017-03-01

    The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) provides a powerful model for analyzing genetic contributors to cancer. Multiple zebrafish lines with cancer-associated genetic mutations develop soft tissue sarcomas that are histologically consistent with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). The goal of this study was to determine the phenotype of soft tissue sarcomas in a brca2-mutant/ tp53-mutant zebrafish line using immunohistochemical markers that are commonly expressed in mammalian MPNST. We classified 70 soft tissue sarcomas from a brca2-mutant/ tp53-mutant zebrafish cohort as MPNST, undifferentiated sarcoma, or other tumor based on histologic features. The expression of S100, CD57, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in nonneoplastic neural tissues and tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry. Each marker was expressed in nonneoplastic neural tissues. In MPNST, S100 and CD57 were widely expressed in neoplastic cells, with greater consistency observed for CD57 expression. In undifferentiated sarcomas, results were variable and correlated to anatomic location. Coelomic undifferentiated sarcomas often exhibited widespread CD57 expression but limited S100 expression. In comparison, ocular undifferentiated sarcomas exhibited limited expression of both CD57 and S100. Overall, CD57 and S100 expression was significantly higher in MPNST than in undifferentiated sarcomas. GFAP was not expressed in any of the tumors. This study identified commercially available antibodies that are useful for analyzing S100, CD57, and GFAP expression in zebrafish. This study further shows a correlation between degree of histologic differentiation and expression of these markers in soft tissue sarcomas from brca2-mutant/ tp53-mutant zebrafish and suggests that these cancers are derived from the neural crest with differentiation toward myelinating Schwann cells.

  14. Prolonged pursuit by optokinetic drum testing in asymptomatic female carriers of novel FRMD7 splice mutation c.1050 +5 G>A.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O; Shinwari, Jameela; Al-Sharif, Latifa; Khalil, Dania S; Al Tassan, Nada

    2011-07-01

    To determine the genotype underlying suspected X-linked infantile nystagmus in a family and to correlate genotype with clinical examination in potential female carriers. Ophthalmic examination (ophthalmic, orthoptic, optokinetic [OKN] drum, and electrophysiologic when possible) and candidate gene analysis. Two affected brothers had infantile nystagmus with no evidence of associated visual or neurological disease. The symptomatic maternal aunt had infantile nystagmus in addition to congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) (bilateral hypotropia, exotropia, ptosis, almost complete ophthalmoplegia, and poorly reactive pupils). A sister, the mother, and the maternal grandmother-all 3 of whom were asymptomatic-had delayed corrective saccades (prolonged pursuit) during OKN drum testing.A brother and the father—both of whom were asymptomatic—had unremarkable examination findings [corrected]. A FRMD7 splice variant (c.1050 + 5 G>A) was identified in the 2 affected brothers and in the 3 asymptomatic women only. Allele sharing analysis further confirmed that the aunt's phenotype was not related to the FRMD7 variant, which was absent in 246 ethnic controls. Her phenotype was also not related to mutation in known CFEOM genes (KIF21A, PHOX2A, TUBB3). Prolonged pursuit responses during OKN drum testing in asymptomatic female carriers is consistent with the concept of infantile nystagmus being an abnormally increased pursuit oscillation. Further studies are required to determine the reproducibility of this potential female carrier sign. Rather than being FRMD7 related, nystagmus in the maternal aunt represented a second disease in this family, likely related to CFEOM. Clinicians can use the OKN drum to assess obligate female carriers in a family suspected of having X-linked nystagmus.

  15. Suppression of BRCA2 by Mutant Mitochondrial DNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    pattern in prostate cancer patient through analysis of the blood of the corresponding patient. Our data conclude that mtDNA deletion is due to...harvest tumors for histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA2 expression. Total: 60 mice requested. (Months 21- 30...tumor metastasis in pre-clinical animal models. Inject luciferase-expressing human prostate cells into the right lobe of nude mice’s prostate

  16. Molecular characterization and clinical interpretation of BRCA1/BRCA2 variants in families from Murcia (south-eastern Spain) with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: clinical-pathological features in BRCA carriers and non-carriers.

    PubMed

    Gabaldó Barrios, Xavier; Sarabia Meseguer, Mª Desamparados; Marín Vera, Miguel; Sánchez Bermúdez, Ana Isabel; Macías Cerrolaza, José Antonio; Sánchez Henarejos, Pilar; Zafra Poves, Marta; García Hernández, Mª Rosario; Cuevas Tortosa, Encarna; Aliaga Baño, Ángeles; Castillo Guardiola, Verónica; Martínez Hernández, Pedro; Tovar Zapata, Isabel; Martínez Barba, Enrique; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco; Alonso Romero, José Luis; Noguera Velasco, José Antonio; Ruiz Espejo, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    This is the first study performed in Murcia (south-eastern Spain) in which 592 families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer were identified thanks to Genetic Counselling Units from this area over 6 years. Diagnostic performance was 18.1% and 194 different genetic variants were obtained. Variants with uncertain significance accounted for only 5.6% of the total number of reports, so our population has been well characterised. In BRCA1 gene, two novel variants were found (c.1859delT and c.3205C > T) and the most frequently detected mutations were c.68_69delAG, c.212 + 1G > A, c.5123C > A, c.211A > G and c.1918C > T, which together represented 56.67% of total pathogenic mutations. In BRCA2 gene, four recurrent variants were described (deletion of entire exon 2, c.9117G > A, c.3264dupT and c.3455T > G) representing 43.5% of the mutations in this gene. Mutation c.68_69delAG and deletion of entire exon 2 in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes respectively were the most prevalent variants in our population. Regarding the genotype-phenotype relation, mutation c.212 + 1G > A appeared in an important percentage of breast and ovarian cancer cases, c.5123C > A in bilateral breast cancer and c.9117G > A in bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer. With respect to clinical-pathological characteristic, BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers showed earlier onset age of breast tumour and higher risk of developing contra lateral breast cancer than non-informative cases. Moreover, association between either molecular subtype triple negative breast cancer or ovarian cancer and BRCA1 carriers was obtained.

  17. Development and characterization of reference materials for MTHFR, SERPINA1, RET, BRCA1, and BRCA2 genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Barker, Shannon D; Bale, Sherri; Booker, Jessica; Buller, Arlene; Das, Soma; Friedman, Kenneth; Godwin, Andrew K; Grody, Wayne W; Highsmith, Edward; Kant, Jeffery A; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Monaghan, Kristin G; Payne, Deborah A; Pratt, Victoria M; Schrijver, Iris; Shrimpton, Antony E; Spector, Elaine; Telatar, Milhan; Toji, Lorraine; Weck, Karen; Zehnbauer, Barbara; Kalman, Lisa V

    2009-11-01

    Well-characterized reference materials (RMs) are integral in maintaining clinical laboratory quality assurance for genetic testing. These RMs can be used for quality control, monitoring of test performance, test validation, and proficiency testing of DNA-based genetic tests. To address the need for such materials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program (GeT-RM), which works with the genetics community to improve public availability of characterized RMs for genetic testing. To date, the GeT-RM program has coordinated the characterization of publicly available genomic DNA RMs for a number of disorders, including cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, fragile X, and several genetic conditions with relatively high prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genotypic information about a number of other cell lines has been collected and is also available. The present study includes the development and commutability/genotype characterization of 10 DNA samples for clinically relevant mutations or sequence variants in the following genes: MTHFR; SERPINA1; RET; BRCA1; and BRCA2. DNA samples were analyzed by 19 clinical genetic laboratories using a variety of assays and technology platforms. Concordance was 100% for all samples, with no differences observed between laboratories using different methods. All DNA samples are available from Coriell Cell Repositories and characterization information can be found on the GeT-RM website.

