Pancione, L; Giacomelli, G; Moroni, M; Taraglio, G; Mecozzi, B
Lymphangioma is a rare benign tumor caused by failure in the development of the lymphatic communicating system. The corresponding nomenclature is confusing. In recent years ''renal lymphangiectasia'' is the preferred name. Although this disease may occur in any site of the body, the neck (75%) and axillary area (20%) are the most common sites, and the kidney is occasionally involved. We report a case of lymphangioma communicating with the urinary system in a 61-year-old man diagnosed by CT scan treated with nephrectomy and histological confirmation.
Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J
Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by
Gümüştaş, Oguzhan Güven; Sanal, Murat; Güner, Osman; Tümay, Volkan
A lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of lymph vessels, producing fluid-filled cysts that result from a blockage of the lymphatic system. The incidence of abdominal lymphangiomas is unknown; however they account for from 3% to 9.2% of all pediatric lymphangiomas, with retroperitoneal lymphangioma representing less than 1% of abdominal lymphangiomas. Due to rarity, preoperative diagnosis is often difficult. PMID:23533897
Swarnakar, Rajesh N.; Hazarey, Jetendra D.; Dhoble, Chetan; Vaghani, Bhavesh; Ainsley, Alaine S.; Khargie, James F.; Likaj, Lorena
Patient: Female, 36 Final Diagnosis: Mediastinal cystic hygroma Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Lymphangioma is an atypical non-malignant, lymphatic lesion that is congenital in origin. Lymphangioma is most frequently observed in the head and neck, but can occur at any location in the body. About 65% of lymphangiomas are apparent at birth, while 80–90% are diagnosed by two years of age. Occurrence in adults is rare, as evidenced by less than 100 cases of adult lymphangiomas reported in the literature. Case report: A 36-year-old Indian woman with a medical history of recurrent pleural effusions presented with chief complaints of dyspnea on exertion for one year and a low-grade fever for one month. A thorax CT revealed left-sided pleural effusion with thin internal septations. Thoracoscopy revealed a large cystic lesion arising from the mediastinum from the hilum surrounding the mediastinal great vessels. The diagnosis of lymphangioma was confirmed via histopathologic examination of the cyst. It was managed with partial cystectomy along with the use of a sclerosing agent (talc). Conclusions: The size and location of lymphangiomas can vary, with some patients presenting with serious problems like respiratory distress, while others may be asymptomatic. Complete cyst resection is the gold standard treatment for mediastinal cystic lymphangioma. Partial cyst resection along with the use of sclerosing agents can be an effective option when complete cystectomy is not possible. Although lymphangioma is a rare patient condition, it should be included in the differentials for patients presenting with pleural effusions. Also, a biopsy should be done at the earliest opportunity to differentiate lymphangioma from other mediastinal malignant tumors. PMID:27789902
Pilla, T.J.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Heiberg. E.; Shields, J.B.
Two cases of cystic mediastinal lymphangioma are reported, one involving a 12-year-old boy and the other a 53-year-old man. In both cases a mediastinal mass was evident on plain chest radiographs, while CT scans demonstrated a well-circumscribed lesion of low attenuation molding to the mediastinal contours and enveloping the great vessels, suggesting the diagnosis. The display of the precise extent of the lesion in relation to the surrounding structures was helpful in planning surgery.
Lone, Nazir A; Naikoo, Bashir A; Khan, Naseer A
Cystic lymphangioma usually confined to head and neck is a well-recognized tumor that occurs during childhood. However, a cardiac lymphangioma is exceptionally uncommon and a particularly rare form of disease. We report a case of cystic lymphangioma arising from the right ventricular wall, and presenting as pericardial mass in a young female, who presented with a history of exercise intolerance in the form of breathlessness on exertion and palpitations. The management of such a case was a difficult task; however, she underwent near total resection of the mass, and is doing well for the last 2 years.
Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi
Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.
Bhayya, Harsha; Pavani, D.; Avinash Tejasvi, M. L.; Geetha, P.
Lymphangiomas are benign hamartomatous tumors of the lymphatic channels which present as developmental malformations arising from sequestration of lymphatic tissue that do not communicate with the rest of the lymphatic channels. Lymphatic vessels are filled with a clear protein-rich fluid containing few lymph cells. It can also occur in association with hemangioma. The onset of lymphangiomas are either at birth (60% to 70%) or up to two years of age (90%) and rare in adults. Lymphangiomas have marked predilection for the head and neck region (50-70%). The most common location in the mouth is the dorsum of tongue, followed by lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. On tongue, they may present as a localized or a diffused growth which may enlarge to cause macroglossia, impaired speech and difficulty in mastication. Herewith, we present a rare case of lymphangioma of tongue leading to macroglossia in a 8-year-old boy. PMID:26681873
Benninghoff, Michael G; Todd, William U; Bascom, Rebecca
Adult benign thoracic lymphangiomas typically present as incidental mediastinal lesions, or, more rarely, as solitary pulmonary nodules. Symptomatic compression of vital structures may require lesion resection or sclerotherapy. In the present report, we describe the incidental finding of a solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in a 38-year-old woman with chronic arm and shoulder pain. Positron emission tomography revealed that the lesion was highly fluorodeoxyglucose-avid. Biopsy exposed benign tissue consistent with lymphangioma. After continued radiographic tests, the lesion was determined to be an unlikely source of the patient's chronic pain. The present report is, to our knowledge, the first published case of solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in the medical literature.
Alonso, Juan; Barbier, Luis; Alvarez, Julio; Romo, Laura; Martín, Jesús C; Arteagoitia, Iciar; Santamaría, Joseba
Cervical cystic lymphangioma (CCL) is a rare and benign tumour involving congenital and cystic abnormalities derived from lymphatic vessels. The most accepted treatment continues to be surgical excision. However, when this infiltrates vital neurovascular neck structures, complete excision is difficult and if only partial, the recurrence rate is very high. The most frequently used alternative treatment is to inject sclerosants into the lesion. The use of these techniques has reported good results in children; however, there are few references thereof with regard to adults. We are reporting on a cervical cystic lymphangioma in a male aged 22, treated with an intra-lesion injection of 20 cc with 0.01 mg/cc dilution of OK-432 (picibanil) in physiological serum. Sole complications were fever and local reaction where the solution was injected. One month after treatment the lymphangioma had totally remitted and sixteen months later continues in remittance.
Marrero-Santiago, Héctor; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Gil-Guillén, Carlos; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis
Background Among immigrants of sub-Saharan origin, parasitic infection is the leading cause of eosinophilia, which is generally interpreted as a defense mechanism. A side effect of the inflammatory mediators released by eosinophils is damage to host organs, especially the heart. The main objectives of this study were to i) assess cardiac involvement in asymptomatic sub-Saharan immigrants with eosinophilia, ii) relate the presence of lesions with the degree of eosinophilia, and iii) study the relationship between cardiac involvement and the type of causative parasite. Methodology/Principle findings In total, the study included 50 black immigrants (37 patients and 13 controls) from sub-Saharan Africa. In all subjects, heart structure and function were evaluated in a blinded manner using Sonos 5500 echocardiographic equipment. The findings were classified and described according to established criteria. The diagnostic criteria for helminthosis were those reported in the literature. Serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significant association was found between the presence of eosinophilia and structural alterations (mitral valve thickening). However, the lack of an association between the degree of eosinophilia and heart valve disease and the absence of valve involvement in some patients with eosinophilia suggest the role of other factors in the appearance of endocardial lesions. There was also no association between the type of helminth and valve involvement. Conclusions We, therefore, suggest that transthoracic echocardiography be performed in every sub-Saharan individual with eosinophilia in order to rule out early heart valve lesions. PMID:28234952
Alsmady, M M; Aladaileh, M A; Al-Zaben, K; Saleem, M M; Alimoglu, O
Mediastinal lymphangioma is a rare entity and chylopericardium is a rare form of pericardial effusion. We report a case of acute chylous cardiac tamponade due to a cervicomediastinal lymphangioma in a one-year-old boy. A chest x-ray revealed marked cardiac enlargement and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion. Emergency surgery was performed whereby a pericardial window was created, followed by excision of the lymphangioma.
Posada García, Celia; García-Cruz, Aranzazu; García-Doval, Ignacio; De La Torre, Carlos; Cruces, Manuel José
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal vascular disease with uncertain histogenesis. It is characterized by clinical and histologic polymorphism. The "lymphangioma-like" variant is very uncommon, accounting for less than 5% of all cases. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman, HIV negative, with a 4-year history of classic Kaposi sarcoma treated with cryotherapy who developed new bullous lesions on her lower extremities. Biopsy revealed histologic findings of lymphangioma-like KS (LLKS), together with areas of classic KS; HHV-8 staining was positive. Diagnosis of LLKS was made and the patient was proposed for radiotherapy. The lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare morphologic expression of KS characterized by dilated and bizarrely shaped vascular channels lined by flattened endothelium permeating the dermis. "Bulla-like" lesions have been considered as a clinical hallmark of this variant. Its histologic appearance suggests a lymphatic origin of KS and it may resemble other vascular tumors. Findings of areas of typical KS and positive staining for HHV-8 may help to make a definitive diagnosis.
Nain Rattan, Kamal; S Malik, Vivek; Garsa, Vipin
Lymphangioma is an extremely rare cause of scrotal swelling. We are reporting such a tumor in a one and half year old child presenting with a painless, progressive scrotal swelling. The mass was evaluated and excised completely. Histopathology confirmed it as Lymphangioma. PMID:23277887
Schuster, T; Grantzow, R; Nicolai, T
The aim of the study was to introduce a classification of lymphangioma colli, which allows us to predict the expected morbidity and prognosis with surgical treatment. We defined 4 types, dependent on the volume of the lymphangioma as assessed by prenatal ultrasound or clinically: type I included tumors which had no or only a minimal effect on the contour of the neck; type II lymphangiomas were smaller than a line drawn at the lateral border of the head; type III tumors exceeded this line; in type IV the lymphangioma extended beyond the midline of the body. We report on the pre- and postoperative findings in 36 cases operated on between 1988 and 2000, mean follow-up was 4.2 years. 25 % of the cases were classified as type I, 36 % as type II, 22 % as type III, and 17 % as type IV. Cesarean section was carried out for 79 % of type III and IV lymphangiomas following prenatal diagnosis (71 %) and for 14 % of type I and II. MRT was indicated in 38 % of type II compared to 86 % in type III and IV lymphangiomas. Endoscopy was necessary in 25 % of type III and in 66 % of type IV lymphangiomas. In 2 cases (type I and IV), imaging revealed an intrathoracic portion. In 64 % of type I and II cases, resection was complete compared to 21 % in infants with more extended tumors. In all type IV cases, at least one further operation was required, likewise in 25 % of type III lymphangiomas. Postoperative effusion and infection occurred significantly more often in group IV than in groups I to III. 5 nerval lesions remained in children with operated type IV lymphangioma and 2 in type III cases. A visible lack of facial symmetry was evident at the follow-up examination in 83 % of type IV cases and moderate asymmetry was found in 19 % of all type I and II cases. Tracheostomy and gastrostomy were required only in type IV. The introduced classification of lymphangioma colli enables predictive statements to be made concerning the morbidity and prognosis with surgical therapy. The prognosis
Kim, Dong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae
We present a rare case of adult intussusception due to cecal lymphangioma. A 30-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and a palpatable mass on the right lower quadrant. Preoperative radiologic studies by ultrasound and computed tomography showed ileocolic intussusception with a multiseptated cystic tumor as a leading point on the cecum. An ileocecectomy was performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathology showed a cecal lymphangioma. Although endoscopic polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection is recommended for pedunculated or semi-pedunculated colonic lymphangiomas less than 2 cm in size, it is proper to treat large or symptomatic colonic lymphangiomas with limited a bowel resection or a tumor resection. PMID:21602970
Ulusan, Zeynep; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Tasar, Mehmet; Kalender, Mehmet; Tansel Darcin, Osman
Summary Abstract Behcet’s syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with vasculitis, and arterial, venous and cardiac disorders. Thirty-eight Behcet’s disease patients were examined prospectively with echocardiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography, and coagulation parameters were determined. Deep venous insufficiency was found in 16 patients, venous thrombosis in seven, one patient had iliac artery stenosis, three had carotid arterial intimal proliferation, two patients had aortic annulus dilatation, six had aortic valve insufficiency, and three had mitral valve insufficiency. None had coagulation defects. To decrease morbidity and mortality rates, a multidisciplinary approach is important for early diagnosis of cardiovascular involvement in Behcet’s disease. PMID:24844550
Kubachev, Kubach; Abdullaev, Elbrus; Babyshin, Valentin; Neronov, Dmitriy; Abdullaev, Abakar
Retroperitoneal lymphangioma is a rare location and type of benign abdominal tumors. The clinical presentation of this rare disease is nonspecific, ranging from abdominal distention to sepsis. Here we present a 73-year-old female patient with 3-month history of back pain. USG and CT revealed a huge cystic mass which was surgically excised and appeared to be lymphangioma on histopathology. PMID:27843456
... you have these symptoms, you may have a urinary tract infection but you DO NOT have asymptomatic bacteriuria. Burning ... the future. However, for some people getting a urinary tract infection is more likely or may cause more severe ...
Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri
Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks' gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery.
Treharne, Linda J; Murison, Maxwell S C
Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is an uncommon skin condition characterized by large muscular-coated lymphatic cisterns that lie deep with in the subcutaneous tissue and communicate with dilated dermal lymphatics. Patients suffer from edema and lymphatic leakage. Surgical excision and reconstruction is the gold standard for therapy. However, this can be mutilating. The authors present a patient who suffered widespread disease of his scrotum who had excellent symptomatic relief by treatment with the CO(2) laser.
Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo
Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum. PMID:27329721
Morrone, A. |; Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C.
A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Serrat Soto, Alberto; Calero, Hermógenes; Verrier Hernández, Alberto
The treatment of cervicofacial lymphangiomas has been changing in recent years. OK-432 appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment option for patients of all ages. An intracystic injection of OK-432 produces a local inflammatory reaction, leading to resolution of the lesion. Cosmetically, the outcome is excellent, leaving no lesions on the skin at the injection site, unlike other sclerosing agents. It may thus be considered as the treatment of choice, especially in cases where surgical treatment is associated with the possibility of serious functional or cosmetic side effects.
V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.
Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537
Seca, Mariana; Borges, Pedro; Reimão, Pedro; Gomes, Miguel; Meireles, Angelina
Background. Lymphangioma is a rare venolymphatic lesion, characterized by dilation of lymphatic vessels. It may occur as an isolated lesion or, more often, represent the surface component of a deep orbital lymphangioma. Case. We report a case of a conjunctival lymphangioma on a 58-year-old male that had simultaneously an upper respiratory tract infection. Excision and biopsy confirmed the nature of the lesion, and there has been no relapse to date. Conclusion. Conjunctival lymphangioma is a rare condition in which the diagnose, must be kept in mind in patients with a red eye resistance to topical therapy and in association with an upper respiratory tract infection. Finally, it is also necessary to be aware of possible recurrence of the lesion. PMID:22666617
Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Hong, Suk Joo; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Hwan Hoon
We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials.
LaPolla, J.; Foucar, E.; Leshin, B.; Whitaker, D.; Anderson, B.
The clinical and pathological features of a case of multifocal lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva are reported in a patient with chronic lymphedema of a lower extremity. Ten years previously the patient had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although lymphangioma circumscriptum is an extremely rare complication of altered lymphatic drainage, the presence of multiple noninflammatory vesicular appearing lesions in this setting should suggest the correct diagnosis.
Hitzerd, Emilie; van Hamont, Dennis; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A
Pelvic cystic masses are frequently observed in women. Most lesions are benign and of ovarian origin. However, non-ovarian lesions can be easily confused with cystic ovarian masses on imaging, which hampers diagnostic and therapeutic management. In this report, a rare case of mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking an ovarian cystic mass, discovered as an incidental finding on orthopaedic MRI in an adult female, is presented. The report highlights the sometimes difficult diagnostic process of pelvic cystic masses, due to an extensive differential diagnosis and the fact that imaging is often inconclusive. Even though most cystic masses are of ovarian origin, non-ovarian causes can mimic ovarian masses and should be considered as differential diagnoses. Surgical exploration may be necessary to exclude malignant causes.
Ye, Liping; Wu, Weidan; Zheng, Haihong
We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case.
Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore
Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.
Mittermayer, C; Blaicher, W; Deutinger, J; Bernaschek, G; Lee, A
Lymphangiomas are benign tumours of the lymphatic system. Early prenatal diagnosis is important to permit a planned delivery and provide adequate postnatal care. It thereby improves prognosis and allows the option of terminating the pregnancy if poor outcome is predicted. We report two cases, a giant haemangiolymphoma and a lymphangioma. 2D and 3D US findings are presented and differential diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis are discussed.
Chen, Chin-Fan; Chuang, Chieh-Han; Lu, Chien-Yu; Hu, Ching; Kuo, Ting-Lu; Hsieh, Jan-Sing
We report the case of a patient with ileocolic intussusception caused by cecal lymphangioma. A 45-year-old man visited our hospital with a 2-month history of frequent episodes of watery diarrhea (>/= 5 times/day) and intermittent abdominal pain. A cecal submucosal tumor with mucosal ulceration and partial obstruction of the colonic lumen was identified by colonoscopy. He was admitted to our hospital 2 days later due to aggravation of his abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the right abdomen with no peritoneal signs. A double-contrast lower gastrointestinal series showed a right-side colonic lesion with indentation and a peripheral, beak-like sign. Abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed an intra-abdominal mass with the characteristic sausage sign, highly suggestive of intussusception. The patient subsequently underwent right hemicolectomy. The final diagnosis was ileocolic intussusception with cecal lymphangioma, which was confirmed by histopathology. He had an uneventful recovery with follow-up in our hospital. This case highlights the possibility of colonic lymphangioma as the leading point of adult intussusception, and this should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis in this uncommon clinical condition.
Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki
Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.
Iliadou, Eleftheria; Papapetropoulos, Nektarios; Karamatzanis, Eleftherios; Saravakos, Konstantinos
Primary lymphangiomas or lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign lesions that are described infrequently in the literature. The majority of the published cases concern adults. We report a case of a lymphangiomatous lesion of the right palatine tonsil of a 9-year-old boy. Our clinical suspicion was confirmed by the histological examination after tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of primary lymphangioma of the tonsil was made. In this case we discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion and present a short review of the current literature. PMID:27872780
Pootrakul, Llana; Nazareth, Michael R; Cheney, Richard T; Grassi, Marcelle A
Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) results from the development of abnormal lymphatic vasculature and is characterized by the presence of grouped vesicles filled with clear or colored fluid. Vulvar localization is uncommon. Abnormalities of the lymphatic system, such as lymphedema and cystic hygroma, are well-known features of genetic disorders such as Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome. We report the case of a patient with NS who presented with LC of the vulva. We also discuss the expanding spectrum of clinical anomalies associated with the presentation of NS.
Tewari, Anurag; Munjal, Munish; Kamakshi; Garg, Shuchita; Sood, Dinesh; Katyal, Sunil
Summary Successful airway management of an infant or child with macroglossia prerequisites recognition of a potential airway problem. We describe our experience with a debilitated 13-year-old girl who presented with severe macroglossia, secondary to lymphangioma of the tongue. Along with the social discomfort she had inability to speak, eat or drink properly and exposure-induced dryness. Such patients are a challenge for the anaesthesiologists due to the anticipated difficult intubation associated with the oral mucosa occupying lesion. It also becomes pertinent to rule out any of the associated congenital anomalies. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation and attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway is emphasized. We endeavor to review the available literature regarding patient's perioperative management of such patients. PMID:20640084
Rambhia, Kinjal D; Khopkar, Uday S
Subcutaneous or deep granuloma annulare is a benign asymptomatic condition characterized by firm asymptomatic nodules in deep subcutaneous tissues that may be associated with intradermal lesions. A 53-year-old female presented with asymptomatic skin-colored, firm nodules over the right ring finger. Histopathology revealed a palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposition in the dermis suggestive of granuloma annulare. Isolated and unilateral involvement of a single digit with clusters of nodules of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (GA) in an adult is rare and differentiation from its simulator rheumatoid nodule is essential. PMID:26538728
India has a large burden of individuals harboring asymptomatic gallstones. Based on Markov model decision and cost analysis, selective and concomitant cholecystectomy is recommended for special indications like hemolytic disorders and stones in endemic areas. Expectant management should be adopted in all others. The evolution of laparoscopy should not alter the indications of cholecystectomy. Since more than 90% patients with asymptomatic gallstones remain clinically "silent", routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not indicated for the vast majority of subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become much safer, there remains associated morbidity and mortality. The risks of the operation outweigh the complications if stones are left in-situ. Patients should be counseled about the natural history and available management options, their advantages and disadvantages, and should be part of the decision making process. Prophylactic routine cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed selectively or concomitantly in a specific subgroup of patients.
Kohga, Atsushi; Kawabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Yuto; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Okumura, Takuya; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Isogaki, Jun; Suzuki, Kenji; Komiyama, Akira
Intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon; additionally, those affecting the gastrointestinal tract are rare and account for less than 1% of cases. Intussusception caused by a cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel is extremely rare. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who visited our emergency room with a complaint of abdominal pain. A computed tomography image revealed ileo-ileal intussusception with a leading hypovascular mass measuring 1 cm in a diameter. Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted ileal resection was performed. The surgical specimen consisted of a soft polycystic mass. Macroscopically, a pedunculated polyp with a convolutional pattern was found. Microscopically, the inner surfaces of the cysts were covered with a single layer of endothelial cells. On immunohistochemical examination, the endothelial cells were partially positive for D2-40 and CD34. Smooth muscle cells were also found around the cysts. The lesion was diagnosed as a cystic lymphangioma. Dozens of cases of small bowel lymphangiomas have previously been reported. Of these, cases with intussusception were very rare. This is the first case of small bowel intussusception due to lymphangioma treated by single-incision laparoscopic-assisted surgery. PMID:28104992
Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I
Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104
Tulsyan, Shruti; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Kalpa; Yadav, Divya; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar
We describe the lymphoscintigraphy findings of a 25-year-old female patient who was undergoing presurgical workup for lymphangiomas of the vulva. She had a history of treatment for disseminated tuberculosis 6 years back and presented with herpetiform oozing vesicles in the external genitalia. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed cutaneous tracer accumulation in the vulval lesions and demonstrated the presence of densely calcified inguinal nodes secondary to healed tuberculosis as the etiology of secondary lymphangioma. PMID:28242996
de Mendonça, Vitor R; Barral-Netto, Manoel
Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection carriers represent a major threat to malaria control worldwide as they are silent natural reservoirs and do not seek medical care. There are no standard criteria for asymptomaticPlasmodium infection; therefore, its diagnosis relies on the presence of the parasite during a specific period of symptomless infection. The antiparasitic immune response can result in reducedPlasmodium sp. load with control of disease manifestations, which leads to asymptomatic infection. Both the innate and adaptive immune responses seem to play major roles in asymptomatic Plasmodiuminfection; T regulatory cell activity (through the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β) and B-cells (with a broad antibody response) both play prominent roles. Furthermore, molecules involved in the haem detoxification pathway (such as haptoglobin and haeme oxygenase-1) and iron metabolism (ferritin and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase) have emerged in recent years as potential biomarkers and thus are helping to unravel the immune response underlying asymptomatic Plasmodium infection. The acquisition of large data sets and the use of robust statistical tools, including network analysis, associated with well-designed malaria studies will likely help elucidate the immune mechanisms responsible for asymptomatic infection. PMID:26676319
Barrón-Romero, B L; Barreda-González, J; Doval-Ugalde, R; Zermeño-Eguia Liz, J; Huerta-Peña, M
Rotaviruses and other enteropathogenic agents were detected in 288 (42.1%) of 684 children in day care centers of Instituto Politecnico Nacional in Mexico City. The same agents were also found in 114 (37.7%) of 302 adults directly involved in the care of the children. The study was carried out from July to December 1982 and from July 1983 to February 1984. Rotaviruses were the main enteropathogenic agents found and were detected in 169 (29.9%) of 564 children without diarrhea and in 34 (28.3%) of 120 children with diarrhea. These viruses were present in 62 (20.5%) of 302 adults without diarrhea. Of all rotavirus-positive individuals, 20% were also positive for other enteropathogens. All these observations indicate that asymptomatic rotavirus infections are not a rare event in children and that diarrhea caused by rotavirus infections is only one of the expressions of their presence. PMID:2991328
Sasaki, Ryosuke; Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko
A 16-year-old girl presented with a 9-year history of vesicles on the vulva. She had initially taken a wait-and-see approach, but required treatment because of bleeding. Histological examination of a biopsied vesicle revealed dilated lymph channels in the upper dermis, suggesting lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC). The challenge for this pathology has been to find a conservative treatment with low morbidity and better results than those reported for surgical excision, which has been the mainstay of therapy. In this case, LC of the vulva was successfully treated using a 10,600-nm CO2 laser and long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Use of the 10,600-nm CO2 laser and long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser appeared effective for treating LC.
Pockett, Charissa R; Dicken, Bryan; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Ross, David B; Ryerson, Lindsay M
Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a complex disorder involving thoracic and abdominal asymmetries. Congenital heart disease is often accompanied by an intestinal rotation abnormality (IRA) that may predispose to bowel ischemia and infarction. There is controversy in the literature whether asymptomatic infants with HS must be screened for IRA and, if present, whether a prophylactic Ladd procedure should be performed. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent a Ladd procedure from January 2007 to December 2010 at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. Twenty-nine patients underwent a Ladd procedure, 22 without HS but with symptomatic malrotation and 7 with HS and asymptomatic malrotation. Asymptomatic HS patients had a complication rate of 57 % after a prophylactic Ladd procedure compared with a complication rate of 9 % in the symptomatic non-HS population. The management of asymptomatic IRA in patients with HS remains controversial. We suggest that HS patients be screened for IRA and that asymptomatic patients be managed conservatively.
Zhanel, George G.
The treatment of urinary tract infections is discussed. Specific issues considered include the definition of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the controversies of who should be treated, and antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. (MLW)
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Sy, Raymond W; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in the intracellular calcium homeostasis of cardiac cells. Affected patients typically present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by emotional/physical stress. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with adrenergic stress. Genetic testing can be confirmatory in some patients. Treatment for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia includes medical and surgical efforts to suppress the effects of epinephrine at the myocardial level and/or modulation of calcium homeostasis. Mortality is high when untreated and sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of the disease. First-degree relatives of a proband should be offered genetic testing if the causal mutation is known. If the family mutation is not known, relatives should be clinically evaluated with provocative testing. In the absence of rigorous trials, prophylactic treatment of the asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient appears to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Jayamanne, H; Brown, J; Stephenson, B M
Parastomal hernias are common and often asymptomatic. We report the first known case in which later, acute symptoms developed owing to gallstone ileus in a sac containing both omentum and small bowel. Urgent computed tomography established the diagnosis.
García, Coralith; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.; Santos, Jose I.; Ko, GwangPyo
Sixty-three children in periurban Mexico City were examined for the occurrence of asymptomatic norovirus (NoV) infection from June to August 1998. NoV was detected in 48 of 161 stool specimens (29.8%), with 31 children (49.2%) having at least one positive stool. Asymptomatic NoV infection occurred commonly during summertime in a Mexican pediatric population. PMID:16891526
Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia
Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.
Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia
Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856
Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are common in older community dwellers (ages 65 and older) and nursing home residents. The challenge involved in distinguishing ASB from UTI in this population results from other comorbid illnesses that may present with symptoms similar to UTI and from elderly adults who have cognitive impairment not being able to report their symptoms. This article reviews the most updated information on diagnosis, microbiology, management, and prevention of ASB and UTI as they pertain to older community dwellers and nursing home residents.
Altan, Ahmet; Akbulut, Nıhat
Elongation of the styloid process is a rare condition. Only 4% of patients have clinical symptoms where elongated styloid process (ESP) occasionally irritates or disrupts adjacent anatomical structures, which is called Eagle syndrome. This present report was aimed at reporting an asymptomatic ESP with unusual width and length. PMID:28246562
Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K
Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. PMID:23776357
Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L
We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.
Sharp, Victoria J; Barnes, Kerri T; Erickson, Bradley A
Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is defined as the presence of three or more red blood cells per high-power field visible in a properly collected urine specimen without evidence of infection. The most common causes of microscopic hematuria are urinary tract infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and urinary calculi. However, up to 5% of patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria are found to have a urinary tract malignancy. The risk of urologic malignancy is increased in men, persons older than 35 years, and persons with a history of smoking. Microscopic hematuria in the setting of urinary tract infection should resolve after appropriate antibiotic treatment; persistence of hematuria warrants a diagnostic workup. Dysmorphic red blood cells, cellular casts, proteinuria, elevated creatinine levels, or hypertension in the presence of microscopic hematuria should prompt concurrent nephrologic and urologic referral. The upper urinary tract is best evaluated with multiphasic computed tomography urography, which identifies hydronephrosis, urinary calculi, and renal and ureteral lesions. The lower urinary tract is best evaluated with cystoscopy for urethral stricture disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and bladder masses. Voided urine cytology is no longer recommended as part of the routine evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, unless there are risk factors for malignancy.
Nicolle, Lindsay E.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571
Singh, Harinder R
Use of medications for attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder and preparticipation sports physical examination has led to an increase in number of electrocardiograms (ECG) performed during adolescence. Interpreting ECGs in children and young adults must take into account the evolutionary changes with age and the benign variants, which are usually not associated with heart disease. It is crucial for primary-care providers to recognize the changes on ECG associated with heart disease and risk of sudden death. In this article, the significance, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic workup of these findings in the asymptomatic teenager are discussed.
Hamard, Marion; Amzalag, Gaël; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre
Asymptomatic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare and severe complication of chronic urolithiasis. We report a case of 56-year-old woman with a nephrocutaneous fistula (NFC) which developed from a superinfected urinoma following calyceal rupture due to an obstructing calculus in the left ureter. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and came to the emergency department for a painless left flank fluctuating mass. This urinoma was superinfected, with a delayed development of renal abscesses and perirenal phlegmon found on contrast-enhanced uro-computed tomography (CT), responsible for left renal vein thrombophlebitis and left psoas abscess. Thereafter, a 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy revealed a nonfunctional left kidney, leading to the decision of left nephrectomy. Chronic urolithiasis complications are rare and only few cases are reported in medical literature. A systematic medical approach helped selecting the best imaging modality to help diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, uro-CT scan and renal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DMSA are the most sensitive imaging modalities to investigate morphological and functional urinary tract consequences of NFC, secondary to chronic urolithiasis.
Kadokura, M; Nonaka, M; Yamamoto, S; Kataoka, D; Tanio, N; Iyano, K; Oki, A; Kawada, T; Takaba, T
Asymptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax (ASPT) is an uncommon condition. Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1997, 269 patients were admitted to our department with spontaneous pneumothorax. Of the 269 patients, 5 had no symptoms at the time of discovery. Their ages ranged from 15 to 61 years (mean, 37.8 years), and all of them were male. Of the 5 patients with no complaints, 2 had bilateral metachronous pneumothoraces and 3 had hemilateral pneumothorax. All of these ASPTs were revealed by chest roentgenographs taken during medical examinations or follow-up studies relating to other diseases. The mean value of body mass index (BMI) was 19.96 +/- 1.4 (range 18.7 - 22.1). Two of the 5 patients underwent bilateral partial lung resection. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens showed elastofibrosis, scar formation, and an interruption of the elastic fiber of the pleura. In these 5 cases, clinical courses were uneventful, and relapse of the pneumothorax did not occur. Clinical physicians should be aware of the possibility of asymptomatic pneumothorax, as well as the optimal radiographic techniques for revealing small pneumothoraces.
Hamard, Marion; Amzalag, Gaël; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre
Asymptomatic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare and severe complication of chronic urolithiasis. We report a case of 56-year-old woman with a nephrocutaneous fistula (NFC) which developed from a superinfected urinoma following calyceal rupture due to an obstructing calculus in the left ureter. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and came to the emergency department for a painless left flank fluctuating mass. This urinoma was superinfected, with a delayed development of renal abscesses and perirenal phlegmon found on contrast-enhanced uro-computed tomography (CT), responsible for left renal vein thrombophlebitis and left psoas abscess. Thereafter, a 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy revealed a nonfunctional left kidney, leading to the decision of left nephrectomy. Chronic urolithiasis complications are rare and only few cases are reported in medical literature. A systematic medical approach helped selecting the best imaging modality to help diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, uro-CT scan and renal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DMSA are the most sensitive imaging modalities to investigate morphological and functional urinary tract consequences of NFC, secondary to chronic urolithiasis. PMID:28299237
Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z
Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.
Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A.; Atalay, Michael K.; Rowin, Ethan J.; Maron, Martin S.
Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling. PMID:24955057
Kim, Jiwon; Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A; Atalay, Michael K; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S
Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling.
Mansour, Joshua; Mangaonkar, Abhishek; Kota, Vamsi
In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter. PMID:27847832
Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe
Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981
Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus
A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895
Schnarr, J; Smaill, F
Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy.
Reyes, David; Locke, James
Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain
Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.
Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606
Puig, J G; Beltrán, L M; Mejía-Chew, C; Tevar, D; Torres, R J
Sonography has detected urate deposits in 34%-42% of the patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This may prompt reclassification of asymptomatic hyperuricemia into "asymptomatic gout" and consideration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) to resolve urate deposits. In patients with gout and no visible tophi, sonography has detected urate deposits in half of the patients. This may allow diagnosing "tophaceous gout" and influencing the serum urate target level, prophylaxis to avoid acute gout flares during ULT, and clinical follow-up. Current accessibility to sonography may better classify patients with hyperuricemia and gout and contribute to delineate therapeutic objectives and clinical guidance.
Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.
Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes.
Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-sook; Kwon, Jeong-taik
Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe. We performed a craniotomy and abscess removal. Bacteriological culture proved negative. Her chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple AVFs. Therapeutic embolization of multiple pulmonary AVFs was performed and antibiotics were administered for 8 weeks. A 45-year-old woman presented with a 7-day history of progressive left hemiparesis. She had no remarkable past medical history or family history. On admission, blood examination showed a white blood cell count of 6290 cells/uL and a high sensitive C-reactive protein of 2.62 mg/L. CT and MR imaging with MR spectroscopy revealed an enhancing lesion involving the right motor and sensory cortex with marked perilesional edema that suggested a brain abscess. A chest CT revealed a pulmonary AVF in the right upper lung. The pulmonary AVF was obliterated with embolization. There needs to consider pulmonary AVF as an etiology of cerebral abscess when routine investigations fail to detect a source. PMID:28061502
Jackson, Daren C.; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Rocque, Brandon G.; Wilbrand, Stephanie M.; Mitchell, Carol C.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Dempsey, Robert J.
The role played by vessel disease in stroke-related cognition dysfunction is unclear. We assessed the impact of significant atherosclerotic disease on cognition—even in patients asymptomatic for stroke. We hypothesized that patients would perform poorly relative to controls, but that symptomatic/asymptomatic status (history of stroke/transient ischemic attack) would have no effect. Fifty-two carotid endarterectomy candidates with >60% carotid stenosis and 17 controls underwent a 60-min neuropsychological test protocol. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients showed deficits in executive function, delayed verbal recall, and general knowledge. Patients symptomatic for stroke also performed worse on tests of language and motor/visuomotor ability. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients differed in working memory and language task performance. Although all patients showed deficits in executive function and memory, only symptomatic patients showed additional deficits in language and motor function. Cognitive abnormalities in patients viewed as “asymptomatic” for stroke underscore the need for early identification and treatment. PMID:26663810
Nelson, Joan M; Good, Elliot
Overuse of urinalysis in older adults to investigate vague changes in condition such as confusion, lethargy, and anorexia, has led to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated antibiotic resistance.
Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762
Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J
We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.
Martorano, Lisa M; Cannella, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Jenifer R
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignant proliferation of endothelial cells within the skin. The clinical presentation is characterized by clusters of violaceous macules and papules that often appear on the distal extremities or trunk with or without oral mucosal involvement. Mucocutaneous lesions are present at onset of diagnosis in a minority of cases. The lesions can evolve to include the mucous membranes of the gastric mucosa and the lungs. We present a unique case of KS in a 45-year-old, asymptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man with mucocutaneous involvement to highlight the importance of recognizing KS in immunocompromised patients.
Muenchhoff, Julia; Poljak, Anne; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Gupta, Veer B.; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Raftery, Mark; Masters, Colin L.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Martins, Ralph N.; Sachdev, Perminder S.
The autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) is far less prevalent than late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), but enables well-informed prospective studies, since symptom onset is near certain and age of onset is predictable. Our aim was to discover plasma proteins associated with early AD pathology by investigating plasma protein changes at the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of ADAD. Eighty-one proteins were compared across asymptomatic mutation carriers (aMC, n = 15), symptomatic mutation carriers (sMC, n = 8) and related noncarriers (NC, n = 12). Proteins were also tested for associations with cognitive measures, brain amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism. Fewer changes were observed at the asymptomatic than symptomatic stage with seven and 16 proteins altered significantly in aMC and sMC, respectively. This included complement components C3, C5, C6, apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-I and M, histidine-rich glycoprotein, heparin cofactor II and attractin, which are involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and vascular health. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism differed only at the symptomatic stage, whereas changes in inflammation and vascular health were evident at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages. Due to increasing evidence supporting the usefulness of ADAD as a model for LOAD, these proteins warrant further investigation into their potential association with early stages of LOAD. PMID:27381087
Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.
Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791
Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. PMID:26925912
Todorova, A; Litvinenko, I; Todorov, T; Tincheva, R; Avdjieva, D; Tincheva, S; Mitev, V
The human X chromosome carries regions prone to genomic instability: deletions in the Xp22.31 region, involving the steroid sulfatase gene (STS) cause X-linked ichthyosis; rearrangements in the Xp21.2 region are associated with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD or BMD); and the Xq27.3 unstable region, containing the (CGG)n repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene is associated with fragile X syndrome. We report on a family with two affected boys, the elder diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, the younger with DMD, and both suffering from severe ichthyosis. The family was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and haplotype analysis. The mother proved to be an asymptomatic carrier of all three non-contiguous mutation events, involving the STS gene, the DMD gene and a FMR1 expansion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of an asymptomatic carrier of three different X-linked disorders, involving severe genetic rearrangements on both long and short arms of the X chromosomes. The boy with fragile X syndrome has inherited a triple recombinant maternal X chromosome, this way inheriting the FMR1 expansion and ichthyosis, originating most probably from different maternal Xes and excluding the DMD gene deletion. The transmission of these extremely defective maternal chromosomes to the next generation involved several recombinations.
Kapoor, Meenu; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, Mamta; Mehrotra, Ravi; Dwivedi, Manisha
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a clonal disorder of unknown etiology involving multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell and belongs to the spectrum of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). It is rarest of the CMPD with no case reported from India. The case being presented was detected incidentally during routine investigations in an adult female who presented with mild abdominal discomfort.
Quílez, C; Martínez, J; Gómez, A; Trigo, C; Palazón, J M; Belda, G; Pérez-Mateo, M
Chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is a well known entity although little has been reported. In most cases chronic asymptomatic elevation of amylase is due to a salival isoamylase increase or macroamylasemia. However, we have studied 10 cases with an increase in amylases due to pancreatic isoamylase and an increase in the remaining pancreatic enzymes which remained elevated during the follow up period ranging from 2 to 60 months. The amylase values ranged from 186 to 1,600; the lipase from 176 to 3,989, trypsin from 476 to 2,430 and pancreatic isoamylase from 122 to 1,263. In all patients CT and echography were carried out, which discarded structural damage. Nonetheless, an indirect test of pancreatic function presented unexplained pathologic values in 4 out of 10 patients. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is of unknown etiology with no associated structural pancreatic pathology demonstrable by the usual study methods.
Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P
Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.
Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a disease that progresses slowly for years without symptoms, so patients need to be carefully managed with appropriate follow up and referred for aortic valve replacement in a timely manner. Development of symptoms is a clear indication for aortic valve intervention in patients with severe AS. The decision for early surgery in patients with asymptomatic severe AS is more complex. In this review, we discuss how to identify high-risk patients with asymptomatic severe AS who may benefit from early surgery. PMID:26981214
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Leong-Sit, Peter; Krahn, Andrew D; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J
This article discusses the merits of electrophysiology study (EPS) and/or ablation for asymptomatic preexcitation Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) ECG pattern. Sudden deaths in asymptomatic patients are too few to merit broad screening and aggressive intervention. It also discusses the risks of ablation and the low predictive accuracy of EPS. When WPW is an incidental finding, the decision to proceed with investigation and ablation can be made considering patients' situations and preferences. An invasive strategy is targeted at patients concerned about the low risk of life-threatening arrhythmia as a first presentation after a discussion of the risks and benefits.
Volkow, Nora D; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Margus, Brad; Crawford, Thomas O
rates including hyperactivity in globus pallidus indicative of basal ganglia involvement. Changes in basal ganglia metabolism offer potential insight into targeting strategies for therapeutic deep brain stimulation. Our finding of decreased metabolism in vermis and hippocampus of asymptomatic relatives suggests that heterozygocity influences the function of these brain regions.
Markus, Hugh S; King, Alice; Shipley, Martin; Topakian, Raffi; Cullinane, Marisa; Reihill, Sheila; Bornstein, Natan M; Schaafsma, Arjen
Summary Background Whether surgery is beneficial for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis is controversial. Better methods of identifying patients who are likely to develop stroke would improve the risk–benefit ratio for carotid endarterectomy. We aimed to investigate whether detection of asymptomatic embolic signals by use of transcranial doppler (TCD) could predict stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods The Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES) was a prospective observational study in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis of at least 70% from 26 centres worldwide. To detect the presence of embolic signals, patients had two 1 h TCD recordings from the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery at baseline and one 1 h recording at 6, 12, and 18 months. Patients were followed up for 2 years. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack. All recordings were analysed centrally by investigators masked to patient identity. Findings 482 patients were recruited, of whom 467 had evaluable recordings. Embolic signals were present in 77 of 467 patients at baseline. The hazard ratio for the risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack from baseline to 2 years in patients with embolic signals compared with those without was 2·54 (95% CI 1·20–5·36; p=0·015). For ipsilateral stroke alone, the hazard ratio was 5·57 (1·61–19·32; p=0·007). The absolute annual risk of ipsilateral stroke or transient ischaemic attack between baseline and 2 years was 7·13% in patients with embolic signals and 3·04% in those without, and for ipsilateral stroke was 3·62% in patients with embolic signals and 0·70% in those without. The hazard ratio for the risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack for patients who had embolic signals on the recording preceding the next 6-month follow-up compared with those who did not was 2·63 (95% CI 1·01–6·88; p=0·049), and for ipsilateral stroke
Hitter, E; Ronge, R; Walschap, G; Mahler, C; Keuppens, F; Denis, L
We report 2 rare cases of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula. The diagnosis was made incidentally during hospitalization for other reasons. The role of calculus in the etiological pathogenesis of nephrocutaneous fistula is emphasized. Although classically surgical treatment is indicated a more conservative approach can be advocated in some asymptomatic cases.
Ganger, Anita; Agarwal, Rinki; Kumar, Vinod
A male patient aged 37 years, referred with the diagnosis of right eye intravitreal cysticercosis, was diagnosed as asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst after thorough evaluation. The patient was kept under observation, since baseline visual acuity was unaffected. No change was noted over the period of 6 months.
Forni, J; Miles, K; Hamill, M
This audit aimed to determine the usefulness of microscopy to detect presumptive rectal gonorrhoea (GC) infection in asymptomatic men. We retrospectively audited more than 400 male patients attending a London genitourinary medicine clinic from January 2005 to March 2007 who tested rectal culture positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and compared this with the microscopy detection rate. In total, 123/423 (29%) of culture positive samples were microscopy positive. Of those that tested microscopy negative (300/423), 64 (21%) were symptomatic and 236 (79%) asymptomatic. In addition, a time and motion study examined 81 rectal slides over a two-week period to identify microscopy reading time required to make a presumptive diagnosis of GC. Three slides were positive, resulting in six hours and 45 minutes to detect one positive sample. Given the low sensitivity for rectal microscopy coupled with the length of time required to obtain a presumptive positive rectal GC result, we believe rectal microscopy is no longer a cost-effective tool screening for asymptomatic men, and this report supports the BASHH guideline that it is not recommended in the management of asymptomatic rectal infection.
Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena
Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants.
Nikolić, A; Klun, I; Bobić, B; Ivović, V; Vujanić, M; Zivković, T; Djurković-Djaković, O
Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animal-to-person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed.
García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique
Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.
Nagaraja, Vivek; McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Getzug, Terri; Khanna, Dinesh
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) commonly affects patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The GI involvement is quite heterogeneous varying from asymptomatic disease to significant dysmotility causing complications like malabsorption, weight loss and severe malnutrition. This review focuses on the management of GI involvement in SSc and has been categorized based on the segment of GIT involved. A brief discussion on the role of patient reported outcome measures in SSc-GI involvement has also been incorporated. PMID:26005632
Larrieu, E; Frider, B; del Carpio, M; Salvitti, J C; Mercapide, C; Pereyra, R; Costa, M; Odriozola, M; Pérez, A; Cantoni, G; Sustercic, J
Until a short time ago, hydatidosis was considered a pathology that could only be resolved surgically. However, in recent years progress has been made with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, and new information on the natural history of hydatidosis has helped define new criteria for its treatment. It is now known that as many as 67% of the carriers of liver cysts who are asymptomatic remain so throughout their lives. This situation produces special results in immunologic testing. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 97% with asymptomatic carriers, while the double diffusion arc 5 test (DD5) achieves a sensitivity of only 31% with the same population. On the other hand, imaging studies based on ultrasonography have become the method of choice to detect asymptomatic carriers. Ultrasonography studies are 49% to 73% more sensitive than serological tests, and they can even be used as a part of epidemiological surveillance systems and to monitor control programs. Treatment schemes have also been modernized. Treating asymptomatic carriers chemotherapeutically with albendazole produces favorable results in as many as 69% of cases, while such minimally invasive surgical treatments as puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) reduce average cyst volume by as much as 66%. These factors have made it possible for hospital services in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, to establish a treatment scheme for asymptomatic carriers. It is based on the monitoring of small cysts (type Ia on the modified Gharbi scale); initial treatment with albendazole, followed by PAIR if there is no response, in larger or more complex cysts (types Ib, II, and III); and follow-up of inviable or dead cysts (types IV and V).
Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra
Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941
Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida
The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum. PMID:25479608
Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida
The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum.
Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Aydin, Mustafa
A foreign body such as a needle in the heart can be life-threatening. While this may occur accidentally, needles may be inserted into the body by psychiatric patients or in cases involving domestic violence. A needle can migrate through the thorax toward the heart. In drug users, needles may also reach the right ventricle via the peripheral veins. Cardiac injury can occur via the esophagus after swallowing a needle. The clinical outcome may vary from an asymptomatic situation to tamponade or shock, depending on how severely the cardiac structures are affected. In injuries involving the thorax, pneumothorax may cause sudden shortness of breath. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old male prison inmate who accidentally lodged a pin in his left ventricle while asleep. As he has refused surgery, it was decided to follow the patient carefully.