  18. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for MTHFR, SERPINA1, RET, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Shannon D.; Bale, Sherri; Booker, Jessica; Buller, Arlene; Das, Soma; Friedman, Kenneth; Godwin, Andrew K.; Grody, Wayne W.; Highsmith, Edward; Kant, Jeffery A.; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Payne, Deborah A.; Pratt, Victoria M.; Schrijver, Iris; Shrimpton, Antony E.; Spector, Elaine; Telatar, Milhan; Toji, Lorraine; Weck, Karen; Zehnbauer, Barbara; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2009-01-01

    Well-characterized reference materials (RMs) are integral in maintaining clinical laboratory quality assurance for genetic testing. These RMs can be used for quality control, monitoring of test performance, test validation, and proficiency testing of DNA-based genetic tests. To address the need for such materials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program (GeT-RM), which works with the genetics community to improve public availability of characterized RMs for genetic testing. To date, the GeT-RM program has coordinated the characterization of publicly available genomic DNA RMs for a number of disorders, including cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, fragile X, and several genetic conditions with relatively high prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genotypic information about a number of other cell lines has been collected and is also available. The present study includes the development and commutability/genotype characterization of 10 DNA samples for clinically relevant mutations or sequence variants in the following genes: MTHFR; SERPINA1; RET; BRCA1; and BRCA2. DNA samples were analyzed by 19 clinical genetic laboratories using a variety of assays and technology platforms. Concordance was 100% for all samples, with no differences observed between laboratories using different methods. All DNA samples are available from Coriell Cell Repositories and characterization information can be found on the GeT-RM website. PMID:19767587

  19. FANCG promotes formation of a newly identified protein complex containing BRCA2, FANCD2 and XRCC3.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J B; Yamamoto, K; Marriott, A S; Hussain, S; Sung, P; Hoatlin, M E; Mathew, C G; Takata, M; Thompson, L H; Kupfer, G M; Jones, N J

    2008-06-12

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinks and other damages. Thirteen complementation groups and genes are identified, including BRCA2, which is defective in the FA-D1 group. Eight of the FA proteins, including FANCG, participate in a nuclear core complex that is required for the monoubiquitylation of FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCD2, like FANCD1/BRCA2, is not part of the core complex, and we previously showed direct BRCA2-FANCD2 interaction using yeast two-hybrid analysis. We now show in human and hamster cells that expression of FANCG protein, but not the other core complex proteins, is required for co-precipitation of BRCA2 and FANCD2. We also show that phosphorylation of FANCG serine 7 is required for its co-precipitation with BRCA2, XRCC3 and FANCD2, as well as the direct interaction of BRCA2-FANCD2. These results argue that FANCG has a role independent of the FA core complex, and we propose that phosphorylation of serine 7 is the signalling event required for forming a discrete complex comprising FANCD1/BRCA2-FANCD2-FANCG-XRCC3 (D1-D2-G-X3). Cells that fail to express either phospho-Ser7-FANCG, or full length BRCA2 protein, lack the interactions amongst the four component proteins. A role for D1-D2-G-X3 in homologous recombination repair (HRR) is supported by our finding that FANCG and the RAD51-paralog XRCC3 are epistatic for sensitivity to DNA crosslinking compounds in DT40 chicken cells. Our findings further define the intricate interface between FANC and HRR proteins in maintaining chromosome stability.

  20. A phosphorylation–deubiquitination cascade regulates the BRCA2–RAD51 axis in homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kuntian; Li, Lei; Li, Yunhui; Wu, Chenming; Yin, Yujiao; Chen, Yuping; Deng, Min; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yuan, Jian; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways in mammalian cells. Defects in HR trigger genomic instability and result in cancer predisposition. The defining step of HR is homologous strand exchange directed by the protein RAD51, which is recruited to DSBs by BRCA2. However, the regulation of the BRCA2–RAD51 axis remains unclear. Here we report that ubiquitination of RAD51 hinders RAD51–BRCA2 interaction, while deubiquitination of RAD51 facilitates RAD51–BRCA2 binding and RAD51 recruitment and thus is critical for proper HR. Mechanistically, in response to DNA damage, the deubiquitinase UCHL3 is phosphorylated and activated by ATM. UCHL3, in turn, deubiquitinates RAD51 and promotes the binding between RAD51 and BRCA2. Overexpression of UCHL3 renders breast cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, while depletion of UCHL3 sensitizes cells to these treatments, suggesting a determinant role of UCHL3 in cancer therapy. Overall, we identify UCHL3 as a novel regulator of DNA repair and reveal a model in which a phosphorylation–deubiquitination cascade dynamically regulates the BRCA2–RAD51 pathway. PMID:27941124

  1. Whole exome sequencing identifies driver mutations in asymptomatic computed tomography-detected lung cancers with normal karyotype.

    PubMed

    Belloni, Elena; Veronesi, Giulia; Rotta, Luca; Volorio, Sara; Sardella, Domenico; Bernard, Loris; Pece, Salvatore; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Fumagalli, Caterina; Barberis, Massimo; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Riva, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of curative surgery for lung cancer could be largely improved by non-invasive screening programs, which can detect the disease at early stages. We previously showed that 18% of screening-identified lung cancers demonstrate a normal karyotype and, following high-density genome scanning, can be subdivided into samples with 1) numerous; 2) none; and 3) few copy number alterations. Whole exome sequencing was applied to the two normal karyotype, screening-detected lung cancers, constituting group 2, as well as normal controls. We identified mutations in both tumors, including KEAP1 (commonly mutated in lung cancers) in one, and TP53, PMS1, and MSH3 (well-characterized DNA-repair genes) in the other. The two normal karyotype screening-detected lung tumors displayed a typical lung cancer mutational profile that only next generation sequencing could reveal, which offered an additional contribution to the over-diagnosis bias concept hypothesized within lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat-induced BRCA2 degradation in human tumours provides rationale for hyperthermia-PARP-inhibitor combination therapies.

    PubMed

    van den Tempel, Nathalie; Odijk, Hanny; van Holthe, Netteke; Naipal, Kishan; Raams, Anja; Eppink, Berina; van Gent, Dik C; Hardillo, Jose; Verduijn, Gerda M; Drooger, Jan C; van Rhoon, Gerard C; Smedts, Dineke H P M; van Doorn, Helena C; Boormans, Joost L; Jager, Agnes; Franckena, Martine; Kanaar, Roland

    2017-07-31

    Hyperthermia (40-44 °C) effectively sensitises tumours to radiotherapy by locally altering tumour biology. One of the effects of heat at the cellular level is inhibition of DNA repair by homologous recombination via degradation of the BRCA2-protein. This suggests that hyperthermia can expand the group of patients that benefit from PARP-inhibitors, a drug exploiting homologous recombination deficiency. Here, we explore whether the molecular mechanisms that cause heat-mediated degradation of BRCA2 are conserved in cell lines from various origins and, most importantly, whether, BRCA2 protein levels can be attenuated by heat in freshly biopted human tumours. Cells from four established cell lines and from freshly biopsied material of cervical (15), head- and neck (9) or bladder tumours (27) were heated to 42 °C for 60 min ex vivo. In vivo hyperthermia was studied by taking two biopsies of the same breast or cervical tumour: one before and one after treatment. BRCA2 protein levels were measured by immunoblotting. We found decreased BRCA2-levels after hyperthermia in all established cell lines and in 91% of all tumours treated ex vivo. For tumours treated with hyperthermia in vivo, technical issues and intra-tumour heterogeneity prevented obtaining interpretable results. This study demonstrates that heat-mediated degradation of BRCA2 occurs in tumour material directly derived from patients. Although BRCA2-degradation may not be a practical biomarker for heat deposition in situ, it does suggest that application of hyperthermia could be an effective method to expand the patient group that could benefit from PARP-inhibitors.