Vogler, J.B. III; Brown, W.H.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.
The sacroiliac (SI) joints of 45 asymptomatic subjects were prospectively studied to define better the normal appearance of SI joints on CT scans and therby attach appropriate significance to CT signs of sacroiliitis. Joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, erosions, ankylosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and symmetry were evaluted. The results indicate that the SI joints demonstrate symmetry in patients under the age of 30 (100% of subjects in this age group). Those CT findings of sacroiliitis that occurred infrequently in the asymptomatic population, and hence may represent good indicators of sacroiliac disease, include increased sacral subchondral sclerosis in subjects under the age of 40 (11%), bilateral or unilateral uniform joint space of less than 2 mm (2% or 0%, respectively), erosions (2%), and intraarticular ankylosis (0%).
Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Cox, Mitchell; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Magalhaes, Ricardo J. Soares; Mackay, Ian M.
Influenza infection manifests in a wide spectrum of severity, including symptomless pathogen carriers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 studies to elucidate the proportional representation of these asymptomatic infected persons. We observed extensive heterogeneity among these studies. The prevalence of asymptomatic carriage (total absence of symptoms) ranged from 5.2% to 35.5% and subclinical cases (illness that did not meet the criteria for acute respiratory or influenza-like illness) from 25.4% to 61.8%. Statistical analysis showed that the heterogeneity could not be explained by the type of influenza, the laboratory tests used to detect the virus, the year of the study, or the location of the study. Projections of infection spread and strategies for disease control require that we identify the proportional representation of these insidious spreaders early on in the emergence of new influenza subtypes or strains and track how this rate evolves over time and space. PMID:27191967
Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita
Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.
Turturro, Francesco; Calderaro, Cosma; Montanaro, Antonello; Labianca, Luca; Argento, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea
Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process) in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature. PMID:25143854
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a well-established possible complication following an atrial fibrillation ablation of pulmonary veins. Symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis range from asymptomatic to severe exertional dyspnea. The number of asymptomatic patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is greater than originally estimated; moreover, only about 22% of severe pulmonary vein stenosis requires intervention. We present a patient with severe postatrial fibrillation (AF) ablation pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, which was seen on multiple imaging modalities including cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiogram, lung perfusion scan, and pulmonary angiogram. This patient did not have any pulmonary symptoms. Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the clinical severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Our patient had an abnormal lung perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) scan, suggesting pulmonary artery blood flow redistribution. The patient ultimately underwent safe repeat atrial fibrillation ablation with successful elimination of arrhythmia. PMID:28105376
Skrastins, Roland; McCans, John L.
With the current popularity of physical fitness, the family physician is often asked to advise asymptomatic individuals who wish to undertake an exercise program. In the majority of cases, adequate assessment consists of a thorough history and physical examination, along with a few simple investigations, including a resting electrocardiogram. Exercise stress testing of asymptomatic individuals produces an unacceptably high frequency of false-positive results, and its use should be restricted to those patients with cardiac symptoms or major cardiac risk factors. The potential benefits of a longterm commitment to regular exercise should be discussed with the patient and guidance provided on the optimal form of exercise program for that individual. Exercise must not be considered in isolation. Other major cardiovascular risk factors should be sought and dealt with appropriately. PMID:21286106
Alasmari, Faisal; Seiler, Sondra M.; Hink, Tiffany; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Dubberke, Erik R.
Background. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recent studies suggest that asymptomatic carriers may be an important reservoir of C. difficile in healthcare settings. We sought to identify the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic C. difficile carriage on admission to the hospital. Methods. Patients admitted to Barnes-Jewish Hospital without diarrhea were enrolled from June 2010 through October 2011. Demographic information and healthcare and medication exposures 90 days prior to admission were collected. Stool specimens or rectal swabs were collected within 48 hours of admission and stored at −30°C until cultured. Clostridium difficile isolates were typed and compared with isolates from patients with CDI. Results. A stool/swab specimen was obtained for 259 enrolled subjects on admission. Two hundred four (79%) were not colonized, 40 (15%) had toxigenic C. difficile (TCD), and 15 (6%) had nontoxigenic C. difficile. There were no differences between TCD-colonized and -uncolonized subjects for age (mean, 56 vs 58 years; P = .46), comorbidities, admission from another healthcare facility (33% vs 24%; P = .23), or recent hospitalization (50% vs 50%; P = .43). There were no differences in antimicrobial exposures in the 90 days prior to admission (55% vs 56%; P = .91). Asymptomatic carriers were colonized with strains similar to strains from patients with CDI, but the relative proportions were different. Conclusions. There was a high prevalence of TCD colonization on admission. In contrast to past studies, TCD colonization was not associated with recent antimicrobial or healthcare exposures. Additional investigation is needed to determine the role of asymptomatic TCD carriers on hospital-onset CDI incidence. PMID:24755858
Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Siński, Edward; Kowalec, Maciej; Zajkowska, Joanna; Pancewicz, Sławomir A
In Europe, human infections with "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" have mainly been restricted to immunocompromised patients. We report here the first cases of asymptomatic "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infection in immunocompetent humans (5/316 [1.6%] were infected). Due to the potential threats of infections with "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in healthy persons to the safety of the blood supply, further study of this phenomenon is required.
Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785
Taraszewska, Anna; Matyja, Ewa; Koszewski, Waldemar; Zaczyński, Artur; Bardadin, Krzysztof; Czernicki, Zbigniew
Glial cysts of the pineal gland are benign and mostly asymptomatic incidental lesions found in the brain MRI or at autopsy examinations. In rare cases pineal cysts become symptomatic and require surgical intervention. Symptomatic glial cysts may be clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from cystic neoplasms of the pineal region; therefore, histopathological diagnosis is critical for further prognosis and therapy in operated patients. In this paper we present detailed histopathological characteristics of symptomatic glial cysts in 2 surgical cases and of asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland found at random in 3 autopsy cases. Both surgical patients, a 19-year-old girl and a 17-year-old boy, presented with severe headaches, associated with syncope in one case and insomnia in the second one. Preoperative MR imaging suggested tumour of the pineal gland in case no. 2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens from both surgical and all autopsy cases revealed a characteristic pattern of cystic structures within the pineal gland, surrounded by layers of a dense fibrillar glial tissue and pineal parenchyma, consistent with non-neoplastic glial cysts. Although histopathological findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic cysts are essentially the same, the cyst in surgical case 1 was unilocular and partly lined with ependymal cells, whereas the cysts in other cases were multilocular, comprising cavities of various size, formed in the central part of gliotic tissue or directly within the pineal parenchyma, and lacked ependymal lining. Possible pathophysiological and clinicopathological significance of some morphological variants of pineal glial cysts is discussed.
Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E; Dawson, William O; Robertson, Cecile J; Keesling, James E; Singer, Burton H
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period.
Chavarría, Anahí; Roger, Beatrice; Fragoso, Gladis; Tapia, Graciela; Fleury, Agnes; Dumas, Michel; Dessein, Alain; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Neurocysticercosis (NC), a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium, may be either asymptomatic or have mild to severe symptoms due to several factors. In this study, the immunological factors that underlie NC pleomorphism were studied. Ten of the 132 inhabitants of a rural community in Mexico (Tepez) had a computerized tomography (CT) scan compatible with calcified NC, and all were asymptomatic. Their immunological profiles were compared with those of 122 CT scan negative (non-NC) subjects from the same village. NC was associated with a TH2 response (IgG4, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13). Subjects from Tepez had higher levels of specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgE) and specific cell proliferation than subjects from an area with low exposure (Ensenada). This suggests that non-NC subjects from Tepez had been exposed to T. solium and resisted infection in the brain. Distinct immunological profiles in equally exposed individuals differing in outcome of infection support the hypothesis of host-related factors in resistance to and pathogenesis of NC. This is the first study reporting the immunological profile associated with the asymptomatic form of NC.
Frider, Bernardo; Larrieu, Edmundo
Liver hydatidosis is the most common clinical presentation of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Ultrasonographic mass surveys have demonstrated the true prevalence, including the asymptomatic characteristic of the majority of cases, providing new insight into the natural history of the disease. This raises the question of whether to treat or not to treat these patients, due to the high and unsuspected prevalence of CE. The high rate of liver/lung frequencies of cyst localization, the autopsy findings, and the involution of cysts demonstrated in long time follow-up of asymptomatic carriers contribute to this discussion. The decision to treat an asymptomatic patient by surgery, albendazole, or puncture aspiration injection and reaspiration or to wait and watch, is based on conflicting reports in the literature, the lack of complications in untreated patients over time, and the spontaneous disappearance and involution of cysts. All these points contribute to difficulties of individual clinical decisions. The patients should be informed of the reasons and the risks of watchful/waiting without treatment, the possibility of complications, and the risks of the other options. As more information on the natural history of liver hydatidosis is acquired, selection of the best treatment will be come easier. Without this knowledge it would be very difficult to establish definitive rules of treatment. At present, it is possible to manage these patients over time and to wait for the best moment for treatment. Follow-up studies must be conducted to achieve this objective. PMID:20806427
Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E.; Dawson, William O.; Robertson, Cecile J.; Keesling, James E.; Singer, Burton H.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period. PMID:26034273
Kandel, Leonid; Rivkin, Gurion; Friedman, Adi; Segal, David; Liebergall, Meir; Mattan, Yoav
Osteolysis around a cementless acetabular component can lead to severe bone loss. This study examined whether osteolysis should be treated while still asymptomatic. Thirty-seven liner cementation revisions were performed in 34 patients. Mean patient age was 61 years, and mean time elapsed after index surgery was 85 months (range, 36-168 months). Patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS), and mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 43-82 months). Average HHS was 87 with a pain component of 39. In asymptomatic patients, both the HHS and the pain score were significantly higher: 95 and 43, respectively (P<.01). One patient with extensive bone loss had a fracture of the acetabulum and underwent revision at another institution. Revision of the polyethylene liner and cementation of a new one is a useful technique in patients with a stable acetabular shell. This is especially true for asymptomatic patients with osteolysis and thus should be performed early; however, high dislocation rate is still a concern.
Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Uko, Emmanuel Kufre
Asymptomatic malaria infection is a common feature of malaria endemic regions in the tropics. In this prospective cross sectional survey, involving 240 children aged 1 to 8 years (Boys = 117, Girls = 123; Ratio 1:1.05), the median platelet count was 115 x 10(9)/L (IQR 97.5-190). Thirty-three out of 240 (13.75%) of the children had thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L). Malaria parasite was found to exert significant reduction in platelet count. This reduction was more pronounced in children under 5 years and also at higher parasite counts. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.017x + 96.2, r = -0.2). Thrombocytopenia is not only a feature of acute malaria infection but also that of asymptomatic malaria infection in the tropics and might be a useful indicator of malaria in children.
Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra
Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476
Karim, Habib Md. Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md.
Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations. PMID:27413718
Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md
Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.
Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Veloudis, George; Exarchou, Elena; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos
An inguinoscrotal hernia is a common disorder that usually contains intraperitoneal organs (small intestine, colon, appendix, ovaries). Extraperitoneal ureteral herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia is a rare condition and often associated with congenital abnormalities or postoperative anatomic changes. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to avoid intraoperative ureteric injuries. We herein report the case of a ureteric herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia incidentally found during a scheduled hernia repair. PMID:26604607
Munster, Alex B.; Franchini, Angelo J.; Qureshi, Mahim I.; Thapar, Ankur
Objective: To systematically review temporal changes in perioperative safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in asymptomatic individuals in trial and registry studies. Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms “carotid” and “endarterectomy” and “asymptomatic” from 1947 to August 23, 2014. Articles dealing with 50%–99% stenosis in asymptomatic individuals were included and low-volume studies were excluded. The primary endpoint was 30-day stroke or death and the secondary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. Statistical analysis was performed using random-effects meta-regression for registry data and for trial data graphical interpretation alone was used. Results: Six trials (n = 4,431 procedures) and 47 community registries (n = 204,622 procedures) reported data between 1983 and 2013. Registry data showed a significant decrease in postoperative stroke or death incidence over the period 1991–2010, equivalent to a 6% average proportional annual reduction (95% credible interval [CrI] 4%–7%; p < 0.001). Considering postoperative all-cause mortality, registry data showed a significant 5% average proportional annual reduction (95% CrI 3%–9%; p < 0.001). Trial data showed a similar visual trend. Conclusions: CEA is safer than ever before and high-volume registry results closely mirror the results of trials. New benchmarks for CEA are a stroke or death risk of 1.2% and a mortality risk of 0.4%. This information will prove useful for quality improvement programs, for health care funders, and for those re-examining the long-term benefits of asymptomatic revascularization in future trials. PMID:26115734
Brembilla-Perrot, B; Ghawi, R; Dechaux, J P
The management of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is controversial especially when the patient is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics of such patients. Thirty two asymptomatic subjects with overt WPW on the surface ECG aged 14 to 68 years (average 36 +/- 15 years) underwent endocavitary or oesophageal electrophysiological study with the following protocol: programmed atrial stimulation using 1 or 2 extrastimuli over 3 cycles to evaluate the induction of paroxysmal junctional tachycardia and atrial fibrillation; atrial pacing at increasing frequencies to assess the shortest cycle conducted by the bundle of Kent. This protocol was repeated during intravenous infusion of 20 to 30 mg of Isoproterenol. Four electrophysiological characteristics were identified: the incidence of induction of junctional tachycardia was very low (2 cases, 6%); the incidence of induction of atrial fibrillation or tachycardia was similar to that of symptomatic WPW (9 cases 30%); the incidence of rapid conduction via the bundle of Kent (cycle conducted by the Kent less than 250 ms under basal conditions less than 200 ms with Isoproterenol) was 19% (6 cases); the incidence of potentially serious forms of WPW with rapid conduction in the bundle of Kent and atrial vulnerability (induction of atrial fibrillation at a frequency less than the Wenckebach point by programmed atrial stimulation) was similar to that in symptomatic WPW, 3 cases (10%). In conclusion, the asymptomatic character of the WPW is very probably due to the absence of junctional tachycardias. Nevertheless, these patients are at risk of atrial fibrillation with an incidence of potentially serious forms of 10%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Kim, Younoh; Radoias, Vlad
Asymptomatic conditions such as hypertension are generally hard to diagnose, absent routine medical examinations. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where most citizens do not engage in routine examinations due to limited economic resources. We study the roles of education and individual time preferences in asymptomatic disease detection and management. Using discrete choice models on a sample of 4209 hypertensive Indonesian adults surveyed between November 2007 and April 2008, we find that both education and individual time preferences play important roles. However, the effects are different for people in good health than they are for people in bad health. Education does not seem to matter for disease detection when respondents are in good general health, and its effects on disease management vary largely in magnitudes between these groups. In terms of disease detection, more educated respondents have a higher probability of being diagnosed, but only conditional on being in poor general health. Time preferences, on the other hand, matter for respondents in good general health, but the effect is not significant for those in bad health. More impatient respondents that are in good health have a higher probability of being under-diagnosed because they are more likely to forgo routine physicals. The findings point to two distinct channels through which education can affect health, and suggest that different types of policies need to be implemented, in order to reach the entire population. Traditional programs that stimulate education and improve the socio-economic status of individuals in developing countries are helpful, but they do not address the whole problem. Besides its more usual positive effects, education can also negatively affect the health of asymptomatic patients, because it reflects a higher opportunity cost of engaging in preventative health screenings.
Williams, J W; Eikman, E A; Greenberg, S
Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were obtained before and at weekly intervals following hip surgery or major amputation in 158 patients. Pulmonary arteriograms were obtained in 21 of 33 patients developing perfusion patterns strongly suggesting embolism; 19 of the 21 arteriograms demonstrated pulmonary embolism. From autopsy and clinical data, 36 patients were diagnosed as having an embolus while under study, and 12 patients were suspected of having had an embolus during their illness but prior to entry into the study. Only four of these 48 patients experienced symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism. We conclude that asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is a common event in the populations studied. PMID:7059242
Etuwewe, B; John, CM; Abdelaziz, M
Background Neonatal Tuberose sclerosis complex may be associated with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyomas. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are the most common cardiac tumours. The symptoms include haemodynamic instability and life threatening arrhythmias usually requiring early surgical intervention. Results We report a case of a 32 week gestation newborn diagnosed with a right ventricular outflow tract mass and subsequently diagnosed with tuberose sclerosis that needed early surgical intervention. Conclusion While this case needed early intervention, the need for surgical intervention in otherwise asymptomatic cases is debatable as neonatal cardiac rhabdomyomas can spontaneously regress. PMID:22368553
Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J
MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.
García Puig, J; Beltrán, L; Mejía Chew, C; Torres, R; Tebar Márquez, D; Pose Reino, A
The increase in serum urate concentrations (hyperuricaemia, ≥7.0mg/dL) creates crystals, which promote inflammation and joint lesions. Ultrasonography can reveal these urate deposits. The presence of crystals suggests that a patient with hyperuricaemia is actually experiencing asymptomatic gout, and that a patient with gout without subcutaneous tophi could experience tophaceous gout. The information offered by ultrasound (double contour sign and hyperechoic concretions mimicking clouds) enables a more specific classification of hyperuricaemia and gout. Additionally, this information can lead to relevant changes in terms of the diagnosis and therapeutic approach for patients with hyperuricaemia and gout.
Williams, J.W.; Eikman, E.A.; Greenberg, S.
Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were obtained before and at weekly intervals following hip surgery or major amputation in 158 patients. Pulmonary arteriograms were obtained in 21 of 33 patients developing perfusion patterns strongly suggesting embolism; 19 of the 21 arteriograms demonstrated pulmonary embolism. From autopsy and clinical data, 36 patients were diagnosed as having an embolus while under study, and 12 patients were suspected of having had an embolus during their illness but prior to entry into the study. Only four of these 48 patients experienced symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism. We conclude that asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is a common event in the populations studied.
The causes of sustained elevation of serum transaminases in asymptomatic adults, both hepatic and extrahepatic, are varied. In order to reach an aetiological diagnosis, a standardized protocol should be applied, aimed firstly at ruling out the most common causes, such as chronic hepatitis (viral or autoimmune), metabolic diseases, and toxic liver diseases. Several biochemical patterns, which take into account transaminase, cholestatic enzyme, muscle enzyme, ferritin and ceruloplasmin levels, as well protein electrophoresis and autoantibody measurement, will identify most causes. In cases in which a diagnosis cannot be reached with the use of these non-invasive methods, a needle liver biopsy will be justified.
Strecker, Thomas; Agaimy, Abbas; Zelzer, Peter; Weyand, Michael; Wachter, David Lukas
Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, atrial myxoma being the most common benign tumor of the heart. They may present with a great variety of incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resection of such a giant cardiac tumor which was found on a routine medical check-up in a 62-year-old patient. Histology confirmed diagnosis of unusually huge myxoma. This article demonstrates it’s necessary to include cardiac tumors in the differential diagnosis of subtle and non-specific cardiothoracic symptoms. PMID:25120848
Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Moslemi, Sam; Tahamtan, Maryam; Taheri, Lohrasb; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali
The co-existence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality because of a widespread organ involvement. The gastrointestinal tract is a common site for localization of opportunistic microorganisms in AIDS. However, surgical abdominal emergencies such as intestinal perforation resulted from tuberculosis are uncommon in these patients. The asymptomatic occurrence of such intestinal perforation has not been reported our knowledge. We represent an HIV and HCV co-infected man with miliary tuberculosis and an incidentally detected free air under diaphragm in the chest X-ray eventually resulting in exploratory laparotomy which then revealed two tubercular-induced intestinal perforations. It seems that as the tuberculosis is increasing in incidence, mostly due to reactivation in HIV-infected patients especially in developing countries, we should not underestimate its acute abdominal emergencies such as bowel perforation. PMID:27162854
Rizvi, M M; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Jain, Anuj; Sarkar, Arindam
Vocal cord palsy (VCP) presenting as hoarseness of voice can be the first symptom of very serious and sinister common pathologies. But vocal cord palsy resulting from aortic aneurysm is a rare entity and still rarer is the right cord palsy due to aortic aneurysm. We are reporting a rare case in which a 52-year old male smoking for last 30 years having asymptomatic aortic aneurysm presented to us with hoarseness of voice. On Panendoscopy, no local pathology was found and CECT from base of skull to T12 was advised. CECT showed a large aneurysm involving ascending aorta and extending upto abdominal aorta with compression of the bilateral bronchi. CTVS consultation was sought and they advised for regular follow-up only. We are reporting this case to warn both the anaesthetist and the surgeon about the catastrophic complications if they are not alert in handling such cases.
Occelli, P; Blanie, M; Sanchez, R; Vigier, D; Dauwalder, O; Darwiche, A; Provenzano, B; Dumartin, C; Parneix, P; Venier, A G
An outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo occurred over a period of five months in a maternity ward involving seven infected and two colonised neonates. The skin lesions were due to epidermolytic toxin A-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Infection control measures were implemented and a retrospective case-control study performed. Contact with an auxiliary nurse was the only risk factor for cases of bullous impetigo (P<0.01). The nurse cared for all seven cases and was an asymptomatic nasal carrier of the epidemic strain. Repeated courses of decontamination treatment failed to eradicate carriage. Nine months after the last case, another neonate developed a more severe form of bullous impetigo and the auxiliary nurse was reassigned to an adult ward.
Furushima, Wakana; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Inoue, Yuki; Kaga, Makiko; Mizutani, Shuki
The aim was to identify the electrophysiological and psychological signs at a very early stage in asymptomatic boys with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Flash visual evoked potentials, pattern reversal, and visual event-related potentials were recorded in 6 radiologically asymptomatic boys with adrenoleukodystrophy and 22 control boys. The latency and amplitude of P100 of visual evoked potentials and P1 of event-related potentials were evaluated. Though all patients had normal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient was significantly lower than verbal intelligence quotient in 2 patients. Both P100 and P1 amplitudes were significantly greater in adrenoleukodystrophy than in controls. The difference between performance intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient exhibited significant correlation with P100 amplitude. Enlargement of visual evoked potentials might be a sign of cerebral involvement preceding the appearance of abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up of asymptomatic boys with both electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests may serve as an aid for deciding the timing of therapeutic intervention.
Quiroga, M; Oviedo, P; Chinen, I; Pegels, E; Husulak, E; Binztein, N; Rivas, M; Schiavoni, L; Vergara, M
Diarrheagenics Escherichia coli are the major agents involved in diarrheal disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of appearance of the first asymptomatic infection by the different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli in 44 children since their birth and during the first 20 months of their lives. In all of the children studied, we detected at least one category of diarrheagenic E. coli through the 20 months of the study. 510 diarrheagenic E. coli (33.5%) were obtained from the 1,524 samples collected from the 44 children during the time of the study (31.4% EAggEC, 28.8% EPEC, 27.1% DAEC, and 12.7% ETEC). Neither EHEC nor EIEC were identified. The median age for diarrheagenic E. coli colonization was 7.5 months. The mean weaning period was 12.8 months and the mean age for introduction of mixed feeding (breast fed supplemented) was 3.8 months. A significantly lower incidence of diarrheal disease and asymptomatic infections was recorded among the exclusively breast-fed rather than in the supplemented and non breast-fed infants. For ETEC, EPEC and EAggEC the introduction of weaning foods and complete termination of breast-feeding were associated with an increase of asymptomatic infections.
Olson, Eric; Bodziony, Michael; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Koby, Bradley; Goehry, Doug
Objective The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of midlumbar spinal manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility. Methods Twelve cyclists were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design after baseline testing. Six participants were in the AB group, and 6 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 3 tested conditions: baseline testing (no intervention prior to testing), condition A (bilateral midlumbar spine manipulation prior to testing), and condition B (sham acupuncture prior to testing, as a control). Testing was blinded and involved a sit-and-reach test followed by a 0.5-km cycle ergometer sprint test against 4-kp resistance. Outcome measures were sit-and-reach distance, time to complete 0.5 km, maximum heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. An additional 8 cyclists were recruited and used as a second set of controls that engaged in 3 testing sessions without any intervention to track test acclimation. An analysis of variance was used to compare dependent variables under each of the 3 conditions for the experimental group and control group #1, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze test acclimation in control group #2. Results Lumbar spine manipulation did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group changes in sit-and-reach (P = .765), 0.5-km sprint performance time (P = .877), maximum exercise heart rate (P = .944), or rating of perceived exertion (P = .875). Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study showed that midlumbar spinal manipulation did not improve hip flexibility or cyclist power output of asymptomatic participants compared with an acupuncture sham and no-treatment control groups. PMID:25435836
Markus, Birgit; Grote, Karsten; Worsch, Michael; Parviz, Behnoush; Boening, Andreas; Schieffer, Bernhard; Parahuleva, Mariana S.
Objective Stroke and transient ischemic attacks are considered as clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease due to on-going vascular inflammation and finally atherothrombosis of the carotid arteries. MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) are known to be involved in vascular inflammation and plaque destabilization. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of selected miRNAs in endarterectomy specimen from carotid arteries that were taken from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Methods and Results 11 miRNAs were selected and their expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Therefore, samples were divided into three different groups. On the one hand we investigated the expression patterns from patients in asymptomatic (n = 14) and symptomatic (n = 10) plaques; on the other hand we took samples from normal configurated internal mammary arteries (n = 15). Out of these 11 targets we identified some miRNAs, which were up- or down-regulated in either one of the two groups. Interestingly, the expression of two miRNAs was significantly different between asymptomatic and symptomatic samples, namely miR-21 (P<0.01) and miR-143 (P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, we identified miRNA subtypes which showed different expression in endarterectomy specimen from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic plaques, suggesting that these miRNAs correlated with advanced vascular inflammation and plaque stability. They may represent new therapeutic targets for vascular proliferative diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:27631489
Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A.; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J.; Redwine, Laura
Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ±10.5). Approximately 32% of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting f ewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p<0.02), less fatigue (p<0.001), better sleep (p<0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p<0.01) (overall model F=26.6, p<0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p<0.01) and peace (p<0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p=0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643
Chan, Ronna L
Preterm birth is a delivery that occurs at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation and it is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm birth accounts for up to 75% of all preterm births. A number of maternal or fetal characteristics have been associated with preterm birth, but the use of individual or group biochemical markers have advanced some of the understanding on the mechanisms leading to spontaneous preterm birth. This paper provides a summary on the current literature on the use of biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. Evidence from the literature suggests fetal fibronectin, cervical interleukin-6, and α-fetoprotein as promising biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. The role of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, as well as epigenetics, has the potential to further elucidate and improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms or pathways of spontaneous preterm birth. Refinement in study design and methodology is needed in future research for the development and validation of individual or group biochemical marker(s) for use independently or in conjunction with other potential risk factors such as genetic variants and environmental and behavioral factors in predicting spontaneous preterm birth across diverse populations.
Mennen, U; Sithebe, H
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of asymptomatic Kienböck's disease in patients who attended the Dr George Mukhari Hospital (formerly Ga-Rankuwa Hospital), as well as the relevance of ulnar variance on the disease. This was a retrospective study. In a 12 month period we reviewed postero-anterior radiographs of 1287 patients seen at our radiology department, with complaints unrelated to the upper limb including the wrist and hand. We identified 23 cases (1.9%) of asymptomatic Lichtman stage II-IV Kienböck's disease in our African population. The majority (63%) were male with an average age of 49 years, and 37% were female with an average age of 46.5 years. All cases were unilateral and all were in the dominant hand. Thirteen cases (57%) had an ulnar neutral wrist and the remaining ten (43%) had an ulnar negative variance. The vast majority (83%) were unemployed. Analysis of the data shed no further light on the aetiology. The relevance of ulnar variance as an aetiological factor is questioned.
Yun, Gee Young; Kim, Woo Sub; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong
The incidence of gastric band erosion has decreased to 1%. Gastric band erosion can manifest with various clinical symptoms, although some patients remain asymptomatic. We present a case of a mostly asymptomatic patient who was diagnosed with gastric band erosion during a routine health check-up. A 32-year-old man without any underlying diseases except for non-alcoholic fatty liver underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery in 2010. He had no significant complications postoperatively. He underwent routine health check-ups with near-normal gastroduodenoscopic findings through 2014. However, in 2015, routine gastroduodenoscopy showed that the gastric band had eroded into the stomach. His gastric band was removed laparoscopically, and the remaining gastric ulcer perforation was repaired using an omental patch. Due to the early diagnosis, the infection was not serious. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 with oral antibiotics. This patient was fortunately diagnosed early by virtue of a routine health check-up; thus, eliminating the possibility of serious complications. PMID:26867553
Noonan, Sinead A.; Sachs, Peter B.; Camidge, D. Ross
Introduction Osimertinib is an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor licensed for the treatment of EGFR mutant, T790M positive, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previously unreported, common, transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPOs) were noted at the University of Colorado in patients during osimertinib therapy. Methods CT imaging and clinical notes of NSCLC patients treated at the University of Colorado with osimertinib were retrospectively reviewed. Results Seven of twenty patients (35%), developed TAPOs while on osimertinib. The radiological patterns seen included ground-glass opacities with/without nodular consolidation. The median time to first lesion development was 8.7 weeks (range: 1.6 – 43 weeks) and 6 weeks (range: 1 – 11 weeks) to resolution during continued osimertinib. Conclusions TAPOs may be a previously unrecognized, benign feature associated with osimertinib therapy, which may be mistaken for isolated pulmonary progression or the beginning of more severe pneumonitis. If new onset pulmonary lesions, especially those associated with ground-glass appearances, are asymptomatic, localized and there is no evidence of disease progression elsewhere it may be reasonable to continue treatment with osimertinib and monitor these lesions for resolution. PMID:27618759
Since the first description of the Brugada syndrome (BS) in 1992, scientific progress in the understanding of this disease has been enormous; at the same time more and more individuals with the disease have been diagnosed. The profile of patients with BS has changed with more asymptomatic individuals and less expressive clinical features. Asymptomatic BS individuals are at lower arrhythmic risk than those presenting with syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD). The event incidence rate is around 0.5 % per year; this figure is relevant due to the fact that individuals have a long life expectancy and are otherwise healthy. As a result of the risk of SCD, risk stratification is of utmost importance. As the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator is the main treatment for those patients at higher risk, benefits and long-term potential risks have to be adequately considered. Some risk factors, such as spontaneous type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern, are widely accepted, whilst for others contradictory data are present. Furthermore, novel risk factors are now available that might help in the management of BS. The presence of a spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, history of sinus node dysfunction and inducible ventricular arrhythmias during programmed electrical stimulation of the heart allow us to risk stratify these patients. PMID:28116080
Cordray, Frank E
Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324
Habegger de Sorrentino, A; Motta, P; Iliovich, E; Sorrentino, A P
The cytopathic effect of HIV on CD4 T cells, as well as the active autoimmune mechanism occurring during infection, have been documented. Of the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS, the main one produced by the monocyte-macrophage series is tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF alpha). This cytokine induces antigens such as proteinase 3 (Pr 3) or mieloperoxidase (MPO). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are directed against this type of PMN antigens. In the present paper, the role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in HIV infected patients as responsible for autoimmune phenomena in relation to opportunistic infections, was studied. A total of 88 serum samples belonging to 49 asymptomatic and 39 symptomatic HIV infected patients were tested for ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test over a neutrophil substrate. ANCA were detected in 53.8% of symptomatic patients as compared to 4.1% in asymptomatic cases (p < 0.0001). A 95.9% correlation was observed between ANCA-positive samples and pulmonary infection (n = 20). In those ANCA (+) samples 95.9% correlation was found with pulmonary infection (n = 20). Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent finding in HIV infected patients from Northeastern Argentina. When the presence of ANCA in TB(+) HIV(+) and TB(+) HIV(-) patients was studied, it was seen that positive-ANCA significantly correlated with the first group (p < 0.001). The presence of ANCA was not related to viral infections, toxoplasmosis, neurological features of AIDS, vasculitis or malignant diseases. ANCA during pulmonary infection, mostly caused by TB, as well as PMN infiltration in pulmonary parenchyma, and the deregulated immune reaction elicited by HIV, may contribute to the onset of autoimmune phenomena. The presence of human T lymphocytes reactive to heat stress proteins (Hsp), an important target of immune response against certain intracellular auto-antigens such as MPO from PMN, added to
Mueller, N J; Fishman, J A
Cryptococcus neoformans is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. The infection generally presents as disseminated disease, involving multiple sites including the central nervous system, lungs, and skin. An increase in the incidence of primary pulmonary cryptococcal infections has been reported recently in solid organ recipients; these infections were generally symptomatic with an accelerated clinical course. We report four cases of asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ recipients (kidney, n=2, heart, n=2). In each case, an incidental finding on a routine chest radiograph led to the microbiological or histopathological diagnosis of invasive pulmonary C. neoformans infection. In these patients, cryptococcosis occurred a median of 25 months (range 7-36 months) after organ transplantation. All patients had a calcineurin inhibitor, prednisone, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil as part of their immunosuppressive therapy at the time of diagnosis. Serum cryptococcal antigen was available and positive in the three patients studied; assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all four patients revealed no organisms by smear or culture. Therapy consisted of oral fluconazole in all cases, with flucytosine in one case, combined with resection of lung tissue in two individuals. All patients have remained free of cryptococcal disease (follow-up median 42 months, from 18 to 88 months). Cryptococcal disease in solid organ recipients may present as asymptomatic, localized pulmonary disease. The natural history of such infections is unknown. New pulmonary radiographic findings should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation including serum and CSF cryptococcal antigen assays, and a biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Prolonged therapy may be used to reduce the risk of progression and dissemination during periods of intensified immune suppression.
Wedel, Thilo; Lange, Christina; Hohmeier, Ines; Cossais, François; Ebsen, Michael; Vogel, Ilka; Böttner, Martina
Background Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor known to promote the survival and maintenance of neurons not only in the developing but also in the adult enteric nervous system. As diverticular disease (DD) is associated with reduced myenteric neurons, alterations of the GDNF system were studied in asymptomatic diverticulosis (diverticulosis) and DD. Methods Morphometric analysis for quantifying myenteric ganglia and neurons were assessed in colonic full-thickness sections of patients with diverticulosis and controls. Samples of tunica muscularis (TM) and laser-microdissected myenteric ganglia from patients with diverticulosis, DD and controls were analyzed for mRNA expression levels of GDNF, GFRA1, and RET by RT-qPCR. Myenteric protein expression of both receptors was quantified by fluorescence-immunohistochemistry of patients with diverticulosis, DD, and controls. Results Although no myenteric morphometric alterations were found in patients with diverticulosis, GDNF, GFRA1 and RET mRNA expression was down-regulated in the TM of patients with diverticulosis as well as DD. Furthermore GFRA1 and RET myenteric plexus mRNA expression of patients with diverticulosis and DD was down-regulated, whereas GDNF remained unaltered. Myenteric immunoreactivity of the receptors GFRα1 and RET was decreased in both asymptomatic diverticulosis and DD patients. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for an impaired GDNF system at gene and protein level not only in DD but also during early stages of diverticula formation. Thus, the results strengthen the idea of a disturbed GDNF-responsiveness as contributive factor for a primary enteric neuropathy involved in the pathogenesis and disturbed intestinal motility observed in DD. PMID:28152033
Barroso, Fabio; González‐Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie
ABSTRACT Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR‐FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult‐onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal‐dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR‐FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease‐modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR‐FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation‐specific predictive genetic testing in first‐degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR‐FAP and the structured clinical follow‐up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353–360, 2016 PMID:27273296
Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie
Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.
Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris
Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061
Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J
X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase.
Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M
Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.
Babic, A; Mathiesen, U; Hedin, K; Bodemar, G; Wigertz, O
Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.
Shiraishi, I.; Onouchi, Z.; Hayano, T.; Hamaoka, K.; Kiyosawa, N. )
Eight patients with Kawasaki disease who had sustained asymptomatic myocardial infarction 8-15 years ago (mean, 13.1 years) were reexamined by various noninvasive cardiac function tests to assess long-term prognosis. At present, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are normal in six patients. However, all eight patients had a prolonged preejection period (PEP) to left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio 30 s after amylnitrate (AN) inhalation. Six patients had perfusion defects by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and two patients developed ST segment depression in treadmill exercise testing. These patients are symptom-free even though their physical activity has not been restricted. Yet they proved to have serious abnormalities suggesting sequelae of myocardial infarction or existing myocardial ischemia. Judging from the results of noninvasive cardiac function tests and recently performed coronary angiography, five of the eight patients require coronary bypass surgery.
Kırkızlar, Eser; Faissol, Daniel M.; Griffin, Paul M.; Swann, Julie L.
Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.
Corcioli, Fabiana; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Rinieri, Alessio; Fanci, Rosa; Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Azzi, Alberta
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) can persist in immunocompetent symptomatic and non-symptomatic individuals, as demonstrated by the finding of viral DNA in different tissues, in absence of viremia and of anti-B19V IgM. The spread and the nature of this phenomenon have not been clearly determined. In order to investigate the frequency of persistence and the tissue distribution of the three genotypes of B19V, the viral load of the persistent virus and its expression in the affected tissues, 139 tissue samples and 102 sera from 139 asymptomatic individuals have been analyzed by consensus PCRs and genotype specific PCRs for B19V detection and genotyping. Viral load was measured by real time PCR and viral mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR. Altogether, 51% individuals carried B19V DNA, more frequently in solid tissues (65%) than in bone marrow (20%). Genotype 1 was found in 28% tissue samples, genotype 2 in 68% and genotype 3 in 3% only. Viral load ranged from less then 10 copies to 7 x 10(4) copies per 10(6) cells, with the exception of two samples of myocardium with about 10(6) copies per 10(6) cells. mRNA of capsid proteins was present in two bone marrow samples only. In conclusion, in asymptomatic individuals B19V persistence is more common in solid tissues than in bone marrow, and genotype 2 persists more frequently than genotype 1. The results suggest that the virus persists without replicating, at sub-immunogenic levels.
Imwong, Mallika; Stepniewska, Kasia; Tripura, Rupam; Peto, Thomas J.; Lwin, Khin Maung; Vihokhern, Benchawan; Wongsaen, Klanarong; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dhorda, Mehul; Snounou, Georges; Keereecharoen, Lilly; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sirithiranont, Pasathorn; Chalk, Jem; Nguon, Chea; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Nosten, Francois; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Nicholas J.
Background. Asymptomatic parasitemia is common even in areas of low seasonal malaria transmission, but the true proportion of the population infected has not been estimated previously because of the limited sensitivity of available detection methods. Methods. Cross-sectional malaria surveys were conducted in areas of low seasonal transmission along the border between eastern Myanmar and northwestern Thailand and in western Cambodia. DNA was quantitated by an ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (uPCR) assay (limit of accurate detection, 22 parasites/mL) to characterize parasite density distributions for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and the proportions of undetected infections were imputed. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria as determined by uPCR was 27.5% (1303 of 4740 people tested). Both P. vivax and P. falciparum density distributions were unimodal and log normal, with modal values well within the quantifiable range. The estimated proportions of all parasitemic individuals identified by uPCR were >70% among individuals infected with P. falciparum and >85% among those infected with P. vivax. Overall, 83% of infections were predicted to be P. vivax infections, 13% were predicted to be P. falciparum infections, and 4% were predicted to be mixed infections. Geometric mean parasite densities were similar; 5601 P. vivax parasites/mL and 5158 P. falciparum parasites/mL. Conclusions. This uPCR method identified most infected individuals in malaria-endemic areas. Malaria parasitemia persists in humans at levels that optimize the probability of generating transmissible gametocyte densities without causing illness. PMID:26681777
Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen
Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi
This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1–8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9–24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi
This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.
AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Kowalewski, Gregory; Beach, Kirk W; Lal, Brajesh K; Sikdar, Siddhartha
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, and one of the major causes of disability. Approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are due to plaque rupture in the carotid arteries. The most popular diagnostic method uses Doppler ultrasound to find the percent stenosis. However, other factors, such as the hemodynamics around the plaque may play a larger role in identifying the risk of plaque rupture. It has been shown previously in simulations that non-collateral flow in the circle of Willis (COW) could cause an increase of the intraluminal velocity around carotid plaque. This added strain may increase the vulnerability of the plaque to rupture. We investigated asymmetries in flow waveforms in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. We compared clinical results of velocity waveforms in the MCA, acquired using transcranial Doppler (TCD), with a simple linear simulation model of the intra- and extracranial arterial network to investigate the relationship between contralateral and ipsilateral flow profiles in the MCA for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. In 17 out of 23 patients we found waveforms consistent with those predicted for a collateralized COW, with minimal differences in delay, velocity magnitude and resistivity index. In 6 cases, some unexpected findings were noted, such as large delays for 2 patients ≤ 50% stenosis, and a large velocity difference with low delay for 4 patients. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of incomplete intracranial collateralization on the hemodynamics around carotid plaque and to use imaging of the COW to corroborate our results.
Mohammed, Abdel GaffarA; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz A; ALjahlan, Mohammad A; Al-Homood, Ibrahim A
The aim of this study is to use transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to determine the association between echocardiographic findings and serology. This is a prospective cross-sectional study where 50 patients with confirmed diagnoses of SLE were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics. Clinical and serological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of lupus was done in all patients. Fifty SLE patients, 46 (92%) females and 4 (8%) males, were recruited. Anti-double-stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA), anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β2-glycoproteins were positive in 52.1, 32.6, 13.3, and 15.6%, respectively. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation in 16 patients (32%), pericardial effusion in16 patients (32%), aortic regurgitation in five patients (10%), and tricuspid regurgitation in 10 patients (20%). Eleven patients had left ventricular hypertrophy (22%), and eight patients had ventricular systolic dysfunction (16%). Only four patients had ventricular diastolic dysfunction (8%). A significant association between mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation and positive anti-dsDNA (p < 0.018, p < 0.006, respectively) was found. Positive anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β 2 glycoprotein antibodies were also associated with mitral valve regurgitation (p values 0.044, 0.006, and 0.023), respectively. Active disease assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was found to be associated with increased risk of mitral valvular leaflet thickening (p value 0.028). Performing regular transthoracic echocardiogram in asymptomatic SLE patients is important for early detection and appropriate treatment of cardiac lesions. Clinically quiescent but serologically active disease and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were associated with structural heart abnormalities.
Brueton, L A; Huson, S M; Cox, P M; Shirley, I; Thompson, E M; Barnes, P R; Price, J; Newsom-Davis, J; Vincent, A
We report six sibs with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and a Pena-Shokeir phenotype, born to a healthy woman who was discovered to have asymptomatic myasthenia gravis (MG). This is the first report of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies causing fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence in the offspring of an asymptomatic mother.
Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Danfeng; Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Yibing
Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment.
Fawole, Adewale; Abonour, Rafat; Stender, Michael; Shatavi, Seerin; Gaikazian, Susanna; Anderson, Joseph; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael
Asymptomatic (smoldering) multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous plasma cell proliferative disorder with a variable rate of progression to active multiple myeloma or related disorders. Hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, bone lesions or recurrent bacterial infections characterize active multiple myeloma. Some patients with asymptomatic myeloma develop active disease rapidly, and others can stay asymptomatic for many years. Those who are likely to progress within the first 2 years of diagnosis have been categorized as having high-risk disease. The availability of novel agents in the treatment of active multiple myeloma and our better understanding of the heterogeneity of asymptomatic multiple myeloma have spurred interest in the early treatment of these patients. We have reviewed the current proposed definitions of high-risk asymptomatic multiple myeloma, the concerns about future therapy in view of the transient nature, remissions and toxicities of the therapies, and the eventual relapses that characterize this incurable disease.
Khezri, Somayeh; Mahmoudi, Hamid-Reza; Masoom, Seyedeh Nina; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Balighi, Kamran; Hosseini, S Hamed; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda
Background. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. Anal mucosa may be involved in PV, but the frequency and clinical profile are not fully ascertained. Objective. The aim was to investigate the involvement of the anal area in newly diagnosed PV patients. Patients and Methods. A total of 168 consecutive newly diagnosed PV patients were enrolled. Anal symptoms and signs, involvement of other body sites, and severity of disease were recorded. Results. A total of 47 out of 168 patients (27.9%) had involvement of the anal area. Anal involvement was significantly associated with PV lesions in ophthalmic (P = 0.03), nasal (P = 0.02), and genital mucosa (P < 0.001) but not the oral cavity (P = 0.24). There was a significant association between number of involved mucosal sites and anal involvement (P < 0.001). Anal involvement was associated with oral severity (P = 0.02). Constipation was the most frequent symptom (73.8%) followed by pain on defecation (50%). Seventeen patients (36%) were symptom-free. Erosion was the most frequent sign (91.5%). Conclusion. Anal involvement in PV seems to be more frequent than previously assumed. Routine anal examination is recommended even in asymptomatic patients as anal involvement appears to correlate with the severity of PV.
Bonomo, Vito; Piraino, Davide; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Evola, Salvatore; Di Piazza, Mariaconcetta; Vicari, Claudia; Lupo, Ambra; Inga, Giuseppe; Andolina, Giuseppe; Assennato, Pasquale; Novo, Salvatore
The evaluation of coronary lesions in patients with asymptomatic carotid plaque represents a very promising line of research to assess cardiovascular risk and the possible implementation of a more aggressive prevention therapy. Methods: In this study we enrolled 102 patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk but no history of coronary artery disease. The first group, consisting of 51 patients, underwent a Coronary CT scan (CCT-group) as well as carotid ultrasonography. The second group, also consisting of 51 patients, underwent coronary angiography (CA) and carotid ultrasonography. Results: The absence of a statistically significant difference between the involvement of both coronary and carotid sites, assessed by CCT and CA, confirms the role of coronary CT as a useful method in the preclinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk. In the CCT group, the correlation between atherosclerosis of carotid artery and coronary disease, as well as between the mean carotid intimal medial thickness and the number of involved coronary vessels, and between the maximum values of carotid plaque and the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50%, were statistically significant. The Agatson calcium score was also statistically associated with carotid plaque size. Conclusion: The imaging biomarkers have a key role in the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, carotid ultrasound examination and a CT-scan of coronary arteries, in a particular sub-group of patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk, can play a crucial role to assess the preventive therapeutic strategies. PMID:25147763
Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.
BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of
Colomina, M J; Puig, L; Godet, C; Villanueva, C; Bago, J
The prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac valve anomalies was determined in 82 patients (69 females and 13 males) diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis and scheduled for corrective surgery (mean age at surgery 16.3 years). The preoperative study in each patient included echocardiography and ultrasound Doppler. Twenty-three valvular anomalies were found in 20 patients (24.4%). The most frequent was mitral valve prolapse. The occurrence of valvular anomalies did not correlate with sex, curve magnitude, or age at diagnosis. Eighteen patients presented a total of 20 comorbid conditions: positive family history of scoliosis (five cases), isthmic spondylolisthesis (five cases), nervous anorexia (two cases), hereditary exostosis, cystic fibrosis, ureteral stenosis, mammary hypoplasia, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, psoriasis, celiac disease, and lactose intolerance. A significant relationship was found between valvular anomalies and comorbidity. Valvular anomalies were detected in 11 out of 64 patients (17.2%) with no comorbidity and in nine out of 18 patients (50%) with a comorbid condition (Chi-square 8.2, p = 0.004). In this latter group of patients, routine echocardiographic study seems advisable in the preoperative evaluation.
Pruimboom, Leo; de Punder, Karin
Gluten-containing cereals are a main food staple present in the daily human diet, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten intake is associated with the development of celiac disease (CD) and related disorders such as diabetes mellitus type I, depression, and schizophrenia. However, until now, there is no consent about the possible deleterious effects of gluten intake because of often failing symptoms even in persons with proven CD. Asymptomatic CD (ACD) is present in the majority of affected patients and is characterized by the absence of classical gluten-intolerance signs, such as diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. Nevertheless, these individuals very often develop diseases that can be related with gluten intake. Gluten can be degraded into several morphine-like substances, named gluten exorphins. These compounds have proven opioid effects and could mask the deleterious effects of gluten protein on gastrointestinal lining and function. Here we describe a putative mechanism, explaining how gluten could "mask" its own toxicity by exorphins that are produced through gluten protein digestion.
Cooper, B C; Rabuzzi, D D
The diagnosis of myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD), commonly called temporomandibular joint syndrome, has traditionally been made on the presence of a group of clinical symptoms that produce pain and limitation of movement. The cause of this common illness has been the subject of controversy for over half a century. There has been a lack of agreement on diagnosis, a cause, and treatment. Advanced bioelectronic technology now makes an accurate diagnosis possible, based not merely on clinical symptoms, but on reproducible scientific data. A cause of MPD is discernable and reliable treatment possible, as well as long lasting resolution objectively monitorable with the Mandibular Kinesiograph (MKG 5-R) and Bioelectric Processor (EMIR). A study of mandibular movement and masticular muscle function of 26 "normal" subjects (i.e., clinically asymptomatic) revealed that the overwhelming majority did indeed have dysfunction of the muscles which move and posture the mandible. The significance of this study is twofold. First it demonstrates a valid testing procedure for measuring mandibular movement and muscle function. Second it establishes the fact that most individuals have a physical predisposition to MPD. Changes in the adaptive capacity of the neuromusculature by physical or emotional trauma could then precipitate MPD.
Metcalfe, Peter D.; Assmus, Mark; Kiddoo, Darcie
Introduction: Historically, pyeloplasties have been performed after symptoms and radiographic confirmation of an ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, with prenatal ultrasonography, the approach to patients has fundamentally changed. Increasingly, patients are diagnosed and treated before the advent of morbidity, based on imaging findings alone. However, optimum screening strategies and thresholds for intervention vary significantly, are controversial, and are not founded on outcome-based evidence. We examined all pyeloplasties performed at our institution and reviewed their indication for surgery. We hypothesized that, despite ubiquitous screening for UPJO, most pyeloplasties had been performed secondary to symptoms and did not benefit from antenatal screening. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all pyeloplasties performed at the Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, over the past 8 years. Patients were categorized according to indication for surgery: symptomatic or asymptomatic. Results: Most (60%) of our pyeloplasties were performed for symptomatic indications. Furthermore, 12% of these patients had antenatally detected hydronephrosis that was thought to have resolved spontaneously during follow-up. Of our symptomatic patients, 37% were undergoing surveillance with the expectation for spontaneous resolution. Of the 29 patients who underwent pyeloplasty, 8 suffered a preoperative loss of function on renal scans; however, only 50% returned to within 90% of their original function. Conclusion: Despite active surveillance of antenatally detected hydronephrosis, most pyeloplasties at our institution were performed for de-novo symptoms. We believe that this simple observation reinforces that our current surveillance strategies are unable to predict and eliminate all morbidity from UPJO. PMID:25553157
Von Der Emde, Jürgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jürgen
From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2½ years. Larger valves (≥ A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175
Budoff, Matthew J.; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A.; Berman, Daniel S.; Druz, Regina S.; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H.; Weigold, Wm. Guy; Soman, Prem
Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a “coronary risk equivalent,” implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937
RIZEK, Camila F.; LUIZ, André Machado; de ASSIS, Gracilene Ramos; COSTA, Silvia Figueiredo; LEVIN, Anna Sara; LOPES, Marta Heloisa
SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is a cause of several life-threatening diseases and can be a normal commensal in the upper respiratory tract of healthy carriers. The carrier rate is not well established especially because there is no standard method for the isolation of N. meningitidis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare identification methods for the carrier state. Two swabs were collected from 190 volunteers: one was cultured and the other had DNA extracted directly from the sample. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to determine species and serogroups and compared the results between the methods. PCR for species determination used two pairs of primers and when there was only one amplicon, it was sequenced. The culture technique was positive in 23 (12.1%) subjects while the direct extraction method was positive in 132 (69.5%), p < 0.001. Among the 135 subjects with positive N. meningitides tests, 88 (65.2%) were serogroup C; 3 (2.2%) serogroup B; 5 (3.7%) were positive for both serogroup B and C, and 39 (28.9%) did not belong to any of the tested serogroups. In this study, PCR from DNA extracted directly from swabs identified more N. meningitidis asymptomatic carriers than the culture technique. PMID:27680165
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.
Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398
Osorio, Lyda; Todd, Jim; Bradley, David
Asymptomatic malaria is characteristic of high intensity transmission areas in Africa but unusual in low transmission areas in Latin America. Nevertheless, asymptomatic malaria has been reported to be frequent in areas in Latin America with high and moderate intensity of transmission. Asymptomatic malaria can affect both individuals who carry parasites and are cryptic carrier reservoirs for the community. Individuals chronically infected with malaria parasites are usually unidentifiable by most malaria control programmes. In order to identify whether asymptomatic individuals harboring malaria parasites are an important reservoir of infection in Quibdó, Chocó, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was assessed in schoolchildren. This study was part of a major study of the epidemiology of malaria in Quibdó. A total of 255 children from 5 schools were examined, of which 223 were included in the analysis. Children reported headache (34%), cough (32%), and diarrhoea (9%). None of the children presented a positive thick smear. In addition, IFA tests in a subsample of 25 children were negative. By these criteria, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in Quibdó schoolchildren is 0% (95%C.I.: 0.0-1.4). Although asymptomatic malaria in adults possibly occurs, a very low prevalence is predicted.
Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita
Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202
Matsui, Ryukichi; Nakagawa, Tomonori; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei
Atherosclerotic stenosis of major intracranial arteries is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in Asia. However, the long-term prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in healthy volunteers has not been fully examined. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the prognosis of healthy volunteers with asymptomatic ICAS and to determine the risk factors for ICAS, including asymptomatic brain parenchymal lesions. We studied 2,807 healthy Japanese volunteers with no history of stroke (mean age, 62.0 years). They were followed for a mean interval of 64.5 months. The degree of ICAS and the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 166 volunteers (5.9%) at the initial examination. Moderate and mild stenoses were observed in 1.5 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Significant risk factors for ICAS were older age and a history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. During follow-up, ischemic stroke developed in 32 volunteers. Seven strokes occurred in the ICAS group, whose stroke incidence rate was higher than that in the non-ICAS group (0.78 vs. 0.18% per year). According to a Cox regression analysis, asymptomatic ICAS was an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke after adjustment for age. Furthermore, after asymptomatic brain lesions were taken into account, ICAS was still a significant risk factor for stroke onset. In conclusion, even mild to moderate asymptomatic ICAS was a significant risk factor for future stroke, independent of asymptomatic brain lesions, in a healthy Japanese population. Mild to moderate ICAS might be a therapeutic target for stroke prevention. PMID:27047445
Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.
Bogdanova, Yelena; Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Alexithymia, an impairment of affective and cognitive emotional processing, is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may reflect effects of the virus on brain areas that are also important for multiple cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. We hypothesized that there would be a correlation between extent of alexithymia and cognitive performance associated with these brain areas, including attention, executive function, and visuospatial processing. Thirty-four asymptomatic HIV+ participants and 34 matched healthy HIV− volunteers were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, a series of neuropsychological tests, and measures of apathy, depression, and quality of life (QoL). The HIV+ participants had significantly higher levels of alexithymia, depression and apathy than the HIV− group. The extent of alexithymia and two of its processing components (Difficulty Describing Feelings [DDF] and Externally Oriented Thinking), but not depression, correlated with performance on measures of executive and visuospatial abilities, consistent with dysfunction of the frontostriatal circuits and their cortical projections. Apathy was related to alexithymia and two processing components (Difficulty Identifying Feelings and DDF) but to only one cognitive measure. The higher rate of alexithymia, as well as cognitive dysfunction, in HIV may be a consequence of the infection on the frontostriatal system and its cortical connections. Our findings also demonstrated a dissociation of apathy and alexithymia in HIV, pointing to overlapping but distinct neural substrates within frontostriatal circuits. Alexithymia correlated strongly with QoL ratings, underscoring the importance of assessment and treatment of HIV-associated emotional and cognitive processing deficits. PMID:20036267
Pascual, Gabriel; Wadia, Jehangir S; Zhu, Xueyong; Keogh, Elissa; Kükrer, Başak; van Ameijde, Jeroen; Inganäs, Hanna; Siregar, Berdien; Perdok, Gerrard; Diefenbach, Otto; Nahar, Tariq; Sprengers, Imke; Koldijk, Martin H; der Linden, Els C Brinkman-van; Peferoen, Laura A; Zhang, Heng; Yu, Wenli; Li, Xinyi; Wagner, Michelle; Moreno, Veronica; Kim, Julie; Costa, Martha; West, Kiana; Fulton, Zara; Chammas, Lucy; Luckashenak, Nancy; Fletcher, Lauren; Holland, Trevin; Arnold, Carrie; Anthony Williamson, R; Hoozemans, Jeroen J; Apetri, Adrian; Bard, Frederique; Wilson, Ian A; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap
Several reports have described the presence of antibodies against Alzheimer's disease-associated hyperphosphorylated forms of tau in serum of healthy individuals. To characterize the specificities that can be found, we interrogated peripheral IgG(+) memory B cells from asymptomatic blood donors for reactivity to a panel of phosphorylated tau peptides using a single-cell screening assay. Antibody sequences were recovered, cloned, and expressed as full-length IgGs. In total, 52 somatically mutated tau-binding antibodies were identified, corresponding to 35 unique clonal families. Forty-one of these antibodies recognize epitopes in the proline-rich and C-terminal domains, and binding of 26 of these antibodies is strictly phosphorylation dependent. Thirteen antibodies showed inhibitory activity in a P301S lysate seeded in vitro tau aggregation assay. Two such antibodies, CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1, which bind to the proline-rich and C-terminal regions of tau, respectively, were characterized in more detail. CBTAU-7.1 recognizes an epitope that is similar to that of murine anti-PHF antibody AT8, but has different phospho requirements. Both CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1 detect pathological tau deposits in post-mortem brain tissue. CBTAU-7.1 reveals a similar IHC distribution pattern as AT8, immunostaining (pre)tangles, threads, and neuritic plaques. CBTAU-22.1 shows selective detection of neurofibrillary changes by IHC. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of an ongoing antigen-driven immune response against tau in healthy individuals. The wide range of specificities to tau suggests that the human immune repertoire may contain antibodies that can serve as biomarkers or be exploited for therapy.
Adegoke, S A; Adegun, P T
Urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may result in long term renal dysfunction. The prevalence, potential risk factors, and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) were investigated in 196 Nigerian children with SCA in stable state. These children had clinical evaluation and assessment of their mid-stream urine (MSU) for pyuria, culture, and sensitivity tests; urinalysis for proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematocrit, serum creatinine and uric acid estimation. Children with confirmed ASB were compared with those without ASB. Those with confirmed ASB were monitored for 6 months for persistence of significant growth, development of symptomatic UTI, and evaluation of renal functions. The prevalence of probable and confirmed ASB in this cohort of SCA children were 12.2% and 6.6%, respectively. Confirmed ASB was more prevalent among older (P = 0.046) and female (P = 0.003) SCA children, particularly those with pyuria (odd Ratio, OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.7-11.0, P < 0.001) and proteinuria (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 3.9-8.7, P = 0.006). Previous symptomatic UTI was not associated with ASB. Also, the mean eGFR, serum creatinine, and uric acid were not different in the group with ASB and those without ASB (P > 0.05). At the end of 6 month follow-up, two (15.4%) of the 13 children with ASB had persistence of significant growth, but none develop symptomatic UTI. Also, none of the two with persistent ASB had hypertension or deranged renal function. ASB is a significant problem in older age female SCA children, although renal functions were not different among those with and without ASB. A large scale randomized placebo-controlled trial of conventional treatment for ASB in SCA is advocated to define its long-term clinical significance.
Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age, 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to 3 randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 and 240°·s in concentric and 30°·s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). In contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the 2 other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.
Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to three randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60°/s and 240°/s in concentric and 30°/s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). By contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the two other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.
Brown, William D; Bearer, Elaine L; Donahue, John E
A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn't been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.
Popević, Martin B; Janković, Srđan M; Borjanović, Srđan S; Jovičić, Slavica R; Tenjović, Lazar R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P S; Bulat, Petar
A frequently encountered exposure profile for hand-arm vibration in contemporary occupational setting comprises workers with a long history of intermittent exposure but without detectable signs of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Yet, most of the published studies deal with developed HAVS cases, rarely discussing the biological processes that may be involved in degradation of manual dexterity and grip strength when it can be most beneficial - during the asymptomatic stage. In the present paper, a group of 31 male asymptomatic vibration-exposed workers (according to the Stockholm Workshop Scale) were compared against 30 male controls. They were tested using dynamometry and dexterimetry (modelling coarse and fine manual performance respectively) and cold provocation was done to detect possible differences in manual performance drop on these tests. The results showed reduced manual dexterity but no significant degradation in hand grip strength in the exposed subjects. This suggests that intermittent exposure profile and small cumulative vibration dose could only lead to a measurable deficit in manual dexterity but not hand grip strength even at non-negligible A(8) levels and long term exposures.
Peluso, Ilaria; Teichner, Alessia; Manafikhi, Husseen; Palmery, Maura
Flavanols of Camellia sinensis exhibit uric acid (UA) lowering effect, through the modulation of both xanthine oxidase and urate excretion. In order to investigate the potential benefit of Camellia Sinenis products in asymptomatic hyperuricemia, a meta-analysis of long-term Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) with tea or tea extract has been conducted. From 20 human intervention studies selected only 5 RCT (13 interventions) were suitable for meta-analysis (n = 472). The current "normal" range set for hyperuricemia fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. Therefore on the basis of the literature data, we fixed cut-off limits for UA baseline levels of 4.5 mg/dl for women, 6.1 mg/dl for men, and 5.5 mg/dl for studies involving mixed populations. Statistically significant effects were not found, but subgroup analysis revealed that the Pooled Estimate effect was different in subjects with baseline levels under [MD (95% CI): 0.1078 (-0.0528 to 0.2684)] and over the cut-off [MD (95% CI): -0.0239 (0.3311 to 0.2833)]. However, due to the low number of RCT and to the lack of data on bioavailability, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion and more studies are needed to establish if tea flavanols could be useful in asymptomatic hyperuricemia treatment.
D'Arena, Giovanni; Gobbi, Paolo G; Broglia, Chiara; Sacchi, Stefano; Quarta, Giovanni; Baldini, Luca; Iannitto, Emilio; Falcone, Antonietta; Guariglia, Roberto; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Villani, Oreste; Martorelli, Maria Carmen; Mansueto, Giovanna; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Cascavilla, Nicola; Musto, Pellegrino
A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing pamidronate administration (60-90 mg once a month for 1 year) versus simple observation in 177 patients with asymptomatic myeloma was performed to explore whether the administration of this drug reduces the rate of and/or the time to progression to overt, symptomatic disease. No relevant side effects were recorded in pamidronate-treated patients. With a minimum follow-up of 5 years for live patients, there were 56/89 (62.9%) progressions in the pamidronate-treated group and 55/88 (62.5%) within the controls (p = NS). Median time to progression was 46 and 48 months, respectively (p = NS). Overall survival was also similar between the two groups. Skeletal-related events at the time of progression were observed in 40/55 (72.7%) controls, but only in 22/56 (39.2%) pamidronate-treated patients (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the administration of pamidronate in asymptomatic myeloma, while reducing bone involvement at progression, did not decrease the risk of transformation and the time to progression into overt myeloma.
Cohen, Oren S; Chapman, Joab; Korczyn, Amos D; Nitsan, Zeev; Appel, Shmuel; Hoffmann, Chen; Rosenmann, Hanna; Kahana, Esther; Lee, Hedok
Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) in Jews of Libyan ancestry is caused by an E200K mutation in the PRNP gene. While carriers are born with this mutation, they usually remain asymptomatic until middle age. Early detection of conversion is crucial for understanding and eventually for the treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to report longitudinal MRI data in E200K individuals who eventually converted from healthy mutation carriers to clinically symptomatic CJD. As a part of a prospective study, asymptomatic E200K mutation carriers were scanned annually until their conversion to symptomatic disease. Standardized diffusion and anatomical MR sequences were performed before and after clinical conversion in the subjects and those were compared to 15 non-carrier siblings ("healthy controls"). Blinded radiological readings and region of interest analyses were performed. Radiological readings of individual cases failed to detect characteristic changes in the scans taken before the conversion. Region of interest analysis of diffusion changes in pre-symptomatic stage was inconclusive; however, ADC reduction was found in early and late stages of the disease. Computerized volumetric analysis revealed monotonic volume reductions in thalamus, putamen and caudate following conversion, and the lateral ventricles showed dilatation of up to 62 % after clinical conversion. Although the clinical manifestations at disease onset are variable, the diffusion abnormalities and/or volume changes in the thalamus and basal ganglia during conversion may indicate early involvement of the thalamostriatal neuronal circuit.
Background The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria is very low in non-endemic countries due to strict donor selection. The optimal strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic countries without unnecessary exclusion of blood donations is, however, still debated and asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium species may still be qualified to donate blood for transfusion purposes. Case description In April 2011, a 59-year-old Dutch woman with spiking fevers for four days was diagnosed with a Plasmodium malariae infection. The patient had never been abroad, but nine weeks before, she had received red blood cell transfusion for anaemia. The presumptive diagnosis of transfusion-transmitted quartan malaria was made and subsequently confirmed by retrospective PCR analysis of donor blood samples. The donor was a 36-year-old Dutch male who started donating blood in May 2006. His travel history outside Europe included a trip to Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar in 2005, to Thailand in 2006 and to Costa Rica in 2007. He only used malaria prophylaxis during his travel to Africa. The donor did not show any abnormalities upon physical examination in 2011, while laboratory examination demonstrated a thrombocytopenia of 126 × 109/L as the sole abnormal finding since 2007. Thick blood smear analysis and the Plasmodium PCR confirmed an ongoing subclinical P. malariae infection. Chloroquine therapy was started, after which the infection cleared and thrombocyte count normalized. Fourteen other recipients who received red blood cells from the involved donor were traced. None of them developed malaria symptoms. Discussion This case demonstrates that P. malariae infections in non-immune travellers may occur without symptoms and persist subclinically for years. In addition, this case shows that these infections pose a threat to transfusion safety when subclinically infected persons donate blood after their return in a non-endemic malaria region. Since
Greene, Michael B.
Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…
Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...
Tanwar, Raman; Rathore, Kirti Vijay; Rohilla, Mahesh Kumar
Renal stones are a common affliction presenting in an acute setting. We report a case of asymptomatic renal stone in an elderly gentleman presenting initially as a discharging lumbar sinus managed by subcapsular nephrectomy and radical excision of the fistula tract. Nephrocutaneous fistula is most commonly associated with tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and rarely with complicated calyceal stones, and its occurrence with asymptomatic pelvic stones is rare. We present the points in favor of radical open surgery in the management of such patients.
Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Michiko; Takase, Takako; Otsuka, Fujio
We report clinical findings in a 12-year-old girl with long-term recurrent and disseminated multiple eruptions of tinea faciei and tinea corporis, which persisted for 10 years. Mycological examination revealed the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in both scale samples from the body lesions and in brushing samples from her asymptomatic scalp, suggesting that she was an asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier on the scalp, and autoinoculation of the dermatophyte was responsible for the recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis.
Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587
Kildemoes, Anna Overgaard; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Taylor, Myra; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding
Schistosoma haematobium eggs can induce lesions in the urinary and genital tract epithelia, as eggs pass through or get trapped in the tissue. Local inflammatory reactions induced by S. haematobium eggs might affect the ability of bacteria to establish mucosal super-infection foci. S. haematobium infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria can both portray haematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia. This shared set of proxy diagnostic markers could fuel routine misdiagnosis in S. haematobium endemic areas. Furthermore, S. haematobium infected individuals might be at a higher risk of contracting bacterial urinary tract infections, which could manifest either as symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the current study was to explore whether schistosomal lesions are susceptible to super-infection by bacteria measured as asymptomatic bacteriuria. S. haematobium infection was determined by microscopy of urine samples. Furthermore, urine samples were tested with dipslides for asymptomatic bacteriuria and with dipsticks for haematuria, proteinuria and leukocytes. We found no association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and S. haematobium infection in a sample of 1040 female primary and high school students from a schistosomiasis endemic area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that asymptomatic bacteriuria is not a bias for use of micro-haematuria as a proxy diagnostic measure for S. haematobium infection in this population.
Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O
Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years.
Jia, Jiaokun; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Jing; Wu, Jianwei; Yan, Xiujuan; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Shengyun; Zhao, Xingquan
Little is known about the association between homocysteine (Hcy) and asymptomatic CAS in the healthy population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS in a Chinese community population. The current study included 5393 participants who were age of 40 years or older, and free of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and coronary artery disease. Demographic and clinical variables were investigated, and the presence of CAS was assessed by Color Doppler Ultrasound. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS. 361 (6.69%) participants were diagnosed with asymptomatic CAS, who had higher Hcy levels compared with those without (p-value for trend = 0.0001). After adjusting other possible risk factors, Hcy > 19.3μmol/L was considered as an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.05–2.23; p-value for trend = 0.0265), but with a difference between participants with diabetes and without [OR (95%CI): 2.89(1.02–8.22) vs. 1.42(0.95–2.12); P interaction < 0.05]. In this large-population, community-based study, Hcy is an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS, especially in patients with diabetes. PMID:27869211
Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.
Liontos, Lynn Balster
Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…
Morishita, Kae; Kyo, Chika; Kosugi, Rieko; Ogawa, Tatsuo; Inoue, Tatsuhide
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by a glucokinase- (GCK-) activating mutation shows autosomal dominant inheritance, and its severity ranges from mild to severe. A 43-year-old female with asymptomatic hypoglycemia (47 mg/dL) was diagnosed as partial adrenal insufficiency and the administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/day) was initiated. Twelve years later, her 8-month-old grandchild was diagnosed with CHI. Heterozygosity of exon 6 c.590T>C (p.M197T) was identified in a gene analysis of GCK, which was also detected in her son and herself. The identification of GCK-activating mutations in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia patients may be useful for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology involved and preventing unnecessary glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:28163940
Cursino, Sylvia Regina Temer; da Costa, Thaís Boccia; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Silva, Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão; de Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco
PURPOSE: To search for anti-retina antibodies that serve as markers for eye disease in uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored sera from patients with uveitis, ocular toxoplasmosis (n = 30) and non-infectious, immune-mediated uveitis (n = 50) and from asymptomatic individuals who were positive (n = 250) and negative (n = 250) for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were tested. Serum anti-retina IgG was detected by an optimized ELISA using a solid-phase whole human retina extract, bovine S-antigen or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. RESULTS: Uveitis patients showed a higher mean reactivity to whole human retina extract, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and S-antigen in comparison to the asymptomatic population. These findings were independent of the uveitis origin and allowed the determination of the lower anti-retina antibody cut-off for the three antigens. Asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-positive individuals showed a higher frequency of anti-human whole retina extract antibodies in comparison to asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-negative patients. The bovine S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein ELISAs also showed a higher mean reactivity in the uveitis groups compared to the asymptomatic group, but the observed reactivities were lower and overlapped without discrimination. CONCLUSION: We detected higher levels of anti-retina antibodies in uveitis patients and in a small fraction of asymptomatic patients with chronic toxoplasmosis. The presence of anti-retina antibodies in sera might be a marker of eye disease in asymptomatic patients, especially when whole human retina extract is used in a solid-phase ELISA. PMID:21120306
Garcia, Herakles A; Ramírez, Oneyda J; Rodrigues, Carla M F; Sánchez, Rafael G; Bethencourt, Angelica M; Del M Pérez, Gabriela; Minervino, Antonio H H; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Teixeira, Marta M G
Trypanosoma vivax has been associated with asymptomatic infections in African and South American buffalo. In this study, T. vivax was analyzed in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Venezuela in a molecular survey involving 293 blood samples collected from 2006 to 2015 across the Llanos region. Results demonstrated constant infections (average 23%) during the years analyzed. In general, animals were healthy carriers of T. vivax with low levels of parasitemia and were diagnosed exclusively by TviCATL-PCR. However, an outbreak of severe acute infections mostly in dairy animals was reported during a prolonged drought affecting 30.4% of a buffalo herd (115 animals examined). During the outbreak, animals exhibiting anemia and neurological disorders developed fatal infections, and 7% of the herd died within nine months before treatment against trypanosomosis. Microsatellite locus genotyping (MLG) of T. vivax samples before and during the outbreak revealed similar genotypes, but outbreak isolates exhibited the most divergent MLG. Venezuelan samples from symptomless and sick buffalo did not share the MLGs previously detected in asymptomatic Brazilian buffalo. Trypanosoma evansi was not detected in the herd examined during the outbreak. However, as expected Babesia sp. (62.6%) and Anaplasma sp. (55.6%) infections were highly prevalent in asymptomatic buffalo in the studied areas. This is the first South American outbreak of highly lethal acute T. vivax infections in water buffalo. Our results suggest that chronically infected and asymptomatic buffalo living in areas of enzootic equilibrium can develop symptomatic/lethal disease triggered by stressful scarcity of green forage and water during long droughts, inappropriate management of herds and likely concomitant anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Altogether, these factors weaken buffalo immune defenses, allowing T. vivax to proliferate and, consequently, allowing for progression to wasting disease.
Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers.
Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Godoy, Fabián; Pando, María E; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, María A; Ramírez, Eugenio
Human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that extracellular Tax might involve cytokine-like extracellular effects. We evaluated Tax secretion in 18 h-ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures from 15 HAM/TSP patients and 15 asymptomatic carriers. Futhermore, Tax plasma level was evaluated from other 12 HAM/TSP patients and 10 asymptomatic carriers. Proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were quantified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Intracellular Tax in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells occurred in 100% and 86.7% of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers, respectively. Percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+, proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Western blot analyses showed higher secretion levels of ubiquitinated Tax in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers. In HTLV-1-infected subjects, Western blot of plasma Tax showed higher levels in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers, whereas no Tax was found in non-infected subjects. Immunoprecipitated plasma Tax resolved on SDS-PAGE gave two major bands of 57 and 48 kDa allowing identification of Tax and Ubiquitin peptides by mass spectrometry. Relative percentage of either CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+ cells, or Tax protein released from PBMCs, or plasma Tax, correlates neither with tax mRNA nor with proviral load. This fact could be explained by a complex regulation of Tax expression. Tax secreted from PBMCs or present in plasma could potentially become a biomarker to distinguish between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers.
Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi
To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.
Granados, Andrea; Goodall, Emma C; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek; Mahony, James
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are common but poorly characterized in university students. Thus, we characterized asymptomatic and symptomatic HRV infections by incidence, species diversity, and viral load of 502 university students during September and October of 2010 and 2011 from nasal swabs and electronically submitted symptom questionnaires. We tested all symptomatic students and randomly sampled participants who remained asymptomatic (n=25/week, over 8 weeks each study year) on a weekly basis by real-time PCR and sequenced HRV positives. HRV was identified in 33/400 (8.3%) and 85/92 (92.4%) of the asymptomatic and symptomatic students, respectively. We identified a higher than previously reported rate of HRV-B in both groups, although the distribution of HRV species was similar (P=0.37). Asymptomatic viral load averaged 1.2 log10 copies/mL lower than symptomatic HRV (P<0.001). In conclusion, asymptomatic HRV activity preceded peak symptomatic activity in September and October and was associated with lower viral load.
Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; Mol, Kristin H. J. M.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Kockx, Christel E. M.; Jansen, Ruud; Van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium can be carried asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of children. To identify potential genetic differences between M. pneumoniae strains that are carried asymptomatically and those that cause symptomatic infections, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis of 20 M. pneumoniae strains. The analyzed strains included 3 reference strains, 3 strains isolated from asymptomatic children, 13 strains isolated from clinically well-defined patients suffering from an upper (n = 4) or lower (n = 9) RTI, and one strain isolated from a follow-up patient who recently recovered from an RTI. The obtained sequences were each compared to the sequences of the reference strains. To find differences between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, a variant comparison was performed between the different groups of strains. Irrespective of the group (asymptomatic vs. symptomatic) from which the strains originated, subtype 1 and subtype 2 strains formed separate clusters. We could not identify a specific genotype associated with M. pneumoniae virulence. However, we found marked genetic differences between clinical isolates and the reference strains, which indicated that the latter strains may not be regarded as appropriate representatives of circulating M. pneumoniae strains. PMID:27833597
Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi
Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.
Voiculeț, C; Zara, O; Văcăroiu, I; Bogeanu, C; Tiron, T; Turcu, F; Aron, G; Ciocâlteu, A
Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain. The physical examination detected right dorsalis pedis artery pulse absence. Blood biochemistry emphasized hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, iPTH values above upper limits. The X-ray of right shin highlighted a vascular calcification with a “train track” aspect on the tibial-peroneal artery trunk and the thoracic X-ray (performed with low ray regime) showed calcium deposits in coronary arteries walls. Legs arteriography and coronary angiography were performed revealing multiple lesions on investigated vessels with an 80% narrowing of right coronary artery. The particularity of the case lies in the absence of angina in a chronic hemodialysis patient in whom multiple significant angiographically stenosis of the coronary arteries were found and successful endovascular therapy was performed. Conclusion. The broadening of the indication for coronary angiography should be considered in certain asymptomatic CKD stage 5D patients based on a risk score involving calcium, phosphate, PTH and acid-base imbalances, while considering their major influence on the structure and tone of vascular walls thus on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Abbreviations. ABI = ankle-brachial index,CAD = coronary artery disease,CKD = chronic kidney disease,CT = computed tomography, EBCT = electron-beam computed tomography,ESRD = end-stage renal disease,GFR = glomerular filtration rate,iPTH = intact
C, Voiculeț; O, Zara; I, Văcăroiu; C, Bogeanu; T, Tiron; F, Turcu; G, Aron; A, Ciocâlteu
Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain. The physical examination detected right dorsalis pedis artery pulse absence. Blood biochemistry emphasized hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, iPTH values above upper limits. The X-ray of right shin highlighted a vascular calcification with a "train track" aspect on the tibial-peroneal artery trunk and the thoracic X-ray (performed with low ray regime) showed calcium deposits in coronary arteries walls. Legs arteriography and coronary angiography were performed revealing multiple lesions on investigated vessels with an 80% narrowing of right coronary artery. The particularity of the case lies in the absence of angina in a chronic hemodialysis patient in whom multiple significant angiographically stenosis of the coronary arteries were found and successful endovascular therapy was performed. Conclusion. The broadening of the indication for coronary angiography should be considered in certain asymptomatic CKD stage 5D patients based on a risk score involving calcium, phosphate, PTH and acid-base imbalances, while considering their major influence on the structure and tone of vascular walls thus on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Abbreviations. ABI = ankle-brachial index,CAD = coronary artery disease,CKD = chronic kidney disease,CT = computed tomography, EBCT = electron-beam computed tomography,ESRD = end-stage renal disease,GFR = glomerular filtration rate,iPTH = intact parathormon
Placci, Angelo; Lovato, Luigi; Bonvicini, Marco
We describe the case of an 83-year-old asymptomatic man followed in our centre. Transoesophageal echocardiography disclosed congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) with no associated anomalies and only mild aortic regurgitation. Cardiac MR confirmed the diagnosis and revealed preserved systemic ventricle systolic function with a normal perfusional pathway. This report is a demonstration that CCTGA without associated anomalies can reach older life in an asymptomatic condition. This is the oldest asymptomatic living patient with CCTGA ever described. PMID:25336547
Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.
Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.
Guy, John; Feuer, William J.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Schiffman, Joyce; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R.; Lam, Byron L.
Purpose. To report the serial evaluation of asymptomatic eyes of subjects with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA. Methods. Forty-five asymptomatic G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) carriers and two patients with the mutation who developed unilateral visual loss underwent testing that included visual acuity, automated visual field, pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography every 6 months between September 2008 and March 2012. Results. Visual acuity, visual fields, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness remained stable within the normal range. Mean PERG amplitudes of carriers dropped progressively by ∼40% from baseline to 36 months. In addition, comparisons with the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral optic neuritis revealed a 3.4 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) letter loss in the LHON carriers. A single carrier developed visual loss, with PERG amplitudes dropping by half. In one of two LHON cases who presented with unilateral visual loss, visual acuity in the asymptomatic eye was ∼20/40 at baseline. The PERG amplitude of this eye was reduced to ∼30% of normal. Six months later, his visual acuity had dropped to ∼20/500. A second patient who was ∼20/20 and had a visual field defect in the asymptomatic eye at baseline remained at this level for the 18 months of follow-up. His PERG amplitudes were similar to those of asymptomatic carriers, with 0.78 μV at baseline that did not decline with follow-up. Conclusions. Declines of the PERG amplitude suggest subclinical retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in asymptomatic G11778A subjects, which is progressive. PMID:24398093
Heinonen, Santtu; Jartti, Tuomas; Garcia, Carla; Oliva, Silvia; Smitherman, Cynthia; Anguiano, Esperanza; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A. A.; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Dimo, Blerta; Suarez, Nicolas M.; Pascual, Virginia; Ramilo, Octavio
Rationale: Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of symptomatic respiratory tract infection in all age groups. However, RVs can frequently be detected in asymptomatic individuals. Objectives: To evaluate the ability of host transcriptional profiling to differentiate between symptomatic RV infection and incidental detection in children. Methods: Previously healthy children younger than 2 years old (n = 151) were enrolled at four study sites and classified into four clinical groups: RV− healthy control subjects (n = 37), RV+ asymptomatic subjects (n = 14), RV+ outpatients (n = 30), and RV+ inpatients (n = 70). Host responses were analyzed using whole-blood RNA transcriptional profiles. Measurements and Main Results: RV infection induced a robust transcriptional signature, which was validated in three independent cohorts and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with high prediction accuracy. The immune profile of symptomatic RV infection was characterized by overexpression of innate immunity and underexpression of adaptive immunity genes, whereas negligible changes were observed in asymptomatic RV+ subjects. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two main clusters of subjects. The first included 93% of healthy control subjects and 100% of asymptomatic RV+ subjects, and the second comprised 98% of RV+ inpatients and 88% of RV+ outpatients. Genomic scores of healthy control subjects and asymptomatic RV+ children were similar and significantly lower than those of RV+ inpatients and outpatients (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Symptomatic RV infection induced a robust and reproducible transcriptional signature, whereas identification of RV in asymptomatic children was not associated with significant systemic transcriptional immune responses. Transcriptional profiling represents a useful tool to discriminate between active infection and incidental virus detection. PMID:26571305
Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha-Eugenia; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda-Alicia; Juárez-Barreto, Vicencio; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma-Teresa
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA-containing virus with 4 genes, C, S, X and P. The S gene codes for the surface antigen (HBsAg), which contains the "a" determinant, the main region for induction of a protective humoral immune response. To compare the genotype and sequence of the "a" determinant between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic Mexican HBV carriers. Results 21 asymptomatic (blood donors) and 12 symptomatic (with clinical signs and with >1 year lamivudine treatment) HBV carriers were studied; all patients were positive for the HBsAg in serum. Viral load, genotypes, and subtypes were determined in plasma. A fragment of the S gene including the "a" determinant was PCR amplified and sequenced to determine genotype, subtype and to identify mutations. Mean viral load was 0.7965 × 104 copies/ml in asymptomatic carriers and 2.73 × 106 copies/ml in symptomatic patients. Genotypes H, C, and F were identified in asymptomatic individuals; whereas H was dominant in symptomatic patients. A fragment of 279 bp containing the "a" determinant was amplified from all 33 carriers and sequences aligned with S gene sequences in the GenBank. Mutations identified were Y100N, T126I, Q129H and N146K in the asymptomatic group, and F93I and A128V in the symptomatic group. Conclusion Differences in genotype and in mutations in the "a" determinant were found between strains from asymptomatic and symptomatic HBV Mexican carriers. PMID:17217533
Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; ...
Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less
Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.
Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.
Tanwar, Raman; Rathore, Kirti Vijay; Rohilla, Mahesh Kumar
Renal stones are a common affliction presenting in an acute setting. We report a case of asymptomatic renal stone in an elderly gentleman presenting initially as a discharging lumbar sinus managed by subcapsular nephrectomy and radical excision of the fistula tract. Nephrocutaneous fistula is most commonly associated with tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and rarely with complicated calyceal stones, and its occurrence with asymptomatic pelvic stones is rare. We present the points in favor of radical open surgery in the management of such patients. PMID:25657555
Isley, Laura M.; Leddy, Rebecca J.; Rumboldt, Tihana; Bernard, Jacqueline M.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in males is rare and usually presents with symptoms on the affected side, such as, palpable mass or bloody nipple discharge. Even as DCIS has been reported in conjunction with gynecomastia in the same breast, we report an unusual case of a 62-year-old Caucasian male, with no family history of breast cancer, who presented with symptomatic side gynecomastia, and was incidentally found to have DCIS in a completely asymptomatic left breast. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report in literature of asymptomatic, incidentally discovered DCIS in a male patient. PMID:22530182
Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH.
Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH. PMID:12032329
Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lu, Hung-I; Ng, Shu-Hang; Kung, Chia-Te
A 54-year-old man with fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus and mediastinal hematoma was successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed migration of the fishbone into the aorta; however, the patient was asymptomatic and refused surgery. Six years later, CT showed persistent impaction of the fishbone within the aorta, but the patient was healthy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of serial CT documentation of fishbone penetration of the esophagus with migration into and prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta.
Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á
West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area.
Butcher, J D
A 35-year-old, active duty Army officer presented for a screening physical exam before entering special training for HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) parachute qualification. This training involves jumping from aircraft at extreme altitudes with deployment of the parachute at relatively low altitudes (free fall). At the time of this evaluation he was assigned to a special operations airborne unit on active jump status. Careful review of his recent exercise history revealed a gradual decrease in endurance over the past several years, which he felt was due to decreased training intensity. His exercise consisted of running 3 to 4 miles four times a week and physical fitness training with his military unit three times a week. He continued to achieve high scores on the Army Physical Readiness Test.
Sackey, Adziri H
This study was performed to determine the prevalence of CHD among children referred with asymptomatic murmurs and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the assessment of asymptomatic heart murmurs by general paediatricians. We reviewed the records of children who had been referred by general paediatricians to a cardiology clinic for further evaluation of a heart murmur. The referring paediatricians' clinical assessment of the murmur was compared with the cardiologist's echocardiographic diagnosis. A total of 150 children were referred by paediatricians to a paediatric cardiologist for further assessment of a heart murmur. Out of 150 children, 72 had a paediatrician's diagnosis of innocent murmur; of these 72 patients, two (3%) had heart disease on echocardiography. In all, after echocardiography, a range of congenital heart lesions was found in 28 (19%) of the 150 children. CHD is not rare among children with asymptomatic heart murmurs. In this series of children with asymptomatic murmurs, 19% had heart lesions on echocardiography. Most, but not all, of the children with heart lesions were identified on clinical examination by general paediatricians.
Nyunt, Myat Htut; Shein, Thinzar; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Muh, Fauzi; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Han, Jin-Hee; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Kyaw, Myat Phone
Artemisinin resistance containment in Myanmar was initiated in 2011 after artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported. Molecular evidence suggests that asymptomatic malaria infections harboring drug resistance genes are present among residents of the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zone. This evidence supports efforts to eliminate these hidden infections. PMID:28221121
Baqain, Eyad B; Lataifeh, Isam M; Khriesat, Wadah M; Fraiwan, Nayef M; Armooti, Mohamed A
A cleft of the sternum is a rare congenital anomaly, often diagnosed as an asymptomatic condition at birth. We present a case of a large incomplete sternal cleft in a full-term baby boy. Surgical repair of the sternum with the use of Prolene mesh was performed during the neonatal period without cardiac compression.
Pérez-Aguilar, Fernando; Burguera, Juan A; Benlloch, Salvador; Berenguer, Marina; Rayón, Jose M
A 39-year-old asymptomatic man showed elevated serum ferritin levels, mild hypertransaminasemia and serum ceruloplasmin almost undetectable. There was histological iron accumulation within the hepatocytes and also in the central nervous system (MRI). A genetic analysis revealed a new missense mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Two of the other four siblings were also affected by this mutation.
Saxon, Cara; Ison, Catherine
We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic. PMID:26691688
Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine
We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.
Chamizo, Cristina; Moreno, Javier; Alvar, Jorge
The dog is the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in Mediterranean countries. The infection in dogs shows different clinical presentations, from subclinical/asymptomatic to a fully developed disease, depending on the host's immune responses. The Th1/Th2 dichotomy is not clear in the different forms of canine leishmaniasis, since the data available from studies of immunity response in canine leishmaniasis are scarce and fragmented. The present work describes the cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from asymptomatic dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum that present a cellular protective immune response. The results obtained from freshly isolated PBMC showed expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-18 mRNA, similar to those from non-infected dogs. However, there was almost no expression of IL-4 mRNA detected in the asymptomatic infected dogs compared to the control dogs. Unspecific stimulation with ConA promoted the expression in a greater or lower degree of all the cytokines studied. In vitro stimulation of PBMC with soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) promoted the expression of IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-18, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA, with the two first being specifically induced. Although both Th1 and Th2 cytokines are produced, cell mediated immunity observed in these L. infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs depended on the preferential expression of Th1 cytokines.
Zhao, Gui-Hua; Yin, Kun; Zhong, Wei-Xia; Xiao, Ting; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Cui, Yong; Liu, Gong-Zhen; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Fa
Heishui county, located in northwest Sichuan province, southwestern China, is an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is the most intractable area. VL is never destroyed in it. Asymptomatic dogs (Leishmania parasites have been diagnosed but clinically healthy) are considered to be a potential reservoir host in zoonotic VL area, and most can lead to infection of individuals, that is a new challenge for controlling VL in humans. The present study aimed to assess the Leishmania infection rate of asymptomatic dogs in Heishui county. Total 105 asymptomatic domestic dogs were gathered from 4 districts in Heishui county to investigate the infection rate with serological and molecular methods based on ELISA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA(kDNA) PCR, respectively. Out of 105 dogs, 44 (41.9%) were positive by more than 1 method; 21 (20.0%) were positive by ELISA, and 30 (28.6%) were positive by kDNA-PCR. Our study showed that Leishmania infection of domestic dogs which is clinically healthy is prevalent in the studied district, and the asymptomatic dogs infected by Leishmania may be the primary reason for the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in the area. PMID:28095666
Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.
ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810
Psaty, Bruce M; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Branch, Kelley R
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and remains the single most common cause of death among this population. Regrettably, a significant percentage of diabetics fail to perceive the classic symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia. Among asymptomatic diabetics, the prevalence of abnormal cardiac testing appears to be high, ranging between 10% and 62%, and mortality is significantly higher in those with abnormal scans. Hence, the potential use of screening for CHD detection among asymptomatic DM individuals is appealing and has been recommended in certain circumstances. However, it was not until recently, that this question was addressed in clinical trials. Two studies randomized a total of 2,023 asymptomatic diabetics to screening or not using cardiac imaging with a mean follow up of 4.4 ± 1.4 years. In combination, both trials showed lower than expected annual event rates, and failed to reduce major cardiovascular events in the screened group compared to the standard of care alone. The results of these trials do not currently support the use of screening tools for CHD detection in asymptomatic DM individuals. However, these studies have important limitations, and potential explanations for their negative results that are discussed in this manuscript. PMID:26019384
Sudarshan, Medhavi; Sundar, Shyam
Using quantitative PCR we differentiated asymptomatic and symptomatic Indian Leishmania donovani infection. qPCR on blood of 40 visceral leishmaniasis, 130 endemic and 40 nonendemic healthy controls showed 500 times less (p<0.0001) parasitemia in asymptomatic compared to the symptomatic ones, and threshold of 5 parasite genome/ml for the clinical disease. PMID:25023070
Chu, Xian-Ming; Yu, Hua; Sun, Xue-Xia; An, Yi; Li, Bing; Li, Xue-Bin
Background Recent researches revealed that asymptomatic bacterial colonization on PMs might be ubiquitous and increase the risk of clinical PM infection. Early diagnosis of patients with asymptomatic bacterial colonization could provide opportunity for targeted preventive measures. Objective The present study explores the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in pacemaker replacement patients without signs of infection, and to analyze risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization. Methods From June 2011 to December 2013, 118 patients underwent pacemaker replacement or upgrade. Identification of bacteria was carried out by bacterial culture and 16S rRNA sequencing. Clinical risk characteristics were analyzed. Results The total bacterial positive rate was 37.3% (44 cases), and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus detection rate was the highest. Twenty two (18.6%) patients had positive bacterial culture results, of which 50% had coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The bacterial DNA detection rate was 36.4 % (43 cases). Positive bacterial DNA results from pocket tissues and the surface of the devices were 22.0% and 29.7%, respectively. During follow-up (median, 27.0 months), three patients (6.8%, 3/44) became symptomatic with the same genus of microorganism, S. aureus (n=2) and S. epidermidis (n=1). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization. Conclusion There was a high incidence of asymptomatic bacterial colonization in pacemaker patients with independent risk factors. Bacterial culture combined genetic testing could improve the detection rate. PMID:25768661
Vallur, Aarthy C; Reinhart, Caroline; Mohamath, Raodoh; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ghosh, Prakash; Mondal, Dinesh; Duthie, Malcolm S; Reed, Steven G
Infection with Leishmania donovaniis typically asymptomatic, but a significant number of individuals may progress to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly disease that threatens 200 million people in areas where it is endemic. While diagnosis of acute VL has been simplified by the use of cost-effective confirmatory serological tests, similar standardized tools are not widely available for detecting asymptomatic infection, which can be 4 to 20 times more prevalent than active disease. A simple and accurate serological test that is capable of detecting asymptomaticL. donovaniinfection will be useful for surveillance programs targeting VL control and elimination. To address this unmet need, we evaluated recombinant antigens for their ability to detect serum antibodies in 104 asymptomaticL. donovani-infected individuals (qualified as positive forL. donovani-specific antibodies by direct agglutination test [DAT]) from the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh where VL is hyperendemic. The novel proteins rKR95 and rTR18 possessed the greatest potential and detected 69% of DAT-positive individuals, with rKR95 being more robust in reactivity. Agreement in results for individuals with high DAT responses, who are more likely to progress to VL disease, was 74%. When considered along with rK39, a gold standard antigen that is used to confirm clinical diagnosis of VL but that is now becoming widely used for surveillance, rKR95 and rTR18 conferred a sensitivity of 84% based on a theoretical combined estimate. Our data indicate that incorporating rKR95 and rTR18 with rK39 in serological tests amenable to rapid or high-throughput screening may enable simple and accurate detection of asymptomatic infection. Such tests will be important tools to measureL. donovaniinfection rates, a primary goal in surveillance and a critical measurement with which to assess elimination programs.