  3. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Chen, Jian; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer; Jammulapati, Srikanth; Perry, Michael; Morris, Brian; Roa, Benjamin; Timms, Kirsten

    2015-04-02

    Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic risk for cancer in 8 different tissues using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Twenty-five genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes were selected for development of a panel to screen for risk of these cancers using NGS. In an initial technical assessment, NGS results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were compared with Sanger sequencing in 1864 anonymized DNA samples from patients who had undergone previous clinical testing. Next, the entire gene panel was validated using parallel NGS and Sanger sequencing in 100 anonymized DNA samples. Large rearrangement analysis was validated using NGS, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses (MLPA). NGS identified 15,877 sequence variants, while Sanger sequencing identified 15,878 in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 comparison study of the same regions. Based on these results, the NGS process was refined prior to the validation of the full gene panel. In the validation study, NGS and Sanger sequencing were 100% concordant for the 3,923 collective variants across all genes for an analytical sensitivity of the NGS assay of >99.92% (lower limit of 95% confidence interval). NGS, microarray CGH and MLPA correctly identified all expected positive and negative large rearrangement results for the 25-gene panel. This study provides a thorough validation of the 25-gene NGS panel and indicates that this analysis tool can be used to collect clinically significant information related to risk of

  4. DaT-SPECT assessment depicts dopamine depletion among asymptomatic G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Artzi, Moran; Even-Sapir, Einat; Lerman Shacham, Hedva; Thaler, Avner; Urterger, Avi Orr; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ben Bashat, Dafna; Mirelman, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Identification of early changes in Dopamine-Transporter (DaT) SPECT imaging expected in the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD), are usually overlooked. Carriers of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation are known to be at high risk for developing PD, compared to non-carriers. In this work we aimed to study early changes in Dopamine uptake in non-manifesting PD carriers (NMC) of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation using quantitative DaT-SPECT analysis and to examine the potential for early prediction of PD. Eighty Ashkenazi-Jewish subjects were included in this study: eighteen patients with PD; thirty-one NMC and thirty-one non-manifesting non-carriers (NMNC). All subjects underwent a through clinical assessment including evaluation of motor, olfactory, affective and non-motor symptoms and DaT-SPECT imaging. A population based DaT-SPECT template was created based on the NMNC cohort, and data driven volumes-of-interest (VOIs) were defined. Comparisons between groups were performed based on VOIs and voxel-wise analysis. The striatum area of all three cohorts was segmented into four VOIs, corresponding to the right/left dorsal and ventral striatum. Significant differences in clinical measures were found between patients with PD and non-manifesting subjects with no differences between NMC and NMNC. Significantly lower uptake (p<0.001) was detected in the right and left dorsal striatum in the PD group (2.2±0.3, 2.3±0.4) compared to the NMC (4.2±0.6, 4.3±0.5) and NMNC (4.5±0.6, 4.6±0.6), and significantly (p = 0.05) lower uptake in the right dorsal striatum in the NMC group compared to NMNC. Converging results were obtained using voxel-wise analysis. Two NMC participants, who later phenoconverted into PD, demonstrated reduced uptake mainly in the dorsal striatum. No significant correlations were found between the DaT-SPECT uptake in the different VOIs and clinical and behavioral assessments in the non-manifesting groups. This study shows the clinical value of quantitative

  5. Modulation of HAT activity by the BRCA2 N372H variation is a novel mechanism of paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woo Sun; Rha, Sun Young; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Kim, Tae Soo; Chung, Hyun Cheol

    2017-08-15

    Paclitaxel stabilizes microtubule polymerization, enhances microtubule assembly, and G2/M arrests, leading to cell death. Paclitaxel resistance has been attributed to a variety of mechanisms. In the present study, we define a new resistance mechanism to paclitaxel based on BRCA2 variation. Chemo-sensitivity to paclitaxel based on the variations was compared. Restoration of paclitaxel sensitivity was induced indirectly with combined treatment of paclitaxel and HDAC inhibitor. Variant and wild type of BRCA2 clones were obtained from wild and variant cells, respectively. Chemo-sensitivity, P/CAF and BubR1 expression and acetylation, BRCA2-P/CAF and BRCA2-BubR1 interactions, and HAT activities of the clones with BRCA2 variation were compared. We identified an association between chemo-sensitivity and BRCA2 N372H variation. The IC50 of paclitaxel in heterozygous variation was higher than that of wild type. There were no differences in basic expression levels of BRCA2 among variant types. However, P/CAF expression, of BRCA2-P/CAF interaction, and HAT activity were significantly lower in heterozygous variants than in the wild type. After HDAC inhibitor treatment, HAT activity and paclitaxel sensitivity were restored in variant cells. Cell lines transformed from wild to variant or from variant to wild showed reciprocal changes in P/CAF expression, BRCA2-P/CAF interaction, HAT activity, and paclitaxel sensitivity. Forced expression of the BRCA2 heterozygous variant induced paclitaxel resistance due to altered HAT activity (p<0.001). This was reversed by the TSA combination. Restoration of wild BRCA2 from variant type improved paclitaxel sensitivity (p<0.001). Modulation of HAT activity by BRCA2 N372H variation is a new mechanism of paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic modulation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression by equol in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bosviel, Rémy; Durif, Julie; Déchelotte, Pierre; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique

    2012-10-01

    S-Equol is a metabolite resulting from the conversion of daidzein, a soya phyto-oestrogen, by the gut microflora. The potential protective effects of equol in breast cancer are still under debate. Consequently, we investigated the effects of equol on DNA methylation of breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) and oncosuppressors in breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and in a dystrophic breast cell line (MCF-10a) following exposure to S-equol (2 μm) for 3 weeks. We demonstrated by quantitative analysis of methylated alleles a significant decrease in the methylation of the cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) islands in the promoters of BRCA1 and BRCA2 after the S-equol treatment in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and a trend in MCF-10a cells. We also showed that S-equol increases BRCA1 and BRCA2 protein expression in the nuclei and the cytoplasm in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10a cell lines by immunohistochemistry. The increase in BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins was also found after Western blotting in the studied cell lines. In summary, we demonstrated the demethylating effect of S-equol on the CpG islands inside the promoters of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, resulting in an increase in the level of expressed oncosuppressors in breast cancer cell lines.

  7. Evaluation of an amplicon-based next-generation sequencing panel for detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Saeam; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Seung-Tae; Choi, Jong Rak

    2016-08-01

    The recent advances in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have enabled fast, accurate, and cost-effective genetic testing. Here, we evaluated the performance of a targeted NGS panel for BRCA1/2 sequencing and confirmed its applicability in routine clinical diagnostics. We tested samples from 88 patients using the TruSeq custom panel (Illumina Inc, USA) and a MiSeq sequencer (Illumina) and compared the results to the outcomes of conventional Sanger sequencing. All 1015 sequence variations identified by Sanger sequencing were detected by NGS, except for one missense variant that might have been missed due to a rare mutation on a primer-binding site. One deletion variation, c.1909 + 12delT of BRCA2, was falsely called in all samples due to a homopolymer error. In addition, seven different single-nucleotide substitutions with low variant frequencies (range: 16.2-33.3 %) were falsely called by NGS. In a separate batch, 10 different false-positive variations were found in five samples. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value of NGS were estimated to be 99.9 and 87.5 %, respectively. The false-positive results could be excluded by setting quality and alternative allele ratio filters and/or by visual inspection using the IGV software. Targeted NGS panel for BRCA1 and BRCA2 showed an excellent agreement with Sanger sequencing results. We therefore conclude that this NGS panel can be used for routine diagnostic method in a clinical genetic laboratory.

  8. Rotating night work, lifestyle factors, obesity and promoter methylation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes among nurses and midwives.

    PubMed

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Edyta; Przybek, Monika; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Reszka, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Some recent evidence suggests that environmental and lifestyle factors may modify DNA methylation. We hypothesized that rotating night work and several modifiable factors may be associated with the methylation of the promoter regions within two tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes: BRCA1 and BRCA2. The methylation status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was determined via qMSP reactions using DNA samples derived from blood leucocytes of 347 nurses and midwives working rotating nights and 363 working during the days. The subjects were classified into unmethylated vs methylated BRCA1 and BRCA2 when the methylation index was 0% or >0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for night work status, smoking, obesity, physical activity and alcohol drinking. Current night shift work or night work history was not associated with methylation status of the promoter sites within BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We observed weak associations between smoking and the methylation status of BRCA1 with OR = 1.50 (95%CI: 0.98-2.29) for current smoking, OR = 1.83, 95CI: 1.08-3.13 for smoking longer than 31 years, and 0.1>p>0.05 for trends for the number of cigarettes per day, smoking duration and packyears. In conclusion, no links between night shift work and methylation of the promoter region within the BRCA1, and BRCA2 genes were observed in this exploratory analysis. The findings of our study weakly support the hypothesis that smoking may contribute to epigenetic events.