Brinjikji, W.; Luetmer, P.H.; Comstock, B.; Bresnahan, B.W.; Chen, L.E.; Deyo, R.A.; Halabi, S.; Turner, J.A.; Avins, A.L.; James, K.; Wald, J.T.; Kallmes, D.F.; Jarvik, J.G.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of articles reporting the prevalence of imaging findings (CT or MR imaging) in asymptomatic individuals from published English literature through April 2014. Two reviewers evaluated each manuscript. We selected age groupings by decade (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 years), determining age-specific prevalence estimates. For each imaging finding, we fit a generalized linear mixed-effects model for the age-specific prevalence estimate clustering in the study, adjusting for the midpoint of the reported age interval. RESULTS Thirty-three articles reporting imaging findings for 3110 asymptomatic individuals met our study inclusion criteria. The prevalence of disk degeneration in asymptomatic individuals increased from 37% of 20-year-old individuals to 96% of 80-year-old individuals. Disk bulge prevalence increased from 30% of those 20 years of age to 84% of those 80 years of age. Disk protrusion prevalence increased from 29% of those 20 years of age to 43% of those 80 years of age. The prevalence of annular fissure increased from 19% of those 20 years of age to 29% of those 80 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Imaging findings of spine degeneration are present in high proportions of asymptomatic individuals, increasing with age. Many imaging-based degenerative features are likely part of normal aging and unassociated with pain. These imaging findings must be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:25430861
Park, Dong Il; Ryu, Seung Ho; Oh, Suk Joong; Yoo, Tae Woo; Kim, Hong Ju; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sung, In Kyung; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik
There is, currently, no consensus with regard to the role of endoscopy in the etiologic investigation of asymptomatic pemenopausal women suffering from iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate the contribution of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy to the etiologic diagnosis of a group of asymptomatic premenopausal women suffering from IDA. One hundred eight consecutive asymptomatic premenopausal women who fulfilled our entry criteria were included in our patient group between January 1998 and December 2004. One hundred thirty-five age-matched asymptomatic premenopausal women without anemia who had undergone EGD and colonoscopy for medical checkups were included in the control group. Clinically relevant lesions were detected in 7 of 108 (6.5%) of the patients and in 8 of 135 (5.9%) of the controls. There were no differences with regard to the frequency of clinically relevant lesions between the two groups (P > 0.05). Concomitant upper and lower GI lesions were not detected in any patients. In the upper GI tract, the only lesion found to be potentially causative of IDA anemia was a severe erosive gastritis, which was found in both the patient and the control groups. A source consistent with chronic bleeding was detected in the lower GI tract in 6 (5.6%) of the patients and 7 (5.2%) of the controls. Bleeding hemorrhoids represented the most frequently detected lesions in both the patient and control groups. Only one case of colon cancer was detected in the patient group. As IDA in the premenopausal women could not be attributed consistently to GI blood loss in this study, prospective studies should be conducted to validate our findings and to identify which subgroup of asymptomatic premenopausal women would benefit from a diagnostic endoscopic evaluation.
Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Nguyen, Tuan V
Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with a greater risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study sought to investigate whether the association is mediated by fat mass or lean mass. The study involved 170 men and 488 women aged between 20 and 90 (average age: 55) who were randomly recruited from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The presence of knee OA was radiographically diagnosed based on the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were obtained from the DXA whole body scan (Hologic QDR-4500). The relationship between OA, LM, and FM was analyzed by a series of multiple linear regression models which take into account the effects of gender and age. As expected, men and women with knee OA were older than those without OA (65 vs 51 year in men, and 64 vs 52 year in women). After adjusting for age, OA was associated with greater FM and percent body fat (PBF), but the association was only observed in women, not in men. There was no statistically significant difference in LM between OA and non-OA individuals. Moreover, after adjusting for age and BMI or PBF, bone density in OA patients was not significantly different from non-OA individuals. Women with OA of the knee have greater fat mass than non-OA individuals, and that there is no significant difference in bone density between OA and non-OA individuals. Thus, the association between body mass index and OA is mainly mediated by fat mass.
Taggart, P; Carruthers, M; Joseph, S; Kelly, H B; Marcomichelakis, J; Noble, D; O'Neill, G; Somerville, W
T wave and ST segment abnormalities in 20 asymptomatic men aged 18 to 55 were investigated because they were identical with myocardial ischaemic changes, and the professional livelihood of the subjects was jeopardised. Coronary arteriograms showed unobstructed arteries in all except one in whom a 50 per cent lesion of the left anterior descending artery was present. Left ventricular angiograms showed a normal contraction pattern, Ejection fractions were normal in 12 and increased in 8. Three characteristic electrocardiographic patterns were observed: flat or inverted T waves in leads II, III, aVF, and V4 to 6 designated type 1; deep T inversion particularly evident in leads V2 to 5 designated type 2, and minor ST segment depression in the inferior and lateral leads without T changes designated type 3. Characteristically, type 1 changes were temporarily suppressed by either beta-blockade or an overnight rest and were more abnormal in the standing position. Type 2 and 3 changes were relatively uninfluenced by these manoeuvres. Maximal treadmill exercise tests were positive in 6 and borderline or negative in 14. When repeated after oxprenolol all tests were negative. Echocardiograms showed asymmetric septal hypertrophy in 3 subjects (ratio of greater than 1.5 between ventricular septum and posterior left ventricular wall). After normalisation by an overnight rest, type 1 T wave abnormalities were reproduced by intravenous adrenaline infusion (0.024 to 0.18 microgram/kg/min) but not by noradrenaline or by adrenaline after prior administration of oxprenolol. When the T waves had remained deeply inverted before infusion despite rest (type 2) adrenaline infusion normalised them and again noradrenaline was without effect. This effect was also prevented by oxprenolol. Type 3 changes were uninfluenced by catecholamine infusion. Plasma catecholamine estimations suggest that catecholamine hypersecretion and hypersensitivity may both be relevant, particularly the latter. The
Puiprom, Orapim; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC colonization factors (CFs) are virulence determinants considered as protective antigens and major targets for vaccine development against ETEC infections. One of the most prevalent CFs, coli surface antigen 6 (CS6), a non-fimbrial polymeric protein consisting of two major subunits, CssA and CssB, is produced by approximately 25-35% of ETEC worldwide. We could isolate only CS6-producing ETEC strains from two diarrheal patients and one asymptomatic carrier, but we could not detect CssA- or CssB-specific antibodies in the feces and blood of two patients convalescing from natural ETEC infection and of an asymptomatic carrier using western blotting. Therefore, in order to protect against infection with CS6-producing ETEC, protective levels of CS6 immunity should be incorporated in any future vaccines against ETEC.
Elliott, Jason E; Maslow, Ken D
Bowel perforation is a rare complication of mid-urethral sling procedures and is usually reported shortly after the surgery. We report a remotely discovered asymptomatic bowel injury found at the time of subsequent surgery. The patient with a history of several prior pelvic surgeries underwent an uneventful retropubic mid-urethral sling placement. Five years later, during an abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure, mesh from the mid-urethral sling was found perforating the wall of the cecum and fixating it to the right pelvic sidewall. Cecal wedge resection was performed to excise the sling mesh. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by mid-urethral sling mesh has not been previously reported. Pelvic and abdominal surgeons should be aware of the possibility of finding this injury in patients with prior sling surgeries.
Background Arterial stiffness has been established as a surrogate marker for the prognosis of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is also a predictor of future cardiovascular events, and is the earliest detectable manifestation of adverse structural and functional changes to blood vessel walls. Summary and Key Messages The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is an index representing the stiffness of the entire arterial segments from the aorta to the ankle independent of the blood pressure at the time of the measurement. This paper provides an overview of the clinical application of arterial stiffness measurement by CAVI in asymptomatic Koreans. It includes the association between cardiometabolic risk factors and CAVI, and the relation between CAVI and asymptomatic coronary artery disease. PMID:28275591
Introduction Gangrenous cholecystitis is a severe complication of acute cholecystitis. We present an unusual case of gangrenous cholecystitis which was totally asymptomatic, with normal pre-operative parameters, and was discovered incidentally during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We have not found any similar cases in the published literature. Case presentation A 79-year-old British Caucasian man presented initially with acute cholecystitis which responded to conservative management. After six weeks he was asymptomatic and had normal blood parameters. An elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and our patient was found to have a totally gangrenous gall bladder. Conclusion It is important to keep a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis in order to avoid potentially serious complications. PMID:21600009
Dey, H.M.; Brass, L.; Rich, D.
The purpose of this study was to use acetazolamide (AZ) enhanced O-15 water PET to evaluate cerebral perfusion reserve in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We hypothesized that impaired vasoreactivity would be associated with symptomatic disease and a higher likelihood of future ischemic events. Twenty-two patients with significant (>75%) carotid artery occlusion underwent cerebral blood flow imaging at baseline and following AZ infusion. Paired O-15 data sets were coregistered and globally normalized. Regions of interest were drawn on baseline blood flow images and superimposed upon (AZ - baseline) difference images to derive a % change in regional blood flow after AZ administration. The results showed a significant difference in cerebral perfusion reserve between symptomatic (n=19) and asymptomatic (n=3) carotid artery disease.
Driscoll, I.; Troncoso, J.
Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the neuropathological hallmarks of AD, are not limited to individuals with dementia. These pathologic changes can also be present in the brains of cognitively normal older adults – a condition we defined as Asymptomatic AD (ASYMAD). Although it remains unclear whether these individuals would remain clinically normal with longer survival, they seem to be able to compensate for or delay the appearance of dementia symptoms. Here, we provide a historical background and highlight the combined clinical, pathologic and morphometric evidence related to ASYMAD. Understanding the nature of changes during this apparently asymptomatic state may shed light on the mechanisms that forestall the progression of the disease and allow for maintenance of cognitive health, an important area of research that has been understudied relative to the identification of risks and pathways to negative health outcomes. PMID:21222594
Anggriani, N.; Supriatna, A. K.; Soewono, E.
In this paper we formulate a model of dengue fever transmission by considering the presence of asymptomatic and symptomatic compartments. The model takes the form as a system of differential equations representing a host-vector SIR (Susceptible - Infective -Recovered) disease transmission. It is assumed that both host and vector populations are constant. It is also assumed that reinfection of recovered hosts by the disease is possible due to a wanning immunity in human body. We analyze the model to determine the qualitative behavior of the model solution and use the concept of effective basic reproduction number (fraktur Rp) as a control criteria of the disease transmission. The effect of mosquito biting protection (e.g. by using insect repellent) is also considered. We compute the long-term ratio of the asymptomatic and symptomatic classes and show a condition for which the iceberg phenomenon could appear.
Parreira, Jose Gustavo; Rasslan, Samir; Utiyama, Edivaldo M.
The most challenging diagnostic issue in the management of thoracoabdominal wounds concerns the assessment of asymptomatic patients. In almost one-third of such cases, diaphragmatic injuries are present even in the absence of any clear clinical signs. The sensitivity of noninvasive diagnostic tests is very low in this situation, and acceptable methods for diagnosis are limited to videolaparoscopy or videothoracoscopy. However, these procedures are performed under general anesthesia and present real, and potentially unnecessary, risks for the patient. On the other hand, diaphragmatic hernias, which can result from unsutured diaphragmatic lesions, are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. In this paper, the management of asymptomatic patients sustaining wounds to the lower chest is discussed, with a focus on the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries and the necessity of suturing them. PMID:18925332
Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio
Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.
Braun, I.F.; Lin, J.P.; Benjamin, M.V.; Kricheff, I.I.
Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be an effective noninvasive means of imaging the lumbar spine in patients with suspected disk disease. The clinical and radiographic evaluation, however, of patients with new or recurrent symptoms after surgery for disk disease is fraught with difficulty. This report describes CT changes seen in seven asymptomatic volunteers scanned at various intervals after disk surgery and discusses the implications of these findings.
Mustelier, Juan Valiente; Rego, Julio Oscar Cabrera; Aquiles, Eddy W Olivares; Llerena, Luis Roberto
Coronary artery fistulas are unusual congenital or acquired coronary artery abnormalities in which blood is shunted into a cardiac chamber, great vessel or other structure, bypassing the myocardial capillary network (Jung et al. in Cardiovasc Ultrasound 5:10, 2007). We present a young adult patient with an asymptomatic fistula from a giant aneurysmatic left anterior descending artery to the right ventricular outflow tract, first diagnosed by echocardiography examination and further confirmed by 128-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.
Weirather, Jason L.; Duggal, Priya; Nascimento, Eliana L.; Monteiro, Gloria R.; Martins, Daniella R.; Lacerda, Henio G.; Fakiola, Michaela; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Jeronimo, Selma M.B.; Wilson, Mary E.
Infection with the protozoan Leishmania infantum can lead to asymptomatic infection and protective immunity, or to the progressive and potentially fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Published studies show host genetic background determines in part whether infected individuals will develop a symptomatic or asymptomatic outcome. The purpose of the current study was to fine map chromosome regions previously linked with risk for symptomatic (chromosome 9) or asymptomatic (chromosomes 15 and 19) manifestations of L. infantum infection. We conducted a family-based genetic study of VL and asymptomatic infection (detected by a DTH skin test) with a final post quality control sample of 961 individuals with full genotype and phenotype information from highly endemic neighborhoods of northeast Brazil. A total of 5485 SNPs under the linkage peaks on chromosomes 9, 15 and 19 were genotyped. No strong SNP associations were observed for the DTH phenotype. The most significant associations with the VL phenotype were with SNP rs1470217 (p = 5.9e−05; pcorrected = 0.057) on chromosome 9, and with SNP rs8107014 (p = 1.4e−05; pcorrected = 0.013) on chromosome 19. SNP rs1470217 is situated in a 180 kb intergenic region between TMEM215 (Transmembrane protein 215) and APTX (Aprataxin). SNP rs8107014 lies in the intron between exons 26 and 27 of a 34 exon transcript (ENST00000204005) of LTBP4, (Latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein 4a). The latter supports growing evidence that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway is important in the immunopathogenesis of VL. PMID:27155051
Park, Gyung-Min; Lee, Seung-Whan; Cho, Young-Rak; Kim, Chan Joon; Cho, Jung Sun; Park, Mahn-Won; Her, Sung Ho; Ahn, Jung-Min; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung; Park, Joong-Yeol
There are limited data regarding the role of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We analyzed 557 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients who underwent CCTA. Cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization, or late revascularization. Atherosclerotic plaques were observed in 395 patients (70.9%), and 170 patients (30.5%) showed significant coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA. Ninety-two patients (16.5%) were associated with a significant stenosis in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery. During the follow-up period (33.7 ± 7.8 months), although an excellent prognosis was observed in patients without significant CAD on CCTA, those with significant CAD showed more cardiac events (7.1% vs 0.5%) and lower 3-year event-free survival rates (99.2 ± 0.6% vs 90.9 ± 2.6%, p <0.001). Furthermore, in group with significant CAD, patients with significant CAD in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery had more cardiac events (10.9% vs 2.6%) and lower 3-year event-free survival rates (97.4 ± 1.8% vs 86.1 ± 4.2%, p = 0.049). On multivariate analysis, family history of premature CAD, previous history of stroke, higher UK Prospective Diabetes Study 10-year risk scores, neuropathy, and retinopathy were independent clinical predictors of having significant CAD and left main or proximal left anterior descending artery significant CAD on CCTA. In conclusion, about 1/3 of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients had significant CAD on CCTA with a subsequent high risk for cardiac events. These findings suggest that CCTA may have a potential role in identifying patients with high cardiovascular risks in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes.
Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima
Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.
Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima
Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26132361
Kirschen, Matthew P.; Illes, Judy
ABSTRACT The clinical and ethical implications of an asymptomatic 17-year-old competitive football player incidentally found to have a type 1 Chiari malformation without a syrinx on brain imaging are discussed. Considering that patients with Chiari malformations can sustain irreversible neurologic injury or death after a mild head injury, and given the lack of data describing the risk of catastrophic injury after head trauma, the ethics of clearing this athlete to return to play are reviewed. PMID:25470168
Cohen, I; Perel, E; Flex, D; Tepper, R; Altaras, M M; Cordoba, M; Beyth, Y
AIMS: To evaluate whether endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic rather than in gynaecologically asymptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment; and to evaluate the possible influence of various clinical factors on the incidence of endometrial pathology. METHODS: Endometrial histological findings, transvaginal ultrasonographic endometrial thickness, demographic characteristics, health habits, and risk factors for endometrial cancer were compared between 14 gynaecologically symptomatic (group I) and 224 gynaecologically asymptomatic (group II) postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 28.6% of the study population had endometrial pathology. The incidence of overall positive endometrial histological findings was significantly higher in group I than in group II (92.9% v 24.6%, p < 0.0001). Atrophic endometrium was more common in group II than in group I (75.3% v 7.1%, p < 0.0001). Most other endometrial pathology was significantly more common in group I than in group II (endometrial hyperplasia, 35.7% v 5.6%, p < 0.0001; endometrial polyps, 35.7% v 13.4%, p < 0.0111; endometrial carcinoma, 21.5% v 0.9%, p < 0.0001). Endometrial pathology appeared considerably later in the gynaecologically asymptomatic patients than in gynaecologically symptomatic patients (p = 0.0002). Vaginal bleeding or spotting occurred exclusively in group I. The incidence of endometrial pathology in the entire study population was consistent with that reported elsewhere, and higher than that reported for healthy postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment, and after a shorter duration of time, than in gynaecologically asymptomatic patients. PMID:10474520
Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Reyes, David; Locke, James
Ultrasound (US) specifically looking for asymptomatic renal calcifications that may be renal stones is typically not done in the terrestrial setting. Standard abdominal US without a renal focus may discover incidental, mineralized renal material (MRM); however punctate solid areas of MRM is less than 3 mm are usually considered subclinical. Detecting these early calcifications before they become symptomatic renal stones is critical to prevent adverse medical and mission outcomes during spaceflight.
Isozaki, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro; Iihara, Koji
Background: We investigated the relationship between silent ischemic lesions, defined as hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of brain white matter and cerebral hemodynamics (baseline cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasoreactivity). Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2012, 61 patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis were evaluated for asymptomatic silent ischemic lesions, acute infarction, and cerebral hemodynamics. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on silent ischemic lesion distribution; the Symmetry group (n = 34) included patients who showed symmetrical distribution of lesions (or had no lesions), and the Asymmetry group (n = 27) included patients with a greater number of lesions in the ipsilateral than that in the contralateral hemisphere. The Asymmetry group was further divided into Internal (n = 15) and External (n = 12) types. Results: Two External-type patients (17%) showed spotty asymptomatic acute infarction in the ipsilateral hemisphere. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics, histopathological findings, vascular risk factors, or cerebral blood flow values between the groups. The mean cerebral vasoreactivity value in the ipsilateral hemisphere for the Internal type was 13.0 ± 15.2% (range: −11.4% to 41.6%), which was significantly lower than values of the contralateral hemisphere (36.7 ± 20.8%; range: 3.9% to 75.7%; P <.01) and ipsilateral hemispheres of the other groups (P <.01). Conclusions: The finding that increased ipsilateral asymmetrical silent ischemic lesions correlated with cerebral vasoreactivity reduction may help predict the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. PMID:28217385
Anderson, Kirsten A; Brooks, Andrew S; Morrison, Annette L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Martin, S Wayne; Benn, Denna M; Peregrine, Andrew S
Feces were collected from 107 asymptomatic dogs at a research facility in Guelph, Ontario. The prevalence of Giardia infection was 11% (12/107). To assess the effectiveness of Giardia vaccination for treatment of Giardia carriage, 9 additional asymptomatic Giardia antigen-positive dogs were brought into the facility. The Giardia antigen-positive dogs were then randomly allocated to receive either vaccine (n = 10) or a saline placebo (n = 10). Feces were then monitored monthly for 6 mo for Giardia antigen and Giardia cysts. At weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 following vaccination, there were more Giardia-positive dogs in the vaccinated group (10/10, 9/10, 9/10, 8/10, respectively) compared with the controls (7/10, 7/10, 8/10, 4/10, respectively). At week 20, an equal number of dogs (5/10) were Giardia positive, and at week 24, fewer dogs were positive in the vaccinated group than in the control group (2/10 versus 5/10, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Vaccination was, therefore, not an effective treatment for asymptomatic canine Giardia infections in this setting.
Abstract Feces were collected from 107 asymptomatic dogs at a research facility in Guelph, Ontario. The prevalence of Giardia infection was 11% (12/107). To assess the effectiveness of Giardia vaccination for treatment of Giardia carriage, 9 additional asymptomatic Giardia antigen-positive dogs were brought into the facility. The Giardia antigen-positive dogs were then randomly allocated to receive either vaccine (n = 10) or a saline placebo (n = 10). Feces were then monitored monthly for 6 mo for Giardia antigen and Giardia cysts. At weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 following vaccination, there were more Giardia-positive dogs in the vaccinated group (10/10, 9/10, 9/10, 8/10, respectively) compared with the controls (7/10, 7/10, 8/10, 4/10, respectively). At week 20, an equal number of dogs (5/10) were Giardia positive, and at week 24, fewer dogs were positive in the vaccinated group than in the control group (2/10 versus 5/10, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Vaccination was, therefore, not an effective treatment for asymptomatic canine Giardia infections in this setting. PMID:15600158
Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )
This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.
Lääveri, T; Antikainen, J; Pakkanen, S H; Kirveskari, J; Kantele, A
Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains the most frequent health problem encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Traditional stool culture identifies the pathogen in only 15% of cases. Exploiting PCR-based methods, we investigated TD pathogens with a focus on asymptomatic travellers and severity of symptoms. Pre- and post-travel stools of 382 travellers with no history of antibiotic use during travel were analysed with a multiplex quantitative PCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and five diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC). The participants were categorized by presence/absence of TD during travel and on return, and by severity of symptoms. A pathogen was indentified in 61% of the asymptomatic travellers, 83% of those with resolved TD, and 83% of those with ongoing TD; 25%, 43% and 53% had multiple pathogens, respectively. EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and Campylobacter associated especially with ongoing TD symptoms. EAEC and EPEC proved more common than ETEC. To conclude, modern methodology challenges our perception of stool pathogens: all pathogens were common both in asymptomatic and symptomatic travellers. TD has a multibacterial nature, but diarrhoeal symptoms mostly associate with EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and Campylobacter.
Li, Mingjie; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhong, Weicai; Xue, Liyin
The study of the impact of human activity patterns on network dynamics has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. However, individuals' knowledge of their own physical states has rarely been incorporated into modeling processes. In real life, for certain infectious processes, infected agents may not have any visible or physical signs and symptoms; therefore, they may believe that they are uninfected even when they have been infected asymptomatically. This infection awareness factor is covered neither in the classical epidemic models such as SIS nor in network propagation studies. In this article, we propose a novel infectious process model that differentiates between the infection awareness states and the physical states of individuals and extend the SIS model to deal with both asymptomatic infection characteristics and human activity patterns. With regards to the latter, we focus particularly on individuals' testing action, which is to determine whether an individual is infected by an epidemic. The simulation results show that less effort is required in controlling the disease when the transmission probability is either very small or large enough and that Poisson activity patterns are more effective than heavy-tailed patterns in controlling and eliminating asymptomatic infectious diseases due to the long-tail characteristic.
Alves, G B B; Pinho, F A; Silva, S M M S; Cruz, M S P; Costa, F A L
Fifteen symptomatic and seven asymptomatic dogs infected naturally with Leishmania chagasi were examined in order to identify the presence of parasites and changes in heart and lung. Histopathological, cytological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on samples of heart and lung tissues. An inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory mononuclear, perivascular and intermuscular infiltrates was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals on histopathological analysis of the heart. In the lung, there was thickening of the alveolar septa due to congestion, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblast proliferation. A focal reaction was observed although a diffuse reaction was present in both groups. On cytological examination, heart and lung imprints revealed amastigotes in two symptomatic animals and heart imprints were found in 1 asymptomatic dog. Immunoperoxidase staining showed amastigotes in the lung and heart of only 1 of 6 symptomatic animals examined. Within the ethical principles and limits of this research, it can be inferred that the study of heart and lung alterations in canine visceral leishmaniasis is increasingly important for understanding the problem related to humans. Dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were a good experimental model, since infection was caused by the same agent and the animals developed clinical, pathological and immunological alterations similar to those observed in humans.
Okusanya, B O; Aigere, E O S; Eigbefoh, J O; Okome, G B O; Gigi, C E
Detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is important to avert the attendant morbidities. Therefore, we assessed the use of chlorhexidine reaction to detect ASB in pregnancy. This was a prospective study, which compared chlorhexidine reaction with dipstick tests and urine culture in 150 asymptomatic pregnant women. Urine cultures detected bacteriuria in seven women (4.7%). Chlorhexidine detected ASB in 72 women (48%) and had sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100%, 54% and 56%, respectively. Leucocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite detected bacteriuria in 31 (20.7%) women and 12 (8.0%) women, respectively. Singly, LE had a sensitivity and specificity of 14.3% and 79%, respectively, while nitrite's sensitivity and specificity was 42.9% and 93.7%, respectively. Combined, LE and nitrite had better sensitivity (97.9%) and accuracy (94%). Since the accuracy of chlorhexidine is low, other than urine culture, combined dipstick urinalysis of leucocyte esterase and nitrite tests is good to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.
Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens
Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening.
Seckin, B; Ozgu-Erdinc, A S; Dogan, M; Turker, M; Cicek, M N
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of sonographic endometrium thickness measurement in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid collection. Fifty-two asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid, who underwent endometrial sampling were evaluated. Histopathological findings revealed that 25 (48.1%) women had insufficient tissue, 20 (38.4%) had atrophic endometrium and 7 (13.5%) had endometrial polyps. No case of malignancy was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the various histopathological categories (insufficient tissue, atrophic endometrium and polyp) with regard to the mean single-layer endometrial thickness (1.54 ± 0.87, 2.04 ± 1.76 and 1.79 ± 0.69 mm, respectively, p = 0.436). Out of 44 patients with endometrial thickness of less than 3 mm, 38 (86.4%) had atrophic changes or insufficient tissue and 6 (13.6%) had endometrial polyps. In conclusion, if the endometrial thickness is 3 mm or less, endometrial sampling is not necessary in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid.
Valina, Mary Rose; Larsen, Christopher P; Kanosky, Sherry; Suchy, Sharon F; Nield, Linda S; Onder, Ali Mirza
Dent disease is an X-linked proximal tubulopathy that typically presents with hypercalciuria, low-molecular-weight proteinuria and slow progression to endstage renal disease. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic nephrotic range proteinuria and was later diagnosed with Dent disease. Absence of specific glomerular pathology in the first kidney biopsy led to erroneous treatment for presumably unsampled primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Aggressive angiotensin blockade and immunosuppression resulted in significant side effects with marginal benefit. The continued nonspecific findings after a second kidney biopsy 2 years later led to the suspicion of a congenital tubulopathy. We detected a novel CLCN5 gene mutation, c.1396G > C, that creates a G466R missense change in the ClC-5 protein. Dent disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic proteinuria for male patients. Profiling proteinuria in these patients by spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio may give the first clue to a tubulopathy. Determining the extent to which the clinical work-up should proceed for females with Dent phenotype or asymptomatic proteinuria remains to be a challenging clinical dilemma.
Murphy, B.; Hillman, C.; McDonnel, S.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats enter a clinically asymptomatic phase during chronic infection. Despite the lack of overt clinical disease, the asymptomatic phase is characterized by persistent immunologic impairment. In the peripheral blood obtained from cats experimentally infected with FIV-C for approximately 5 years, we identified a persistent inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio. We cloned and sequenced the FIV-C long terminal repeat containing the viral promoter from cells infected with the inoculating virus and from in vivo-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4 T cells isolated at multiple time points throughout the asymptomatic phase. Relative to the inoculating virus, viral sequences amplified from cells isolated from all of the infected animals demonstrated multiple single nucleotide mutations and a short deletion within the viral U3, R and U5 regions. A transcriptionally inactivating proviral mutation in the U3 promoter AP-1 site was identified at multiple time points from all of the infected animals but not within cell-associated viral RNA. In contrast, no mutations were identified within the sequence of the viral dUTPase gene amplified from PBMC isolated at approximately 5 years post-infection relative to the inoculating sequence. The possible implications of these mutations to viral pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:24291288
Brettell, Laura E.; Mordecai, Gideon J.; Schroeder, Declan C.; Jones, Ian M.; da Silva, Jessica R.; Vicente-Rubiano, Marina; Martin, Stephen J.
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees. However, we found no greater bilateral asymmetry in wing morphology due to DWV titres or parasitisation. As expected, using RT-qPCR, deformed bees were found to contain the highest viral loads. In a separate study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to compare the entire DWV genomes from paired symptomatic and asymptomatic bees from three colonies on two different Hawaiian islands. This revealed no consistent differences between DWV genomes from deformed or asymptomatic bees, with the greatest variation seen between locations, not phenotypes. All samples, except one, were dominated by DWV type A. This small-scale study suggests that there is no unique genetic variant associated with wing deformity; but that many DWV variants have the potential to cause deformity. PMID:28272333
Carne, C A; McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Menon-Johansson, A; Gokhale, R; Sethi, G; Mammen-Tobin, A G; Daniels, D
Of clinics responding to the audit, 99 and 97% have policies that are compliant with the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV National Guidelines for testing of asymptomatic men and women for HIV and syphilis, respectively. All clinics offer men, and all but one clinic offer women, screening for chlamydial infection with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), as recommended by the guidelines. However, for gonorrhoea screening one-third of clinics offer men urine or urethral NAATs, and one quarter of clinics offer women endocervical, vulvovaginal or urinary NAATs, and not endocervical culture, and these practices are not compliant with the guidelines. Eight clinics did not specify whether they routinely offer testing for gonorrhoea in women. One-third of clinics routinely perform rectal and oropharyngeal screening for gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM), but fewer screen for chlamydia, regardless of sexual history which is stated as a determinant of offering screening at these anatomical sites. Finally, one-fifth of clinics offer urethral microscopy to asymptomatic heterosexual men and MSM, and about one half of clinics offer urethral culture for detection of gonorrhoea in asymptomatic women, even though these practices are not compliant with the guidelines.
Brettell, Laura E; Mordecai, Gideon J; Schroeder, Declan C; Jones, Ian M; da Silva, Jessica R; Vicente-Rubiano, Marina; Martin, Stephen J
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees. However, we found no greater bilateral asymmetry in wing morphology due to DWV titres or parasitisation. As expected, using RT-qPCR, deformed bees were found to contain the highest viral loads. In a separate study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to compare the entire DWV genomes from paired symptomatic and asymptomatic bees from three colonies on two different Hawaiian islands. This revealed no consistent differences between DWV genomes from deformed or asymptomatic bees, with the greatest variation seen between locations, not phenotypes. All samples, except one, were dominated by DWV type A. This small-scale study suggests that there is no unique genetic variant associated with wing deformity; but that many DWV variants have the potential to cause deformity.
Berns, Jeffrey S
CKD is an important public health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impaired quality of life, shortened life expectancy, and excessive health care costs. Given its long preclinical latency, screening of asymptomatic individuals for CKD has been considered as a potentially useful means of early detection, with a goal of reducing CKD progression and its complications. A recent clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians that recommended against screening for CKD in asymptomatic adults without risk factors has reignited debate regarding CKD screening. Despite the lack of randomized controlled trial evidence showing benefits of CKD screening, even among individuals at increased risk for CKD, such as those with diabetes or hypertension or who are of certain high-risk racial or ethnic groups, a thoughtful and selective approach to CKD screening seems to be cost-effective and clinically valuable. CKD screening is recommended by several nephrology professional societies and appropriate in at-risk asymptomatic individuals with the intent of identifying and managing CKD, diagnosing the etiology of CKD, limiting or preventing CKD progression and its associated cardiovascular disease risk, and minimizing risk of AKI, inappropriate drug dosing, and nephrotoxic injury.
Perin, Alessandro; Cola, Roberto; Favretti, Franco
INTRODUCTION Accessory wandering spleen is a rare but dangerous condition. Abnormalities of the ligamentous apparatus of an accessory spleen may evolve into torsion of its vascular axis, which can lead to a splenic infarct making surgery necessary. Patients are often asymptomatic and the diagnosis can be accidental. An early diagnosis and a correct treatment are fundamental. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report a young woman underwent laparoscopic surgery after an incidental finding at a Pelvic Ultrasound of an accessory wandering spleen. DISCUSSION In literature are reported cases of asymptomatic patients with an accessory wandering spleen treated with a conservative approach. However, a torsion or infarct of the accessory wandering spleen leads to emergency surgery. The presence of an independent vascular axis of the accessory spleen reduces the risk of postoperative complications (e.g. thrombocytosis) and the administration of low molecular weight heparin should prevent the risk of portal thrombosis. CONCLUSION We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion. PMID:25460427
Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen
AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334
Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens
Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433
Anderst, William; Donaldson, William; Lee, Joon; Kang, James
The aim of this study was to characterize cervical disc deformation in asymptomatic subjects and single-level arthrodesis patients during in vivo functional motion. A validated model-based tracking technique determined vertebral motion from biplane radiographs collected during dynamic flexion–extension. Level-dependent differences in disc compression–distraction and shear deformation were identified within the anterior and posterior annulus (PA) and the nucleus of 20 asymptomatic subjects and 15 arthrodesis patients using a mixed-model statistical analysis. In asymptomatic subjects, disc compression and shear deformation per degree of flexion–extension progressively decreased from C23 to C67. The anterior and PA experienced compression–distraction deformation of up to 20%, while the nucleus region was compressed between 0% (C67) and 12% (C23). Peak shear deformation ranged from 16% (at C67) to 33% (at C45). In the C5–C6 arthrodesis group, C45 discs were significantly less compressed than in the control group in all disc regions (all p ≤ 0.026). In the C6–C7 arthrodesis group, C56 discs were significantly less compressed than the control group in the nucleus (p = 0.023) and PA (p = 0.014), but not the anterior annulus (AA; p = 0.137). These results indicate in vivo disc deformation is level-dependent, and single-level anterior arthrodesis alters the compression–distraction deformation in the disc immediately superior to the arthrodesis. PMID:23861160
Treves, S.T.; Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Davis, R.T.; Rosen, P.; Bauer, S.; Retik, A.; Colodny, A.
A significant occurrence of vesicoureteric reflux in siblings of children with reflux has been previously suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of vesicoureteric reflux in asymptomatic siblings of children with vesicoureteric reflux using radionuclide voiding cystography (RNC). A random group of 52 siblings was studied. Their ages were from 2 mos. to 13 yrs. (mean 4 yrs.). Seventy-one percent were female and 29% male, RNC was performed with the patients supine, and Tc-99m pertechnetate (2mCi/1) was infused into the bladder by catheter. A computerized gamma camera recorded the filling and voiding phase of the study at 1 frame/5 sec. Reflux was detected in 40% of the patients. It was bilateral in 17% and unilateral in 23% of the patients. Reflux was identified to the renal pelves in half of the patients. In two of these patients Tc-99m DMSA scans were obtained which revealed significant renal scarring. This study demonstrates the high incidence of reflux of various degrees in these asymptomatic siblings on high risk of developing significant renal disease. Identification and proper treatment of asymptomatic children with vesicoureteric reflux may help prevent the development of renal damage.
Prisco, Vincenzo; Monica, Petrosino; Fiore, Germano; Tridente, Annamaria; La Rocca, Antonietta; Catapano, Francesco; Fabrazzo, Michele
Clozapine-related pericarditis is a rare side effect of the drug. We reported the clinical cases of two women, aged 22 and 28 years, affected by schizophrenia with pericarditis symptoms related to clozapine treatment of 200 mg/day. Clozapine was discontinued in both patients, resulting in normalization of the ECG changes, and echocardiography confirmed the progressive disappearance of the pericardial effusion. Interestingly, while inflammatory indices and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) plasma levels were high in both patients, only one of them showed tachycardia, subjective chest pain, shortness of breath and dyspnea, with a clinical symptomatology suggesting a cardiac involvement. BNP is a vasoactive peptide synthetized by the ventricular myocardium which splits in two fragments: BNP and the N-terminal (pro-BNP). Both are considered valuable biomarkers in clinical practice for the prediction of disease state and prognosis in patients with suspected heart failure. Pro-BNP acts as a key regulator in the homeostasis of water and salt excretion and in the maintenance of blood pressure, mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and blocking the sympathetic nervous activity. In our cases, pro-BNP plasma levels proved to be a profitable way to identify subjects with asymptomatic cardiac impairment who could benefit from a therapy preventing progression to heart failure.
Huang, Hans; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Mesa, Hector; Gupta, Pankaj
Background Plasma cell myeloma is the most common primary bone malignancy in adults. However, liver involvement in the form of an initial and asymptomatic nodular plasmacytoma is exceedingly rare. Case Report A 64-year-old male was found to have a right hepatic lobe nodule on a routine abdominal ultrasound prior to bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy revealed a plasma cell neoplasm that, given the location of the lesion, was favored to represent a lymphoma with prominent plasmacytic differentiation. Positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated a hypermetabolic hepatic mass and identified multiple destructive bony lesions. Biopsy of a clavicular lesion revealed sheets of plasma cells and confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The patient underwent 6 cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone before transitioning to lenalidomide and dexamethasone because of early disease progression. Although the patient had International Staging System I (low-risk) disease, his disease demonstrated an aggressive clinical course and resistance to multiple lines of therapy. Conclusion Extramedullary nodular hepatic plasmacytoma is exceedingly rare. Nevertheless, extramedullary plasmacytomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with indistinct hepatic lesions visualized on computed tomography scan, especially if PET scans show associated bony lesions. In general, extramedullary plasmacytomas are a poor prognostic sign and a harbinger of an aggressive clinical course in the context of multiple myeloma. PMID:26730235
Dabis, R; Radcliffe, K
According to the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV guidelines, a full physical examination is recommended in patients with possible late syphilis. The aim of this audit was to review all cases of late syphilis diagnosed at our centre since 1994 to see if a full cardiovascular and neurological examination was documented and also to see what a full examination contributed to the management of asymptomatic patients. Of the 480 medical notes audited, 295 patients were asymptomatic of whom 288 (98%) had normal physical examinations; the rest were either not documented, declined or defaulted follow-up. Seven asymptomatic patients had positive clinical findings but these did not lead to a diagnosis of cardiovascular or neurological syphilis. This audit has shown that performing a physical examination in asymptomatic patients added no benefit in diagnosing complications of late syphilis; it would appear that the physical examination did not alter the management.
Sankaridurg, Padmaja R.; Sharma, Savitri; Willcox, Mark; Naduvilath, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Deborah F.; Holden, Brien A.; Rao, Gullapalli N.
Microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria, are considered to play a role in the etiology of certain corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) observed during soft contact lens wear. This study explored the possibility of microbial colonization of soft contact lenses as a risk factor leading to CIEs. In a clinical trial conducted from March 1993 to January 1996, 330 subjects wore disposable soft contact lenses on a 6-night extended-wear and disposal schedule. During this period, 4,321 lenses (118 during CIEs; 4,203 during asymptomatic lens wear) were recovered aseptically and analyzed for microbial colonization. A greater percentage of lenses were free from microbial colonization during asymptomatic wear than during CIEs (42 versus 23%; P < 0.0001). The incidence of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi was greater during CIEs than during asymptomatic lens wear (P < 0.05). During asymptomatic lens wear, gram-positive bacteria were isolated most frequently and were usually normal external ocular microbiota. Of the gram-positive bacteria, the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae was greater during CIE than during asymptomatic wear (7.6 versus 0.6%; P < 0.0001). While gram-negative bacteria were seen in few cases during asymptomatic wear, their incidence during CIE in comparison to asymptomatic wear was substantial and significant (23.7 versus 3.8%; P < 0.0001). Also, the level of colonization was high. Of CIEs, events of microbial keratitis, contact lens acute red eye, and asymptomatic infiltrative keratitis were associated with lens colonization with gram-negative bacteria or S. pneumoniae. Colonization of soft contact lenses with pathogenic bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria and S. pneumoniae, appears to be a significant risk factor leading to CIE. PMID:11101574
47 In OPTIMAL ECG ELECTRODE SITES AND CRITERIA to FOR DETECTION OF ASYMPTOMATIC CORONARY to ARTERY DISEASE AT REST AND WITH EXERCISE Ronald H...of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease at Rest and with Exercise 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Selvester, Ronald H.; and Solomon, Joseph C.13a. TYPE OF...15-30, of all new coronary events in persons with previously unsuspected coronary disease . The prevalence of unrecognized but severe coronary artery
Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Joung, AeRan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ho Jin
We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1). If asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain abnormalities were considered as evidence for DIS, while also assuming that the AQP4-IgG status was unknown, the median time to diagnosis using the 2015 diagnosis criteria for NMOSD was shortened from 28 months to 6 months (p = 0.008). Asymptomatic acute NMOSD-typical brain lesions can be accompanied by an acute attack of ON or myelitis. Identifying these asymptomatic brain lesions may help facilitate earlier diagnosis of NMOSD. PMID:27936193
Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Joung, AeRan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ho Jin
We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1). If asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain abnormalities were considered as evidence for DIS, while also assuming that the AQP4-IgG status was unknown, the median time to diagnosis using the 2015 diagnosis criteria for NMOSD was shortened from 28 months to 6 months (p = 0.008). Asymptomatic acute NMOSD-typical brain lesions can be accompanied by an acute attack of ON or myelitis. Identifying these asymptomatic brain lesions may help facilitate earlier diagnosis of NMOSD.
Morré, S. A.; Rozendaal, L.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.; Schirm, J.; de Blok, S.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; van den Brule, A. J. C.
To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association between C. trachomatis serovars and specific clinical symptoms was investigated. C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens from 219 asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from population-based screening programs in Amsterdam. Two hundred twenty-one C. trachomatis-positive cervical and urethral swabs from symptomatically and asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from several hospital-based departments. Serovars were determined using PCR-based genotyping, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nested-PCR-amplified omp1 gene. The most prevalent C. trachomatis serovars, D, E, and F, showed no association with either a symptomatic or asymptomatic course of infection. The most prominent differences found were (i) the association of serovar Ga with symptoms in men (P = 0.0027), specifically, dysuria (P < 0.0001), and (ii) detection of serovar Ia more often in asymptomatically infected people (men and women) (P = 0.035). Furthermore, in women, serovar K was associated with vaginal discharge (P = 0.002) and serovar variants were found only in women (P = 0.045). PMID:10834991
Chang, Chung-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Pin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung
Objective Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis (AEE) is commonly found in men, and might be a risk factor of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine if specific dietary habits increase the risk of AEE in asymptomatic Taiwanese men. Methods We recruited male adults undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for health check. We excluded subjects with reflux symptoms, or taking anti-reflux medications or drugs that potentially impair lower esophageal sphincter function or cause mucosal injury. The frequency of consuming reflux-provoking diets including alcohol, tea, coffee, tomato/citric juice, chocolate, sweet food, and spicy food was assessed. The erosive esophagitis was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification after endoscopy. Frequent consumption of a specific diet was defined as ≥4 days/week of consuming that diet. Results A total of 1256 participants were recruited. After excluding 424 ineligible subjects, AEE was identified in 180 (22%) among 832 asymptomatic subjects. The risk of AEE increased with the number of days per week of consuming alcohol or tea: nondrinkers (19%, 17%), occasional drinkers (<1 day/week; 19%, 15%), regular drinkers (1–3 days/week; 26%, 21%), frequent drinkers (4–6 days/week; 32%, 22%), and daily drinkers (42%, 28%), respectively (trend test P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate analysis showed that hiatus hernia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6–9.6), drinking alcohol ≥4 days/week (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0), and drinking tea ≥4 days/week (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) are independent risk factors of AEE. The risk of AEE was 3.8 times greater for those drinking both alcohol and tea ≥4 days/week than the non-drinkers. Conclusions Frequent alcohol and tea consumption increased the risk of AEE in Taiwanese men. PMID:28264069
Probstfield, J L; Margitic, S E; Byington, R P; Espeland, M A; Furberg, C D
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have proven to be more effective in reducing levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and to be better tolerated than other lipid-lowering compounds. Most of the trials evaluating the effects of these new agents on progression of atherosclerosis have not included individuals asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease and who have LDL cholesterol levels at or below the limits established by the National Cholesterol Education Program for initiating treatment. The Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Progression Study (ACAPS) tested the effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, on early-stage carotid atherosclerosis (as detected by B-mode ultrasonography) in 919 asymptomatic men and women, 40-79 years of age, who had LDL cholesterol levels between the 60th and 90th percentiles. Participants randomized into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorially designed study received lovastatin (20-40 mg/day) or lovastatin-placebo and warfarin (1 mg/day), or warfarin-placebo over a 3-year period. The progression of the mean maximum intimal-medial thickness (IMT) over 12 walls of both carotid arteries represented the primary outcome. Lovastatin treatment was associated with a reduction in progression of mean maximum IMT (p < 0.001). Levels of LDL cholesterol were reduced by 28% (43.5 mg/dl [11.25 mmol/liter]) in the lovastatin group within 6 months (p < 0.0001) and remained stable throughout the follow-up period, whereas these levels remained essentially unchanged in the lovastatin-placebo group. The difference in incidence of major cardiovascular events for patients in the lovastatin-placebo group was significant: 5 versus 14, respectively (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Czosek, Richard J; Anderson, Jeffrey; Cassedy, Amy; Spar, David S; Knilans, Timothy K
Accessory pathways with "high-risk" properties confer a small but potential risk of sudden cardiac death. Pediatric guidelines advocate for either risk stratification or ablation in patients with ventricular pre-excitation but do not advocate specific methodology. We sought to compare the cost of differing risk-stratification methodologies in pediatric patients with ventricular pre-excitation in this single institutional, retrospective cohort study of asymptomatic pediatric patients who underwent risk stratification for ventricular pre-excitation. Institutional methodology consisted of stratification using graded exercise testing (GXT) followed by esophageal testing in patients without loss of pre-excitation and ultimately ablation in high-risk patients or patients who became clinically symptomatic during follow-up. A decision analysis model was used to compare this methodology with hypothetical methodologies using different components of the stratification technique and an "ablate all" method. One hundred and two pediatric patients with asymptomatic ventricular pre-excitation underwent staged risk stratification; 73% of patients were deemed low risk and avoided ablation and the remaining 27% ultimately were successfully ablated. The use of esophageal testing was associated with a 23% (p ≤0.0001) reduction in cost compared with GXT stratification alone and a 48% (p ≤0.0001) reduction compared with the "ablate all" model. GXT as a lone stratification method was also associated with a 15% cost reduction (p ≤0.0001) compared with the "ablate all" method. In conclusion, risk stratification of pediatric patients with asymptomatic ventricular pre-excitation is associated with reduced cost. These outcomes of cost-effectiveness need to be combined with the risks and benefits associated with ablation and risk stratification.