  9. Development and Validation of a Next-Generation Sequencing Assay for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Variants for the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Charles M.; Rivera, Steven; Elzinga, Christopher; Angeloni, Taraneh; Rosenthal, Sun Hee; Goos-Root, Dana; Siaw, Martin; Platt, Jamie; Braastadt, Cory; Cheng, Linda; Ross, David; Sun, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and validate a next-generation sequencing assay (NGS) to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. We developed an assay using random shearing of genomic DNA followed by RNA bait tile hybridization and NGS sequencing on both the Illumina MiSeq and Ion Personal Gene Machine (PGM). We determined that the MiSeq Reporter software supplied with the instrument could not detect deletions greater than 9 base pairs. Therefore, we developed an alternative alignment and variant calling software, Quest Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (QSAP), that was capable of detecting large deletions and insertions. In validation studies, we used DNA from 27 stem cell lines, all with known deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and DNA from 67 consented control individuals who had a total of 352 benign variants. Both the MiSeq/QSAP combination and PGM/Torrent Suite combination had 100% sensitivity for the 379 known variants in the validation series. However, the PGM/Torrent Suite combination had a lower intra- and inter-assay precision of 96.2% and 96.7%, respectively when compared to the MiSeq/QSAP combination of 100% and 99.4%, respectively. All PGM/Torrent Suite inconsistencies were false-positive variant assignments. We began commercial testing using both platforms and in the first 521 clinical samples MiSeq/QSAP had 100% sensitivity for BRCA1/2 variants, including a 64-bp deletion and a 10-bp insertion not identified by PGM/Torrent Suite, which also suffered from a high false-positive rate. Neither the MiSeq nor PGM platform with their supplied alignment and variant calling software are appropriate for a clinical laboratory BRCA sequencing test. We have developed an NGS BRCA1/2 sequencing assay, MiSeq/QSAP, with 100% analytic sensitivity and specificity in the validation set consisting of 379 variants. The MiSeq/QSAP combination has sufficient performance for use in a clinical laboratory. PMID:26295337

  10. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. ); Stolle, C. ); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which themore » two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufei; McKay, James D.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Wang, Zhaoming; Timofeeva, Maria; Broderick, Peter; Zong, Xuchen; Laplana, Marina; Wei, Yongyue; Han, Younghun; Lloyd, Amy; Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Chubb, Daniel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Wheeler, William; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Liu, Geoffrey; Kaaks, Rudolf; Henrion, Marc; Kinnersley, Ben; Vallée, Maxime; LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence; Stevens, Victoria L.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Chen, Wei V.; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Krokan, Hans E.; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; Benhamou, Simone; Vooder, Tonu; Valk, Kristjan; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Andres; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Johansson, Mikael; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Lathrop, Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E.; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R.; Dienemann, Hendrik; Rosenberger, Albert; Su, Li; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Stefansson, Kari; Risch, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Christiani, David C.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Houlston, Richard S.; Amos, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants of BRCA2-K3326X (rs11571833; odds ratio [OR]=2.47, P=4.74×10−20) and of CHEK2-I157T (rs17879961; OR=0.38 P=1.27×10−13). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63; rs13314271; OR=1.13, P=7.22×10−10) and lung adenocarcinoma previously only reported in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants having substantive effects on cancer risk from pre-existing GWAS data. PMID:24880342

  13. Clinical impact of detection of loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 markers in sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Picard, F.; An, H. X.; van Roeyen, C. R.; Dominik, S. I.; Mosny, D. S.; Schnürch, H. G.; Bender, H. G.; Niederacher, D.

    1996-01-01

    The development of familial and sporadic breast cancer is based on genetic alterations of tumour-suppressor genes, for which loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is one mechanism of gene inactivation. To investigate LOH of BRCA1 (17q21) and BRCA2 (13-q12-13) in sporadic breast cancer, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fluorescent DNA technology for detection of microsatellite polymorphisms was applied. A total of 137 breast cancer and 15 benign breast specimens with matched normal tissue were examined. Fluorescent-labelled PCR products were analysed in an automated DNA sequencer (ALFTM Pharmacia). Losses at both loci were correlated with different histological types, age, tumour size, lymph node status, grading and steroid hormone receptor expression, [SHR: oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR)]. For BRCA1 (D17S855, THRA1, D17S579) losses could be detected in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; n = 108) in 32-38%, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC; n = 19) in 21-42% depending on the marker applied, but not in benign breast tumours (n = 15). Losses of BRCA1 markers correlated with larger tumour size, higher grade, and PgR expression. For BRCA2 (D13S260, D13S267, D13S171) losses could be detected in 108 IDCs in 30-38%, in 19 ILCs in 17-39% depending on the marker applied, but not in benign breast tumours. Losses of BRCA2 markers correlated only with higher grade. Microsatellite analyses combined with detection of fluorescent-labelled PCR products by an automated laser DNA sequencer can be used for routine determination of LOH. In sporadic breast cancer, LOH of BRCA1 of BRCA2 does not add decisive prognostic value as stated for familial breast cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8630282

  14. Functional Analysis of Variants of Unknown Significance in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Using Complementation of a Synthetic Lethal Interaction with PARP Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    We selected one construct, #13 and used a lentivirus vector with a tet -inducible promoter to transfect the MCF10a cell line. Because the...lentivirus in which an shRNA against BRCA2 has been inserted under control of a tetracycline inducible promoter. Treatment of these cells with doxycycline...Sci. Aug 2010;31(8):372-380. 8. Gudmundsdottir K , Ashworth A. The roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 and associated proteins in the maintenance of genomic

  15. Smarcal1-Mediated Fork Reversal Triggers Mre11-Dependent Degradation of Nascent DNA in the Absence of Brca2 and Stable Rad51 Nucleofilaments.

    PubMed

    Kolinjivadi, Arun Mouli; Sannino, Vincenzo; De Antoni, Anna; Zadorozhny, Karina; Kilkenny, Mairi; Técher, Hervé; Baldi, Giorgio; Shen, Rong; Ciccia, Alberto; Pellegrini, Luca; Krejci, Lumir; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2017-09-07

    Brca2 deficiency causes Mre11-dependent degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks, leading to cell lethality. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we isolated Xenopus laevis Brca2. We demonstrated that Brca2 protein prevents single-stranded DNA gap accumulation at replication fork junctions and behind them by promoting Rad51 binding to replicating DNA. Without Brca2, forks with persistent gaps are converted by Smarcal1 into reversed forks, triggering extensive Mre11-dependent nascent DNA degradation. Stable Rad51 nucleofilaments, but not RPA or Rad51 T131P mutant proteins, directly prevent Mre11-dependent DNA degradation. Mre11 inhibition instead promotes reversed fork accumulation in the absence of Brca2. Rad51 directly interacts with the Pol α N-terminal domain, promoting Pol α and δ binding to stalled replication forks. This interaction likely promotes replication fork restart and gap avoidance. These results indicate that Brca2 and Rad51 prevent formation of abnormal DNA replication intermediates, whose processing by Smarcal1 and Mre11 predisposes to genome instability. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seventeen years after BRCA1: what is the BRCA mutation status of the breast cancer patients in Africa? - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oluwagbemiga, Lawal Abdulrazzaq; Oluwole, Atoyebi; Kayode, Adesunkanmi Abdulrasheed

    2012-12-01

    With the discovery of the BRCA1 gene and other genetic mutations associated with breast cancer, it has been established that hereditary mutations account for up to 5% of patients presenting with breast cancer. We performed a systematic review of English Language Literature to determine the role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in African breast cancer patients. PUBMED and AJOL database were searched for publications addressing Breast Cancer and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. PUBMED was searched using the following words in various combinations; 'Breast Cancer', 'BRCA1', 'BRCA2', 'BRCA', 'Genes', 'Cancer Genes', and 'Africa'. 16 studies fulfilled the study criteria up till December 2011. The studies were from North Africa (NA) and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A total of 9 studies were found evaluating 752 (352 repeated Zhang J (2010)) patients from SSA. Three studies (144 patients) evaluated all the coding regions of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 while 2 studies (571 patients) evaluated part(s) of BRCA1 and one (20 Patients) evaluated part(s) of BRCA2, one re-evaluated the whole of the BRCA1 gene in a previous sub-set of patients, while one (16 patients) evaluated parts of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In North Africa, 6 studies evaluated 374 patients, with 4 studies (219 patients) evaluating the whole of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes while two (155 patients) studies evaluated only parts of both BRCA1 and BRCA2, with one of the studies evaluating the whole of the BRCA1 gene in a subset (24 patients). Due to this paucity of well powered population based studies evaluating the influence of BRCA genetic mutations in breast cancer patients in Africa, there is a need to perform well powered studies and population screening to determine the impact of germ line mutations in the Breast Cancer patient in Africa before any categorical statements can be made with respect to their BRCA status.