Uttenthal, Å; Braae, U C; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Johansen, M V
In 2011 African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome was detected in asymptomatic pigs in field samples in Mbeya, Tanzania. The aim of this paper is to partly characterize the virus that was harbored in these pigs and furthermore to confirm, by a second sampling, the latest occurrence of ASFV in the study area. ASFV genome was detected in serum from 10 out of 127 healthy European/crossbreed pigs. ASFV DNA was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced from sera with high viral loads using primers targeting p54 or p72. Both p54 and p72 had total identity to ASFV Genotype II (Georgia 2007/1). The ASFV epidemiology in Mbeya was studied in a new collection of 804 pig sera obtained in 2012. The antibody prevalence in four age groups (3-6 months.; 7-12 months; 13-18 months or 19-36 months) was 3-5%; all antibody positive sera were analyzed by PCR with negative results. The presence of antibodies in 3-month-old pigs confirms the circulation of ASFV in Mbeya several months after our detection of ASFV in asymptomatic pigs. The initial blood samples were obtained on Whatman FTA filter papers as dried blood samples. The samples were stored under field conditions and ASFV could be sequenced in DNA eluted 10 months later, showing the use of FTA samples. Studies on the genetic breed of the pigs are needed as well as sequence studies including the variable region of ASFV to elucidate why asymptomatic pigs with high viral loads were detected.
Delahaye, François; Tattevin, Pierre; Federspiel, Claire; Le Moing, Vincent; Chirouze, Catherine; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Bernard, Yvette; Chocron, Sidney; Obadia, Jean-François; Alla, François; Hoen, Bruno; Duval, Xavier
Objectives Symptomatic neurological complications (NC) are a major cause of mortality in infective endocarditis (IE) but the impact of asymptomatic complications is unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of asymptomatic NC (AsNC) on the management and prognosis of IE. Methods From the database of cases collected for a population-based study on IE, we selected 283 patients with definite left-sided IE who had undergone at least one neuroimaging procedure (cerebral CT scan and/or MRI) performed as part of initial evaluation. Results Among those 283 patients, 100 had symptomatic neurological complications (SNC) prior to the investigation, 35 had an asymptomatic neurological complications (AsNC), and 148 had a normal cerebral imaging (NoNC). The rate of valve surgery was 43% in the 100 patients with SNC, 77% in the 35 with AsNC, and 54% in the 148 with NoNC (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality was 42% in patients with SNC, 8.6% in patients with AsNC, and 16.9% in patients with NoNC (p<0.001). Among the 135 patients with NC, 95 had an indication for valve surgery (71%), which was performed in 70 of them (mortality 20%) and not performed in 25 (mortality 68%). In a multivariate adjusted analysis of the 135 patients with NC, age, renal failure, septic shock, and IE caused by S. aureus were independently associated with in-hospital and 1-year mortality. In addition SNC was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality. Conclusions The presence of NC was associated with a poorer prognosis when symptomatic. Patients with AsNC had the highest rate of valve surgery and the lowest mortality rate, which suggests a protective role of surgery guided by systematic neuroimaging results. PMID:27400273
Ghosh, Santanu; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan
Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children aged up to 5 years were analysed in this study. In total, 91 and 17 isolates were identified from diarrhoeal (case) and asymptomatic (control) children, respectively. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), virulence-associated genes and Shigella pathogenicity island (SH-PAI). The majority of the Shigella spp. from cases (68.1%) and controls (82.3%) were found to be resistant to fluoroquinolones. Integron carriage was detected more in cases (76.9%) than in controls (35.5%). Atypical class 1 integron was detected exclusively in Shigella flexneri from cases but not from the controls. PMQR genes such as aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS1 were detected in 82.4 and 14.3% of the isolates from cases and in 53 and 17.6% in controls, respectively. Shigella isolates from cases as well as from controls were positive for the invasive plasmid antigen H-encoding gene ipaH. The other virulence genes such as virF, sat, setA, setB, sen and ial were detected in Shigella isolates in 80.2, 49.4, 27.4, 27.4, 80.2 and 79.1% of cases and in 64.7, 52.9, 17.6, 17.6, 64.7 and 64.7% of controls, respectively. The entire SH-PAI was detected in S. flexneri serotype 2a from cases and controls. In an isolate from a control child, the SH-PAI was truncated. Integrons, PMQR and virulence-encoding genes were detected more frequently in cases than in controls. In diarrhoea endemic areas, asymptomatic carriers may play a crucial role in the transmission of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. with all the putative virulence genes.
Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid
Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses <1 year old commonly had alterations in the shape and density of the mandibular condyle. Older horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology.
van der Weegen, W; Brakel, K; Horn, R J; Hoekstra, H J; Sijbesma, T; Pilot, P; Nelissen, R G H H
The aim of this study was to establish the natural course of unrevised asymptomatic pseudotumours after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing during a six- to 12-month follow-up period. We used repeated metal artefact reduction sequence (MARS)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion analysis and clinical examination to study 14 unrevised hips (mean patient age 52.7 years, 46 to 68, 5 female, 7 male) with a pseudotumour and 23 hips (mean patient age 52.8 years, 38 to 69, 7 female, 16 male) without a pseudotumour. The mean post-operative time to the first MARS-MRI scan was 4.3 years (2.2 to 8.3), and mean time between the first and second MARS-MRI scan was eight months (6 to 12). At the second MRI scan, the grade of severity of the pseudotumour had not changed in 35 hips. One new pseudotumour (Anderson C2 score, moderate) was observed, and one pseudotumour was downgraded from C2 (moderate) to C1 (mild). In general, the characteristics of the pseudotumours hardly changed. Repeated MARS-MRI scans within one year in patients with asymptomatic pseudotumours after MoM hip resurfacing showed little or no variation. In 23 patients without pseudotumour, one new asymptomatic pseudotumour was detected. This is the first longitudinal study on the natural history of pseudotumours using MARS-MRI scans in hip resurfacing, and mirrors recent results for 28 mm diameter MoM total hip replacement.
Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Shankarappa, Ravindranath K; Rangan, Kapil; Chandrasekaran, Dhanalakshmi; Nanjappa, Manjunath C
Background The study was performed to assess endothelial function and carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic patients, with and without risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross sectional survey of asymptomatic patients, aged 21 - 60 years, with and without risk factors for cardiovascular disease was recruited from the outpatient department of Cardiology. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and carotid IMT was determined using a high resolution B mode ultrasonography system. Results A total of 104 patients were included in the study. The mean carotid IMT was 0.67 ± 0.05 mm in the group without risk factors and 0.78 ± 0.12 mm in the group with risk factors (P value < 0.05). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) and increased carotid IMT were more significant in the group with risk factors (P value < 0.001). Age, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, body mass index and HbA1c had a significant correlation with both IMT and FMD response. A higher proportion of subjects with diabetes mellitus (87%), metabolic syndrome (86%) and family history of premature coronary artery disease (78%) had ED. In subjects with normal coronary angiogram, 71% had abnormal FMD response and 36% had increased carotid IMT. Conclusion In asymptomatic subjects, risk factors for cardiovascular disease are significantly associated with objective evidence of ED and increased carotid IMT. FMD response and carotid IMT values are likely to yield additional information beyond traditional risk factors for classifying patients in regard to the likelihood of cardiovascular event. Therapeutic measures with the aim of improving endothelial function and reducing carotid IMT may reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.
Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon
Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation. PMID:28018453
Wilkinson, Charles P
Background Asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration are visible lesions that are risk factors for later retinal detachment. Retinal detachments occur when fluid in the vitreous cavity passes through tears or holes in the retina and separates the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Creation of an adhesion surrounding retinal breaks and lattice degeneration, with laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy, has been recommended as an effective means of preventing retinal detachment. This therapy is of value in the management of retinal tears associated with the symptoms of flashes and floaters and persistent vitreous traction upon the retina in the region of the retinal break, because such symptomatic retinal tears are associated with a high rate of progression to retinal detachment. Retinal tears and holes unassociated with acute symptoms and lattice degeneration are significantly less likely to be the sites of retinal breaks that are responsible for later retinal detachment. Nevertheless, treatment of these problems is frequently recommended, in spite of the fact that the effectiveness of this therapy is unproven. Objectives The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 28 January 2012. Textbooks regarding retinal detachment and the reference lists of relevant reports were reviewed for additional
Balashov, Konstantin E.; Pal, Gian; Rosenberg, Michael L.
Background Optic neuritis (ON) patients can be divided based on the presence or absence of asymptomatic demyelinating lesions (ADL) on brain MRI. The presence of ADL is associated with an increased risk of progression to clinically-definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). Methods The clinical data and brain MRI of 110 patients with acute unilateral ON were analyzed. Results Patients with ADL had a significantly higher incidence of ON in spring months as compared to patients with no ADL (p=0.0024). Increased incidence of ON in spring months was seen in patients with ADL whether or not they were diagnosed with CDMS on follow-up. PMID:20142310
Becker, F; Loppinet, A
The management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis remains unclear in terms of screening as well as of treatment. The degree of carotid stenosis is not enough to clarify the debate. It seems useful to search among severe carotid stenosis parameters indicating higher ipsilateral stroke risk. Duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler offer this opportunity with a diagnostic battery allowing to evaluate hemodynamical risk (degree of stenosis, common carotid flow, MCA signal, cerebral vasoreactivity), thrombo-embolic risk (echostructure of the stenosis, micro-embolic signals, HITS) and progression of the stenosis.
Ogutu, Peter; Werner, Raphael; Oertel, Frank; Beyer, Michael
A best evidence topic in cardiovascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether patients with severe asymptomatic carotid and coronary artery diseases should undergo simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 624 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study results of these papers are tabulated. Previous cohort studies showed mixed results, while advocating for the necessity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A recent RCT showed that patients undergoing prophylactic or simultaneous CEA + CABG had lower rates of stroke (0%) compared with delayed CEA 1–3 months after CABG (7.7%), without significant perioperative mortality difference. This study included patients with unilateral severe (>70%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis requiring CABG. An earlier partly randomized trial also showed better outcomes for patients undergoing simultaneous procedures (P = 0.045). Interestingly, systematic reviews previously failed to show compelling evidence supporting prophylactic CEA. This could be partly due to the fact that these reviews collectively analyse different cohort qualities. Neurological studies have, however, shown reduced cognitive and phonetic quality and function in patients with unilateral and bilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Twenty-one RCTs comparing lone carotid artery stenting (CAS) and CEA informed the American Heart Association guidelines, which declared CAS comparable with CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (CS). However, the risk of death/stroke for CAS alone is double that for CEA alone in the acute phase following onset of symptoms, while CEA alone is associated with a doubled risk of myocardial infarction. There is
Carver, Joseph R.; Szalda, Dava; Ky, Bonnie
Advances in the treatment of pediatric and adult cancer have reduced the mortality rates from these disorders and have led to an ever-increasing population of long-term survivors. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may cause premature cardiac disease that may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. All patients exposed to chemotherapy with cardiotoxic potential or chest radiotherapy have stage A heart failure and the goal of surveillance and treatment is to prevent progression to stages B-D. Screening strategies, including the use of biomarkers, echocardiography, and expert opinion surveillance and treatment recommendations, are presented. PMID:23540748
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D
QT prolongation on resting electrocardiography (ECG) is common, and the clinician is often challenged by the dilemma of excluding acquired causes and recognizing potential congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). The hallmark of LQTS is an abnormally long QT interval. However, a normal or borderline long QT interval may be observed in up to 50% of patients with LQTS because of the intermittent nature of QT prolongation. This review presents an approach to evaluating the asymptomatic patient with a borderline long QT interval, which incorporates a comprehensive clinical assessment, rest and provocative ECG testing, and genetic testing when appropriate.
Sorvillo, F J; Strassburg, M A; Seidel, J; Visvesvara, G S; Mori, K; Todd, A; Portigal, L; Finn, M; Agee, B A
A survey for enteric infections in 140 asymptomatic homosexual men who attended a community clinic revealed a high prevalence of infection with Entamoeba histolytica (27.1 per cent) and Giardia lamblia (15.7 per cent). In contrast, the prevalence of elevated indirect hemagglutination (IHA) titers (greater than or equal to 1:128), which indicate invasive amebiasis, was low (5.7 per cent). Our findings suggest that only a limited amount of invasive amebic disease is occurring in this group of homosexual men. PMID:2874747
Zirpe, Dinesh; Gopakumar, Chandrasekharn Valiathan; Swain, Sudeepta Kumar; Surendran, Rajagopal
Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia rarely affects right side due to protective effect of liver. In adult it is mainly caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Acute presentations are often life threatening and usually clinch the diagnosis early. It may remain asymptomatic for many years unless being detected incidentally during investigations for some unrelated reason or getting complicated by some pathology of herniated viscera. High degree of suspicion is required to detect this delayed presentation particularly in a post-trauma patient as this condition may require modifications in management. We report a case of acute cholecystitis which revealed a rare association of traumatic right diaphragmatic hernia and hepatothorax. PMID:28050431
Romanchishen, A F; Matveeva, Z S
The authors have analyzed the cases of diagnosis of asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid gland made during 8814 operations on the thyroid in the period from 1995 through 2004. The probability of detecting parathyroid incidentalomas in different forms of goiter was calculated which reaches 0.4%. A precision technique of operating allows the parathyroid tumors to be detected at the preclinical stage in all patients apart from a removal of the necessary volume of the thyroid tissue, guaranteed preservation of the laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands.
Wang, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Hui-yan; Jin, Ying; Wei, Xiao-li; Xu, Rui-hua
Background Although general agreement exists on palliative surgery with intent of symptom palliation in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the role of non-curative surgery for incurable, asymptomatic AGC is hotly debated. We aim to clarify the role of non-curative surgery in patients with incurable, asymptomatic AGC under the first-line chemotherapy. Methods A total of 737 patients with incurable, asymptomatic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2008 and May 2012 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed, comprising 414 patients with non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy, and 323 patients with first-line chemotherapy only. The clinicopathologic data, survival, and prognosis were evaluated, with propensity score adjustment for selection bias. Results The median overall survival (OS) outcomes significantly favored non-curative surgery group over first-line chemotherapy only group in entire population (28.00 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), stage 4 patients (23.87 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), young patients (28.70 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000) and elderly patients (23.07 versus 10.27 months, P = 0.031). The median OS advantages of non-curative surgery over first-line chemotherapy only were also maintained when the analyses were restricted to single organ metastasis (P = 0.001), distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), peritoneal metastasis (P = 0.000), and multi-organ metastasis (P = 0.010). Significant OS advantages of non-curative surgery over chemotherapy only were confirmed solid by multivariate analyses before and after adjustment on propensity score (P = 0.000). Small subsets of patients with surgery of single metastatic lesion after previous curative gastrectomy, and with surgery of both primary and single metastatic sites showed sound median OS. Conclusions There is a role for non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy for incurable, asymptomatic AGC, in
Lahat, N.; Sobel, E.; Djerassi, L.; Kaufman, G.; Horenstein, L.; Gruener, N.
Several immunologic parameters, both humoral and cellular, were studied in the serum and peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from chest x-ray-negative, asymptomatic asbestos workers. All humoral and cellular parameters were intact, except the con-A-induced T cell suppressor activity and T cell division in autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction, which were significantly elevated in the asbestos plant workers. The significance of these increased T cell activities in asbestos exposed people is not clear, and further clinical and immunological follow-up is warranted.
Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Bakar, Nur Hazirah Abu; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Osman, Emelia
The epidemiology and environmental factors affecting transmission of human microsporidiosis are poorly understood. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis among aboriginal school children in the Kuala Krau District, Pahang State, Malaysia. We collected stool samples from 255 school children and examined the samples using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun stain. We also collected demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and personal hygiene information using a pre-tested questionnaire. Sixty-nine of the children was positive for microsporidia: 72.5% and 27.5% were low (1+) and moderate (2+) excretions of microsporidia spores, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed being aged 10 years (p = 0.026), using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water (p = 0.044) and having close contact with domestic animals (p = 0.031) were all significantly associated with microsporidial infection among study subjects. Our findings suggest asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis is common in the study population, more than previously reported. In the study population, control measures need to be implemented, such as good personal hygiene, proper sanitation and safe drinking water supply.
Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Ji Mi; Song, Min Seob; Choi, Seok jin; Chung, Woo Yeong
Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.
Murro, Diana; Novo, Jorge; Arvanitis, Leonidas
Classic cerebral toxoplasmosis typically presents with neurologic symptoms such as seizures and mental status changes and histological examination shows focal lesions with necrosis. However, in the diffuse "encephalitic" form, patients are asymptomatic with diffuse, inflammatory, non-necrotic lesions. Asymptomatic diffuse "encephalitic" toxoplasmosis has been reported only in four acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients and one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present a 36-year-old HIV-negative woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis who was on immunosuppression for 9years after cadaveric renal transplant and died from pulmonary hemorrhage and cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Brain autopsy findings revealed multifocal microglial nodules containing Toxoplasma bradyzoites and associated astrogliosis. These nodules were prominent in the cerebellum, midbrain and medulla and also present in the cortex and thalamus. No coagulative necrosis, necrotizing abscesses, or other opportunistic infections were present. The patient had previously exhibited no neurologic symptoms and there was no clinical suspicion for toxoplasmosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of diffuse, non-necrotizing, "encephalitic" cerebral toxoplasmosis reported in a lupus patient and also the first reported female case.
An 8-year-old child during the first year of life manifested severe atopic dermatitis and chronic diarrhea with mucorrhea and rectal bleeding; a fish-free diet was started based on weakly positive skin-prick tests to codfish extract. At the age of 4 years the child began to suffer of recurrent pancreatitis. When he came to our attention for the evaluation of his fish allergy, he was asymptomatic; a weak reactivity to codfish was observed (SPTs: cod, 4 mm, sIgE ImmunoCAP: cod, 1.30kU/l). The food challenge test with cod was negative. When the child ate cod again, within 5 minutes, developed anaphylactic reaction and complained of abdominal pain compatible with pancreatitis (enzyme serum levels risen and parenchymal oedema at ultrasonography), that resolved within 7 days after specific therapy. This case raises two issues: the elimination diet in asymptomatic food allergy on the basis only of SPT and the ethicality of food challenge in gastrointestinal chronic disease. PMID:22571554
Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.
Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055
Chu, Xian-Ming; An, Yi; Li, Xue-Bin; Guo, Ji-Hong
Asymptomatic bacterial colonization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is widespread and increases the risk of clinical CIED infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in patients without signs of infection and to analyze the relationship with clinical infection and risk factors. From June 2011 to December 2012, 78 patients underwent CIED replacement or upgrade. Exclusion criteria included a clinical diagnosis of CIED infection, bacteremia, or infective endocarditis. All patients were examined for evidence of bacterial 16S rDNA on the device and in the surrounding tissues. Infection cases were recorded during follow-up. The bacterial-positive rate was 38.5% (30 cases); the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus detection rate was the highest (9 cases, 11.5%). Positive bacterial DNA results were obtained from pocket tissue in 23.1% of patients (18 cases), and bacterial DNA was detected on the device in 29.5% of patients (23 cases). During follow-up (median 24.6 months), two patients (6.7%, 2/30) became symptomatic with the same species of microorganism, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that the history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency, and renal insufficiency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization. PMID:25530969
Nair, Krishna Kumar Mohanan; Ganapathi, Sanjay; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Thajudeen, Anees; Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan; Titus, Thomas; Kumaran, Ajitkumar Valaparambil; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery Mahadevan
Background: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is often asymptomatic and may be detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The severity of RV dysfunction is more after intracardiac repair with transannular patch (TAP). Methods: One hundred seventy-three adult patients who have undergone surgical repair for TOF were prospectively analyzed for RV function using 2D echocardiography and TDI. RV function was compared between patients who have undergone intracardiac repair with and without TAP. Results: In both the patient sub-groups, TDI derived myocardial performance index (MPI) and myocardial velocities were abnormal even when 2D echocardiography derived RV functional area change was normal. TDI derived MPI was significantly higher (0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0 P < 0.001) and Systolic tricuspid annular velocity (Sa) (9.2 ± 1.3 vs. 10.8 ± 1.6 P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the TAP group. Older age at surgery and severity of pulmonary regurgitation on follow-up were among the significant predictors of TDI derived MPI. Conclusions: Asymptomatic RV dysfunction in surgically repaired adult TOF atients can be detected by TDI. Extent of RV dysfunction was significantly greater with patients requiring TAP, in those operated at older age, and in patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation. PMID:23626431
Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury
Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838
El-Shazly, Atef M; Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; El-Nahas, Hala A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Monib, Mohamed S M
Blastocystis hominis is now getting acceptance as an agent of human intestinal disease. B. hominis in stool samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals was evaluated as a possible cause of gastro-intestinal troubles. B. hominis was found in 106 (10.1%) out of 1050 individuals examined from six villages and one city in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate. The highest infection rate was in Manshayt El-Badawy village (25.47%), whereas Talkha City showed the lowest rate (4.73%). Age group 10-20 years had higher infection (13.3%). In twenty-three symptomatic patients, B. hominis represented the only causative parasitic agent. The most common symptoms were diarrhoea (30.4%), abdominal pain (26.1%), flatulence (21.7%). vomiting (13.1%) and fatigue (8.7%). High concentrations of B. hominis were found in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones with statistical significant difference (8.2 cells/100 x field versus 3.8 respectively). The mean number of B. hominis was significantly high in patients complaining of diarrhoea and abdominal pain.
Becker Saidenberg, André; Robaldo Guedes, Neiva Maria; Fernandes Seixas, Gláucia Helena; da Costa Allgayer, Mariangela; Pacífico de Assis, Erica; Fabio Silveira, Luis; Anne Melville, Priscilla; Benites, Nilson Roberti
Parrots in captivity are frequently affected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. The objective of this study was to collect information on the carrier state for E. coli pathotypes in asymptomatic free-ranging parrots. Cloacal swabs were collected from nestlings of Hyacinth, Lear's macaws and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factors commonly found in enteropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. In total, 44 samples were cultured and E. coli isolates were yielded, from which DNA was extracted and processed by PCR. Genes commonly found in APEC isolates from Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws were expressed in 14 of these 44 samples. One atypical EPEC isolate was obtained from a sample from Lear's macaw. The most commonly found gene was the increased serum survival (iss) gene. This is the first report, that describes such pathotypes in asymptomatic free-living parrots. The findings of this study suggest the presence of a stable host/parasite relationship at the time of the sampling brings a new understanding to the role that E. coli plays in captive and wild parrots. Such information can be used to improve husbandry protocols as well as help conservation efforts of free-living populations.
Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio
The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896
Miniaci, Anthony; Mascia, Anthony T; Salonen, David C; Becker, Edna J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging findings in both shoulders of asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers. Fourteen pitchers who were without significant prior injury underwent a blinded clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of both shoulders. All images were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The appearance of the rotator cuff tendons was graded, with additional evaluation of the biceps, labrum, and osseous structures. Ten athletes were found to have stable shoulders and painless full range of motion. Clinically, four athletes had at least a 40 degrees loss in internal rotation as compared with the nonthrowing arm. There were no significant differences in magnetic resonance imaging findings of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. The labrum was abnormal in 79% of the 28 shoulders. Enthesopathic changes of the posterior glenoid labrum were identified in the four pitchers who had loss of internal rotation. We conclude that unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in asymptomatic high performance throwing athletes reveals abnormalities that may encompass a spectrum of "nonclinical" findings. These data can be useful in separating symptomatic pathologic findings from these variants. Enthesopathic changes of the posterior glenoid labrum in the throwing arm may represent an early Bennett-type lesion. The cause may be excessive traction on the posterior capsule during the pitching motion, with subclinical injury to this area.
Becker Saidenberg, André; Robaldo Guedes, Neiva Maria; Fernandes Seixas, Gláucia Helena; da Costa Allgayer, Mariangela; Pacífico de Assis, Erica; Fabio Silveira, Luis; Anne Melville, Priscilla; Benites, Nilson Roberti
Parrots in captivity are frequently affected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. The objective of this study was to collect information on the carrier state for E. coli pathotypes in asymptomatic free-ranging parrots. Cloacal swabs were collected from nestlings of Hyacinth, Lear's macaws and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factors commonly found in enteropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. In total, 44 samples were cultured and E. coli isolates were yielded, from which DNA was extracted and processed by PCR. Genes commonly found in APEC isolates from Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws were expressed in 14 of these 44 samples. One atypical EPEC isolate was obtained from a sample from Lear's macaw. The most commonly found gene was the increased serum survival (iss) gene. This is the first report, that describes such pathotypes in asymptomatic free-living parrots. The findings of this study suggest the presence of a stable host/parasite relationship at the time of the sampling brings a new understanding to the role that E. coli plays in captive and wild parrots. Such information can be used to improve husbandry protocols as well as help conservation efforts of free-living populations. PMID:23738135
An NHLBI-sponsored randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial is underway to test the efficacy of the lipid-lowering agent lovastatin and/or the antithrombotic agent warfarin in slowing the progression of early carotid atherosclerosis--as defined by ultrasonographic intimal-medial arterial wall thickening--in a high-risk, asymptomatic population consisting of 919 men and women aged 40-79 years with moderately elevated serum LDL-cholesterol. The Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Plaque Study's (ACAPS) factorial design permits evaluation of each of the two treatments alone as well as assessment of the treatments in combination with each other over a 2.5- to 3.0-year treatment period. Randomized participants receive either 20-40 mg/day lovastatin or lovastatin placebo and either 1 mg/day (minidose) warfarin or warfarin placebo. All participants were encouraged to take low-dose (81 mg/day) aspirin. The primary outcome is the ultrasonographic measurement of the mean of maximum intimal-medial thickness (IMT) across up to 12 preselected segments in the carotid arteries. The secondary outcome of the trial measures the single maximum IMT measurement among the same preselected carotid artery segments. This report describes the rationale for ACAPS, its design, and some baseline characteristics of the study population.
Norman, B; Sabina, R L; Jansson, E
Deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase, the muscle isoform of AMP deaminase encoded by the AMPD1 gene, is a common myopathic condition associated with alterations in skeletal muscle energy metabolism. However, recent studies have demonstrated that most individuals harboring this genetic abnormality are asymptomatic. Therefore, 18 healthy subjects with different AMPD1 genotypes were studied during a 30-s Wingate test in order to evaluate the influence of this inherited defect in AMPD1 expression on skeletal muscle energy metabolism and exercise performance in the asymptomatic population. Exercise performances were similar across the AMPD1 genotypes, whereas significant differences in several descriptors of energy metabolism were observed. Normal homozygotes (NN) exhibited the highest levels of AMP deaminase activities, net ATP catabolism, and IMP accumulation, whereas intermediate values were observed in heterozygotes (MN). Conversely, mutant homozygotes (MM) had very low AMP deaminase activities and showed no significant net catabolism of ATP or IMP accumulation. Accordingly, MM also did not show any postexercise increase in plasma ammonia. Unexpectedly, MN consistently exhibited greater increases in plasma ammonia compared with NN despite the relatively lower accumulation of IMP in skeletal muscle. Moreover, time course profiles of postexercise plasma ammonia and blood lactate accumulation also differed across AMPD1 genotypes. Finally, analysis of adenosine in leftover biopsy material revealed a modest twofold increase in MN and a dramatic 25-fold increase in MM.
Patients having complete dentures with reduced vertical dimension generally do not manifest Temporomandibular Joint problems. It is not understood as to why the closure of jaws in dentulous individuals can predispose to Temporomandibular Joint problems, while the same etiology in edentulous subjects does not cause any concern. This study was planned to find out the prevalence of various Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction signs in subjects who were edentulous for a period of 6 months to 2 year. The various signs were obtained from a population of 100 healthy asymptomatic edentulous subjects by a questionnaire and then were clinically examined for the presence or absence of signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 59% of the subjects exhibited one or more signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction, 41% of the subjects did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 56.6% of males reported signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with females which was 62.5%. 43.3% of males did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with those of the females which was 37.5%. The number of subjects who showed two signs was 29%, subjects who had only one sign was 25%. It was found that dysfunction was prevalent among both men and women in more than half of the asymptomatic subjects examined. 59% had one or as many as three signs of Temporomandibular dysfunction. The most commonly seen Joint dysfunction was the joint sounds which was 47%
Kryger, John; Burleigh, Alexandra; Christensen, Melissa; Hopkins, Walter
This study was conducted to describe the genetic profiles of E. coli that colonize asymptomatic pediatric neurogenic bladders. E. coli was isolated from 25 of 80 urine samples. Patients were excluded if they presented with symptomatic urinary tract infection or received treatment with antibiotics in the preceding three months. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine E. coli phylotype (A, B1, B2, and D) and the presence of seven pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and 10 virulence factors (VFs). E. coli strains were predominantly of the B1 and B2 phylotype, with few strains in the A or D phylotype. The PAIs IV536, ICFT073, and IICFT073 had the highest prevalence: 76%, 64%, and 48%, respectively. The PAIs II536, IJ96, and IIJ96 were less prevalent: 28%, 20%, and 24%, respectively. The most prevalent VF was vat (40%), while the least prevalent VFs were sfa (8%) and iha (12%). None of the strains carried the VF fyuA, which is very common in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The genetic profiles of E. coli in this cohort seem to be more similar to UPEC than to commensal E. coli. However, they appear to have reduced virulence potential that allows them to colonize asymptomatically. PMID:26609542
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xie, Jia-Rong; Chen, Han-Shuang; Liu, Can; Small, Michael
Studies on how to model the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses (so-called coupled disease-behavior interaction) have attracted increasing attention. Owing to the lack of obvious clinical evidence of diseases, or the incomplete information related to the disease, the risks of infection cannot be perceived and may lead to inappropriate behavioral responses. Therefore, how to quantitatively analyze the impacts of asymptomatic infection on the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses is of particular importance. In this letter, under the complex network framework, we study the coupled disease-behavior interaction model by dividing infectious individuals into two states: U-state (without evident clinical symptoms, labelled as U) and I-state (with evident clinical symptoms, labelled as I). A susceptible individual can be infected by U- or I-nodes, however, since the U-nodes cannot be easily observed, susceptible individuals take behavioral responses only when they contact I-nodes. The mechanism is considered in the improved Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model and the improved Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, respectively. Then, one of the most concerned problems in spreading dynamics: the epidemic thresholds for the two models are given by two methods. The analytic results quantitatively describe the influence of different factors, such as asymptomatic infection, the awareness rate, the network structure, and so forth, on the epidemic thresholds. Moreover, because of the irreversible process of the SIR model, the suppression effect of the improved SIR model is weaker than the improved SIS model.
Vangosa, Alessandra Briatico; Tortora, Domenico; Modestino, Francesco; Cotroneo, Antonio R
The presence of sulcal hyperdensity in patients after endovascular procedures is not necessarily attributable to hemorrhage. It may frequently indicate the absolute or concomitant extravasation of contrast material into the subarachnoid spaces. This case report describes the clinical case of an 84-year-old patient with 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid who presented with a diffuse gyral and sulcal hyperdensity in the right temporal-occipital and frontal lobes at routine post-carotid stenting (CAS) brain CT scan. The patient was asymptomatic and CT findings were interpreted as contrast enhancement hyperattenuation and no therapeutic decisions were made. A 24-hour follow-up brain CT demonstrated the complete resolution of the hyperdensity, confirming the diagnosis. In this patient we considered the concomitant presence of gyral and sulcal hyperdensity as the consequence of reversible damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) determining a transitory extravasation of contrast material. Asymptomatic gyral and subarachnoid contrast enhancement following CAS is generally indicative of benign and transitory damage to the BBB and is not to be misinterpreted as hemorrhage. PMID:25923674
SPOTIN, Adel; EGHTEDAR, Sanaz TAGHIZADEH; SHAHBAZI, Abbas; SALEHPOUR, Asghar; SARAFRAZ, Seddigheh; SHARIATZADEH, Seyyed Ali; MAHAMI-OSKOUEI, Mahmoud
Background: The aim of this study was to identify the Trichomonas vaginalis strains/haplotypes based on identifying their probable variations in asymptomatic patients referred to Tabriz health centers, northwestern Iran. Methods: Sampling was taken from 50-suspected women to T. vaginalis in northwestern Iran. The obtained samples were smeared and cultured. Fifty DNA samples were extracted, amplified and identified by nested polymerase chain reaction and PCR-RFLP of actin gene using two endonuclease enzymes: MseI and RsaI. To reconfirm, the amplicons of actin gene were directly sequenced in order to identify the strains/haplotypes. Results: PCR-RFLP patterns, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed definitely the presence of the G (n=22; 73.4%) and E (n=8; 26.6%) strains. Multiple alignments findings of genotype G showed five haplotypes and two amino acid substitutions in codons 192 and 211 although, no remarkable unique haplotype was found in genotype E. Conclusion: The accurate identification of T. vaginalis strains based on discrimination of their unknown haplotypes particularly those which are impacted on protein translation should be considered in parasite status, drug resistance, mixed infection with HIV and monitoring of asymptomatic trichomoniasis in the region. PMID:28127362
Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai
Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.
McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Menon-Johansson, A; Gokhale, R; Sethi, G; Mammen-Tobin, A G; Daniels, D
A national audit of screening of asymptomatic patients seen in UK genitourinary medicine clinics in 2009 was conducted against the national guidelines. Data were aggregated by regions and clinics in regions, allowing practice to be compared within and between regions, as well as to national averages and against national guidelines. The case-notes of 4428 patients were audited. Performance was over 80% against the national guidelines for screening of asymptomatic heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM) and women for chlamydial, gonorrhoeal, syphilis and HIV infections. However, the recommended method of endocervical culture for gonorrhoea was performed in only 65% of women, with a further one-quarter being screened with endocervical or vulvovaginal nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Although significant NAAT use for gonorrhoea was seen in all groups, testing for gonorrhoea by culture is still recommended as a first-line test on invasive samples. Over 80% of MSM, who were not known to be immune, were screened for hepatitis B. Urethral microscopy was performed in 22% of heterosexual men and 17% of MSM, and cervical microscopy in 12% of women.
Murray, Katrina N; Bauer, Justin; Tallen, Ari; Matthews, Jennifer L; Westerfield, Monte; Varga, Zoltan M
The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) supplies wildtype, mutant, and transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the international research community. In 2005, the ZIRC halted shipment of adult Tübingen (TU) zebrafish, a popular wildtype line, after diagnosis of asymptomatic Mycobacterium chelonae infections in a high proportion of the TU stock. Mycobacterium presents a zoonotic risk to fish handlers. In addition, the presence of underlying chronic disease in a model organism is unacceptable. The TU stock was depopulated and replaced by a new import of TU with the intent of reducing disease prevalence. In the current study, we sampled the new population of TU and fish of the AB, Tupfel long-fin (TL), TAB5 and TAB14 (2 AB × TU hybrid lines), and wildtype-in-Kalkutta (WIK) lines for histologic evaluation and acid-fast staining and compared the prevalence of subclinical mycobacteriosis between these lines. Although prevalence in the new TU stock was lower than that of the original TU stock, asymptomatic infections with Mycobacterium remained high (10%) in the new TU stock held in 20-gal tanks. The prevalence was similar (10%) in the TAB5 line compared with other wildtype lines held in similar conditions. Prevalence of infections in TU can be minimized by husbandry adjustments, including tank size, population density, and cleaning method. Application of these findings has allowed us to decrease mycobacteriosis in TU zebrafish and resume shipment of TU adults to the research community. PMID:22330714
Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Cheng; Ji, Ruijun; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Xingquan
Asymptomatic extracranial artery stenosis (ECAS) is a well-known risk factor for stroke events, but it remains unclear whether it has the same role in predicting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in China. We investigated the potential associations between ECAS, carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the study. Out of 5440 study participants, 364 showed an asymptomatic ECAS at baseline, and 185 had come up to the final vascular events (brain infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, coronary heart disease and death due to the vascular diseases). During the follow- up. ECAS, carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have associated with vascular events significantly (P < 0.05). After adjusting relevant vascular risk factors, ECAS still has a strong relationship with the new occurrence of vascular events, especially the brain infarction (HR: 2.101; 95% CI: 1.027–4.298; P = 0.042). We observed a clear relationship between ECAS and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, especially the brain infarction event. Carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have all relevant with the occurrence of vascular events. Our findings provide direct evidence for the importance of ECAS in vascular events occurrence. PMID:27650877
Di Pasquale, G.; Andreoli, A.; Pinelli, G.; Grazi, P.; Manini, G.; Tognetti, F.; Testa, C.
A prospective cardiologic evaluation was performed in 83 consecutive patients with transient cerebral ischemia or mild stroke and without symptoms or electrocardiographic signs of ischemic heart disease. Patients were studied with an electrocardiographic exercise test; a positive test was followed by exercise Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Results were compared to those obtained in a group of 83 age and sex-matched healthy subjects submitted to the same study protocol. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease was detected in 28% of cerebrovascular patients with adequate electrocardiographic exercise test. A scintigraphic perfusion defect of variable extension was found in 19 of them. In the control group the electrocardiographic exercise test was positive in only 6% (p less than 0.01). Our results support the concept that: asymptomatic ischemic heart disease is often associated with cerebrovascular disease; therefore cerebral ischemic attacks may be a marker of coronary artery disease, an active investigation of the heart should be considered in cerebrovascular patients in order to plan optimal, comprehensive management.
Celebi, Güven; Külah, Canan; Kiliç, Selçuk; Ustündağ, Gonca
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and virtually all infections derived from exposure to animals or ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis among family members has been reported. However, screening household members of an index case of acute brucellosis is not a routine procedure. A 10-y-old boy was diagnosed with acute brucellosis. Unpasteurized goat cheese commonly consumed within the family was thought to be the possible source of the bacteria. The family (parents, sister and brother) was screened with physical examination, serum tube agglutination test, blood cultures and routine laboratory tests. Three additional cases (parents and sister) of serological and culture proven brucellosis were detected. Two of them (mother and sister) were asymptomatic and had no clinical findings. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was isolated from breast milk culture and from all blood cultures of 4 brucellosis cases. In conclusion, brucellosis, even with bacteraemia, can be completely asymptomatic. Consumption of raw milk products by household members is a common risk factor for brucellosis outbreak among family members. Thus, screening household members of an index case of brucellosis can expose new brucellosis cases.
Okolo, Abu Clement; Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Akang, Effiong Essien Udo
Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.
Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Fuster, Valentin
The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all were assessed for both risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis (n = 6104). The latter two groups underwent baseline examination in a dedicated mobile facility equipped with advanced imaging tools suitable for noninvasive screening for subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium by computed tomography [CT], carotid and aortic disease by ultrasound, and ankle-brachial index). Selected participants were offered advanced imaging (contrast-enhanced CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT). Plasma, PAXgene RNA, and DNA samples were obtained for biomarker discovery studies. All individuals will be followed until 600 major atherothrombotic events have occurred in those undergoing imaging.
Chang, Ye Rim; Park, Joo Kyung; Jang, Jin-Young; Kwon, Wooil; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sun-Whe
Abstract Although incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, little is known about the accurate prevalence of pancreatic cysts in the general population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the crude prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in asymptomatic healthy adults, and calculate the age- and sex-adjusted nationwide prevalence rate. A total of 21,745 asymptomatic individuals who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) as a health screening examination were enrolled between 2003 and 2013 at the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center. Nationwide population data of 2010 were collected from the National Statistical Office, Korea. Incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms were found in 457 individuals whose mean age was 58.7 years. The types of neoplasms were reviewed by 2 separate designated radiologists and the final diagnosis was made as follows: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: 376 (82%), serous cystic neoplasm: 19 (4%), mucinous cystic neoplasm: 7 (2%), and indeterminate cysts: 55 (12%). Eight cases underwent operation. The crude prevalence rate was 2.1% and the age- and sex-adjusted expected nationwide prevalence was 2.2%. The prevalence increased with age. Here, we reported the first large-scale study among the healthy population to find out the prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms; the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 2.2%, and increased with age. Further investigations regarding the clinical implications of incidental pancreatic neoplasms are necessary. PMID:28002329
O’Neal, Seth E.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.
Background Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. Methodology We conducted a population-based study of resident’s ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Principal findings Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. Conclusion This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future. PMID:27992429
Coch Gioia, Carolina A; Silva de Lemos, Ana P; Outeiro Gorla, Maria C; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Ballester, Teresa; Von Groll, Andrea; Wedig, Bruna; Ethur, Nathalia de Vargas; Bragança, Letícia; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves; Almeida da Silva, Pedro E
Asymptomatic meningococcus carriers in hospitals is a risk factor for acquiring meningococcal disease. Meningococcal carrier (MC) frequency was investigated in oropharyngeal swab samples collected from 200 staff members at a teaching hospital from Brazil. MC prevalence was 9% (95% CI 5-13%). Risk factors associated with MC were: mean age of 26.5 years, male gender, bar attendance frequency and number of persons/house. Of 18 isolated meningococcal strains, 14 were non-group able (NG), 3 corresponded to serogroup B and 1 to serogroup 29E. The frequency of serotypes and serosubtypes was heterogenous, with a slight predominance of serotypes 4 and 7 and serosubtypes P1.7 and P1.5. Most strains (n=13) were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. The ctrA gene (PCR) was identified in 9 (64.3%) of the 14 NG strains, suggesting virulence in most of the NG isolated strains. Therefore, a constant surveillance of these asymptomatic carriers is required.
Méndez-Toss, Martha; Griffin, Dixie D.; Calva, Juan; Contreras, Juan F.; Puerto, Fernando I.; Mota, Felipe; Guiscafré, Héctor; Cedillo, Roberto; Muñoz, Onofre; Herrera, Ismael; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.
The prevalence and type diversity of human astroviruses (HAstV) in children with symptomatic and asymptomatic infections were determined in five localities of Mexico. HAstV were detected in 4.6 (24 of 522) and 2.6% (11 of 428) of children with and without diarrhea, respectively. Genotyping of the detected strains showed that at least seven (types 1 to 4 and 6 to 8) of the eight known HAstV types circulated in Mexico between October 1994 and March 1995. HAstV types 1 and 3 were the most prevalent in children with diarrhea, although they were not found in all localities studied. HAstV type 8 was found in Mexico City, Monterrey, and Mérida; in the last it was as prevalent (40%) as type 1 viruses, indicating that this astrovirus type is more common than previously recognized. A correlation between the HAstV infecting type and the presence or absence of diarrheic symptoms was not observed. Enteric adenoviruses were also studied, and they were found to be present in 2.3 (12 of 522) and 1.4% (6 of 428) of symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively. PMID:14715746
Troupis, John M; Batt, Michael Jethro; Pasricha, Sundeep Singh; Saddik, Daniel
It is well documented that meniscal tears may be found frequently by MRI as an incidental finding in asymptomatic knees. We aim to review the literature regarding the ability of MRI to differentiate between asymptomatic and symptomatic meniscal tears. Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE inProcess, Cochrane reviews, Web of Science, Embase and CINAHL were systematically searched. A total of 1251 publications were screened based on their titles, abstracts and full texts, of which 1213 publications were excluded because they did not address the relationship between synovitis and meniscal tears, were case reports or reviews, concerned atypical patient populations or reported surgical research. Of the 38 retained publications, only two reported results specific to perimeniscal synovitis, while 36 discussed less specific but relevant findings. The small number of heterogeneous results describing perimeniscal synovitis precluded meta-analysis. In the symptomatic knee, identification of the likelihood of a meniscal tear contributing to the patient's pain is of significance to the orthopaedic surgeon. In our literature review, we have identified that localised synovitis and displacement of the meniscus are two features that may assist in identifying the subgroup of patients that may benefit from meniscal intervention.
Surowiec, Rachel K.; Ferro, Fernando P.; Lucas, Erin P.; Saroki, Adriana J.; Dornan, Grant J.; Fitzcharles, Eric K.; Anz, Adam W.; Smith, W. Sean; Wilson, Katharine J.; Philippon, Marc J.
Objective: A standardized definition of normative T2 values across the articular surface of the hip must be defined in order to fully understand T2 values for detecting early degeneration. Therefore, in this article, we seek to lay foundational methodology for reproducible quantitative evaluation of hip cartilage damage using T2 mapping to determine the normative T2 values in asymptomatic individuals. Design: Nineteen prospectively enrolled asymptomatic volunteers (age 18-35 years, males 10, females 9, alpha angle 49.3º ± 7.2º) were evaluated with a sagittal T2 mapping sequence at 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Acetabular and femoral cartilage was manually segmented directly on the second echo of the T2 mapping sequence by 3 raters, twice. Segmentations were divided into 12 subregions modified from the geographic zone method. Median T2 values within each subregion were compiled for further analysis and interrater and intrarater reliability was assessed. Results: In the femur, the posterior-superior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those in the posterior-inferior and anterior-inferior subregions. In the acetabulum, the anterior-inferior subregion was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. T2 values of the posterior-superior subregion were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the anterior-superior, middle, and posterior-inferior subregions. Interrater agreement was generally fair to good. PMID:26069695
Park, Hyo Eun; Heo, Nam Ju; Kim, Minkyung; Choi, Su-Yeon
We aimed to investigate the significance of microalbuminuria and its relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic patients, by using coronary artery computed tomography (CT). A total of 1,318 nonhypertensive and nondiabetic subjects who had taken coronary artery CT and measured spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were evaluated. The atherosclerotic changes of coronary arteries were greater in subjects with microalbuminuria, reflected by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and significant coronary artery stenosis (CACS ≥ 100 in 15.3% vs 7.6% and stenosis ≥ 50% in 11.5% vs 4.9% of patients with vs without microalbuminuria, P = 0.008 and P = 0.011, respectively). Among various parameters that are known as a risk factor or possible biomarkers of coronary artery disease, presence of microalbuminuria, age and Framingham risk score were significantly related to coronary artery stenosis. Among them the presence of microalbuminuria showed stronger correlation than others to the coronary artery stenosis detected by CT, even after adjusting confounding factors (OR 3.397, 95% confidence interval 1.138 to 10.140, P = 0.028). The presence of microalbuminuria by UACR was significantly associated with presence of coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50% in asymptomatic, nonhypertensive and nondiabetic general population. Our study suggests that the presence of microalbuminuria may imply subclinical coronary artery disease, even in asymptomatic population.
Giombini, A; Dragoni, S; Di Cesare, A; Di Cesare, M; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N
Lower limb tendon changes detected at imaging are common among asymptomatic athletes. We aimed to prospectively assess the clinical status, tendon structure, and vascularity of lower limb tendons of elite fencers, and predict the risk of developing symptoms over time. Clinical examination, changes at ultrasonography (US), and Power Doppler (PD) flow of both the Achilles, patellar, and quadriceps tendon were assessed in 37 elite fencers in January 2007 and 3 years after. Two hundred and twenty-two tendons were examined. At the last appointment, patellar tendons diagnosed as abnormal at baseline were more likely to develop symptoms than those normal at baseline (P < 0.05, Fisher's exact test), while US and PD abnormalities on Achilles and quadriceps tendons were no predictive for development of symptoms over years. A very low percentage of tendons diagnosed as normal at baseline (1.45%) showed US abnormalities at 3-year follow-up. In asymptomatic elite fencers, structural changes are relatively common at US and PD assessment of Achilles, quadriceps, and patellar tendons. It seems unlikely that additional PD investigations provide further information or change prognosis in patients with US diagnosis of tendinopathy.
Cunha, Carolina Ortigosa; Pinto, Lívia Maria Sales; de Mendonça, Luana Menezes; Saldanha, Aline Dantas Diógenes; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues
The American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) defines ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) as a restriction of movements due to intracapsular fibrous adhesions, fibrous changes in capsular ligaments (fibrous-ankylosis) and osseous mass formation resulting in the fusion of the articular components (osseous-ankylosis). The clinical features of the fibrous-ankylosis are severely limited mouth-opening capacity (limited range of motion during the opening), usually no pain and no joint sounds, marked deflection to the affected side and marked limitation of movement to the contralateral side. A variety of factors may cause TMJ ankylosis, such as trauma, local and systemic inflammatory conditions, neoplasms and TMJ infection. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the systemic inflammatory conditions that affect the TMJ and can cause ankylosis. The aim of this study is to present a case of a female patient diagnosed with bilateral asymptomatic fibrous-ankylosis of the TMJ associated with asymptomatic rheumatoid arthritis. This case illustrates the importance of a comprehensive clinical examination and correct diagnosis of an unusual condition causing severe mouth opening limitation.
Moya-Camarena, Silvia Y; Sotelo, Norberto; Valencia, Mauro E
The aim of this study was to evaluate carbohydrate absorption in well-nourished children with asymptomatic giardiasis. Two groups were selected based on results of stool examination of 211 children attending pre-school centers in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: a control group of six non-infected children, and an infected group of seven children harboring Giardia intestinalis, without gastrointestinal symptoms of disease. Carbohydrate absorption was determined in the control group, before and after drug therapy in the infected group by the hydrogen breath test. Hydrogen production after lactose ingestion was higher in children with giardiasis compared with control group and after anti-parasite treatment; however, hydrogen production was not high enough to classify children as lactose malabsorbers by the cut-off criteria. Similar results were obtained for xylose absorption. None of the children had hydrogen increments high enough to be considered xylose malabsorbers. In conclusion, children asymptomatically infected with G. intestinalis showed significantly higher hydrogen production. However, the biological relevance is questionable since they did not exceed cut-off criteria to classify them as carbohydrate malabsorbers.
de Gouvêa Viana, Luciana; de Assis, Tália Santana Machado; Orsini, Marcela; da Silva, Alexandre Rotondo; de Souza, Guenael Freire; Caligiorne, Rachel; da Silva, Aline Christiane Louredo; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Rabello, Ana
Peripheral blood samples of 138 co-habitants from 25 families with recently diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), rK39 and Leishmania chagasi Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), intradermal skin-test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) over a 12-month period. The cumulative positivity was significantly higher by PCR (29.7%) than by IFAT, rK39 ELISA, L. chagasi ELISA and intradermal skin-test (5.1%, 6.5%, 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively). In addition, the cytokine profile was measured in 16 of the 138 volunteers, of whom eight were asymptomatic carriers and eight were non-infected co-habitants. The innate immunity cells from asymptomatic carriers displayed, upon in vitro antigenic stimulation, a modulated increase in cytokine synthesis that was distinct from that observed in non-infected volunteers. This study suggests that the identification of a large proportion of asymptomatic carriers is facilitated when more than one diagnostic method is applied and that a mixed pattern of immune response is correlated with clinical status of asymptomatic individuals. These observations suggest also that asymptomatic infection by L. chagasi is a frequent event and that control programs could benefit by including this indicator in their interventions.
Plutzer, Judit; Törökné, Andrea; Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Kucsera, István; Farkas, Kata; Karanis, Panagiotis
The transmission route of giardiasis not yet understood and why some infected individuals remain asymptomatic while others become quite ill. The drinking water quality is supposedly responsible for the prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia duodenalis infections in different areas, therefore asymptomatic giardiasis has been investigated in three water supply areas of Hungary: three hundred stool samples from inhabitants of Budapest, Füzér and Mátrafüred were examined by immunological and molecular methods for the presence of G. duodenalis infections. Individuals were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire at the time of stool collection and the interview covered demographic data, family life, education and travel history.In Budapest and in Mátrafüred in one stool sample G. duodenalis Assemblage A, whereas in Füzér once G. duodenalis Assemblage A, once Assemblage B and twice mixed infection were detected. We found higher prevalence rate of 4% of G. duodenalis infections of asymptomatic people in the village Füzér, where the removal of the Giardia cysts of the drinking water treatment plant was not effective. This study throws a light the need to look into the possibility of other risks of Giardia infections such as water transmission routes. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections in asymptomatic persons in Hungary.
Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1α with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 ± 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT scanner. The subjects were divided into 4 quartiles depending on serum HIF-1α levels. Results Average serum HIF-1α was 184.4 ± 66.7 pg/ml. Among patients with higher CAC scores, HIF-1α levels were also significantly increased (p <0.001). HIF-1α levels positively correlated with CRP, IL-6, UKPDS risk score, HbA1c, FBG, and CACS, but did not correlate with diabetes duration, age, and LDL. According to the multivariate analysis, HIF-1α levels significantly and independently predict the presence of CAC. ROC curve analysis showed that the serum HIF-1α level can predict the extent of CAC, but the specificity was lower than the traditional risk factors UKPDS and HbA1c. Conclusion As a marker of hypoxia, serum HIF-1α level may be an independent risk factor for the presence of CAC. These findings indicate that elevated serum HIF-1α may be involved in vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24564828
Chien, Ning; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Lin, Po-Chih; Tseng, Yao-Hui; Lee, Yee-Fan; Ko, Wei-Chun; Lee, Bai-Chin; Lee, Wen-Jeng
Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has been widely available since 2004. After that, the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA has been extensively validated with invasive coronary angiography for detection of coronary arterial stenosis. In this paper, we reviewed the updated evidence of the role of CCTA in both scenarios including acute chest pain and screening in asymptomatic adults. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of CCTA in the context of acute chest pain patients. CCTA could play a role in delivering more efficient care. For risk stratification of asymptomatic patients using CCTA, latest studies have revealed incremental benefits. Future studies evaluating the totality of plaque characteristics may be useful for determining the role of noncalcified plaque for risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:27122947
Bogaert, Delfien J.A.; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y.; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa
The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4+ recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets. PMID:27634199
Bogaert, Delfien J A; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa
The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets.
Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K; Biswas, Asit; Das, Sonali; Kundu, Pratip K; Maji, Ardhendu K
Asymptomatic infection by Plasmodium falciparum is an important obstacle to eliminating malaria. Asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for infection, and therefore they become a reservoir for the parasite. For this reason, these carriers pose a real public health risk. The systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic infections should reduce the parasite reservoir. A large reduction in this pool will lower the chance of transmission of the disease. In this study, we screened a tribal population of 1,040 individuals in the Purulia district of West Bengal by using a dual-antigen rapid diagnostic kit (RDK), microscopy, and species-specific PCR. All positive individuals were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) and followed for 42 days. Polymorphisms in candidate genes were screened by DNA sequencing. A significant proportion (8.4%) of the study population was infected with P. falciparum but showed no clinical manifestations. The PCR method was more sensitive in detecting infection than the RDK or microscopy. The efficacy of the ACT was 97%. In the pfcrt gene, the mutation K76T (the mutated amino acid is indicated by bold type) was found in 100% of the cases. In the pfmdr1 gene, the mutations N86Y and Y184F were noted in 55.5% and 11% of the cases, respectively. Six different haplotypes were identified in the pfdhfr-pfdhps genes. Most importantly, the quintuple mutant A(16)I(51)R(59)N(108)I(164)-S(436)G(437)E(540)A(581)A(613) was found in 10% of the isolates, which is potentially important for the development of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. A significant proportion of the study population harboring P. falciparum does not seek treatment and therefore serves as a reservoir for the parasite, maintaining the natural cycle. If the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of India is to eliminate malaria, then this hidden parasite burden needs to be addressed properly
Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; de Melo, Maria Norma; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro
The efficacy of conjunctival swab (CS) as a sampling method for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis by PCR of asymptomatic dogs was evaluated. The CS was compared to blood samples (B) and skin biopsies (SB), two less invasive samples potentially useful for massive screening of dogs. Thirty asymptomatic dogs, with serological and parasitological positive tests, were used. The samples were analyzed by two PCR methods: kDNA PCR-hybridization and ITS-1 nPCR. The DNA sample volume used was of 1.0 microL and 10.0 microL respectively. Using CS samples the kDNA PCR-hybridization was able to detected parasite DNA in 24/30 dogs (80%) using the right conjunctiva (RC) and 23/30 dogs (76.6%) with the left conjunctiva (LC), 17/30 dogs (56.7%) by means of SB and 4/30 dogs (13.3%) with B. The CS positivity obtained combining RC and LC results was of 90% (27/30 dogs). The assay of CS samples by ITS-1 nPCR revealed that 25/30 dogs (83.3%) were positive when using RC and 20/30 dogs (66.6%) were positive when using LC. Via the same method 15/30 dogs (50.0%) were positive by SB and 17/30 dogs (56.7%) with B. The CS positivity obtained by ITS-1 nPCR combining RC and LC was of 83.3%. The CS positivities for RC and LC were significantly higher (p<0.05) than SB and B for kDNA PCR-hybridization method. Statistical difference in relation to SB and B was verified by ITS-1 nPCR only for RC. The kDNA PCR-hybridization and ITS-1 nPCR methods showed similar sensitivities for CS and SB samples. On the other hand, for blood samples, the positivity of ITS-1 nPCR was significantly higher than the one obtained by the kDNA PCR-hybridization, indicating that sensitivity of PCR methods can vary according to the biological sample examined. Our results showed that CS was suitable to detect Leishmania DNA in asymptomatic animals when comparing to other low-invasive samples. The CS sensitivities obtained in this study were similar to the ones observed in other studies for VL diagnosis in symptomatic dogs
Background In malaria endemic areas, continuous exposure to Plasmodium parasites leads to asymptomatic carriers that provide a fundamental reservoir of parasites, contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission. Therefore, in the present investigation, the presence and prevalence of malaria asymptomatic cases were determined to evaluate the reservoir of infection in two malaria endemic areas with a previous history of malaria transmission in the south of Iran, Bashagard and Ghale-Ganj districts of Hormozgan and Kerman provinces, respectively, where malaria transmission has been drastically reduced in the recent years. Methods The population samples (n=500 from each of the studied areas) were randomly collected from non-febrile, long-term residing, aged two to over 60years, during 20092010. Three identical surveys were carried out in both study areas and in each phase all the consent participants were interviewed and clinically examined. In all, three surveys to detect hidden parasite reservoirs (both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), thick and thin blood smears and a highly sensitive nested-PCR were applied. In addition, the sero-prevalence survey for detecting malaria exposure was done by using a serological marker. Results In this study, P. vivax and P. falciparum parasites were not detected by light microscopy and nested-PCR assay in all three surveys of samples. Antibody responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum were detected in 1 % and 0.2 % of the total examined individuals, respectively, in Bashagard district. Regarding to Ghale-Ganj district, about 0.9% of the individuals had IgG -specific antibody to P. vivax at the first and second surveys, but at the third survey 0.45% of the participants had positive antibody to P. vivax parasite. IgG -specific antibody to P. falciparum was detected in 0.2% of the participants at the first and follow-up surveys. The overall regional differences were not statistically significant (P>0
ASYMPTOMATIC CORONARY < ARTERY DISEASE AT REST AND WITH EXERCISE *Ronald H. Selvester, M.D. D T IC Joseph C. Solomon, M.S. ELECTE S JUL03 98 - University of...imalI ECG L Iec trode 1ites and Lri te ria Tor uJetect1iln of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease at Rest and with Exercise 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(SI...Coronary Artery 16 Disease , Myocardial Infarction,- iyocardial Ischemia, 19 ABSTRACT eCon inue on reterse if necesam and id’n tifN bv bloch nunberI
Skanes, Allan C; Obeyesekere, Manoj; Klein, George J
The association between asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been well documented. The inherent properties of the accessory pathway determine the risk of SCD in WPW, and catheter ablation essentially eliminates this risk. An approach to WPW syndrome is needed that incorporates the patient's individualized considerations into the decision making. Patients must understand that there is a trade-off of a small immediate risk of an invasive approach for elimination of a small lifetime risk of the natural history of asymptomatic WPW. Clinicians can minimize the invasive risk by only performing ablation for patients with at-risk pathways.
Antonini, A; Leenders, K L; Spiegel, R; Meier, D; Vontobel, P; Weigell-Weber, M; Sanchez-Pernaute, R; de Yébenez, J G; Boesiger, P; Weindl, A; Maguire, R P
We used PET scans with the tracers [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [11C]raclopride (RACLO) to study glucose metabolism and dopamine D2 receptor binding in the caudate nucleus and putamen of 18 carriers of the Huntington's disease gene mutation (10 asymptomatic subjects and eight untreated symptomatic Huntington's disease patients in an early disease stage). We also performed MRI scans and measured the bicaudate ratio (BCR) in the same subjects. Data were compared with those from nine mutation-negative members of Huntington's disease families and separate groups of age matched controls. The PET scans were repeated 1.5-3 years later in six of the asymptomatic gene carriers. Symptomatic Huntington's disease patients showed a marked reduction of FDG and RACLO uptake in the caudate nucleus and putamen and a significant increase of BCR. Asymptomatic mutation carriers revealed significant hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus and putamen. The RACLO binding was significantly decreased in the putamen. Decrements of caudate nucleus tracer uptake, particularly RACLO, correlated significantly with BCR increases in both symptomatic and asymptomatic gene carriers. In asymptomatic carriers, metabolic and receptor binding decreases were also significantly associated with the CAG repeat number but not with the individual's age. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified clinical and genetic status in 24 of 27 subjects on the basis of their striatal PET values (83% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Three asymptomatic mutation carriers were classified/grouped together with mutation-negative subjects, indicating that these individuals had normal striatal RACLO and FDG uptake. Follow-up PET data from gene-positive subjects showed a significant reduction in the mean striatal RACLO binding of 6.3% per year. Striatal glucose metabolism revealed an overall non significant 2.3% decrease per year. These data indicate that asymptomatic Huntington's disease mutation carriers may
Cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in elderly people are often treated with antibiotics, but current guidelines recommend that bacteriuria in seniors not be treated unless it is associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Stanford Place Care Campus is a 182-bed complex-care facility in Parksville, B.C., catering primarily to seniors. To increase the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of UTIs and reduce the treatment of ASB in this facility, the author developed a self-learning package and a clinical pathway to help nurses and other care providers better assess, manage and monitor residents with suspected UTIs. She also provided education sessions for the nursing and support staff. In the year after the new clinical pathway was introduced, the number of treated UTIs decreased, as did the percentage of treated UTIs that had been inadequately assessed (i.e., diagnosed solely on the basis of a dipstick urinalysis).
Adam, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Marta; Pour, Luděk; Sevčíková, Eva; Křivanová, Andrea; Rehák, Zdeněk; Koukalová, Renata; Cermáková, Zdeňka; Vaníček, Jíří; Sevčíková, Sabina
Presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum or urine is a relatively common event affecting about 3.2 % of people over 50. Isolated increase of only one type of free light chain, either κ or λ, is detected in 0.7-0.8 % of people over 50. Most people with monoclonal immunoglobulin meet the criteria of the so-called "mono-clonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)". MGUS is defined by concentration of monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum < 30 g/l, number of plasma cells in the bone marrow < 10 % and the absence of symptoms of multiple myeloma and other lymphoproliferative diseases. A proportion of people with MGUS gradually progresses from asymptomatic into symptomatic myeloma or other malignant lymphoproliferative disease requiring treatment. Therefore, MGUS is considered to be one of the most common premalignant conditions with an average risk of transformation into malignant disease of 1 % per year. Monoclonal gammopathy of IgG and IgA subtype can develop into multiple myeloma. Light chain monoclonal gammopathy can develop not only into light chain multiple myeloma but also into AL-amyloidosis and light chain deposition disease (amorphous deposits of light chains damaging organs). IgM monoclonal gammopathy may develop into Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia or other lymphoproliferative disorder, or into rare IgM subtype of multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, people with MGUS are threatened by more than an increased risk of transformation into multiple myeloma or other severe hematologic disease. Pre-malignant clone of plasma cells in the bone marrow causes changes in the bone marrow that directly affect the person. For people with MGUS, there is an increased incidence of osteoporosis and increased fracture risk when compared to the general population. People with MGUS also have an increased risk of bacterial infections and thromboembolic complications compared with the same age population without MGUS. Clonal plasma cells, which are the basis of MGUS, may in
Cheng, Victoria E; Prior, David L
A 40 year-old woman presented to hospital with 12h of progressive shortness of breath. She was 11 days postpartum, having delivered a full-term male infant. She was discharged on antibiotics for presumed pneumonia, but represented two days later with NYHA class IV symptoms and in acute decompensated heart failure confirmed on clinical examination and chest X-ray. Echocardiography showed a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 20%. She was treated for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), beta-blockers and diuretics with normalisation of her cardiac function within six months. Four years later, her son was diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and she tested positive as a carrier of the mutant gene. It is unclear whether the DMD carrier state alone is associated with increased susceptibility to PPCM or if this is merely the first expression of cardiomyopathy in a previously asymptomatic carrier.
Matsuda, Masayuki; Hamano, Hideaki; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Gono, Takahisa; Uehara, Takeshi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Ikeda, Shu-ichi
We report two elderly patients with seronegative Sjögren syndrome who showed benign swelling of the pancreas on computed tomography. Immunostaining of the biopsied lip tissue or serum examination confirmed an increase in production of IgG4, leading to a diagnosis of autoimmune sclerosing pancreatitis (ASP) as a cause of the asymptomatic swelling of the pancreas. Sicca symptoms and ASP spontaneously improved in one patient, and the other responded well to oral prednisolone. Seronegative Sjögren syndrome and ASP can concurrently occur as a clinical manifestation of the IgG4-related systemic disorder, particularly in elderly subjects, and, in such a case, corticosteroid may be a potent therapeutic option.
Arase, Yoshitaka; Deguchi, Ryuzo; Tsukune, Yoko; Dekiden, Makiko; Shiraishi, Koichi; Ogimi, Takashi; Miyakita, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hideo; Myoujin, Kazunori; Mine, Tetsuya
The case of a patient with asymptomatic double common bile duct that was identified by chance is presented. A 41-year-old man underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy(EGD) as part of a regular health checkup, during which he was found to have an elevated lesion in the lesser curvature of the upper gastric corpus with bile draining from its tip. Further examination led to a diagnosis of double common bile duct from the left intrahepatic bile duct to the opening into the stomach. Morphological abnormalities of the biliary tree are commonly encountered in everyday gastroenterological practice, but a double common bile duct with an ectopic opening into the stomach is comparatively rare. It is also associated with an increased risk of developing cancer of the stomach or bile duct, and as such is a biliary abnormality that must be treated with caution. This case is reported together with a discussion of the literature.
Ambrosetto, G; Antonini, L; Tassinari, C A
We report the electroclinical ictal findings of four epileptic patients with clinically asymptomatic celiac disease (CD). Celiac disease diagnosis was suspected by past history and/or computed tomography (CT) findings in all patients and confirmed by laboratory tests and jejunal biopsy. All patients had paroxysmal visual manifestations and ictal EEG discharges arising from the occipital lobe. Epilepsy evolution was favorable in two patients and severe in 2, regardless of CT evidence of occipital corticosubcortical calcifications in 2 patients. Occipital lobe seizures may be characteristic of the epilepsy related to CD, and epileptic patients with these seizures of unknown etiology should be carefully investigated for malabsorption. If past history and/or laboratory tests suggest gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction they should also undergo small intestinal biopsy even if they do not have GI tract symptoms.
Landay, A; Poon, M C; Abo, T; Stagno, S; Lurie, A; Cooper, M D
Asymptomatic hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate were found to have normal natural killer (NK) cells and B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to an increase in cells of T suppressor phenotype. In contrast, a hemophilia patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) exhibited nonfunctional NK cells, low B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to very low numbers of T helper cells. Hemophilia patients on cryoprecipitate therapy exhibited normal immune parameters. A high percentage of hemophilia patients on both treatments had antibody to hepatitis B virus. The isolated finding of elevated levels of T suppressor cells in hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate has not been recognized as an early indicator of impending AIDS, and longitudinal studies will be required to determine its clinical significance.
Illingworth, Clare; Timmons, Stephen
This paper reports a prospective audit, against an existing baseline standard, for intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the prophylaxis of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This was done via a structured questionnaire, using the methodology of total population sampling, encapsulating all theatre staff within one NHS trust. With regards to the standard, performance is good, as IPC is DVT prophylaxis of choice in the perioperative area and is used frequently on most patients. The findings of the audit do, however, highlight the need for appropriate local DVT risk assessment guidelines, essential to ensure that prophylaxis is administered to the correct at risk groups, as prevention may be unjustified in low risk groups and possibly inappropriate for the same regimen to be used for all patients.
Chyun, Deborah A; Katten, Deborah M; Melkus, Gail D; Talley, Sandra; Davey, Janice A; Wackers, Frans J Th
Little is known about factors that contribute to either emotional or behavior outcomes following screening for coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this prospective study was to explore these outcomes, along with potentially contributing factors in individuals enrolled in a screening trial for asymptomatic CAD. Included were 47 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected at study baseline and 3 and 6 months following entry by self-administered questionnaires and telephone follow-up. Emotional outcomes (quality of life and anxiety) tended to improve in those who underwent more aggressive screening with myocardial perfusion imaging, as well as in those who discussed the results of laboratory tests with their providers. Lower levels of diabetes competence and higher levels of controlled motivation for diet were associated with poorer emotional outcomes. Improvements in CAD risk factor behaviors were not observed.
Willard, Suzanne; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Cuca, Yvette P; Kirksey, Kenn M; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Rosa, María E; Nicholas, Patrice K; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Canaval, Gladys; Robinson, Linda; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Human, Sarie; Arudo, John; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Bunch, Eli; Dole, Pamela J; Coleman, Christopher; Nokes, Kathleen; Reynolds, Nancy R; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Maryland, Mary; Voss, Joachim; Lindgren, Teri
Throughout the history of the HIV epidemic, HIV-positive patients with relatively high CD4 counts and no clinical features of opportunistic infections have been classified as "asymptomatic" by definition and treatment guidelines. This classification, however, does not take into consideration the array of symptoms that an HIV-positive person can experience long before progressing to AIDS. This short report describes two international multi-site studies conducted in 2003-2005 and 2005-2007. The results from the studies show that HIV-positive people may experience symptoms throughout the trajectory of their disease, regardless of CD4 count or classification. Providers should discuss symptoms and symptom management with their clients at all stages of the disease.
Busche-McGregor, Marion; Naiman, Joseph; Grice, Adrian S.
The lateral lumbar x-ray films of 60 asymptomatic adults ranging in age from 18 to 30 years were analyzed with respect to 19 end-plate angles and the vertebral body heights. The mean, standard deviation and variance for each of the angles and heights measured is reported, and statistical evaluation is made to determine any difference between the male and female lordosis. No significant difference was found, other than the vertebral heights of L1, L3, L4 and L5 which were statistically larger in males. A fairly consistent pattern of vertebral heights was noted with respect to the level of the lumbar spine measured. Differences in the end-plate angles in each segmental region of the lumbar spine were calculated, and the angulation of the curve was found to increase the farther down the lordosis that measurements were taken.
Freitas, Deisy dos Santos; Carlos, Eduardo Fermino; Gil, Márcia Cristina Soares de Souza; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz
Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most severe diseases that affects citrus trees worldwide and is associated with the yet uncultured bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. To assess the metabolomic differences between HLB-asymptomatic and -symptomatic tissues, extracts from leaf and root samples taken from a uniform 6-year-old commercial orchard of Valencia trees were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics. The results show that the symptomatic trees had higher sucrose content in their leaves and no variation in their roots. In addition, proline betaine and malate were detected in smaller amounts in the HLB-affected symptomatic leaves. The changes in metabolic processes of the plant in response to HLB are corroborated by the relationship between the bacterial levels and the metabolic profiles.
Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is frequently confirmed by performing nerve conduction studies. Previous studies demonstrated that abnormal nerve conduction study (NCS) is suggestive of CTS among asymptomatic individuals. However, previous studies included individuals with risk factors for the syndrome. A NCS was performed on the median and ulnar nerves in 130 healthy individuals. About 15% of individuals in this study demonstrated electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnels syndrome. Four cases have shown signs of isolated median neuropathy with normal median sensory component. Results indicated that the most widely used method for confirming diagnosis of CTS may have up to 15% of false positives. However, most of those showed changes of minimal CTS. Isolated prolongation of the median motor latency should be investigated further as they are usually classified as moderate to severe CTS and may undergo unnecessary surgeries. PMID:27994828
Tavakoli, Ahmad; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Abedi-Kiasari, Bahman; Fallah, Fatemeh Hoda; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat
This study aims to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection among pregnant women as well as congenital infection of their newborns in Tehran. One hundred samples of blood sera from pregnant women were analyzed for the presence of HSV specific antibodies. Umbilical cord blood samples from the newborns were analyzed for the presence of HSV DNA using real-time PCR. HSV IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 97% and 2% of pregnant women, respectively. Of all the 100 cord blood samples, 6 were positive for HSV DNA in which 2 cases were from mothers who had detectable IgM. It was notable that all corresponding mothers of six HSV positive infants had detectable IgG antibodies in their sera. It was demonstrated that the presence of HSV DNA in cord blood of newborns could be a risk marker for maternal-fetal transmission of the virus in asymptomatic pregnant women.
Objective To evaluate the clinical differences between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who have asymptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and those who have symptomatic CTS. Methods Sixty-three patients with DM were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), nerve conduction studies (NCS), and ultrasonographic evaluation of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve. According to the BCTQ responses and NCS results, the patients were divided into the following three groups: group 1 (n=16), in which NCS results did not reveal CTS; group 2 (n=19), in which NCS results revealed CTS but the group scored 0 points on the BCTQ (asymptomatic); and group 3 (n=28), in which NCS results revealed CTS and the group scored >1 point on the BCTQ (symptomatic). The clinical findings, NCS results, and CSA of the median nerve were compared among the three groups. Results There were no significant differences in age, DM duration, glycated hemoglobin levels, and presence of diabetic polyneuropathy among the three groups. The peak latency of the median sensory nerve action potential was significantly shorter in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001); however, no difference was observed between groups 2 and 3. CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel in group 2 was significantly larger than that in group 1 and smaller than that in group 3 (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of our study suggest that the symptoms of CTS in patients with diabetes are related to CSA of the median nerve, which is consistent with swelling of the nerve. PMID:27446786
Purpose The purpose of this study was to measure the axillary recess (AR) thickness in an asymptomatic shoulder by using ultrasonography (US) and to analyze the factors affecting it. Methods We recruited 141 patients (52 males; 89 females; age, 57.7±9.9 years) with unilateral shoulder pain and performed US on the unaffected shoulder. Two physiatrists measured the AR thickness of the unaffected shoulder independently. All patients were examined in an upright sitting position with 90° shoulder abduction. The ultrasonographic transducer was placed longitudinally on the mid-axillary line and along the long axis of the humeral shaft. The factors affecting the AR thickness values were analyzed, and intra-class correlation coefficients were used for assessing the reproducibility of each measurement. Results The intrarater reliability values for the two physiatrists were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. The inter-rater reliability of the mean AR thickness measurements was 0.91. The mean AR thickness in all subjects, males, and females was 2.8±0.6 mm, 3.1±0.6 mm, and 2.6±0.5 mm (P<0.01), respectively. No difference between the left and the right sides (males, P=0.086; females, P=0.535) or between the dominant and the non-dominant sides (males, P=0.173; female, P=0.244) was found. The AR thickness correlated positively with the height (r=0.313, P<0.01) and the weight (r=0.319, P<0.01). However, it did not correlate with the body mass index (r=0.152, P=0.077) or the age (r=-0.056, P=0.515). Conclusion US measurements of the AR thickness in asymptomatic shoulders demonstrated excellent intrarater and inter-rater reliabilities. The AR thickness showed anatomical variation with sex, height, and weight. PMID:27764911
Udelson, J.E.; Bonow, R.O.; O'Gara, P.T.; Maron, B.J.; Van Lingen, A.; Bacharach, S.L.; Epstein, S.E.
Recent studies indicate that reversible 201Tl perfusion defects, compatible with silent myocardial ischemia, commonly develop during exercise in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To determine whether this represents a dynamic process that may be modified favorably by medical therapy, we studied 29 asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with HCM, aged 12-55 years (mean, 28), with exercise 201Tl emission computed tomography under control conditions and again after 1 week of oral verapamil (mean dosage, 453 mg/day). Treadmill time increased slightly during verapamil (21.0 +/- 3.6 to 21.9 +/- 2.7 minutes, p less than 0.005), but peak heart rate-blood pressure product was unchanged (26.3 +/- 6.0 X 10(3)) compared with 25.0 +/- 6.4 X 10(3). Two midventricular short-axis images per study were divided into five regions each, and each of these 10 regions was then analyzed on a 0-2 scale by three observers blinded with regard to the patients' therapy. Average regional scores of 1.5 or less were considered to represent perfusion defects, and a change in regional score of 0.5 or more was considered to constitute a significant change. During control studies, 15 patients (52%) developed perfusion defects with exercise (average, 3.7 regions per patient). In 14 of these patients, all perfusion defects completely reversed after 3 hours of rest; one patient had fixed defects. After administration of verapamil, exercise perfusion scores improved in 10 of the 14 patients (71%) with reversible defects; there was overall improvement in 34 of 50 (68%) regions with initially reversible perfusion defects.
Zoccali, Carmine; Benedetto, Francesco A; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Giacone, Giuseppe; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Seminara, Giuseppe; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Malatino, Lorenzo S
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk for heart failure, but the prevalence and the prognostic value of asymptomatic systolic dysfunction in these patients are unknown. In this prospective cohort study, the authors have therefore assessed by echocardiography the prevalence and the prognostic value of systolic function as estimated by ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening at endocardial level (endoFS), and at midwall (mwFS), in a cohort of 254 asymptomatic dialysis patients. Systolic dysfunction had a prevalence rate of 26% by endoFS and of 48% by mwFS. During the follow-up period, 125 patients had one or more fatal and nonfatal CV events. On multivariate COX regression analysis, the three LV systolic function indicators were independently associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CV events, and there were no differences in the predictive power of these indicators (P > 0.30). The prediction power of LV function indicators was largely independent of traditional and novel risk factors in ESRD such as C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA). ADMA was significantly related with LV function indicators as well as with mortality and incident CV events, but these links were much reduced (P = NS) in models including LV function indicators. Of note, the risk of CV events was minimal in patients with normal LV mass and function, intermediate in patients with either LVH or systolic dysfunction, and maximal in patients displaying both alterations. The study of myocardial contractility by echocardiography provides prognostic information independently of LV mass and other risk factors in ESRD. Risk stratification by simple systolic function parameters may prove useful in secondary prevention strategies in these patients.
Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P
The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (P<0.05) when compared to distal initiation sequence (0.08±1.26 cm). The change in the ROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.
Wu, Grace W.; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Patel, Jignesh K.; Kittleson, Michelle M.; Reed, Elaine F.; Kiyosaki, Krista K.; Ardehali, Abbas
Background Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Methods Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had ≥ 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. Results The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (≥ 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Conclusions Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted. PMID:19416767
Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard
Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10−4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10−4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10−4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776
Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Tripodi, Dorothy J; Zalos, Gloria; Bolan, Charles D; Yau, Yu-Ying; Leitman, Susan F; Waclawiw, Myron A; Rosing, Douglas R
It is not well known whether systemic iron overload per se in hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is associated with cardiac arrhythmias before other signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease occur. In the present study, we examined the incidence of cardiac arrhythmia in cardiac asymptomatic subjects with HH (New York Heart Association functional class I) and compared it to that in age- and gender-matched normal volunteers. The 42 subjects with HH and the 19 normal control subjects were recruited through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored "Heart Study of Hemochromatosis." They completed 48-hour Holter electrocardiography ambulatory monitoring at the baseline evaluation. The subjects with HH were classified as newly diagnosed (group A) and chronically treated (group B) subjects. All subjects with HH had C282Y homozygosity, and the normal volunteers lacked any HFE gene mutations known to cause HH. Although statistically insignificant, the incidence of ventricular and supraventricular ectopy tended to be greater in the combined HH groups than in the controls. Supraventricular ectopy was more frequently noted in group B compared to in the controls (ectopy rate per hour 11.1 ± 29.9 vs 1.5 ± 3.5, p < 0.05, using the Kruskal-Wallis test). No examples of heart block, other than first-degree atrioventricular node block, were seen in any of the subjects. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was not significantly reduced after 6 months of intensive iron removal therapy in the group A subjects. No life-threatening arrhythmias were observed in our subjects with HH. In conclusion, our data suggest that the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias is, at most, marginally increased in asymptomatic subjects with HH. A larger clinical study is warranted to further clarify our observation.
Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga
Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037
Lai, Yau-Huei; Yun, Chun-Ho; Su, Cheng-Huang; Yang, Fei-Shih; Yeh, Hung-I; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Cury, Ricardo C; Bezerra, Hiram G
Abstract Purpose Pericardial adipose tissue had been shown to exert local effects on adjacent cardiac structures. Data regarding the mechanistic link between such measures and left atrial (LA) structural/functional remodeling, a clinical hallmark of early stage heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence, in asymptomatic population remain largely unexplored. Methods This retrospective analysis includes 356 subjects free from significant valvular disorders, atrial fibrillation, or clinical HF. Regional adipose tissue including pericardial and periaortic fat volumes, interatrial septal (IAS), and left atrioventricular groove (AVG) fat thickness were all measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA). We measured LA volumes, booster performance, reservoir capacity as well as conduit function, and analyzed their association with adiposity measures. Results All four adiposity measures were positively associated with greater LA volumes (all P < 0.05), while IAS and AVG fat were also related to larger LA kinetic energy and worse reservoir capacity (both P < 0.01). In multivariate models, IAS fat thickness remained independently associated with larger LA volumes, increased LA kinetic energy and ejection force (β-coef: 0.17 & 0.15, both P < 0.05), and impaired LA reservoir and conduit function (β-coef: −0.20 & −0.12, both P < 0.05) after adjusting for clinical variables. Conclusion Accumulated visceral adiposity, especially interatrial fat depots, was associated with certain LA structural/functional remodeling characterized by impaired LA reservoir and conduit function though augmented kinetic energy and ejection performance. Our data suggested that interatrial fat burden may be associated with certain detrimental LA functions with compensatory LA adaptation in an asymptomatic population. PMID:27249809
Pugliese, Nicola Riccardo; Fabiani, Iacopo; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Conte, Lorenzo; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Colonna, Paolo; Caso, Pio; Benedetto, Frank; Santini, Veronica; Carerj, Scipione; Romano, Maria Francesca; Citro, Rodolfo; Di Bello, Vitantonio
Patients with asymptomatic heart failure (HF; stage A and B) are characterized by maladaptive left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Classic 4-group classification of remodeling considers only LV mass index and relative wall thickness as variables. Complex remodeling classification (CRC) includes also LV end-diastolic volume index. Main aim was to assess the prognostic impact of CRC in stage A and B HF. A total of 1,750 asymptomatic subjects underwent echocardiographic examination as a screening evaluation in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. LV dysfunction, both systolic (ejection fraction) and diastolic (transmitral flow velocity pattern), was evaluated, together with LV remodeling. We considered a composite end point: all-cause death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularizations, cerebrovascular events, and acute pulmonary edema. CRC was suitable for 1,729 patients (men 53.6%; age 58.3 ± 13 years). Two hundred thirty-eight patients presented systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%) and 483 diastolic dysfunction. According to the CRC, 891 patients were normals or presented with physiologic hypertrophy, 273 concentric remodeling, 47 eccentric remodeling, 350 concentric hypertrophy, 29 mixed hypertrophy, 86 dilated hypertrophy, and 53 eccentric hypertrophy. Age and gender distribution was noticed (p <0.001). After a median follow-up of 21 months, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed different survival distribution (p <0.001) of the CRC patterns. In multivariate Cox regression (adjusted for age, gender, history of stable ischemic heart disease, classic remodeling classification, systolic, and diastolic dysfunction), CRC was independent predictor of primary end point (p = 0.044, hazard ratio 1.101, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.21), confirmed in a logistic regression (p <0.03). In conclusion, CRC could help physicians in prognostic stratification of patients in stage A and B HF.
Shakoor, Najia; Dua, Anisha; Thorp, Laura; Mikolaitis, Rachel A.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Fogg, Louis F.; Block, Joel A.
Objective The contralateral knee of those with unilateral endstage hip OA is known to be at greater risk for endstage knee OA compared to the ipsilateral, same side knee. Likewise, in endstage hip OA, this contralateral knee is known to have increased dynamic joint loads compared to the ipsilateral knee. Here, we study a population with unilateral hip OA, who are asymptomatic at the knees, for early asymmetries in knee loading. Methods Data from 62 subjects with unilateral hip OA were evaluated. Subjects underwent gait analyses for evaluation of dynamic knee loads as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at both knees. Differences between knees were compared. Results Peak dynamic knee loads were significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (2.46±0.71 vs 2.23±0.81 %BW*ht, p=0.029). Similarly, medial compartment tibial BMD was significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (0.897±0.208 vs 0.854±0.206 gm/c2, p=0.033). Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between contralteral:ipsilateral dynamic knee load and contralateral:ipsilateral medial compartment tibial BMD (Spearman’s rho= 0.287, p=0.036). Conclusions This study demonstrates that at the contralateral knees of patients with unilateral hip OA, which are at higher risk of developing progressive symptomatic OA compared to the ipsilateral knees, loading and structural asymmetries appear early in the disease course, while the knees are still asymptomatic. These early biomechanical asymmetries may have corresponding long term consequences, providing further support for the potential role of loading in OA onset and progression. PMID:22127702
Uhl, G.S.; Troxler, R.G.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.; Clark, D.
The well established inverse relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and the risk of coronary artery disease was tested in a cross-sectional group of 572 asymptomatic aircrew members who were being screened for risk of coronary artery disease. A battery of tests was performed, including determinations of fasting serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides and performance of a maximal symptom-limited exercise tolerance test. Of the 572 patients, 132 also had an abnormal S-T segment response to exercise testing or were otherwise believed to have an increased risk of organic heart disease and subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 16 men and minimal or subcritical coronary disease in 14; coronary angiograms were normal in the remaining 102 men. The remaining 440 men, who were believed to have a 1 percent chance of having coronary artery disease by sequential testing of risk factors and treadmill testing, had a mean cholesterol level of 213 mg/100 ml, a mean HDL cholesterol of 51 mg/100 ml and a mean cholesterol/HDL ratio of 4.4. The mean values of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly in men with normal angiographic finding and those with subcritical coronary disease. However, 14 of 16 men with coronary artery disease had a cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more whereas only 4 men with normal coronary arteries had a ratio of 6.0 or more. Of the classical coronary risk factors evaluated, the cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more had the highest odds ratio (172:1). It appears that determination of HDL cholesterol level helps to identify asymptomatic persons with a greater risk of having coronary artery disease.
Emina, Michael Osita; Idu, Faustina Kemdinum
Purpose This is to determine the prevalence of bacterial and parasitic flora in asymptomatic disposable and extended contact lens wearers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods The study was carried out on 156 contact lenses from 78 asymptomatic wearers between the ages of 12 to 38 years. Eighty two disposable daily wear (DWCL) and 74 extended wear (EWCL) contact lenses were examined. The contact lenses’ swabs and the trays were transferred to the laboratory for microbial examination. Results Fifty two (70.27 %) extended wear contact lenses and 50 (60.98 %) disposable contact lenses examined were contaminated. Streptococcus spp. (4.23 %) were found in extended contact lenses and (3.9 %) in disposable contact lenses. Escherichia coli (15.49 %) were more in the extended contact lenses and were in higher proportion (14.74 %) than the other microorganisms in all the contact lenses. Klebsiella spp. (12.99 %) were more in the disposable lenses than in the extended wear lenses (12.69 %). there were more disposable lenses (41.56 %) with ‘no growth’. Amoebae were isolated from (6.49 %) disposable and (4.23 %) extended wear contact lenses. Seventeen (32.69 %) DWCL had mixed flora. There were significant differences between disposable and extended contact lenses, p < 0.05. Conclusions EWCL present more microorganisms and pose threat to the users. DWCL had more amoebae, which calls for suitable lens care methods. Further studies may be needed to determine the level of care required for contact lens users in developing countries.
Pedro, Luís M; Sanches, J Miguel; Seabra, José; Suri, Jasjit S; Fernandes E Fernandes, José
Active carotid plaques are associated with atheroembolism and neurological events; its identification is crucial for stroke prevention. High-definition ultrasound (HDU) can be used to recognize plaque structure in carotid bifurcation stenosis associated with plaque vulnerability and occurrence of brain ischemic events. A new computer-assisted HDU method to study the echomorphology of the carotid plaque and to determine a risk score for developing appropriate symptoms is proposed in this study. Plaque echomorphology characteristics such as presence of ulceration at the plaque surface, juxta-luminal location of echolucent areas, echoheterogeneity were obtained from B-mode ultrasound scans using several image processing algorithms and were combined with measurement of severity of stenosis to obtain a clinical score--enhanced activity index (EAI)--which was correlated with the presence or absence of ipsilateral appropriate ischemic symptoms. An optimal cutoff value of EAI was determined to obtain the best separation between symptomatic (active) from asymptomatic (inactive) plaques and its diagnostic yield was compared to other 2 reference methods by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Classification performance was evaluated by leave-one-patient-out cross-validation applied to a cohort of 146 carotid plaques from 99 patients. The proposed method was benchmarked against (a) degree of stenosis criteria and (b) earlier proposed activity index (AI) and demonstrated that EAI yielded the highest accuracy up to an accuracy of 77% to predict asymptomatic plaques that developed symptoms in a prospective cross-sectional study. Enhanced activity index is a noninvasive, easy to obtain parameter, which provided accurate estimation of neurological risk of carotid plaques.
Handayuni, Irene; Trianty, Leily; Utami, Retno A. S.; Tirta, Yusrifar Kharisma; Kenangalem, Enny; Lampah, Daniel; Kusuma, Andreas; Wirjanata, Grennady; Kho, Steven; Simpson, Julie A.; Auburn, Sarah; Douglas, Nicholas M.; Noviyanti, Rintis; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R.; Marfurt, Jutta
Submicroscopic Plasmodium infections are an important parasite reservoir, but their clinical relevance is poorly defined. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in southern Papua, Indonesia, using cluster random sampling. Data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for haemoglobin measurement. Plasmodium parasitaemia was determined by blood film microscopy and PCR. Between April and July 2013, 800 households and 2,830 individuals were surveyed. Peripheral parasitaemia was detected in 37.7% (968/2,567) of individuals, 36.8% (357) of whom were identified by blood film examination. Overall the prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia was 15.4% (396/2567) and that of P. vivax 18.3% (471/2567). In parasitaemic individuals, submicroscopic infection was significantly more likely in adults (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.82 [95%CI: 2.49–5.86], p<0.001) compared to children, females (AOR = 1.41 [1.07–1.86], p = 0.013), individuals not sleeping under a bednet (AOR = 1.4 [1.0–1.8], p = 0.035), and being afebrile (AOR = 3.2 [1.49–6.93], p = 0.003). The risk of anaemia (according to WHO guidelines) was 32.8% and significantly increased in those with asymptomatic parasitaemia (AOR 2.9 [95% 2.1–4.0], p = 0.007), and submicroscopic P. falciparum infections (AOR 2.5 [95% 1.7–3.6], p = 0.002). Asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections in this area co-endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax constitute two thirds of detectable parasitaemia and are associated with a high risk of anaemia. Novel public health strategies are needed to detect and eliminate these parasite reservoirs, for the benefit both of the patient and the community. PMID:27788243
Pontifex, Edward; Williams, Marie T; Lunn, Rebecca; Parsons, David
Coughing and huffing have been shown to be effective airway clearance techniques and some authors have anecdotally reported that a huff requires less energy than a series of coughs commencing and finishing at the same lung volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the energy expenditure between periods of huffing and directed voluntary coughing commencing from the same initial lung volume in young asymptomatic subjects. Energy expenditure was measured using open-circuit indirect calorimetry equipment. Twenty-four non-smoking asymptomatic subjects (12 male, 12 female, aged 18-24 years), without any form of disease and within 10% of their predicted pulmonary function, completed the study. Energy expenditure was measured over three 10min, randomly ordered sessions of huffing, directed coughing and rest. The forced expiratory sessions comprised a single huff or double-barrel cough (both starting at total lung capacity) at the end of every two minutes. Each session was separated by a 5min washout period. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found between the huffing and directed coughing periods (mean difference 0.003 mL/kg/min (95% CI -0.160 to 0.114) and both produced significantly greater energy expenditure than rest (rest and huff mean difference 0.309 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.080 to 0.549) and rest and cough mean difference 0.306 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.074 to 0.508)). The suggested benefits of huffing versus coughing in terms of energy conservation are yet to be shown.