  17. Consistency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Variant Classifications Among Clinical Diagnostic Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Stephen E.; Yang, Shan; Cline, Melissa S.; Kobayashi, Yuya; Zhang, Can; Topper, Scott; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genetic tests of the cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 inform significant clinical decisions for both physicians and patients. Most uncovered variants are benign, and determining which few are pathogenic (disease-causing) is sometimes challenging and can potentially be inconsistent among laboratories. The ClinVar database makes de-identified clinical variant classifications from multiple laboratories publicly available for comparison and review, per recommendations of the American Medical Association (AMA), the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), the National Society for Genetic Counselors (NSGC), and other organizations. Methods Classifications of more than 2000 BRCA1/2 variants in ClinVar representing approximately 22,000 patients were dichotomized as clinically actionable or not actionable and compared across up to seven laboratories. The properties of these variants and classification differences were investigated in detail. Results Per-variant concordance was 98.5% (CI 97.9%–99.0%). All discordant variants were rare; thus, per patient concordance was estimated to be higher: 99.7%. ClinVar facilitated resolution of many of the discordant variants, and concordance increased to 99.0% per variant and 99.8% per patient when reclassified (but not yet resubmitted) variants and submission errors were addressed. Most of the remaining discordances appeared to involve either legitimate differences in expert judgment regarding particular scientific evidence, or were classifications that predated availability of important scientific evidence. Conclusions Significant classification disagreements among the professional clinical laboratories represented in ClinVar are infrequent yet important. The unrestricted sharing of clinical genetic data allows detailed interlaboratory quality control and peer review, as exemplified by this study. PMID:28782058

  18. Consistency ofBRCA1andBRCA2Variant Classifications Among Clinical Diagnostic Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen E; Yang, Shan; Cline, Melissa S; Kobayashi, Yuya; Zhang, Can; Topper, Scott; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict; Nussbaum, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    Genetic tests of the cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 inform significant clinical decisions for both physicians and patients. Most uncovered variants are benign, and determining which few are pathogenic (disease-causing) is sometimes challenging and can potentially be inconsistent among laboratories. The ClinVar database makes de-identified clinical variant classifications from multiple laboratories publicly available for comparison and review, per recommendations of the American Medical Association (AMA), the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), the National Society for Genetic Counselors (NSGC), and other organizations. Classifications of more than 2000 BRCA1/2 variants in ClinVar representing approximately 22,000 patients were dichotomized as clinically actionable or not actionable and compared across up to seven laboratories. The properties of these variants and classification differences were investigated in detail. Per-variant concordance was 98.5% (CI 97.9%-99.0%). All discordant variants were rare; thus, per patient concordance was estimated to be higher: 99.7%. ClinVar facilitated resolution of many of the discordant variants, and concordance increased to 99.0% per variant and 99.8% per patient when reclassified (but not yet resubmitted) variants and submission errors were addressed. Most of the remaining discordances appeared to involve either legitimate differences in expert judgment regarding particular scientific evidence, or were classifications that predated availability of important scientific evidence. Significant classification disagreements among the professional clinical laboratories represented in ClinVar are infrequent yet important. The unrestricted sharing of clinical genetic data allows detailed interlaboratory quality control and peer review, as exemplified by this study.

  19. Colour vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mtDNA 11778 mutation from a large Brazilian LHON pedigree: a case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, P A; Torres, R J; Salomao, S; Berezovsky, A; Carelli, V; Sherman, J; Sadun, F; De Negri, A; Belfort, R; Sadun, A A

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine if asymptomatic carriers from a previously identified large pedigree of the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) 11778 mtDNA mutation have colour vision deficits. Methods As part of a comprehensive analysis of over 200 members of a large Brazilian LHON pedigree spanning seven generations, colour vision tests were obtained from 91 members. Colour vision was tested one eye at a time using the Farnsworth‐Munsell 100 (FM‐100) hue colour vision test. The test was administered under uniform conditions, taking into account: ambient light levels, daylight colour temperature of 6700 kelvin, and neutral uniform background. Tests were scored using the FM‐100 MS‐Excel computer scoring program. Defects were determined and categorised as tritan, deutan, or protan. Categorisation of each dyschromatopsia was based on review of demonstrated axis computer generated plots and age adjusted error scores which coincided with Verriest 95% confidence intervals. Only the axis with the greatest magnitude error score was used to classify the defect. 55 of the 91 test subjects were LHON mtDNA 11778 J haplotype mutation carriers, proved by mtDNA analysis. The remaining 36 subjects were age matched non‐blood relatives (off pedigree), who served as controls. Results 27 of 55 carriers (49.10%) were shown to have colour vision defects in one or both eyes. 13 of the 27 (48%) abnormal tests in the carrier group were tritan defects and the remaining 14 (52%) were deutan defects. Nine of the 27 (33%) abnormals in the carrier group were identified as having bilateral defects. Six of these were deutan, and the remaining three were tritan dyschromatopsias. Only six of the 36 (16.66%) age matched controls were found to have any type of dyschromatopsia. Five (83.3%) of these were deutan defects. The remaining one was a tritan defect. The difference between the two groups using a χ2 test with one degree of freedom was statistically significant with a p value less that 0

  20. Occult and subsequent cancer incidence following risk-reducing surgery in BRCA mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Zakhour, Mae; Danovitch, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Rimel, B J; Walsh, Christine S; Li, Andrew J; Karlan, Beth Y; Cass, Ilana

    2016-11-01

    To report the frequency and features of occult carcinomas and the incidence of subsequent cancers following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA mutation carriers. 257 consecutive women with germline BRCA mutations who underwent RRSO between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 were identified in an Institutional Review Board approved study. All patients were asymptomatic with normal physical exams, CA 125 values, and imaging studies preoperatively, and had at least 12months of follow-up post-RRSO. All patients had comprehensive adnexal sectioning performed. Patient demographics and clinico-pathologic characteristics were extracted from medical and pathology records. The cohort included 148 BRCA1, 98 BRCA2, 6 BRCA not otherwise specified (NOS), and 5 BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers. Occult carcinoma was seen in 14/257 (5.4%) of patients: 9 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), 3 tubal cancers, 1 ovarian cancer, and 1 endometrial cancer. Three patients (1.2%) with negative pathology at RRSO subsequently developed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC), and 2 of 9 patients (22%) with STIC subsequently developed pelvic serous carcinoma. 110 women (43%) were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to RRSO, and 14 of the remaining 147 (9.5%) developed breast cancer following RRSO. Median follow-up of the cohort was 63months. In this cohort, 5.4% of asymptomatic BRCA mutation carriers had occult carcinomas at RRSO, 86% of which were tubal in origin. The risk of subsequent PPSC for women with benign adnexa at RRSO is low; however, the risk of pelvic serous carcinoma among women with STIC is significantly higher. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. FANCD2, FANCJ and BRCA2 cooperate to promote replication fork recovery independently of the Fanconi Anemia core complex.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan, Maya; Chaudhury, Indrajit; Kelich, Stephanie L; Hanenberg, Helmut; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an inherited multi-gene cancer predisposition syndrome that is characterized on the cellular level by a hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). To repair these lesions, the FA pathway proteins are thought to act in a linear hierarchy: Following ICL detection, an upstream FA core complex monoubiquitinates the central FA pathway members FANCD2 and FANCI, followed by their recruitment to chromatin. Chromatin-bound monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and FANCI subsequently coordinate DNA repair factors including the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 to repair the DNA ICL. Importantly, we recently showed that FANCD2 has additional independent roles: it binds chromatin and acts in concert with the BLM helicase complex to promote the restart of aphidicolin (APH)-stalled replication forks, while suppressing the firing of new replication origins. Here, we show that FANCD2 fulfills these roles independently of the FA core complex-mediated monoubiquitination step. Following APH treatment, nonubiquitinated FANCD2 accumulates on chromatin, recruits the BLM complex, and promotes robust replication fork recovery regardless of the absence or presence of a functional FA core complex. In contrast, the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and BRCA2 share FANCD2's role in replication fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Our results support a non-linear FA pathway model at stalled replication forks, where the nonubiquitinated FANCD2 isoform - in concert with FANCJ and BRCA2 - fulfills a specific function in promoting efficient replication fork recovery independently of the FA core complex.

  2. Olaparib Approved for Breast Cancers with BRCA Gene Mutations

    Cancer.gov

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved olaparib (Lynparza®) to treat metastatic breast cancers that have inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes as well as a companion diagnostic test for selecting candidates for the therapy.

  3. Lack of significance of the BRCA2 promoter methylation status in different genotypes of the MTHFR a1298c polymorphism in ovarian cancer cases in Iran.

    PubMed

    Darehdori, Ahmad Shabanizadeh; Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Dahim, Hajar; Slahshoor, Mohammadreza; Babazadeh, Zahra; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Taghipour, Zahra; Gaafarineveh, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Promoter methylation, which can be regulated by MTHFR activity, is associated with silencing of genes. In this study we evaluated the methylation status (type) of the BRCA2 promoter in ovarian cancer patients carrying different genotypes of the MTHFR gene (A or C polymorphisms at position 1298). The methylation type of the BRCA2 promoter was evaluated using bisulfate-modified DNA in methylation- specific PCR and the MTHFRa1278c polymorphism was assessed by PCR-RFLP. Analysis of the BRCA2 promoter methylation type of cases showed that 7 out of 60 cases (11.7%) were methylated while the remaining 53 (88.3%) were unmethylated. In methylated cases, one out of the 7 cases had a CC genotype and the remaining 6 methylated cases had an AC genotype. The AA genotype was absent. In unmethylated cases, 34, 18, and one out of these had AC, AA and CC genotype, respectively. There was no significant relationship between the methylation types of the BRCA2 promoter in different genotypes of MTHFRa1298c polymorphism in ovarian cancer; p=0.255. There was no significant relation between the methylation types of the BRCA2 promoter in different genotypes of the MTHFRa1298c polymorphism in ovarian cancer.

  4. Screening of BRCA1/2 Mutations Using Direct Sequencing in Indonesian Familial Breast Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Haryono, Samuel J; Aryandono, Teguh; Datasena, I Gusti Bagus

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer has emerged as the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, including in Indonesia. The contribution of genes associated with high-risk breast-ovarian cancers, BRCA1 and BRCA2, in the Indonesian population is relatively unknown. We have characterized family history of patients with moderate- to high-risk of breast cancer predisposition in 26 unrelated cases from Indonesia for BRCA1/2 mutation analyses using direct sequencing. Known deleterious mutations were not found in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Seven variants in BRCA2 were documented in 10 of 26 patients (38%). All variants were categorized as unclassified (VUSs). Two synonymous variants, c.3623A>G and c.4035T>C, were found in 5 patients. One variant, c4600T>C, was found in a 38 year old woman with a family history of breast cancer. We have found 4 novel variants in BRCA2 gene including c.6718C>G, c.3281A>G, c.10176C>G, and c4490T>C in 4 unrelated patients, all of them having a positive family history of breast cancer. In accordance to other studies in Asian population, our study showed more frequent variants in BRCA2 compared to BRCA1. Further studies involving larger numbers of hereditary breast cancer patients are required to reveal contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations and/or other predisposing genes among familial breast cancer patients in Indonesia.

  5. Mutation analysis of the BCCIP gene for breast cancer susceptibility in breast/ovarian cancer families.

    PubMed

    Bonache, Sandra; Gutierrez-Enriquez, Sara; Tenés, Anna; Masas, Miriam; Balmaña, Judith; Diez, Orland

    2013-11-01

    About 5%-10% of breast cancer is due to inherited disease predisposition. Currently, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes explain less than 25% of the familial clustering of breast cancer, and additional susceptibility genes are suspected. The BCCIP gene plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription and cell proliferation and could be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The BCCIP protein binds in mammalian cells to the longest conserved region of the BRCA2 protein and is required for BRCA2 stability and function, making a critical contribution to the function of BRCA2 in mediating homologous recombination. Variants in the BCCIP gene could affect the BRCA2 functionality and be associated to the familial breast/ovarian carcinogenesis. Therefore, BCCIP gene is a potential candidate for being involved in heritable cancer susceptibility. We have screened the entire coding region and splice junctions of BCCIP in affected index cases from 215 Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families for germ line defects, using direct sequencing. Mutation analysis revealed 3 different intronic sequence changes. Based on the in silico and in vitro RNA analyses of these sequence alterations, none of them were predicted to be pathogenic or associated with cancer susceptibility. Our results indicate that BCCIP germ line mutations are unlikely to be a major contributor to familial breast/ovarian cancer risk in our population. © 2013.

  6. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  7. Characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants in multi-ethnic Asian cohort from a Malaysian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kah Nyin; Ho, Weang Kee; Kang, In Nee; Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Mariapun, Shivaani; Yip, Cheng-Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2017-02-22

    Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 has led to the accurate identification of individuals at higher risk of cancer and the development of new therapies. Approximately 10-20% of the genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 leads to the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), with higher proportions in Asians. We investigated the functional significance of 7 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 variants in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort using a case-control approach. The MassARRAY genotyping was conducted in 1,394 Chinese, 406 Malay and 310 Indian breast cancer cases and 1,071 Chinese, 167 Malay and 255 Indian healthy controls. The association of individual variant with breast cancer risk was analyzed using logistic regression model adjusted for ethnicity, age and family history. Our study confirmed BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val is presented in >2% of unaffected women and is likely benign, and BRCA2 p.Ala1996Thr which is predicted to be likely pathogenic by in-silico models is presented in 2% of healthy Indian women suggesting that it may not be associated with breast cancer risk. Single-variant analysis suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 7.4; 95% CI, 0.9-62.3; p = 0.06). Our study shows that BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val and p.Ala1996Thr are likely benign and highlights the need for population-specific studies to determine the likely functional significance of population-specific variants. Our study also suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer but other methods or larger studies are required to determine a more precise estimate of breast cancer risk.

  8. Cancer Risks Associated with Inherited Mutations in Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    have an increased likelihood of genetic risk. Aim 2: Identify the genetic contribution of many genes to OC susceptibility among African American women...BARD1, African -American, familial, hereditary 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS The submission of UW IRB approvals and related material for DOD’s HRPO approval...was to enroll and sequence 50 African -American (AA) women with OC. Enrollment of AA women has lagged behind our goal. Currently we have enrolled 13 AA

  9. Cancer Risks Associated With Inherited Mutations in Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    TERMS Ovarian cancer, drug resistance , rucaparib, phase 2, DNA repair, homologous recombination, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), poly(ADP-ribose...5 5. Changes /Problems 6 6. Products 6 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 7 8. Appendices NA 1. INTRODUCTION Ovarian, peritoneal...who were eager to send us AA patients at the time we proposed this study, the change in clinical testing has hampered our enrollment. Please see

  10. Consequences of germline variation disrupting the constitutional translational initiation codon start sites of MLH1 and BRCA2: Use of potential alternative start sites and implications for predicting variant pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michael T; Whiley, Phillip J; Beesley, Jonathan; Drost, Mark; de Wind, Niels; Thompson, Bryony A; Marquart, Louise; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Brown, Melissa A; Tucker, Kathy; Warwick, Linda; Buchanan, Daniel D; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2015-07-01