Estrada, Sergio; Hall, Håkan; Wanhainen, Anders; Björck, Martin; Sörensen, Jens; Antoni, Gunnar
Objective The aetiology and early pathophysiological mechanisms of aortic aneurysm formation are still unknown and challenging to study in vivo. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potentially valuable instrument for non-invasive in vivo pathophysiological studies. No specific tracer to identify the pathophysiological process of aneurysmal dilatation is yet available, however. The aim of this study was to explore if different PET tracers could be useful to image aneurysmal disease. Methods and results Human aneurysmal aortic tissue, collected during elective resection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of asymptomatic patients, was investigated in vitro by means of autoradiography with [68Ga]CRP-binder targeting C-reactive protein, [11C]DAA1106 targeting translocator protein (18 kDa), [11C]D-deprenyl with unknown target receptor, [11C]deuterium-L-deprenyl targeting astrocytes, [18F]fluciclatide targeting integrin αVβ3, [68Ga]IMP461 and bi-specific antibody TF2 052107 targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, [18F]F-metomidate targeting mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 species in the adrenal cortex, and [18F]vorozole targeting aromatase. Of the investigated tracers, only [18F]fluciclatide exhibited specific binding, whereas the other PET tracers failed to show specific uptake in the investigated tissue and are probably not useful for the intended purpose. Conclusion It seems likely that αVβ3 integrin expression in AAA can be visualized with PET and that the αVβ3 selective tracer, [18F]fluciclatide, may be suitable for in vivo molecular imaging of asymptomatic AAA. Additional evaluation of [18F]fluciclatide and αVβ3 integrin expression in AAA will be performed in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:24555564
Van Houcke, Jan; Yau, Wan Pan; Yan, Chun Hoi; Huysse, Wouter; Dechamps, Hannes; Lau, Wing Hang; Wong, Chun Sing; Pattyn, Christophe; Audenaert, Emmanuel Albert
Background: Osteoarthritis of the hip is five to ten times more common in white people than in Chinese people. Little is known about the true prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement or its role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of both white and Chinese asymptomatic individuals was conducted to compare the prevalences of radiographic features posing a risk for femoroacetabular impingement in the two groups. It was hypothesized that that there would be proportional differences in hip anatomy between the white and Asian populations. Methods: Pelvic computed tomography scans of 201 subjects (ninety-nine white Belgians and 102 Chinese; 105 men and ninety-six women) without hip pain who were eighteen to forty years of age were assessed. The original axial images were reformatted to three-dimensional pelvic models simulating standardized radiographic views. Ten radiographic parameters predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement were measured: alpha angle, anterior offset ratio, and caput-collum-diaphyseal angle on the femoral side and crossover sign, ischial spine projection, acetabular anteversion angle, center-edge angle, acetabular angle of Sharp, Tönnis angle, and anterior acetabular head index on the acetabular side. Results: The white subjects had a less spherical femoral head than the Chinese subjects (average alpha angle, 56° compared with 50°; p < 0.001). The Chinese subjects had less lateral acetabular coverage than the white subjects, with average center-edge angles of 35° and 39° (p < 0.001) and acetabular angles of Sharp of 38° and 36° (p < 0.001), respectively. A shallower acetabular configuration was predominantly present in Chinese women. Conclusions: Significant differences in hip anatomy were demonstrated between young asymptomatic Chinese and white subjects. However, the absolute size of the observed differences appears to contrast with the reported low prevalence of femoroacetabular
Kullo, Iftikhar J; Khaleghi, Mahyar; Hensrud, Donald D
We investigated whether markers of inflammation, including a cytokine (IL-6), acute-phase reactants [C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen], and white blood cell (WBC) count are associated with maximal O(2) consumption (Vo(2 max)) in men without coronary heart disease (CHD). In asymptomatic men (n = 172, 51 +/- 9.3 yr old), Vo(2 max) was measured during a symptom-limited graded treadmill exercise test. Physical activity level was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. IL-6 and CRP were measured by immunoassays, fibrinogen by the Clauss method, and WBC count with a Coulter counter. IL-6 and CRP were logarithmically transformed to reduce skewness. Multivariable regression was used to assess whether markers of inflammation were associated with Vo(2 max) after adjustment for age, body mass index, CHD risk factors, and lifestyle variables (physical activity level, percent body fat, and alcohol intake). Vo(2 max) was 34.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (SD 6.1). Log IL-6 (r = -0.38, P < 0.001), log CRP (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), fibrinogen (r = -0.42, P < 0.001), and WBC count (r = -0.22, P = 0.004) were each correlated with Vo(2 max). In separate multivariable linear regression models that adjusted for age, body mass index, CHD risk factors, and lifestyle variables, log IL-6 [beta-coeff = -1.66 +/- 0.63 (SE), P = 0.010], log CRP [beta-coeff = -0.99 +/- 0.33 (SE), P = 0.003], fibrinogen [beta-coeff = -1.51 +/- 0.44 (SE), P = 0.001], and WBC count [beta-coeff = -0.52 +/- 0.30 (SE), P = 0.088] were each inversely associated with Vo(2 max). In conclusion, higher circulating levels of IL-6, CRP, and fibrinogen are independently associated with lower Vo(2 max) in asymptomatic men.
Pouessel, G; Thumerelle, C; Nève, V; Santangelo, T; Flammarion, S; Pruvot, I; Tillie-Leblond, I; Deschildre, A
Juvenile dermatomyositis is the leading cause of chronic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy of auto-immune origin in children. Lung involvement in inflammatory myopathies is well described in adults, involving mostly interstitial lung disease, aspiration pneumonia and alveolar hypoventilation. We propose to describe its specificities in children. Pulmonary involvement may be asymptomatic and therefore must be systematically screened for. In case of clinical or functional respiratory abnormality, a chest computed tomographic (CT) scan is necessary. In children, a decrease of respiratory muscle strength seems common and should be systematically and specifically searched for by non-invasive and reproducible tests (sniff test). Interstitial lung disease usually associates restrictive functional defect, impairment of carbon monoxide diffusion and interstitial lung disease on CT scan. As in adults, the first-line treatment of juvenile dermatomyositis is based on corticosteroids. Corticosteroid resistant forms require corticosteroid bolus or adjuvant immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate or cyclosporine). There is no consensus in pediatrics for the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Complications of treatment, including prolonged steroid therapy, are frequent and therefore a careful assessment of the treatments risk-benefit ratio is necessary, especially in growing children.
Pinsky, Laura; Chiarilli, Daniel B.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Kull, Ryan M.; O'Keefe, Richard; Heffer, Calley; Seward, Samuel L., Jr.
Objectives: The study determined prevalence of asymptomatic nonurethral gonorrhea and chlamydia in men who have sex with men (MSM) seen at the Columbia University Health Service for routine care. Participants: The study enrolled 200 participants from March 2007 to May 2010. Results: Specimens were tested using culture and nucleic acid…
In the United States, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmone...
Stephan, R.; Untermann, F.
Fourteen verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool samples of 14 different asymptomatic human carriers were further characterized. A variety of serotypes was found, but none of the strains belonged to serogroup O157. Only one isolate carried most of the virulence genes that are associated with increased pathogenicity. PMID:10203524
Bergson, C L; Fernandes, N C
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years) with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5%) were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8%) had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.
Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F.; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio
Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257
Sims, Robert B
Sipuleucel T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy designed to stimulate an immune response in men diagnosed with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer. Sipuleucel T improves overall survival and provides an additional treatment option for this patient population.
Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) results in a chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease are not fully under...
Bravo, Paco E; Psaty, Bruce M; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Branch, Kelley R
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and remains the single most common cause of death among this population. Regrettably, a significant percentage of diabetics fail to perceive the classic symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia. Among asymptomatic diabetics, the prevalence of abnormal cardiac testing appears to be high, ranging between 10% and 62%, and mortality is significantly higher in those with abnormal scans. Hence, the potential use of screening for CHD detection among asymptomatic DM individuals is appealing and has been recommended in certain circumstances. However, it was not until recently, that this question was addressed in clinical trials. Two studies randomized a total of 2,023 asymptomatic diabetics to screening or not using cardiac imaging with a mean follow up of 4.4 ± 1.4 years. In combination, both trials showed lower than expected annual event rates, and failed to reduce major cardiovascular events in the screened group compared to the standard of care alone. The results of these trials do not currently support the use of screening tools for CHD detection in asymptomatic DM individuals. However, these studies have important limitations, and potential explanations for their negative results that are discussed in this manuscript.
Momeni Moghadam, Hamed; A Goss, David; Yekta, Abbas A; Ehsani, Marzieh
Background Research suggests that fixation disparity data are extremely useful in the assessment of the binocular and accommodative systems. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate fixation disparity curve (FDC) parameters with a modified near Mallett unit in symptomatic and asymptomatic students of Paramedical Sciences School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2007. Patients and Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 students were selected randomly and divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Fixation disparity curve parameters were determined for each subject and compared in symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Results There were more subjects with exo fixation disparity than eso fixation disparity in the study sample. The means for fixation disparity, fixation disparity curve x-intercept, and slope with the modified Mallett unit were each significantly different by Mann-Whitney U test in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Also there was a significant difference in the distributions of fixation disparity curve types in the two symptom groups by Chi-square test. Conclusions The X-intercepts (point at which the FDC crosses the X-axis) were on average more in the base-in direction, Y-intercepts (point at which the FDC crosses the Y-axis) were shifted in the exo direction, and slopes were steeper in the symptomatic group. PMID:24719687
Hussein, Eman M; Ismail, Ola A; Mokhtar, Amira B; Mohamed, Samer E; Saad, Rania M
Distinct sequences of Giardia duodenalis assemblages raised the hypothesis that certain assemblages may contribute to its clinical outcome. However, sequences analysis is time consuming, expensive, and needs many manual operations. Nested PCR targeting intergenic spacer (IGS) region was applied successfully to genotype G. duodenalis. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of G. duodenalis assemblages among giardiasis school children and its relation to the presence of symptoms using nested IGS/PCR. Of 65 microscopically confirmed Giardia-positive samples, 65 samples were genotyped proving high sensitivity (92.3%) of IGS/PCR. Negative IGS/PCR samples were also negative for β-giardin gene. Subassemblage AI was the commonest with 66.6% (20/30) among asymptomatic children compared to 53.3% (16/30) of symptomatic, while assemblage B was found in 40% (12/30) of symptomatic compared to 20% (6/30) of asymptomatic. The difference was significant. AII was only found in asymptomatic with 13.4% (4/30), while mixed infections (AI&B) were recorded only in 6.6% (2/30) of symptomatic group. A significant relation was found between younger children susceptibility for AI and B infections as presented in 77.7 (12/16) and 83.3% (10/12) of symptomatic, respectively, and 80 (16/80) and 33.4% (2/4) of asymptomatic, respectively. Significant relations were found between AI with intermittent diarrhea and B with chronic. A significant relation was found between assemblage distributions and heavy infection intensity. In conclusion, higher incidence of assemblage B among symptomatic children compared to asymptomatic could denote its possible pathogenic potential.
Rosignuolo, Maria; Muscianese, Marta; Pranteda, Guglielmo
Ultrasonography (US) is often the first imaging study performed in patient with abdominal pain or vague symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, it has been demonstrated that transabdominal sonography achieves good to excellent results in potential bowel disorders; especially, if ultrasonography findings are framed in the context of clinical information. Systemic mastocytosis is not a common disease and it usually involves skin, gastrointestinal tract and bone. It results from a clonal neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells and clinically it can ranges from 'asymptomatic' with normal life expectancy to 'highly aggressive'. Symptoms are caused by the release of mast cells mediators, such as histamine, and by the increase bulk of mast cells in the tissue. We present herein a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with abdominal symptomatology due to thickened colonic involvement showed by US associated with bone and skin involvement.
Riva, Eloisa; Oliver, Carolina; Pérez, Maria del Carmen; Telis, Osmar; Díaz, Lilian; Mikhael, Joseph R
The standard approach to the follow-up of lymphoma includes computed tomography (CT) every 6-12 months for the first 2 years and, then, as clinically indicated. Recent evidence suggests that most relapses are detected clinically, outside scheduled CT which, on the other hand, increases risk of second malignancies and cost. In early-stage lymphomas, involved site CT instead of full body CT may be a reasonable alternative to reduce radiation dose. We analyzed whether regular CT surveillance detects asymptomatic relapses in a single-center Uruguayan early stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) population. We evaluated utility of full body CT halfway and at the end-of-treatment evaluation and calculated the radiation exposure. In our study, CT surveillance added nothing to clinical follow-up. Moreover, 44% of our patients received a cumulative effective dose that doubles the risk of malignancies. Involved-site CT scan would be enough to monitor response during treatment in early stage NHL.
Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra
A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, p<0.01), left lateral flexion (r=0.64, p<0.01), and left rotation (r=0.60, p<0.01). Flexion (r=0.74, p<0.01) and right lateral flexion (r=0.61, p<0.01) positively correlated with the left FR ratio. Extension and right rotation showed either a very weak or no correlation with the mean value of the right and left FR ratio. Our findings suggested that the cervical FR ratio had a positive correlation with cervical movements, and that changes of the activation patterns in CES demonstrated as cervical FR ratio are associated with reduction of the cervical range of motion including flexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential
Qin, Guangming; Chen, Zhihao; Su, Weiwei; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng
Abstract Interventions of cardiovascular disease should be implemented in early ages. But most studies were performed in middle aged or elderly adults because of the low prevalence in young, especially for women. We investigate the association between metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in young asymptomatic women adults, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. We performed a cross-sectional study of 950 Chinese young asymptomatic women adults (37.28 ± 5.16 years) who underwent a routine health screening examination. Triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homocysteine (HCY), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), uric acid, and CIMT were measured. Out of 950 subjects, 16 (1.7%) were detected with increased CIMT. Significant differences existed in the indicators including age, body mass index (BMI), TC, TG, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Although TG, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C were the significant indicators when adjusted for age only, age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT were the only independent relative indicators of increased CMIT that entered the multivariate model. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for a linear combination of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT was 0.809 (95% confidence interval = 0.712–0.906), superior to any of the variables taken alone (age, AUC = 0.707; FBG, AUC = 0.710; LDL-C/HDL-C, AUC = 0.695; GGT, AUC = 0.648). The combined assessment of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT contributes to an early detection for subclinical atherosclerosis, providing guidance to clinicians for women's early interventions of latent cardiovascular disease. Neither of the above four individual indicators is qualified alone. PMID:28296733
Dunlea, Robert; Lenert, Leslie
BACKGROUND A specialty referral is a common but complex decision that often requires a primary care provider to balance his or her own interests with those of the patient. OBJECTIVE To examine the factors that influence a patient’s choice of a specialist for consultation for an asymptomatic condition and better understand the trade-offs that patients are and are not willing to make in this decision. DESIGN Stratified cross sectional convenience sample of subjects selected to parallel US population demographics. PARTICIPANTS Members of an Internet survey panel who reported seeing a physician in the past year whose responses met objective quality metrics for attention. MAIN MEASURES Respondents completed an adaptive conjoint analysis survey comparing specialists over eight attributes. The reliability of assessments and the predictive validity of models were measured using hold out samples. The relative importance (RI) of different attributes was computed using paired t tests. The implications of utility values were studied using market simulation methods. KEY RESULTS 530 subjects completed the survey and had responses that met quality criteria. The reliability of responses was high (86% agreement) and models were predictive of patients’ preferences (82.6% agreement with holdout choices.) The most important attribute for patients was out-of-pocket cost (RI of 19.5%, p<0.0001 vs. other factors). Among the non-financial factors “collaboration and communication” with the primary care provider was the most important attribute (RI of 13.1% P<0.001). Third in importance was whether the specialist practiced shared decision-making (RI of12.2% P<0.001 vs. other factors except delay in consultation). Cost did not dominate decision-making. In market simulations patients frequently preferred more expensive providers. For example, most patients (76.3%) were willing to pay more ($80) to see a specialist who both collaborated well with their primary care provider and
Lee, Jin-Young; Yang, Moon Hee; Hwang, Jung-Hae; Kang, Mira; Paeng, Jae-Won; Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Byung-Jae
Purpose Toxocariasis is the most common cause of peripheral blood eosinophilia in Korea and produces eosinophilic infiltration in various organs, including the lung. However, the prevalence of toxocariasis in the general population is rarely reported. Methods We investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara larval antibody among asymptomatic people who attended Samsung Medical Center for a health checkup, including low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) between March 2012 and December 2013. A total of 633 people (400 men and 233 women) were prospectively recruited. Results The Toxocara-seropositive rate was 51.2% using the current cutoff value based on Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (67.0% for men and 24.0% for women). In the multivariate-adjusted model, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-1.11), male sex (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.26-5.33), rural residence (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05-2.30), and history of raw liver intake (OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 3.61-20.11) were significantly associated with Toxocara seropositivity. When subjects were divided into 3 groups using cutoff values base on weak positive and strong positive control optical densities (ODs), the ORs for peripheral blood eosinophilia and serum hyperIgEaemia were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.02-2.89) in the weakpositive group and 36.64 (95% CI, 11.73-111.42) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. Similarly, ORs for the solid nodule with surrounding halo were 2.54 (95% CI, 0.60-10.84) in the weak positive group and 15.08 (95 CI 4.09-55.56) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. Conclusions The study indicated that the Toxocara-seropositive rate obtained by using the current cutoff value based on ELISA was high in the asymptomatic population in Korea. The results of this study suggest that active toxocariasis may be more frequently seen in the Toxocara-strong positive group than in the Toxocara-weak positive group. PMID:26122506
Maciel, P.; Cruz, V.T.; Constante, M.; Iniesta, I.; Costa, M.C.; Gallati, S.; Sousa, N.; Sequeiros, J.; Coutinho, P.; Santos, M.M.
The authors identified a missense mutation in the FTL gene (474G>A; A96T) in a 19-year-old man with parkinsonism, ataxia, corticospinal signs, mild nonprogressive cognitive deficit, and episodic psychosis. This mutation was also present in his asymptomatic mother and younger brother, who had abnormally low levels of ferritin in the serum. The patient and his mother displayed bilateral involvement of the pallidum. PMID:16116125
Magina, S; Lisboa, C; Resende, C; Azevedo, F; Amado, F; Cardoso, V; Almeida, F; Mesquita-Guimarães, J
We describe an 11-year-old boy who had several, asymptomatic, erythematous papules in the oropharynx and larynx with recent onset, two cervical lymphadenopathies, and a painless, erythematous plaque on the right wrist with a 2.5-year history of slow growth. Histologic examination of the mucocutaneous lesions revealed a submucous infiltrate of lymphocytes and Langhans giant cells in the papules and granulomatous dermatitis in the plaque. The cervical lymph node was biopsied and on the surgical scar, an erythematous, nodular lesion developed. A biopsy specimen of this lesion showed tuberculoid granulomas with prominent caseation necrosis, and culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Mantoux test was strongly positive with a vesicular response. A diagnosis of mucocutaneous lupus vulgaris and scrofuloderma secondary to cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis was made. Two months after initiation of antituberculosis therapy there was a complete resolution of mucous lesions and healing with atrophic scars on the neck and wrist. This is a rare presentation in the literature and reminds clinicians that tuberculosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions.
Oterdoom, Leendert H; Verweij, K Evelyne; Biermann, Katharina; Langeveld, Mirjam; van Buuren, Henk R
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by accumulation of abnormal glycogen in muscle or liver or both. Specific hepatic complications include liver adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatocellular carcinomas described in GSD type I are often due to the degeneration of liver adenomas. Hepatocellular carcinoma in GSD type III, however, is rare and is thought to be associated with underlying cirrhosis.We present the case of a 63-year old male who was admitted for assessment of suitability for liver transplantation because of development of recurrent HCC in the presence of multiple liver adenomas. A diagnosis of GSD type III was made in this patient without underlying cirrhosis or metabolic disturbances resembling GSD. This case report is the first documentation of HCC development in an asymptomatic, non-cirrhotic patient with GSD type III. This raises the possibility that in GSD type III, the adenoma - carcinoma sequence can occur as it is also seen in GSD type I. Physicians taking care of GSD patients should be aware of this and some form of surveillance for cirrhosis and HCC should be considered. Also male patients with adenomas should have a thorough workup to reveal any underlying disease such as GSD.
Cid, Elena; Gomez-Dominguez, Daniel; Martin-Lopez, David; Gal, Beatriz; Laurent, François; Ibarz, Jose M.; Francis, Fiona; Menendez de la Prida, Liset
Developmental cortical malformations comprise a large spectrum of histopathological brain abnormalities and syndromes. Their genetic, developmental and clinical complexity suggests they should be better understood in terms of the complementary action of independently timed perturbations (i.e., the multiple-hit hypothesis). However, understanding the underlying biological processes remains puzzling. Here we induced developmental cortical malformations in offspring, after intraventricular injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in utero in mice. We combined extensive histological and electrophysiological studies to characterize the model. We found that MAM injections at E14 and E15 induced a range of cortical and hippocampal malformations resembling histological alterations of specific genetic mutations and transplacental mitotoxic agent injections. However, in contrast to most of these models, intraventricularly MAM-injected mice remained asymptomatic and showed no clear epilepsy-related phenotype as tested in long-term chronic recordings and with pharmacological manipulations. Instead, they exhibited a non-specific reduction of hippocampal-related brain oscillations (mostly in CA1); including theta, gamma and HFOs; and enhanced thalamocortical spindle activity during non-REM sleep. These data suggest that developmental cortical malformations do not necessarily correlate with epileptiform activity. We propose that the intraventricular in utero MAM approach exhibiting a range of rhythmopathies is a suitable model for multiple-hit studies of associated neurological disorders. PMID:24782720
Cid, Elena; Gomez-Dominguez, Daniel; Martin-Lopez, David; Gal, Beatriz; Laurent, François; Ibarz, Jose M; Francis, Fiona; Menendez de la Prida, Liset
Developmental cortical malformations comprise a large spectrum of histopathological brain abnormalities and syndromes. Their genetic, developmental and clinical complexity suggests they should be better understood in terms of the complementary action of independently timed perturbations (i.e., the multiple-hit hypothesis). However, understanding the underlying biological processes remains puzzling. Here we induced developmental cortical malformations in offspring, after intraventricular injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in utero in mice. We combined extensive histological and electrophysiological studies to characterize the model. We found that MAM injections at E14 and E15 induced a range of cortical and hippocampal malformations resembling histological alterations of specific genetic mutations and transplacental mitotoxic agent injections. However, in contrast to most of these models, intraventricularly MAM-injected mice remained asymptomatic and showed no clear epilepsy-related phenotype as tested in long-term chronic recordings and with pharmacological manipulations. Instead, they exhibited a non-specific reduction of hippocampal-related brain oscillations (mostly in CA1); including theta, gamma and HFOs; and enhanced thalamocortical spindle activity during non-REM sleep. These data suggest that developmental cortical malformations do not necessarily correlate with epileptiform activity. We propose that the intraventricular in utero MAM approach exhibiting a range of rhythmopathies is a suitable model for multiple-hit studies of associated neurological disorders.
Enserink, Remko; Scholts, Rianne; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Boer, Richard; Kortbeek, Titia; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Smit, Henriette; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid
Background Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. Objective To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteristics of the sampled child and the sampling season. Methods We performed three years of enteropathogen surveillance in a network of 29 child day care centers in the Netherlands. The centers were instructed to take one fecal sample from ten randomly chosen children each month, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms at time of sampling. All samples were analyzed for the molecular detection of 16 enteropathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses by real-time multiplex PCR. Results Enteropathogens were detected in 78.0% of the 5197 fecal samples. Of the total, 95.4% of samples were obtained from children who had no gastroenteritis symptoms at time of sampling. Bacterial enteropathogens were detected most often (most prevalent EPEC, 19.9%), followed by parasitic enteropathogens (most prevalent: D. fragilis, 22.1%) and viral enteropathogens (most prevalent: norovirus, 9.5%). 4.6% of samples related to children that experienced symptoms of gastroenteritis at time of sampling. Only rotavirus and norovirus were significantly associated with gastroenteritis among day care attendees. Conclusions Our study indicates that asymptomatic infections with enteropathogens in day care attendees are not a rare event and that gastroenteritis caused by infections with these enteropathogens is only one expression of their presence. PMID:24586825
Stoian, Dana; Pantea, Stelian; Margan, Madalin; Timar, Bogdan; Borcan, Florin; Craina, Marius; Craciunescu, Mihaela
Maternal hormones are essential for the normal fetal development during pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a frequent pathology in our iodine replete region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in cases with known autoimmune thyroid disease, which were in a euthyroid state prior to pregnancy, and to assess the association between supplemental treatments administered and the outcome of the pregnancy. The study is a prospective interventional controlled study. The two cohorts comprise the interventional group, consisting of 109 pregnant women with known autoimmune asymptomatic thyroid disease, without any levothyroxine (LT4) treatment and an aged-matched control group, with an unknown thyroid disease. After the pregnancy, a monthly evaluation of TSH, FT3, and FT4 was performed. Offspring evaluation was made at birth time. 88.8% of the women developed SCH in the first four weeks of pregnancy. Average LT4 doses increased as the pregnancy progressed. The monthly adjustment was 12.5 or 25 μg. All SCH cases developed in the first trimester of pregnancy. There was no significant difference regarding the gestational week, weight, or length at birth between the interventional group and controls, when TSH values were in the optimal range, during the whole pregnancy. Premature birth was described in one case in the interventional group.
Odabasi, Mehmet; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Arslan, Cem; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, Tolga
Short gastric vessels are divided during the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication resulting in splenic infarct in some cases. We report a case of laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication with splenic infarct that was recognized during the procedure and provide a brief literature review. The patient underwent a laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication. We observed a partial infarction of the spleen. She reported no pain. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed an infarct, and a 3-month abdominal ultrasound showed complete resolution. Peripheral splenic arterial branches have very little collateral circulation. When these vessels are occluded or injured, an area of infarction will occur immediately. Management strategies included a trial of conservative management and splenectomy for persistent symptoms or complications resulting from splenic infarct. In conclusion, we believe that the real incidence is probably much higher because many cases of SI may have gone undiagnosed during or following an operation, because some patients are asymptomatic. We propose to check spleen carefully for the possibility of splenic infarct.
Kucukkolbasi, Hasan; Esen, Alparslan; Erinanc, Ozgur Hilal
Introduction: Dental follicle (DF) is an ectomesenchymal tissue that surrounds the developing tooth germ and contains precursor cells for cementoblasts, periodontal ligaments and osteoblasts. Radiographically, the DFs are seen as semicircular radiolucencies around unerupted teeth. However, if the DFs are larger than 2.5 mm, they are considered to be a pathological change. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the cell proliferation activity of DF surrounding an asymptomatic impacted third molar teeth using the Ki 67 proliferation marker and to evaluate the variation of cell proliferation depending on the age factor. Materials and Methods: Forty-four specimens of DFs associated with impacted mandibular third molars fully covered by mucosa or bone were surgically removed from 44 patients. The patients were divided into 2 age groups. Twenty of forty-four DFs were between 18 and 29 years (Group 1) and 24 were 30 years and above (Group 2). Ki-67 immunostaining was evaluated in epithelial component of the DFs. Results: Ki 67 expression was found to be 60% in Group 1 and 75% in Group 2. Statistically significant differences were found among the two groups in both the basal layer and the supra-basal layer. Conclusion: This study shows that DFs have more proliferative potential in older people as compared to the young and squamous metaplasia may be an early sign of developing lesions of odontogenic origin. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that histopathological changes could be found in DFs without clinical and radiographic alterations. PMID:25328297
Elshereef, Rawhya R.; Darwish, Aymen; Ali, Amal; Abdel-kadar, Mohammed; Hamdy, Lamiaa
Aim. To detect the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients without clinically evident atherosclerosis and to correlate its presence with the disease activity. Patients and Methods. Our study includes 112 RA patients (group 1) and 40 healthy controls (group 11). All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Carotid intima media wall thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques were measured in both groups by B-mode ultrasonography; also color duplex Doppler ultrasound of the brachial artery was done to detect endothelial function. Results. There is atherosclerosis in 31.3% of asymptomatic RA patients compared with only 5% in controls (P = 0.003**). A significant difference was detected in patients with and without atherosclerosis regarding duration of the disease (P = 0.0001***) and patient's age (P = 0.01*). There is highly statistical significant correlation between atherosclerosis and disease activity index. Conclusion. The frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis was high in long-term active RA patients. PMID:25737726
Shahi, Shahriar; Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Samiei, Mohammad; Yavari, Hamidreza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two different rotary instruments on postoperative pain in teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 mandibular first and second molars were divided into two groups (n=39) and their root canal preparation was carried out with either RaCe or ProTaper rotary instruments. All the subjects underwent one-visit root canal treatment and the severity of postoperative pain was evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) at 4-, 12-, 24-, 48- and 72-h and 1-week intervals. In addition, the need for taking analgesics was recorded. Data were analyzed with the repeated-measures ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-by-two comparison. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: Comparison of mean pain severity between the two groups at various postoperative intervals did not reveal any significant differences (P=0.10). The difference in amount of analgesics taken by each groups was not statistically significant (P=0.25). Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the postoperative pain reported between the two groups; which indicates the clinical acceptability of both systems. PMID:26843876
Borobia, Marta; Ortín, Aurora; Ferrer, Luis M; Ramos, Juán J; Lacasta, Delia; De Las Heras, Marcelo
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer caused by Jaggsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is difficult to identify animals infected with JSRV but are clinically healthy. The virus does not induce a specific antibody response and, although proviral DNA sequences of JSRV can be found in mononuclear blood cells, the detection is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JSRV in the bone marrow of infected sheep and develop a more consistent screening method. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow samples from 8 asymptomatic JSRV-infected sheep revealed the presence of positively labelled cells. However, JSRV could not be detected by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bone marrow aspirates periodically collected from these animals. Results suggest that JSRV-infected cells may be present in the bone marrow of symptomless animals, but the number is below the detectable level for PCR. Therefore, this technique does not seem to be helpful for preclinical diagnosis of OPA.
Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo
The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association.
Xie, Yuxiang; Zhou, Bing; Lin, Mei-Yao; Wang, Shiwei; Foust, Kevin D.; Sheng, Zu-Hang
One pathological hallmark in ALS motor neurons (MNs) is axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. A fundamental question remains: does reduced degradation of those mitochondria by impaired autophagy-lysosomal system contribute to mitochondrial pathology? Here, we reveal MN-targeted progressive lysosomal deficits accompanied by impaired autophagic degradation beginning at asymptomatic stages in fALS-linked hSOD1G93A mice. Lysosomal deficits result in accumulation of autophagic vacuoles engulfing damaged mitochondria along MN axons. Live imaging of spinal MNs from the adult disease mice demonstrates impaired dynein-driven retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs). Expressing dynein-adaptor snapin reverses transport defects by competing with hSOD1G93A for binding dynein, thus rescuing autophagy-lysosomal deficits, enhancing mitochondria turnover, improving MN survival, and ameliorating the disease phenotype in hSOD1G93A mice. Our study provides a new mechanistic link for hSOD1G93A-mediated impairment of LE transport to autophagy-lysosome deficits and mitochondria pathology. Understanding these early pathological events benefits development of new therapeutic interventions for fALS-linked MN degeneration. PMID:26182418
Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A
The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p < 0.05), a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (30%, p < 0.0001), and more than four lifetime sexual partners (7.9%, p < 0.01). Women who used oral contraception had more infections (9.7%), than did women who used the intrauterine contraceptive device (4.8%, p > 0.05), condom (0%, p < 0.01) or no contraception (3.1%, p < 0.05). Infection was strongly associated with cervical erythema (8.2%, p < 0.0001), ectopy (7%, p < 0.05), friability (20%, p < 0.0001), and endocervical discharge (100%, p < 0.0001). These results support the view that Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.
Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A
This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.
Maldonado, Y; Cantwell, M; Old, M; Hill, D; Sanchez, M L; Logan, L; Millan-Velasco, F; Valdespino, J L; Sepulveda, J; Matsui, S
Symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection was prospectively determined in a 3-year birth cohort of Mayan infants. Stool samples from 271 infants and 268 older siblings were tested for astrovirus, adenovirus 40/41, rotavirus and Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter species. Concurrent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or anorexia were noted. Astrovirus was detected in 164 infants (61%) and 20 siblings (7%). Rotavirus (4%) and adenovirus 40/41 (13%) were isolated less frequently. Of all diarrheal episodes reported at a visit, 26% (78/305) were associated with astrovirus; 17% (78/452) of astrovirus infections were associated with diarrhea and 9% with other symptoms. Only diarrhea was associated with astrovirus infection (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .01). Of infants with astrovirus, 70% shed at multiple visits over a period of 2-17 weeks (median, 5). The point prevalence of astrovirus infection was significantly higher among infants than siblings (relative risk, 6.18; 95% CI, 3.93-9.72; P < .0001, chi2). Astrovirus was identified throughout the year, peaked in March and May, and decreased in September. In this population, astrovirus was the most common enteric pathogen isolated; symptomatic infection was prevalent among infants.
Pagonas, Nikolaos; Kor, Samad; Seibert, Felix S; Giese, Arnd; Zidek, Walter; Reinke, Petra; Babel, Nina; Bauer, Frederic; Westhoff, Timm H
BACKGROUND Hyperuricemia is very common after renal transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and graft loss. To date, however, treatment is only recommended in symptomatic disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 503 adult patients who underwent kidney transplantation at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin in this retrospective study. Patients were followed up for up to 120 months. All-cause mortality, graft survival, changes in level of serum uric acid (SUA), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed. RESULTS At 12 months post-transplantation, 225 patients had a serum uric acid (SUA) level >7 mg/dl: 52 patients were treated with allopurinol, 37 with benzbromarone, and 136 patients received no medication for hyperuricemia (control). At 12 months, eGFR did not differ between groups (p=0.15) but treated patients had higher SUA levels (p<0.001) compared to the control group. SUA-lowering treatment was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (p=0.013) and graft loss (p=0.014) compared to controls. At 120 months, patients in the treatment group had lower SUA levels (p=0.001) and higher eGFR (p<0.001) compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia was associated with a substantial benefit in patient and graft survival.
Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Durr, Alexandra; Schiffmann, Raphael
The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA) abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD. PMID:21483838
Johansen, Ø H; Hanevik, K; Thrana, F; Carlson, A; Stachurska-Hagen, T; Skaare, D; Robertson, L J
Two related outbreaks (in 2009 and 2012) of cryptosporidiosis in Norwegian schoolchildren during a stay at a remote holiday farm provided us with a natural experiment to investigate possible secondary transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum IIa A19G1R1. After the children had returned home, clinical data and stool samples were obtained from their household contacts. Samples were investigated for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescence antibody test. We found both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections, which are likely to have been secondary transmission. Laboratory-confirmed transmission rate was 17% [4/23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7·0-37·1] in the 2009 outbreak, and 0% (95% CI 0-16·8) in the 2012 outbreak. Using a clinical definition, the probable secondary transmission rate in the 2012 outbreak was 8% (7/83, 95% CI 4·1-16·4). These findings highlight the importance of hygienic and public health measures during outbreaks or individual cases of cryptosporidiosis. We discuss our findings in light of previous studies reporting varying secondary transmission rates of Cryptosporidium spp.
Chan, AW; de Gara, CJ
Introduction Surgeons and physicians encounter blood transfusions on a daily basis but a robust evidence-based strategy on indications and timing of transfusion in asymptomatic anaemic patients is yet to be determined. For judicious use of blood products, the risks inherent to packed red blood cells, the patient’s co-morbidities and haemoglobin (Hb)/haematocrit levels should be considered. This review critiques and summarises the latest available evidence on the indications for transfusions in healthy and cardiac disease patients as well as the timing of transfusions relative to surgery. Methods An electronic literature search of the MEDLINE®, Google Scholar™ and Trip databases was conducted for articles published in English between January 2006 and January 2015. Studies discussing timing and indications of transfusion in medical and surgical patients were retrieved. Bibliographies of studies were checked for other pertinent articles that were missed by the initial search. Findings Six level 1 studies (randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews) and six professional society guidelines were included in this review. In healthy patients without cardiac disease, a restrictive transfusion trigger of Hb 70–80g/l is safe and appropriate whereas in cardiac patients, the trigger is Hb 80–100g/l. The literature on timing of transfusions relative to surgery is limited. For the studies available, preoperative transfusions were associated with a decreased incidence of subsequent transfusions and timing of transfusions did not affect the rates of colorectal cancer recurrence. PMID:26492900
Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina
We have established a novel strategy to reduce the risk for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), where rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance poses a major threat. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) protects the host against symptomatic infections with more virulent strains. To mimic this protective effect, we deliberately establish ABU in UTI-prone patients, who are refractory to conventional therapy. The patients are inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) 83972, now widely used as a prototype ABU strain. Therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial, supporting the feasibility of using E. coli 83972 as a tool to prevent recurrent UTI and, potentially, to outcompete antibiotic-resistant strains from the human urinary tract. In addition, the human inoculation protocol offers unique opportunities to study host-parasite interaction in vivo in the human urinary tract. Here, we review the clinical evidence for protection using this approach as well as some molecular insights into the pathogenesis of UTI that have been gained during these studies. PMID:27483325
Ho, Lap; Fivecoat, Hayley; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Current treatments for AD are not as effective as needed, nor is there any definitive antemortem diagnostic. Understanding the biological processes that occur during AD onset and/or progression will improve disease diagnosis and treatment. Recent applications of microarray technologies for analysis of messenger (m) RNA expression profiles have elucidated distinct changes in the brain as a function of AD dementia initiation and progression. However, mRNA analysis underestimates post-transcriptional modifications and therefore provides only a partial view of the molecular changes in the AD brain. Combining mRNA studies with protein expression analysis may provide a more global picture of the biological processes associated with AD dementia. Information gathered could lead to the development of select biological indices (biomarkers) for guiding AD diagnosis and therapy. We will provide a brief background on AD, followed by a review on the applications of microarray, proteomics, as well as microRNA expression profile analysis to develop novel diagnostic strategies that may be useful for the diagnosis AD and for monitoring disease progression. The availability of biomarkers that promote early disease diagnosis, particularly among asymptomatic patients, will lead to the application of personalized medicine in AD.
Oliveira, Ledy Horto Santos; Santos, Larissa Silva; Silva, Carolina Oliveira; Augusto, Everton Faccini; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program.
Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G
Viruses rely completely on the hosts' machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response.
Toedtling, V; Yates, J M
The Faculty of Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England has prompted the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to urgently re-assess the TA1 guidance on extractions of wisdom teeth and highlighted required amendments to the present version in light of published evidence concerning the harm caused by wisdom tooth retention. This article seeks to address the recent concerns relating the increasing frequency of distal-cervical caries in lower second molar teeth when associated with asymptomatic partially erupted mesial or horizontal impacted mandibular third molars. Such acute angle impactions are classified as partially erupted when one of the third molar cusps breached the epithelial attachment of the distal aspect of the second molar, thus prevents the formation of a gingival seal. At its earliest stage the wisdom tooth appears clinically absent or unerupted, yet histologically the architecture of the gingival epithelium has been disrupted allowing ingress of microbes, demineralisation and succeeding cavitation to take place on the distal aspect of the second molar. We hope to highlight the difficulties faced in addressing this growing clinical problem and encourage clinicians to re-evaluate their own caries risk assessment and caries prevention strategy in relation to mesial and horizontal third molar extractions.
Lima, Iraci D; Queiroz, Jose W; Lacerda, Henio G; Queiroz, Paula V S; Pontes, Nubia N; Barbosa, James D A; Martins, Daniella R; Weirather, Jason L; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in large cities in Brazil, including Natal. We determined the prevalence of asymptomatic human infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi and associated environmental risks around Natal. Infection was detected by Leishmania skin test (LST) and anti-leishmanial antibodies in humans and anti-leishmanial antibodies in dogs. Amongst 345 humans, 24.6% were seropositive, and 38.6% were LST-positive. Prevalence of positive serology was similar in both sexes and across all ages. However, positive LST responses increased with age, suggesting that LST is long-lasting and cumulative. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that LST response varied with location (P = 0.007) and that males were more frequently LST-positive (P = 0.027). Indicators of lower socioeconomic status associated significantly with human infection. Furthermore, there was geographic coincidence of seropositive humans and dogs (r = 0.7926, P = 0.011). These data suggest that dog and human L. i. chagasi infection are intimately interrelated in environmental conditions associated with low income.
Pateras, Ioannis S.; Levi, Laura; Mihaljevic, Boris; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Wrande, Marie; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Nastasi, Claudia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Tebaldi, Toma; Viero, Gabriella; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Rhen, Mikael; Frisan, Teresa
Bacterial genotoxins, produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, induce DNA damage in the target cells. While the responses induced in the host cells have been extensively studied in vitro, the role of these effectors during the course of infection remains poorly characterized. To address this issue, we assessed the effects of the Salmonella enterica genotoxin, known as typhoid toxin, in in vivo models of murine infection. Immunocompetent mice were infected with isogenic S. enterica, serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) strains, encoding either a functional or an inactive typhoid toxin. The presence of the genotoxic subunit was detected 10 days post-infection in the liver of infected mice. Unexpectedly, its expression promoted the survival of the host, and was associated with a significant reduction of severe enteritis in the early phases of infection. Immunohistochemical and transcriptomic analysis confirmed the toxin-mediated suppression of the intestinal inflammatory response. The presence of a functional typhoid toxin further induced an increased frequency of asymptomatic carriers. Our data indicate that the typhoid toxin DNA damaging activity increases host survival and favours long-term colonization, highlighting a complex cross-talk between infection, DNA damage response and host immune response. These findings may contribute to understand why such effectors have been evolutionary conserved and horizontally transferred among Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27055274
Shultz, Sarah P; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Rao, Smita; Backus, Sherry; Mootanah, Rajshree; Hillstrom, Howard J
It has been suggested that foot type consider not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (over-pronation, normal, over-supination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N=24), rectus (N=54), or planus (N=44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however five terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type.
Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.
Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833
Yang, Yang; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M
Antiviral agents are an important component in mitigation/containment strategies for pandemic influenza. However, most research for mitigation/containment strategies relies on the antiviral efficacies evaluated from limited data of clinical trials. Which efficacy measures can be reliably estimated from these studies depends on the trial design, the size of the epidemics, and the statistical methods. We propose a Bayesian framework for modeling the influenza transmission dynamics within households. This Bayesian framework takes into account asymptomatic infections and is able to estimate efficacies with respect to protecting against viral infection, infection with clinical disease, and pathogenicity (the probability of disease given infection). We use the method to reanalyze 2 clinical studies of oseltamivir, an influenza antiviral agent, and compare the results with previous analyses. We found significant prophylactic efficacies in reducing the risk of viral infection and infection with disease but no prophylactic efficacy in reducing pathogenicity. We also found significant therapeutic efficacies in reducing pathogenicity and the risk of infection with disease but no therapeutic efficacy in reducing the risk of viral infection in the contacts.
Stoian, Dana; Pantea, Stelian; Margan, Madalin; Timar, Bogdan; Borcan, Florin; Craina, Marius; Craciunescu, Mihaela
Maternal hormones are essential for the normal fetal development during pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a frequent pathology in our iodine replete region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in cases with known autoimmune thyroid disease, which were in a euthyroid state prior to pregnancy, and to assess the association between supplemental treatments administered and the outcome of the pregnancy. The study is a prospective interventional controlled study. The two cohorts comprise the interventional group, consisting of 109 pregnant women with known autoimmune asymptomatic thyroid disease, without any levothyroxine (LT4) treatment and an aged-matched control group, with an unknown thyroid disease. After the pregnancy, a monthly evaluation of TSH, FT3, and FT4 was performed. Offspring evaluation was made at birth time. 88.8% of the women developed SCH in the first four weeks of pregnancy. Average LT4 doses increased as the pregnancy progressed. The monthly adjustment was 12.5 or 25 μg. All SCH cases developed in the first trimester of pregnancy. There was no significant difference regarding the gestational week, weight, or length at birth between the interventional group and controls, when TSH values were in the optimal range, during the whole pregnancy. Premature birth was described in one case in the interventional group. PMID:26771604
Branco, Rodrigo Castelo; da Costa Fontenelle, César Rubens; Miranda, Leandro Marques; Junior, Yonder Archanjo Ching San; Vianna, Evandro Miguelote
Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance imaging findings from the pubis of professional soccer players without any history or clinical findings of groin pain, and from sedentary individuals, also without symptoms, and to determine the prevalence of changes compatible with pubic overload. Methods: Nineteen professional soccer players without complaints of groin pain and seventeen sedentary individuals, also asymptomatic, underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pubis. The results from the examinations were analyzed regarding the presence of degenerative changes, boned medullary edema and tendinopathy, and the two study groups were compared. Results: High prevalence of bone edema, tendinopathy and degenerative findings in the pubic symphysis was seen in the athletes, with statistically significant higher odds ratios and relative risk in the population studied. Conclusion: Professional soccer players are at a higher risk of developing changes in the pubic region, shown in magnetic resonance images, compared with sedentary individuals. These findings are not necessarily caused by groin pain, and are probably related to intense exertion. PMID:27026970
Pedretti, Michelle K; Kazemier, Brenda M; Dickinson, Jan E; Mol, Ben W J
Cervical length (CL) screening has been successfully utilised to identify asymptomatic women, with a singleton pregnancy, at risk of preterm birth (PTB), thereby providing an opportunity to offer interventions that may reduce that risk. Cervical length screening with ultrasound is most effectively performed with a transvaginal approach. Universal cervical length screening, encompassing all singleton pregnancies rather than restricting screening to those considered at increased risk of PTB, is currently not widely used, despite a growing body of evidence in support of its utility for PTB prevention. There are a number of barriers that may prevent or restrict the implementation of a universal CL screening program. These include cost, availability of vaginal progesterone and other treatment options, reluctance of women to undergo transvaginal ultrasound and the perceptions and beliefs of medical practitioners. Given that mid-pregnancy CL measurement is a recognised predictor of spontaneous PTB, that most cases of PTB occur with no prior maternal history and that there are interventions available that may reduce the risk of PTB, we believe there is a clear role for routine CL screening to be adopted as a component of the fetal morphology ultrasound examination. As a strategy to reduce PTB rates, discussion and counselling about PTB prevention and CL screening should be adopted as a core element of prenatal care.
Lewin, Matthew R
The Emergency Department (ED) may be an ideal place to screen and refer patients for blood pressure monitoring in the outpatient setting. Yet, little is known about the public health significance of asymptomatically elevated blood pressure measurements in the ED and what to tell patients when these abnormal vital signs are recorded. Since the prevalence of hypertension and inadequately treated hypertension is so high, the incidental finding of elevated blood pressure in a previously undiagnosed patient may be a pivotal moment in that patient's life. For those patients carrying the diagnosis of hypertension, it is the author's opinion that the observation of elevated blood pressures should trigger advice to see their physicians to consider medication adjustments or changes. Emergency Physicians and their staff are in a unique position to screen and refer large populations of patients to their community physicians and help abort the long-term sequelae of unidentified or inadequately managed hypertension. How best to advise physicians and their patients requires research and innovative methods for transmitting important information to patients that may be unrelated to their primary complaint in the ED.
Pringle, S.D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; McKillop, J.H.; Lorimer, A.R.; Dunn, F.G.
To investigate the significance of the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain, two groups of asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension were compared. The patients were similar in terms of age, smoking habit, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but differed in the presence (Group I, n = 23) or absence (Group II, n = 23) of the ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain. Group I patients had significantly more episodes of exercise-induced ST segment depression (14 versus 4, p less than 0.05) and reversible thallium perfusion abnormalities (11 of 23 versus 3 of 23, p less than 0.05) despite similar exercise capacity and absence of chest pain. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was detected on 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring in two patients in Group I, but no patient in Group II. Coronary arteriography performed in 20 Group I patients demonstrated significant coronary artery disease in 8 patients. This study has shown that there is a subgroup of hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy and strain who have covert coronary artery disease. This can be detected by thallium perfusion scintigraphy, and may contribute to the increased risk known to be associated with this ECG abnormality.