    Variants that disrupt the translation initiation sequences in cancer predisposition genes are generally assumed to be deleterious. However, few studies have validated these assumptions with functional and clinical data. Two cancer syndrome gene variants likely to affect native translation initiation were identified by clinical genetic testing: MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) and BRCA2:c.67+3A>G. In vitro GFP-reporter assays were conducted to assess the consequences of translation initiation disruption on alternative downstream initiation codon usage. Analysis of MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) showed that translation was mostly initiated at an in-frame position 103 nucleotides downstream, but also at two ATG sequences downstream. The protein product encoded by the in-frame transcript initiating from position c.103 showed loss of in vitro mismatch repair activity comparable to known pathogenic mutations. BRCA2:c.67+3A>G was shown by mRNA analysis to result in an aberrantly spliced transcript deleting exon 2 and the consensus ATG site. In the absence of exon 2, translation initiated mostly at an out-of-frame ATG 323 nucleotides downstream, and to a lesser extent at an in-frame ATG 370 nucleotides downstream. Initiation from any of the downstream alternative sites tested in both genes would lead to loss of protein function, but further clinical data is required to confirm if these variants are associated with a high cancer risk. Importantly, our results highlight the need for caution in interpreting the functional and clinical consequences of variation that leads to disruption of the initiation codon, since translation may not necessarily occur from the first downstream alternative start site, or from a single alternative start site. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Clinical and Functional Analyses of p73R1 Mutations in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    mutations in several genes (BRCA 1, BRCA2, and CHEK2) whose products are involved in this pathway have been associated with increased risk for this...screened this gene for mutations in prostate cancer. Two germline truncating mutations were identified. Genotyping of 403 men with sporadic prostate...based on mutation screening of candidate genes involved in the DNA damage- signaling pathway. Genomic instability is a common feature of all human

  12. Distinct implications of different BRCA mutations: efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy, PARP inhibition and clinical outcome in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Robert L; Churchman, Michael; Gourley, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a fifth of ovarian carcinoma (OC) is associated with inherited germline mutations, most commonly in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA). BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated OCs have historically been described as a single subgroup of OC that displays a distinct set of characteristics termed the “BRCAness” phenotype. The hallmarks of this phenotype are superior clinical outcome and hypersensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. However, growing evidence suggests that BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated OCs display distinct characteristics, most notably in long-term patient survival. Furthermore, recent data indicate that the site of BRCA1 mutation is important with regard to platinum and PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Here, we summarize the body of research describing the BRCAness phenotype and highlight the differential implications of different BRCA mutations with regard to clinicopathologic features, therapy sensitivity and clinical outcome in OC. PMID:28546758

  13. Clinical profile, BRCA2 expression, and the androgen receptor CAG repeat region in Egyptian and Moroccan male breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Samuel F.; Soliman, Amr S.; Karkouri, Mehdi; Quinlan-Davidson, Meaghen; Strahley, Ashley; Eissa, Mohab; Dey, Subhojit; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Toy, Kathy; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Rates of MBC in Northern Africa vary by region. The age-standardized incidence for MBC is higher in Morocco than in Egypt, and the Egyptian rate is similar to the U.S of approximately 1/105 . This study aimed at investigating the clinical and molecular characteristics of MBC in Egypt and Morocco. Methods This case-case study included 211 cases from Egypt and 132 from Morocco. Tumor tissues were available for 47 Egyptian and 18 Moroccan patients. Medical record information was abstracted for patients’ demographics, medical history, and treatment. BRCA2 protein expression status was examined in Egyptian and Moroccan tumors. Androgen receptor CAG repeat length was analyzed using the tissue samples in Egyptian MBC tumors and controls. Limited amount of tissues from Morocco did not allow for the analysis of CAG repeats. Results Egyptian MBC patients had a significantly lower age at diagnosis (Egypt: 57.5 ± 15.1, Morocco: 63.9 ± 14.4, P = 0.0002) and a higher prevalence of liver cirrhosis (Egypt: 28.0%, Morocco: 0.8%, P =< 0.0001). MBC patients also had higher tumor grades [I (0.9%), II (81.0%), III (18.1%)] in Egypt vs. [I (10.7%), II (81.0%), III (8.3%)] in Morocco (P = 0.0017). The clinical and molecular characteristics of the groups from the 2 countries did not significantly differ. There was no significant difference with respect to BRCA2 expression amongst countries (Egypt: 28.9% non-wild type, Morocco: 27.8% non-wild type, P = 0.9297) or CAG lengths amongst BRCA2 expression types in Egyptians (Wild type: 54.6% with CAG repeat lengths of 20+, Non-wild type: 50% with CAG repeat lengths of 20+, P = 0.7947). Conclusions Differences in MBC between Egypt and Morocco are more likely due to differences in other risk factors such as consanguinity and use of xenoestrogenic pesticides. PMID:22142662

  14. Novel BRCA1 deleterious mutation (c.1949_1950delTA) in a woman of Senegalese descent with triple-negative early-onset breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    DIEZ, ORLAND; PELEGRÍ, AMADEU; GADEA, NEUS; GUTIÉRREZ-ENRÍQUEZ, SARA; MASAS, MIRIAM; TENÉS, ANNA; BOSCH, NINA; BALMAÑA, JUDITH; GRAÑA, BEGOÑA

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing and genetic diversity in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in sub-Saharan African populations. We report a novel mutation that consists of a deletion of 2 bp (c.1949_1950delTA) in the exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. This is a frameshift mutation that causes the disruption of the translational reading frame resulting in a premature stop codon downstream in the BRCA1 protein. The mutation was present in a Senegalese woman with a triple-negative breast tumor and a family history of breast cancer. PMID:22848303

  15. Novel BRCA1 deleterious mutation (c.1949_1950delTA) in a woman of Senegalese descent with triple-negative early-onset breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Diez, Orland; Pelegrí, Amadeu; Gadea, Neus; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Masas, Miriam; Tenés, Anna; Bosch, Nina; Balmaña, Judith; Graña, Begoña

    2011-11-01

    Limited information exists regarding BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing and genetic diversity in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in sub-Saharan African populations. We report a novel mutation that consists of a deletion of 2 bp (c.1949_1950delTA) in the exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. This is a frameshift mutation that causes the disruption of the translational reading frame resulting in a premature stop codon downstream in the BRCA1 protein. The mutation was present in a Senegalese woman with a triple-negative breast tumor and a family history of breast cancer.

  16. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; ...

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  17. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.

  18. A high proportion of founder BRCA1 mutations in Polish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Górski, Bohdan; Jakubowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Grzybowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Stawicka, Malgorzata; Bebenek, Marek; Sorokin, Dagmara; Fiszer-Maliszewska, Łucja; Haus, Olga; Janiszewska, Hanna; Niepsuj, Stanisław; Góźdź, Stanisław; Zaremba, Lech; Posmyk, Michał; Płuzańska, Maria; Kilar, Ewa; Czudowska, Dorota; Waśko, Bernard; Miturski, Roman; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R; Urbański, Krzysztof; Szwiec, Marek; Koc, Jan; Debniak, Bogusław; Rozmiarek, Andrzej; Debniak, Tadeusz; Cybulski, Cezary; Kowalska, Elzbieta; Tołoczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Zajaczek, Stanisław; Menkiszak, Janusz; Medrek, Krzysztof; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Mierzejewski, Marek; Narod, Steven Alexander; Lubiński, Jan