Hunter, Robert L; Hwang, Shen-An; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy; Actor, Jeffrey K
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has long been known to persist in grossly normal tissues even in people with active lesions and granulomas in other parts of the body. We recently reported that post-primary TB begins as an asymptomatic infection that slowly progresses, accumulating materials for a massive necrotizing reaction that results in cavitation. This paper explores the possible roles of trehalose 6,6' dimycolate (TDM) or cord factor in the ability of MTB to persist in such lesions without producing inflammation. TDM is unique in that it has three distinct sets of biologic activities depending on its physical conformation. As a single molecule, TDM stimulates macrophage C-type lectin receptors including Mincle. TDM can also form three crystal like structures, cylindrical micelles, intercalated bilayer and monolayer, that have distinct non receptor driven activities that depend on modulation of interactions with water. In the monolayer form, TDM is highly toxic and destroys cells in minutes upon contact. The cylindrical micelles and an intercalated bilayer have surfaces composed entirely of trehalose which protect MTB from killing in macrophages. Here we review evidence that these trehalose surfaces bind water. We speculate that this immobilized water constituites of an "invisibility cloak" that facilitates the persistence of MTB in multiple cell types without producing inflammation, even in highly immune individuals.
Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno
Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control studies of enteric pathogens by waning and boosting of immunity, and by asymptomatic infections, using Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Individuals in the population are either susceptible (at risk of infection and disease), fully protected (not at risk of either) or partially protected (at risk of infection but not of disease). The force of infection is a function of the exposure frequency and the exposure dose. We show that the observed disease odds ratios are indeed strongly biased towards the null, i.e. much lower than the infection rate ratio, and furthermore even not proportional to it. The bias could theoretically be controlled by sampling controls only from the reservoir of susceptible individuals. The population at risk is in a dynamic equilibrium, and cannot be identified as those who are not and have never experienced disease. Individual-level samples to measure protective immunity would be required, complicating the design, cost and execution of case-control studies.
Iturriaga, H; Hirsch, S; Bunout, D; Díaz, M; Kelly, M; Silva, G; de la Maza, M P; Petermann, M; Ugarte, G
Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics.
Background Psittacosis, an avian disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, can manifest as an acute, protracted, or chronic illness, but can also be asymptomatic. C. psittaci can persist in the host for months to years, often without causing obvious illness, and therefore poses a threat for zoonotic outbreak. We investigated the prevalence of C. psittaci from 156 tracheal swab samples from 34 different species of parrots in Poland, and determined the genotype of strains from the positive samples. Results An overall prevalence of 10.3% was observed using two different PCR assays, both providing similar results. Thirteen of the PCR-positive samples were genotype A, two were genotype B, and one could not be classified. Conclusions These results indicate widespread dissemination of C. psittaci in Polish psittacine populations, without any clinical signs of chlamydiosis, and hence could pose a zoonotic hazard. PCR screening provided a definitive diagnosis of psittacosis, and subsequent ompA gene analysis could be helpful for better understanding the epidemiology of the C. psittaci genotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the incidence of C. psittaci in parrots in Poland. PMID:23206592
Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.
Mineva, P P; Manchev, I C; Hadjiev, D I
The aims of this epidemiological population-based cohort study were to examine the prevalence and outcomes of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) detected by duplex scanning and its relations to other vascular risk factors. A total of 500 volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, without signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, aged 50-79 years, were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of ACS of 50% or greater was 6.4%. Only severe carotid stenosis was detected in 0.4% of the subjects examined. Significant relationships between ACS and coronary heart disease (CHD) [odds ratio (OR)=8.00], peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR=3.66), cigarette smoking in men (OR=4.39) and obesity in women (OR=0.31) were found. The biennial incidence rate of cerebral ischaemic events was 9.4%. A progression of ACS was revealed in 14% and a regression in 6.25% of the subjects. The patients with progressing ACS to more than 70% diameter reduction reached the end-points. Follow-up with repeated duplex scans in patients with advancing ACS of 50% or greater, especially smokers with CHD and PAD, is recommended.
Straumann, M; Staffelbach, O; Sonnenberg, G E; Keller, U; Berger, W
15 elderly diabetic patients with fasting blood glucose levels above 160 mg/100 ml, without hyperglycemic symptoms and previously treated with oral antidiabetic agents, were put on insulin. The change of treatment regimen was made in the outpatient department. Frequent clinical and laboratory controls were performed and the patients were given full instructions for injection technique and diet. On the insulin regimen a prompt and lasting improvement was observed in the metabolic parameters (blood glucose levels both fasting and after food intake, Hb A1c, serum insulin, glucagon and serum lipid concentrations). The so-called "asymptomatic" patients noticed a marked improvement in their general status and performance. Three months after insulin therapy was started 13 of our 15 patients preferred the insulin treatment to oral agents. However, weight gain and a tendency to hypoglycemia were noticed in less disciplined patients. In addition, considerable time was spent on instruction of the patients. Bearing these factors in mind, insulin therapy in elderly diabetics with so-called "sysmptomatic hyperglycemia" can be regarded as worthwhile.
Peck, Angela J; Englund, Janet A; Kuypers, Jane; Guthrie, Katherine A; Corey, Lawrence; Morrow, Rhoda; Hackman, Robert C; Cent, Anne; Boeckh, Michael
The incidence of respiratory virus infection after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has probably been underestimated with conventional testing methods in symptomatic patients. This prospective study assessed viral infection episodes by testing weekly respiratory samples collected from HCT recipients, with and without symptoms reported by questionnaire, for 100 days after HCT. Samples were tested by culture and direct fluorescent antibody testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and influenza A and B, and by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for RSV, PIV, influenza A and B, and metapneumovirus (MPV). Of 122 patients, 30 (25%) had 32 infection episodes caused by RSV (5), PIV (17), MPV (6), influenza (3), RSV, or influenza (1). PIV, with a cumulative incidence estimate of 17.9%, was the only virus for which asymptomatic infection was detected. Lower virus copy number in patients with no or one symptom compared with 2 or more symptoms was found for all viruses in all patients (P < .001), with PIV infection having a similar virus-specific comparison (P = .004). Subclinical infection with PIV may help explain why infection-control programs that emphasize symptoms are effective against RSV and influenza but often not against PIV.
A prospective two-center study on the associations between microalbuminuria, coronary atherosclerosis and long-term clinical outcome in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: evaluation by coronary CT angiography.
Kim, Jin-Jin; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Choi, Ik Jun; Choo, Eun-Ho; Lim, Sungmin; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Pum-Joon; Seung, Ki-Bae; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Jae-Hyung; Jung, Jung Im; Chang, Kiyuk
This study assessed the associations between microalbuminuria in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and the long-term clinical outcomes. In total, the study enrolled 284 consecutive eligible asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and without known coronary artery disease (CAD), who then underwent CCTA and 24 h urine albumin measurements. Microalbuminuria was defined as 30-300 mg/day urinary albumin excretion. Obstructive CAD, as measured by CCTA, was defined as maximum intra-luminal stenosis ≥50 %. Patients with and without microalbuminuria were compared in terms of obstructive CAD prevalence, and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. They were evaluated using the following data: coronary artery calcium score (CACS), atheroma burden obstructive score (ABOS), segment involvement score (SIS) and segment stenosis score (SSS). All-cause mortality within a follow-up period of 5 years was also compared. Compared to patients without microalbuminuria, patients with microalbuminuria were more likely to have obstructive CAD (p = 0.004). Microalbuminuria was associated with higher ABOS (p = 0.010), SIS (p = 0.029), and SSS (p = 0.011), except for CACS (p = 0.058). Multivariable analyses adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors revealed that microalbuminuria was an independent predictor of obstructive CAD [odds ratio 2.255, confidence intervals (CI) 1.121-4.538, p = 0.023] and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.469, CI 1.319-9.121, p = 0.012). In asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria was associated with increased risk of CAD and poorer clinical outcomes.
Liljander, Anne; Bejon, Philip; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Kai, Oscar; Ogada, Edna; Peshu, Norbert; Marsh, Kevin; Färnert, Anna
Background Protective immunity to malaria is acquired after repeated infections in endemic areas. Asymptomatic multiclonal P. falciparum infections are common and may predict host protection. Here, we have investigated the effect of clearing asymptomatic infections on the risk of clinical malaria. Methods Malaria episodes were continuously monitored in 405 children (1–6 years) in an area of moderate transmission, coastal Kenya. Blood samples collected on four occasions were assessed by genotyping the polymorphic P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Following the second survey, asymptomatic infections were cleared with a full course of dihydroartemisinin. Results Children who were parasite negative by PCR had a lower risk of subsequent malaria regardless of whether treatment had been given. Children with ≥2 clones had a reduced risk of febrile malaria compared with 1 clone after clearance of asymptomatic infections, but not if asymptomatic infections were not cleared. Multiclonal infection was associated with an increased risk of re-infection after drug treatment. However, among the children who were re-infected, multiclonal infections were associated with a shift from clinical malaria to asymptomatic parasitaemia. Conclusion The number of clones was associated with exposure as well as blood stage immunity. These effects were distinguished by clearing asymptomatic infection with anti-malarials. Exposure to multiple P. falciparum infections is associated with protective immunity, but there appears to be an additional effect in untreated multiclonal infections that offsets this protective effect. PMID:21383984
Chen, Tao; Chen, Tianmu; Liu, Ruchun; Xu, Cuiling; Wang, Dayan; Chen, Faming; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhang, Xixing; Yang, Jing; Wang, Lijie; Xie, Zhi; Chen, Yongkun; Bai, Tian; Li, Yelan; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Min; Chen, Shuilian; Shu, Yuelong
We collected 2768 Influenza-like illness emergency public health incidents from April 1, 2005 to November 30, 2013reported in the Emergency Public Reporting System. After screening by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, there were 613 outbreaks analyzed with susceptible-exposed-infectious/asymptomatic-removed model in order to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic individuals (p) and the effective reproduction number (Rt). The relation between Rt and viral subtypes, regions, outbreak sites, populations, and seasons were analyzed. The mean values of p of different subtypes ranged from 0.09 to 0.15, but could be as high as up to 0.94. Different subtypes, provinces, regions, and sites of outbreak had statistically significantly different Rt. In particular, the southern region also manifested different Rt by affected population size and seasonality. Our results provide China and also the rest of the world a reference to understand characteristics of transmission and develop prevention and control strategies.
Klinis, Spyridon; Symeonidis, Athanasios; Karanasios, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.
High creatine kinase (CK) levels can be associated with many disorders, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic, endocrine and traumatic. Idiopathic hyperCKemia is a diagnostic dilemma for physicians even though its long-term prognosis is usually benign. We report a case of a Caucasian 61-year-old woman who presented as completely asymptomatic to her general practitioner with a serum CK (sCK) level at 6,122 IU/l. A complete diagnostic evaluation, including physical and laboratory examinations, electromyogram and muscle biopsy were negative for any neuromuscular or other disorder. Two years later the patient remains asymptomatic, active and overall healthy but sCK levels remain elevated, ≤6,591 IU/l (>50-fold higher than normal values). PMID:28123712
Reiss, T.F.; Golden, J. )
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was suggested by a diffuse, bilateral pulmonary uptake of gallium-67 in an asymptomatic, homosexual male with the antibody to the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who was undergoing staging evaluation for lymphoma clinically localized to a left inguinal lymph node. Chest radiograph and pulmonary function evaluation, including lung volumes, diffusing capacity and arterial blood gases, were within normal limits. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed Pneumocystis carinii organisms. In this asymptomatic, HIV-positive patient, active alveolar infection, evidenced by abnormal gallium-67 scanning, predated pulmonary physiologic abnormalities. This observation raises questions concerning the natural history of this disease process and the specificity of physiologic tests for excluding disease. It also has implications for the treatment of neoplasia in the HIV-positive patient population.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linkedrecessive disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. Cardiac dysfunction is a classical complication in this disease. Most DMD patients remain asymptomatic for years in spite of the progression of cardiac dysfunction because of their limited daily activities. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers may delay the onset and the progression of cardiac dysfunction and have to be recommended earlier in this disease.
Tsukui, Mamiko; Morimoto, Naoki; Kurata, Hidekazu; Sunada, Fumiko
A 74-year-old man with diabetes underwent colonoscopy as routine screening for colon cancer. An Anisakis larva was found incidentally during colonoscopy using the retroflexion technique in the ascending colon, and was removed using a forceps. Asymptomatic colonic anisakiasis is very rare, and few reports have described diagnosis and treatment of anisakiasis during colonoscopy by the retroflexion technique in the ascending colon. We have reported this rare case along with a literature review. PMID:27928460
Duan, Jian Gang; Chen, Xiang Yan; Lau, Alex; Wong, Adrian; Thomas, G. Neil; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Roxanna; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Leung, Thomas W.; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Ka Sing
Objective To investigate whether asymptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 2,144 Hong Kong Chinese with type 2 diabetes and without history of stroke or atrial fibrillation were recruited in 1994–1996 and followed up for a median of 14.51 years. Participants were assessed at baseline for MCA stenosis using transcranial Doppler. We performed survival analysis to assess the association between asymptomatic MCA stenosis and first CVD event, defined as ischemic stroke, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cardiovascular death. Results Of the 2,144 subjects, MCA stenosis at baseline was detected in 264 (12.3%). Rates of stroke, ACS and cardiovascular death per 100 were, respectively, 2.24, 2.92 and 1.11 among participants with stenosis, higher than among those without stenosis. Ten-year cumulative occurrence of stroke, ACS and cardiovascular death in subjects with MCA stenosis was 20%, 24% and 10%, respectively, higher than the corresponding values for subjects without stenosis(all P<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, MCA stenosis was found to be an independent predictor of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 1.40, 95%CI 1.05–1.86; P = 0.02], ACS (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.04–1.75; P = 0.02) and cardiovascular death(HR 1.56, 95%CI 1.04–2.33; P = 0.03). Conclusions Asymptomatic MCA stenosis is a risk factor for CVD in Chinese with type 2 diabetes, and detection of asymptomatic MCA stenosis by transcranial Doppler can identify diabetic individuals at high risk of future CVD. This finding is particularly important for diabetic individuals in Asia, where intracranial atherosclerosis is common. PMID:25192283
Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes; Araujo, Sergio; Filho, Adilson Botelho; de Paiva, Paulo Henrique Ribeiro; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo
Blood donor samples (1,007) were assessed for anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) IgM antibodies and Mycobacterium leprae DNA presence, which had 3.8% and 0.3% positivity, respectively. After a 5-year follow-up period, six individuals with positive markers developed leprosy, raising the hypothesis that asymptomatic infection among blood donors may be an undisclosed mode of leprosy transmission via transfusion.
Hancock, W Thane; Soeters, Heidi M; Hills, Susan L; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Evans, Mary E; Daley, W Randolph; Piercefield, Emily; Anesi, Magele Scott; Mataia, Mary Aseta; Uso, Anaise M; Sili, Benjamin; Tufa, Aifili John; Solaita, Jacqueline; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Wilken, Jason; Weidle, Paul; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Walker, William; Talboy, Phillip M; Gallo, William K; Krishna, Nevin; Laws, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Megan R; Koneru, Alaya; Gould, Carolyn V
The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3)(.) All collected blood and urine specimens were shipped to the Hawaii Department of Health Laboratory for Zika virus testing and to CDC for confirmatory testing. Early in the response, collection and testing of specimens from pregnant women was prioritized over the collection from symptomatic nonpregnant patients because of limited testing and shipping capacity. The weekly numbers of suspected Zika virus disease cases declined from an average of six per week in January-February 2016 to one per week in May 2016. By August, the EHR-based syndromic surveillance (1) indicated a return to pre-outbreak levels. The last Zika virus disease case detected by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) occurred in a patient who had symptom onset on June 19, 2016. In August 2016, ASDoH requested CDC support in assessing whether local transmission had been reduced or interrupted and in proposing a timeline for discontinuation of routine testing of asymptomatic pregnant women. An end date (October 15, 2016) was determined for active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus and a timeline was developed for discontinuation of routine screening of asymptomatic pregnant women in American Samoa (conception after December 10, 2016, with permissive testing for asymptomatic women who conceive through April 15, 2017).
Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhijun; Luo, Hong; Cai, Shan
Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However
Cardin, André J; Hadida, Camille
In this descriptive study, active lumbar flexion-extension radiographs of low back pain patients and asymptomatic volunteers were evaluated. The radiographs were evaluated to assess differences between the two groups using intersegmental angular and translational measurements. Average differences for angular and translational ranges of motion between groups were found, with a lower range of motion affecting the low back pain group. Subjective definitions of hypo and hypermobility were also offered to evaluate their prevalence within the samples.
Schwesig, René; Hollstein, Lisa; Plontke, Stefan K; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Fieseler, Georg; Rahne, Torsten
The intraobserver reliabilities of the Interactive Balance System (IBS) and Vertiguard were compared in 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Relative reliability for all IBS single tasks and parameters in the IBS was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC ≥0.75). The ICC values ranged from 0.78 to 0.89. The ICC values of the Vertiguard system ranged from 0 to 0.75. The cumulative measure of injury risk of the Vertiguard system was highly reliable.
Johansson, Fredrik R.; Skillgate, Eva; Adolfsson, Anders; Jenner, Göran; DeBri, Edin; Swärdh, Leif; Cools, Ann M.
Context Tennis is an asymmetric overhead sport with specific muscle-activation patterns, especially eccentrically in the rotator cuff. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in asymptomatic adolescent elite tennis players have not previously been reported. Objective The first aim of the study was to describe MRI findings regarding adaptations or abnormalities, as well as muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), of the rotator cuff. The second aim of the study was to investigate the rotator cuff based on the interpretation of the MRI scans as normal versus abnormal, with the subdivision based on the grade of tendinosis, and its association with eccentric rotator cuff strength in the dominant arm (DA) of the asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis player. Setting Testing environment at the radiology department of Medicinsk Röntgen AB. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-five asymptomatic elite tennis players (age = 17.4 ± 2.7 years) were selected based on ranking and exposure time. Intervention(s) We assessed MRI scans and measured the CSA of the rotator cuff muscle. The non-DA (NDA) was used as a control. In addition, eccentric testing of the external rotators of the DA was performed with a handheld dynamometer. Results The DA and NDA displayed different frequencies of infraspinatus tendinosis (grade 1 changes) (P < .05). Rotator cuff measurements revealed larger infraspinatus and teres minor CSA (P < .05) in the DA than in the NDA. Mean eccentric external-rotation strength in the DA stratified by normal tendon and tendinosis was not different between groups (P = .723). Conclusions Asymptomatic adolescent elite tennis players demonstrated infraspinatus tendinosis more frequently in the DA than in the NDA. Clinicians must recognize these tendon changes in order to modify conditioning and performance programs appropriately. PMID:26651279
Murat, Gurbuz; Cellier, François; Leobon, Bertand; Boudou, Nicolas
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital disease responsible for a high mortality rate in childhood. Here, we report for the first time the case of an asymptomatic 61-year old patient showing a combination of anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from pulmonary artery and atherosclerotic stenosis in both the right coronary artery and the left circumflex artery without anomalous origin.
Sant'anna, R; Vieira, A S; Grapiglia, J; Lilenbaum, W
Asymptomatic dogs can be potential hosts of leptospirosis. However, the extension of this phenomenon in endemic areas has not yet been clearly defined. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of asymptomatic dogs as carriers of Leptospira in an endemic area of Brazil. A total of 131 male dogs without apparent leptospirosis symptoms were included in the study based on clinical and hematologic exams. Serum and urine samples were collected for microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeted the LipL32 gene, respectively. Forty-two dogs (32·1%) presented seroreactivity (titres ⩾100). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was predominant, representing 92·7% of the seropositive samples. Overall, leptospiral DNA was detected on 26 urine samples (19·8%). PCR positivity was more common (28·6%) on seropositive dogs than on seronegative (15·7%) ones. Nevertheless, MAT was not correlated to PCR (P > 0·05). Age was not associated with seroreactivity, but dogs older than 5 years of age had 4·07 more chances (odds ratio) of being carriers (PCR positive) than younger ones. Although the fact of knowing that asymptomatic dogs can act as leptospiral carriers is not new, the extension of this fact is impressive in an endemic region, and its role and impact on public health cannot be neglected.
Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as “asymptomatic.” However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that “asymptomatic” carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function. By utilizing an integrated MRI including pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) MRI, Proton MR Spectroscopy (MRS), and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI), we also found that aCAS patients suffered decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) mainly in the Left Frontal Gyrus and had decreased NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus and decreased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the anterior part of default mode network (DMN). PMID:28255464
Domingo, Giselle Gervacio; Jocson, Gabriel; Dans, Antonio
Brugada type 1 electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern occurs in 0.2% of Filipinos. A knowledge gap exists on the natural course of asymptomatic patients with Brugada type 1 ECG pattern. Most studies that reported cohort event rates were taken from hospitals or referral centers. This is the first cohort from an entire country where the subjects were selected randomly. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cardiac events at 4 and 6 years of 7 patients with Brugada type 1 ECG pattern of 3,907 patients previously screened from the general population of the Philippines during the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Personal interviews at year 4 using a structured questionnaire were conducted by 1 of the investigators. Occurrences of major (syncope, seizure, unexplained accidents, sudden death) and minor events in subjects and their first- and second-degree relatives were elicited. Six-year follow-up by text messaging was conducted to ascertain vital status and occurrence of cardiac events. All 7 patients with Brugada type 1 ECG pattern were men. Three of the 7 initially asymptomatic subjects (43%, 95 confidence interval 6 to 80) developed a major cardiac event by the fourth year. Those with events were younger than those without events. All 7 were alive by the sixth year. No additional events were noted between the fourth and sixth years. In conclusion, cardiac events are considerable in initially asymptomatic Filipinos with Brugada type 1 ECG pattern.
Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard
In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. PMID:25099336
Yang, Chia-Chi; Su, Fong-Chin; Yang, Po-Ching; Lin, Hwai-Ting
Mechanical neck disorder is a widespread and non-neurological musculoskeletal condition resulting from modern lifestyles. Presently, the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the characteristics of the short-term synchronization of the motor unit in patients with neck pain are ambiguous. This study therefore aims to clarify the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in patients with mechanical neck disorder and in asymptomatic individuals. We further investigated whether alterations in the degree of motor unit short-term synchronization occur. The surface electrophysiological signals of the bilateral sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscles of twelve patients with mechanical neck disorder and asymptomatic individuals were detected at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction during cervical isometric flexion and then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. We found that the patients with mechanical neck disorder showed significantly higher initial and mean firing rates of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and displayed substantially lower motor unit short-term synchronization values compared with the asymptomatic subjects. Consequently, these convincing findings support the assertion that patients with mechanical neck disorder display altered neuromuscular control strategies, such as the reinforcement of motor unit recruitment firing rates in the sternocleidomastoid muscles. The motor units of these patients also revealed neural recruitment strategies with relatively poor efficiency when executing the required motor tasks. PMID:27941995
Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Chan, Chim W.; Kongere, James; Gitaka, Jesse; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin; Obonyo, Charles; Machini, Beatrice Kemunto; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Kaneko, Akira
Kenya is intensifying its national efforts in malaria control to achieve malaria elimination. Detailed characterization of malaria infection among populations living in the areas where the disease is endemic in Kenya is a crucial priority, especially for planning and evaluating future malaria elimination strategy. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and extent of malaria infection on islands in Lake Victoria of Kenya to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted between January 2012 and August 2014 on four islands (Mfangano, Takawiri, Kibuogi and Ngodhe) in Lake Victoria and a coastal mainland (Ungoye). Malaria prevalence varied significantly among settings: highest in Ungoye, followed by the large island of Mfangano and lowest in the three remaining small islands. Of the 3867 malaria infections detected by PCR, 91.8% were asymptomatic, 50.3% were sub-microscopic, of which 94% were also asymptomatic. We observed geographical differences and age dependency in both proportion of sub-microscopic infections and asymptomatic parasite carriage. Our findings highlighted the local heterogeneity in malaria prevalence on islands and a coastal area in Lake Victoria, and provided support for the inclusion of mass drug administration as a component of the intervention package to eliminate malaria on islands. PMID:27841361
Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Chan, Chim W; Kongere, James; Gitaka, Jesse; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin; Obonyo, Charles; Machini, Beatrice Kemunto; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Kaneko, Akira
Kenya is intensifying its national efforts in malaria control to achieve malaria elimination. Detailed characterization of malaria infection among populations living in the areas where the disease is endemic in Kenya is a crucial priority, especially for planning and evaluating future malaria elimination strategy. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and extent of malaria infection on islands in Lake Victoria of Kenya to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted between January 2012 and August 2014 on four islands (Mfangano, Takawiri, Kibuogi and Ngodhe) in Lake Victoria and a coastal mainland (Ungoye). Malaria prevalence varied significantly among settings: highest in Ungoye, followed by the large island of Mfangano and lowest in the three remaining small islands. Of the 3867 malaria infections detected by PCR, 91.8% were asymptomatic, 50.3% were sub-microscopic, of which 94% were also asymptomatic. We observed geographical differences and age dependency in both proportion of sub-microscopic infections and asymptomatic parasite carriage. Our findings highlighted the local heterogeneity in malaria prevalence on islands and a coastal area in Lake Victoria, and provided support for the inclusion of mass drug administration as a component of the intervention package to eliminate malaria on islands.
Yu, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Na-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jeon, In-Sang
Norovirus (NV) has caused large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in schools. Studies of NV epidemiology in schools related to NV outbreaks have been frequently reported. However, reports of that in schools without outbreaks are not found. Presently, NV molecular epidemiology surveillance was carried out in asymptomatic food handlers working at nonoutbreak elementary schools in Incheon, Korea, in March, April and December, 2009. NV prevalence was examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and the positive products were re-evaluated by conventional RT-PCR for sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 776) were collected from 776 food handlers in 60 schools. NV was detected in 26 of them (3.4%). Of these, 17 (65%) were positive for NV GII and 10 (38%) were positive for NV GI. Of the 26 samples, 19 were positive by conventional RT-PCR. Sequencing of these 19 strains revealed GII/4 (n = 5), GI/6 (n = 3), GI/14 (n = 2), GII/8 (n = 2), GI/2 (n = 2), GI/10 (n = 1), GII/1 (n = 1), GII/3 (n = 1), GII/7 (n = 1), and GII/16 (n = 1). In this survey, the food handler population unrelated to NV outbreaks was found to normally contain asymptomatic carriers of NV. The excretion of NV from asymptomatic food handlers should be an infection source of NV outbreaks.
Yang, Chia-Chi; Su, Fong-Chin; Yang, Po-Ching; Lin, Hwai-Ting; Guo, Lan-Yuen
Mechanical neck disorder is a widespread and non-neurological musculoskeletal condition resulting from modern lifestyles. Presently, the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the characteristics of the short-term synchronization of the motor unit in patients with neck pain are ambiguous. This study therefore aims to clarify the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in patients with mechanical neck disorder and in asymptomatic individuals. We further investigated whether alterations in the degree of motor unit short-term synchronization occur. The surface electrophysiological signals of the bilateral sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscles of twelve patients with mechanical neck disorder and asymptomatic individuals were detected at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction during cervical isometric flexion and then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. We found that the patients with mechanical neck disorder showed significantly higher initial and mean firing rates of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and displayed substantially lower motor unit short-term synchronization values compared with the asymptomatic subjects. Consequently, these convincing findings support the assertion that patients with mechanical neck disorder display altered neuromuscular control strategies, such as the reinforcement of motor unit recruitment firing rates in the sternocleidomastoid muscles. The motor units of these patients also revealed neural recruitment strategies with relatively poor efficiency when executing the required motor tasks.
Bonifacio, Ezio; Mathieu, Chantal; Nepom, Gerald T; Ziegler, Anette-G; Anhalt, Henry; Haller, Michael J; Harrison, Leonard C; Hebrok, Matthias; Kushner, Jake A; Norris, Jill M; Peakman, Mark; Powers, Alvin C; Todd, John A; Atkinson, Mark A
The asymptomatic phase of type 1 diabetes is recognised by the presence of beta cell autoantibodies in the absence of hyperglycaemia. We propose that an accurate description of this stage is provided by the name 'Autoimmune Beta Cell Disorder' (ABCD). Specifically, we suggest that this nomenclature and diagnosis will, in a proactive manner, shift the paradigm towards type 1 diabetes being first and foremost an immune-mediated disease and only later a metabolic disease, presaging more active therapeutic intervention in the asymptomatic stage of disease, before end-stage beta cell failure. Furthermore, we argue that accepting ABCD as a diagnosis will be critical in order to accelerate pharmaceutical, academic and public activities leading to clinical trials that could reverse beta cell autoimmunity and halt progression to symptomatic insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes. We recognize that there are both opportunities and challenges in the implementation of the ABCD concept but hope that the notion of 'asymptomatic autoimmune disease' as a disorder will be widely discussed and eventually accepted.
AMIRSHEKARI, Mohammad Bagher; NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi; RAEISI, Ahmad; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; FARIVAR, Leila; EDRISSIAN, Gholamhosein
Background: This study was proposed to monitor the situation of asymptomatic malaria among the native population and Afghani and Pakistani immigrants in Kahnooj and Ghale-Ganj districts from Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran. Methods: A number of 180 and 120 individuals from Kahnooj and Ghale-Ganj respectively were registered and considered based on a cross-sectional surveillance method. From 300 registered cases, 200 individuals (66.7%) were selected among Afghani and Pakistani immigrants and the rest (33.3%) were native resident individuals. All samples were processed with employing microscopical examination, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and Semi- nested Multiplex PCR techniques. Results: None of the samples collected from native residents showed any malaria parasite, but among Afghani immigrants, one asymptomatic vivax malaria was detected in a 12 yr old girl with 280 parasites per microliter of blood. Moreover, one symptomatic vivax malaria was detected from a Pakistani immigrant with 47560 parasites per microliter of blood. All results obtained via microscopical method, confirmed by RDTs and PCR techniques. Conclusion: To achieve the malaria elimination program different studies are needed that to be performed. Monitoring the asymptomatic malaria in all over the malaria endemic areas especially among the immigrant individuals is the most crucial necessity. PMID:28096860
Ong, Adrian W; Rodriguez, Aurelio; Kelly, Robert; Cortes, Vicente; Protetch, Jack; Daffner, Richard H
There are differing recommendations in the literature regarding cervical spine imaging in alert, asymptomatic geriatric patients. Previous studies also have not used computed tomography routinely. Given that cervical radiographs may miss up to 60 per cent of fractures, the incidence of cervical spine injuries in this population and its implications for clinical management are unclear. We conducted a retrospective study of blunt trauma patients 65 years and older who were alert, asymptomatic, hemodynamically stable, and had normal neurologic examinations. For inclusion, patients were required to have undergone computed tomography and plain radiographs. The presence and anatomic location of potentially distracting injuries or pain were recorded. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included, with a mean age of 76 +/- 10 years. The main mechanisms of injury were falls (51%) and motor vehicle crashes (41%). Nine of 274 (3%) patients had cervical spine injuries. The presence of potentially distracting injuries above the clavicles was associated with cervical injury when compared with patients with distracting injuries in other anatomic locations or no distracting injuries (8/115 vs 1/159, P = 0.03). There was no association of cervical spine injury with age greater or less than 75 years or with mechanism of injury. The overall incidence of cervical spine injury in the alert, asymptomatic geriatric population is low. The risk is increased with a potentially distracting injury above the clavicles. Patients with distracting injuries in other anatomic locations or no distracting injuries may not need routine cervical imaging.
Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Krishnan, Triveni; Kobayashi, Nobumichi
Although P group A rotaviruses (RVA) cause diarrhoea in humans, they have been also associated with endemics of predominantly asymptomatic neonatal infections. Interestingly, strains representing the endemic and asymptomatic P RVAs were found to possess one of the four common human VP7 serotypes (G1-G4), and exhibited little antigenic/genetic differences with the VP4 proteins/VP4 encoding genome segments of P RVAs recovered from diarrhoeic children, raising interest on their complete genetic constellations. In the present study, we report the overall genetic makeup and possible origin of three such asymptomatic human P RVA strains, RVA/Human-tc/VEN/M37/1982/G1P2A, RVA/Human-tc/SWE/1076/1983/G2P2A and RVA/Human-tc/AUS/McN13/1980/G3P2A. G1P strain M37 exhibited an unusual genotype constellation (G1-P-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T2-E1-H1), not reported previously, and was found to originate from possible intergenogroup reassortment events involving acquisition of a DS-1-like NSP3 encoding genome segment by a human Wa-like RVA strain. On the other hand, G2P strain 1076 exhibited a DS-1-like genotype constellation, and was found to possess several genome segments (those encoding VP1, VP3, VP6 and NSP4) of possible artiodactyl (ruminants) origin on a human RVA genetic backbone. The whole genome of G3P strain McN13 was closely related to that of asymptomatic human Wa-like G3P strain RV3, and both strains shared unique amino acid changes, which might have contributed to their attenuation. Taken together, the present study provided insights into the origin and complex genetic diversity of P RVAs possessing the common human VP7 genotypes. This is the first report on the whole genomic analysis of a G1P RVA strain.
Casper, Corey; Krantz, Elizabeth; Selke, Stacy; Kuntz, Steven R.; Wang, Jie; Huang, Meei-Li; Pauk, John S.; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna
Background. Little is known about the clinical and virologic manifestations of human herpesvirus (HHV)–8 infection in immunocompetent persons in the absence of malignancy. Methods. A total of 46 human immunodeficiency virus–negative, HHV-8–seropositive men collected saliva daily, and 25 recorded 15 common symptoms daily (gastrointestinal, constitutional, and oropharyngeal) and absences from work or school. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measured HHV-8 DNA in saliva. Results. Some 44 (96%) of 46 men reported having sex with men (MSM). Of the 44 MSM, 27 (61%) had HHV-8 detected in saliva on ≥1 day; heterosexual men also shed HHV-8. In analyses restricted to MSM, HHV-8 DNA was detected on 636 (22%) of 2897 days. Among MSM with HHV-8 detected in saliva, the median rate was 20% (range, 1%–100%), with 30% shedding on >50% of days, and the median quantity was 4.5 log10 copies/mL (range, 2.0−7.3 log10 copies/mL). The quantity of HHV-8 shed was lower in nonwhites (P < .001) and younger participants (P = .03). The frequency of HHV-8 detection and quantity were correlated (r = 0.62; p < .001). Symptoms were reported on 10 (9%) of 114 days when HHV-8 was present, compared with 78 (9%) of 830 days without (odds ratio, 0.93 [95% confidence interval, 0.30−2.88]; P = .9). Conclusions. HHV-8 is detected frequently and intermittently in the saliva of chronically infected immunocompetent MSM, but this infection is asymptomatic. PMID:17152006
Dull, Ryan B; Friedman, Stacey K; Risoldi, Zara M; Rice, Eric C; Starlin, Richard C; Destache, Christopher J
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common clinical finding characterized by the presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without signs or symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection. Despite available guidelines on the diagnosis and management of ASB, it is often managed inappropriately. We performed a systematic review of clinical trials evaluating antimicrobial therapy for ASB, identified translational barriers to evidence-based practice, and we offer strategies to optimize antimicrobial use for ASB. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health databases, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials, cohort trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses published in the English language were included in this review if they addressed treatment of ASB with at least one antimicrobial agent in nonpregnant adults. Articles were excluded if they evaluated patients with indwelling urinary catheters or were not clinical trials. Of the 304 articles identified from the search, 287 were excluded; thus 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Although treatment of ASB with antimicrobial therapy may improve short-term microbiologic outcomes, the clinical significance is diminished because the effect is not sustained, there is no measurable improvement in morbidity or mortality, and some data indicate that therapy is deleterious. Several translational barriers that preclude adoption of evidence-based practice are identified. Treatment guidelines may not achieve their desired effect and underscore the need for additional methods to translate clinical trial data into practice. Clinical pharmacists are a core member of the antimicrobial stewardship team and in an important position to participate in initiatives that promote appropriate antimicrobial use. We suggest a multifaceted approach consisting of education and frequent routine prospective audits with feedback
Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Granato, Anna; Schivo, Alice; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Cafarchia, Claudia
Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects humans and animals worldwide. Inhalation of fungal particles from an environmental source can cause primary infection of the respiratory system. As animals can be considered a sentinel for human diseases, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular identity of Cryptococcus spp. in the nasal cavity of feral cats. Cats from 162 urban and rural feral cat colonies were sampled over 3 years. Of 766 cats from which nasal swabs were obtained, Cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 95 (12.6%), including 37 C. magnus (4.8%), 16 C. albidus (2.0%), 15 C. carnescens (1.9%), 12 C. neoformans (1.6%), as well as C. oeirensis (n = 3), C. victoriae (n = 3), C. albidosimilis (n = 2), Filobasidium globisporum (n = 2), C. adeliensis (n = 1), C. flavescens (n = 1), C. dimnae (n = 1), C. saitoi (n = 1), and C. wieringae (n = 1) with prevalence <1%. Thirteen Cryptococcus species were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer amplicons. Statistical analysis did not identify any predisposing factors that contributed to nasal colonization (eg, sex, age, season, or habitat). Results suggest that asymptomatic feral cats may carry C. neoformans and other Cryptococcus species in their sinonasal cavity. Genotyping of the specific cryptococcal isolates provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of these yeasts.
Venco, L; Genchi, C; Genchi, M; Grandi, G; Kramer, L H
Clinical manifestations of heartworm disease in cats are variable; most cats seem to tolerate the infection well for extended periods. Heartworm-infected cats may undergo spontaneous self-cure due to the natural death of parasites without any symptomatology, or they may suddenly show dramatic and acute symptoms. Sudden death in apparently healthy cats is not a rare event. Thoracic radiographs are important tool for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. However, thoracic abnormalities are often absent or transient and highly variable in heartworm-infected cats. Findings, such as enlargement of the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries, with a varying degree of pulmonary parenchymal disease and hyperinflation, are the most typical features consistent with infection. A field study was performed for cats referred to the Veterinary Hospital Città di Pavia from January 1998 to December 2001 for routine health examinations and procedures to evaluate the clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection. Thirty-four asymptomatic cats diagnosed with feline heartworm infection by antibody and antigen tests together with an echocardiogram that allowed worm visualization were included in the follow-up study. Cats were routinely examined every 3 months from the time of heartworm diagnosis until the outcome (self-cure or death). Self-cure was defined as no positive serology for heartworm antigens and no visualization of worms by echocardiography. A final examination for antibodies was carried after 12 months as a final confirmation of self-cure. Twenty-eight cats (82.4%) self-cured; including 21 that showed no clinical signs of infection throughout the study. Six cats died. The most common clinical features observed were acute respiratory symptoms and sudden death. Infection lasted over 3 years in the majority of the cats enrolled in the study. Thoracic radiograph appearance was variable, and the most commonly observed findings were focal
Koami, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Imahase, Hisashi; Iwamura, Takashi; Inoue, Satoshi
We present a case of hyperfibrinolysis induced by oxaliplatin-derived anaphylactic shock, which was diagnosed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). A 57-year-old male patient underwent a second course of oxaliplatin (126 mg/m/course)-based chemotherapy for stage IV metastatic rectal cancer. Two minutes after the infusion of oxaliplatin, the patient lost consciousness and developed generalized urticarial lesions, followed by hemodynamic instability and respiratory insufficiency. He was diagnosed anaphylactic shock and transported to emergency department (ED) after intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg of adrenaline, an intravenous injection of 100 mg of hydrocortisone, and 500 mg of methylprednisolone. After arriving in the ED, the patient remained in shock and early resuscitation with administration of 5 mg of D-chlorpheniramine maleate and 20 mg of famotidine was performed. He recovered from his state of shock 30 min after the resuscitation. ROTEM findings showed fulminant hyperfibrinolysis with minimal changes in standard coagulation tests (SCTs) and no remarkable coagulopathy. Seven hours after the attack, he became asymptomatic and follow-up ROTEM revealed values within normal limits with the exception of sustained slight abnormalities of SCTs. He was discharged the next day without any signs of spontaneous bleeding and has continued his outpatient chemotherapy uneventfully. A review of the literature on anaphylaxis-induced hyperfibrinolysis and a discussion of the mechanism between anaphylactic shock and hyperfibrinolysis were performed. Although administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator can play a vital role in anaphylactic shock-induced hyperfibrinolysis, early effective resuscitation is imperative to prevent severe hemorrhagic complications. Therefore, ROTEM is a useful tool that can detect these dynamic changes faster and more accurately than SCTs.
Dooley, C P; Cohen, H; Fitzgibbons, P L; Bauer, M; Appleman, M D; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J
We estimated the prevalences of Helicobacter pylori (formerly called Campylobacter pylori) infection and histologic gastritis in 113 asymptomatic persons, using endoscopic biopsy of the gastric antrum and corpus. Unsuspected lesions, mainly mucosal erosions, were revealed at endoscopy in 16 subjects (14 percent). Gastritis was found in 42 subjects (37 percent), of whom 36 (32 percent of the total) were found to be infected with H. pylori on the basis of hematoxylin-eosin staining. H. pylori was not found in any of the 71 subjects with normal histologic features. Gastritis and H. pylori were noted in both the antrum and corpus in 75 percent of those infected (n = 27). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased from 10 percent (2 of 20 subjects) in those between the ages of 18 and 29, to 47 percent (7 of 15) in those between the ages of 60 and 69, but the effect of age did not reach statistical significance. The prevalence of gastritis increased significantly with advancing age. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative risk for H. pylori infection associated with recent (within six months) antibiotic use was 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 22.1), whereas the relative risk was 6.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 29.2) for those who had never used bismuth compounds. We conclude that histologic gastritis and H. pylori infection commonly occur in the stomach of apparently normal persons and increase in prevalence with advancing age. All the subjects with H. pylori infection had gastritis, suggesting a possible etiologic role for the bacterium in the histologic lesion.
Hedican, Erin; Hooker, Carol; Jenkins, Timothy; Medus, Carlota; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk
Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States; approximately half of Salmonella outbreaks occur in restaurant settings. In February 2008, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that five cases had eaten at the same restaurant. Cases were identified through routine surveillance activities and by contacting meal companions of culture-confirmed cases. Well meal companions and well patrons contacted via check stubs served as controls. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all restaurant employees. Sandwiches were the only menu item or ingredient significantly associated with illness (15 of 15 cases versus 17 of 37 controls; odds ratio, undefined; P < 0.001). None of the six restaurant employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Enteritidis was identified in two food workers. One of the positive employees began working at the restaurant shortly before the first exposure date reported by a case, and assisted in the preparation of sandwiches and other foods consumed by cases. The other positive employee rarely, if ever, handled food. The restaurant did not have a glove use policy. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission after exclusion of the positive food workers. This was a restaurant Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak associated with an asymptomatic infected food worker. Routine PFGE subtyping of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, routine interviewing of cases, and an iterative approach to cluster investigations allowed for timely identification of the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infections.
Miller, D.D.; Ruddy, T.D.; Zusman, R.M.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Kanarek, D.J.; Christensen, D.; Federman, E.B.; Boucher, C.A.
To study the effect of mild-to-moderate elevations in diastolic blood pressure (BP) on systolic left ventricular (LV) function, 28 hypertensive patients and 20 normal subjects underwent upright exercise first-pass radionuclide angiography. All were asymptomatic, had normal rest and exercise electrocardiographic findings and no evidence of LV hypertrophy or coronary artery disease. LV function at rest was similar in the 2 groups, but with exercise hypertensive patients had a greater end-systolic volume (69 +/- 19 vs 51 +/- 19 ml, p less than 0.002) and lower ejection fraction (EF) (0.59 +/- 0.09 vs 0.72 +/- 0.07, p less than 0.0001), stroke volume (101 +/- 28 vs 130 +/- 36 ml, p less than 0.005) and peak oxygen uptake (23 +/- 7 vs 33 +/- 9 ml/kl/min, p less than 0.05). Hypertensive patients were separated into 3 groups: group 1-12 patients with an increase in EF with exercise greater than or equal to 0.05; group 2-7 patients with a change in EF with exercise less than 0.05; and group 3-9 patients with a decrease in EF with exercise greater than or equal to 0.05. Group 3 hypertensive patients were older, had a higher heart rate at rest and lower peak oxygen uptake. Rest LV function was similar in the 3 hypertensive subgroups, but exercise end-systolic volumes were higher in groups 2 and 3. Exercise thallium-201 images was normal in all but 1 of 14 hypertensive group 2 or 3 patients.
Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbayi, Adebola M; Bolaji, Oloyede S; Akindele, Akeem A; Adefioye, Olusegun A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A
BACKGROUND: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%), hookworm (5.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.6%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9%) and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%). For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9%) were more infected than males (2.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978). Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359) were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria. PMID:22091292
Cheng, Hong; Macaluso, Maurizio; Vermund, Sten H.; Hook, Edward W.
Published estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and ligase chain reaction (LCR) for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis are potentially biased because of study design limitations (confirmation of test results was limited to subjects who were PCR or LCR positive but culture negative). Relative measures of test accuracy are less prone to bias in incomplete study designs. We estimated the relative sensitivity (RSN) and relative false-positive rate (RFP) for PCR and LCR versus cell culture among 1,138 asymptomatic men and evaluated the potential bias of RSN and RFP estimates. PCR and LCR testing in urine were compared to culture of urethral specimens. Discordant results (PCR or LCR positive, but culture negative) were confirmed by using a sequence including the other DNA amplification test, direct fluorescent antibody testing, and a DNA amplification test to detect chlamydial major outer membrane protein. The RSN estimates for PCR and LCR were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 1.7) and 1.49 (95% CI = 1.3 to 1.7), respectively, indicating that both methods are more sensitive than culture. Very few false-positive results were found, indicating that the specificity levels of PCR, LCR, and culture are high. The potential bias in RSN and RFP estimates were <5 and <20%, respectively. The estimation of bias is based on the most likely and probably conservative parameter settings. If the sensitivity of culture is between 60 and 65%, then the true sensitivity of PCR and LCR is between 90 and 97%. Our findings indicate that PCR and LCR are significantly more sensitive than culture, while the three tests have similar specificities. PMID:11682509
Gundela, Swarnalatha; Avula, Renuka Devi
Introduction Diabetes is a known risk factor for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). However, the influence of diabetes on antenatal ASB was previously not addressed. Aim The prevalence of ASB, effect of risk factors and type of isolates and susceptibility patterns were studied in diabetic pregnancy. Materials and Methods A total of 311 pregnant women were recruited for this study of which 103 were diabetic and 208 non-diabetic. A clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured. The isolates were identified and antibiotic sensitivity was studied. The data was analysed by Chi-square test. Results The prevalence of ASB in diabetic pregnancy was 38.83% (40/103; 95% CI: 23.73 - 53.94) and in non-diabetic pregnancy was 37.98% (79/208; CI: 27.28- 48.68). The odds ratio was not significant 1.0225 (95% CU: 0.65 – 1.599; p=0.922) and associated factors such as age and gestational period had no effect. The major isolates were Escherichia coli (25.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) (20.00%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (20.00%) in diabetic pregnancy and CONS (31.7%), E.coli (24.0%) and K.pneumonia (16.5%) in non-diabetic pregnancy. The isolates of diabetic pregnancy showed highest susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (56.4%), gentamicin (38.5%) and cotrimoxazole (38.5%) whereas that of non-diabetic pregnancy to gentamicin (43.0%), azithromycin (32.9%) and norfloxacin (30.4). There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in the type and susceptibly of the isolates between diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy. Conclusion Diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of ASB in diabetic pregnancy both in terms of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. PMID:27190802