    2004-07-10

    Three mutations in BRCA1 (5382insC, C61G and 4153delA) are common in Poland and account for the majority of mutations identified to date in Polish breast and breast-ovarian cancer families. It is not known, however, to what extent these 3 founder mutations account for all of the BRCA mutations distributed throughout the country. This question has important implications for health policy and the design of epidemiologic studies. To establish the relative contributions of founder and nonfounder BRCA mutations, we established the entire spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a large set of breast-ovarian cancer families with origins in all regions of Poland. We sequenced the entire coding regions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 100 Polish families with 3 or more cases of breast cancer and in 100 families with cases of both breast and ovarian cancer. A mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 was detected in 66% of breast cancer families and in 63% of breast-ovarian cancer families. Of 129 mutations, 122 (94.6%) were in BRCA1 and 7 (5.4%) were in BRCA2. Of the 122 families with BRCA1 mutations, 119 (97.5%) had a recurrent mutation (i.e., one that was seen in at least 2 families). In particular, 111 families (91.0%) carried one of the 3 common founder mutations. The mutation spectrum was not different between families with and without ovarian cancer. These findings suggest that a rapid and inexpensive assay directed at identifying the 3 common founder mutations will have a sensitivity of 86% compared to a much more costly and labor-intensive full-sequence analysis of both genes. This rapid test will facilitate large-scale national epidemiologic and clinical studies of hereditary breast cancer, potentially including studies of chemoprevention. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Prevalence and clinical significance of BRCA1/2 germline and somatic mutations in Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lapke, Nina; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chi, Peter; Chen, Chien-Hung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Liou, Jui-Der; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2016-12-20

    Germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations define a subset of patients with ovarian cancer who may benefit from treatment with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Unfortunately, data on the frequency of BRCA1/2 germline mutations in Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer are scarce, with the prevalence of somatic mutations being unknown. We aim to investigate the occurrence of BRCA1/2 mutations in 99 Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer which included serous (n = 46), endometrioid (n = 24), and clear cell (n = 29) carcinomas. BRCA1/2 mutations were identified using next-generation sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Pathogenic variants (BRCA1: n = 7; BRCA2: n = 6) were detected in 12.1% (12/99) of the study patients. Somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutation rates in serous ovarian cancer are 4/46 (8.7%) and 8/46 (17%), respectively. All of the pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in serous carcinoma samples (12/46; 26.1%). One-third (4/12) of the deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations occurred in tumor tissues only (somatic mutations). All of them coexisted with loss of heterozygosity, resulting in biallelic BRCA inactivation. Five novel pathogenic mutations were identified, including four somatic variants (BRCA1 p.S242fs, BRCA1 p.F989fs, BRCA1 p.G1738fs, and BRCA2 p.D1451fs) and a germline variant (BRCA2 p.E260fs). We also detected additional six novel mutations (three in BRCA1 and three in BRCA2) with pathogenic potentials. We conclude that BRCA1/2 mutations are common in Taiwanese patients with serous ovarian carcinoma and similar to mutation rates in other ethnic groups. The analysis of BRCA1/2 somatic mutations is crucial for guiding therapeutic decisions in ovarian cancer.

  20. RAD52 inactivation is synthetically lethal with deficiencies in BRCA1 and PALB2 in addition to BRCA2 through RAD51-mediated homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lok, BH; Carley, AC; Tchang, B; Powell, SN

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic lethality is an approach to study selective cell killing based on genotype. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that loss of RAD52 is synthetically lethal with BRCA2 deficiency, while exhibiting no impact on cell growth and viability in BRCA2-proficient cells. We now show that this same synthetically lethal relationship is evident in cells with deficiencies in BRCA1 or PALB2, which implicates BRCA1, PALB2 and BRCA2 in an epistatic relationship with one another. When RAD52 was depleted in BRCA1- or PALB2-deficient cells, a severe reduction in plating efficiency was observed, with many abortive attempts at cell division apparent in the double-depleted background. In contrast, when RAD52 was depleted in a BRCA1- or PALB2-wildtype background, a negligible decrease in colony survival was observed. The frequency of ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci formation and double-strand break-induced homologous recombination (HR) was decreased by 3- and 10-fold, respectively, when RAD52 was knocked down in BRCA1- or PALB2-depleted cells, with minimal effect in BRCA1- or PALB2-proficient cells. RAD52 function was independent of BRCA1 status, as evidenced by the lack of any defect in RAD52 foci formation in BRCA1-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that RAD52 is an alternative repair pathway of RAD51-mediated HR, and a target for therapy in cells deficient in the BRCA1– PALB2–BRCA2 repair pathway. PMID:22964643

  1. Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736

  2. Comparison of locus-specific databases for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants reveals disparity in variant classification within and among databases.

    PubMed

    Vail, Paris J; Morris, Brian; van Kan, Aric; Burdett, Brianna C; Moyes, Kelsey; Theisen, Aaron; Kerr, Iain D; Wenstrup, Richard J; Eggington, Julie M

    2015-10-01

    Genetic variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUSs) are a common outcome of clinical genetic testing. Locus-specific variant databases (LSDBs) have been established for numerous disease-associated genes as a research tool for the interpretation of genetic sequence variants to facilitate variant interpretation via aggregated data. If LSDBs are to be used for clinical practice, consistent and transparent criteria regarding the deposition and interpretation of variants are vital, as variant classifications are often used to make important and irreversible clinical decisions. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 2017 consecutive BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic variants identified from 24,650 consecutive patient samples referred to our laboratory to establish an unbiased dataset representative of the types of variants seen in the US patient population, submitted by clinicians and researchers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing. We compared the clinical classifications of these variants among five publicly accessible BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant databases: BIC, ClinVar, HGMD (paid version), LOVD, and the UMD databases. Our results show substantial disparity of variant classifications among publicly accessible databases. Furthermore, it appears that discrepant classifications are not the result of a single outlier but widespread disagreement among databases. This study also shows that databases sometimes favor a clinical classification when current best practice guidelines (ACMG/AMP/CAP) would suggest an uncertain classification. Although LSDBs have been well established for research applications, our results suggest several challenges preclude their wider use in clinical practice.

  3. Cisplatin With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Triple-Negative and/or BRCA Mutation-Associated Breast Cancer With or Without Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-02

    Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Brain; Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. BRCA promoter methylation in sporadic versus BRCA germline mutation-related breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Vos, Shoko; Moelans, Cathy Beatrice; van Diest, Paul Joannes

    2017-05-31

    In breast cancer, BRCA promoter hypermethylation and BRCA germline mutations are said to occur together rarely, but this property has not yet been translated into a clinical test. Our aim in this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of BRCA1/2 methylation in distinguishing breast carcinomas of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers from sporadic breast carcinomas using a recently developed BRCA methylation assay based on methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). MS-MLPAs were performed to assess BRCA1 and BRCA2 methylation in breast carcinoma tissues from 39 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 germline mutation carriers, 80 patients with sporadic breast cancer, and normal breast tissues from 5 BRCA1 and 4 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 5 nonmutation carriers. Methylation frequencies varied considerably between CpG sites across the BRCA1 and BRCA2 promoters. Some CpG sites were methylated more frequently in BRCA1/2-related than in sporadic carcinomas, whereas other CpG sites were methylated more frequently in sporadic carcinomas, with large variances in sensitivity and specificity as a consequence. The diagnostic value of BRCA promoter methylation analysis in distinguishing BRCA1/2-related from sporadic breast carcinomas seems to be considerably dependent on the targeted CpG sites. These findings are important for adequate use of BRCA methylation analysis as a prescreening tool for BRCA germline genetic testing or to identify BRCAness patients who may benefit from targeted therapies such as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.

  5. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  6. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1). Methods Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes. Results The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively. Conclusions In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria

  7. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Felipe C; Lisboa, Bianca Cg; Figueiredo, Marcia Cp; Torrezan, Giovana T; Santos, Erika Mm; Krepischi, Ana C; Rossi, Benedito M; Achatz, Maria I; Carraro, Dirce M

    2014-05-15

    Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1). Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes. The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively. In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes

  8. Germline Mutations in DNA Repair Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parry, Erin M; Gable, Dustin L; Stanley, Susan E; Khalil, Sara E; Antonescu, Valentin; Florea, Liliana; Armanios, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Although lung cancer is generally thought to be environmentally provoked, anecdotal familial clustering has been reported, suggesting that there may be genetic susceptibility factors. We systematically tested whether germline mutations in eight candidate genes may be risk factors for lung adenocarcinoma. We studied lung adenocarcinoma cases for which germline sequence data had been generated as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project but had not been previously analyzed. We selected eight genes, ATM serine/threonine kinase gene (ATM), BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2), checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2), EGFR, parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene (PARK2), telomerase