Yoo, So Young; Im, Jung-Gi
We report a case of mediastinal lymphangioma associated with Gorham's disease in a 38-year-old man who had suffered recurrent clavicular fractures during a seven-year period. Mediastinal widening associated with osteolysis of the clavicles and the sternal manubrium was revealed by chest radiography, while computed tomography demonstrated a cystic anterior mediastinal mass infiltrating mediastinal fat and associated with osseous destruction of the clavicles and manubrium. Chylothorax recurred during the course of the disease. PMID:12087203
Hureibi, Khalid; Sunidar, Osama A
Mesenteric cystic lymphangiomas are benign tumours arising from the mesentery, and have no known aetiology. Patients might be discovered incidentally to have asymptomatic mesenteric cysts, or they can present with symptoms such as pain, nausea and vomiting. A 27-year-old man presented with vague abdominal pain, loss of appetite, postprandial fullness and significant weight loss. There was no lymphadenopathy, and abdominal examination was unremarkable. CT showed a mesenteric mass and a diagnosis of abdominal lymphoma was suggested. There was no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis on chest X-ray and the purified protein derivative test was negative. On laparotomy, a 5×9×7 cm sessile cyst containing thick white fluid and arising from the ileal mesentery was found and completely removed. Histopathology proved a diagnosis of mesenteric cystic lymphangioma. The patient made uneventful recovery, and was asymptomatic on clinical follow-up after 6 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Carvalho, Diana; Costa, Mariana; Russo, Pedro; Simas, Luís; Baptista, Teresa; Ramos, Gonçalo
Pancreatic cystic lymphangiomas are rare benign lesions that arise from lymphatic vessels, accounting for less than 0.2% of all pancreatic cysts. Typically it is asymptomatic and discovery occurs during imaging exams for non-pancreatic disease. In the past, a definite diagnosis was made through surgery, with complete resection of all tumoral tissue to prevent recurrence. Nowadays, the development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) made it possible to identify these cysts combining morphologic ultrasound features, macroscopic aspirated fluid appearance, biochemical and cytological evaluation of the sample. We report two cases of cystic pancreatic lymphangioma diagnosed through EUS, allowing conservative management without surgery. These cases show that cystic pancreatic lymphangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions and that EUS is an important tool for their recognition.
Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim
A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.
Gümüştaş, Oguzhan Güven; Sanal, Murat; Güner, Osman; Tümay, Volkan
A lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of lymph vessels, producing fluid-filled cysts that result from a blockage of the lymphatic system. The incidence of abdominal lymphangiomas is unknown; however they account for from 3% to 9.2% of all pediatric lymphangiomas, with retroperitoneal lymphangioma representing less than 1% of abdominal lymphangiomas. Due to rarity, preoperative diagnosis is often difficult. PMID:23533897
Swarnakar, Rajesh N.; Hazarey, Jetendra D.; Dhoble, Chetan; Vaghani, Bhavesh; Ainsley, Alaine S.; Khargie, James F.; Likaj, Lorena
Patient: Female, 36 Final Diagnosis: Mediastinal cystic hygroma Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Lymphangioma is an atypical non-malignant, lymphatic lesion that is congenital in origin. Lymphangioma is most frequently observed in the head and neck, but can occur at any location in the body. About 65% of lymphangiomas are apparent at birth, while 80–90% are diagnosed by two years of age. Occurrence in adults is rare, as evidenced by less than 100 cases of adult lymphangiomas reported in the literature. Case report: A 36-year-old Indian woman with a medical history of recurrent pleural effusions presented with chief complaints of dyspnea on exertion for one year and a low-grade fever for one month. A thorax CT revealed left-sided pleural effusion with thin internal septations. Thoracoscopy revealed a large cystic lesion arising from the mediastinum from the hilum surrounding the mediastinal great vessels. The diagnosis of lymphangioma was confirmed via histopathologic examination of the cyst. It was managed with partial cystectomy along with the use of a sclerosing agent (talc). Conclusions: The size and location of lymphangiomas can vary, with some patients presenting with serious problems like respiratory distress, while others may be asymptomatic. Complete cyst resection is the gold standard treatment for mediastinal cystic lymphangioma. Partial cyst resection along with the use of sclerosing agents can be an effective option when complete cystectomy is not possible. Although lymphangioma is a rare patient condition, it should be included in the differentials for patients presenting with pleural effusions. Also, a biopsy should be done at the earliest opportunity to differentiate lymphangioma from other mediastinal malignant tumors. PMID:27789902
Pilla, T.J.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Heiberg. E.; Shields, J.B.
Two cases of cystic mediastinal lymphangioma are reported, one involving a 12-year-old boy and the other a 53-year-old man. In both cases a mediastinal mass was evident on plain chest radiographs, while CT scans demonstrated a well-circumscribed lesion of low attenuation molding to the mediastinal contours and enveloping the great vessels, suggesting the diagnosis. The display of the precise extent of the lesion in relation to the surrounding structures was helpful in planning surgery.
Minocha, Prashant K.; Persad, Rambachan
Background. Lymphatic malformations or lymphangiomas are rare benign hamartomas that result from maldevelopment of primitive lymphatic sacs. They are most frequently found in the neck and axilla, while intra-abdominal and mediastinal lymphangiomas are uncommon. These are primarily tumours of infancy and childhood and are successfully treated with surgical excision. Summary of Cases. Five cases of lymphangioma comprising three intra-abdominal lymphangiomas and two unilateral axillary lymphangiomas presenting at one institution in Trinidad W.I. between 2005 and 2012 were examined. The presentations, location, workup, treatment, and outcome of these patients were studied. Conclusion. This paper discusses a range of extracervical lymphangioma cases seen at San Fernando General Hospital, Trinidad W.I. We report three intra-abdominal cases and the most common clinical presentations were abdominal pain and distension. Also two axillary cases were reported, which presented as painless axillary masses. The major concerns for excision of axillary lymphangioma by parents and surgeons were cosmesis and feasibility of complete resection without disruption of developing breast tissue and axillary vessels. We believe that ultrasound scan is very good at detection of the lesion, while CT is better at determining tumour content and planning for the operation. It is our opinion that complete surgical excision can be achieved. PMID:25328741
Bulbul Baytur, Yesim; Artunc Ulkumen, Burcu; Pala, Halil Gursoy
Lymphangiomas are rare congenital malformations of the lymphatic system. Despite the benign histology, they are likely to grow rapidly and invade the surrounding tissues. In contrast to the cystic hygromas, lymphangiomas at the axillary region tend to have normal karyotype. However, associated hydrops makes the prognosis poor. Due to isolated few cases in the literature, the true incidence of foetal axillary lymphangiomas is not known. We present here a pre-natal ultrasonographic diagnosis of a 15-week foetus with rapidly growing axillary lymphangioma with ipsilateral foot abnormality which had normal karyotype.
Lone, Nazir A; Naikoo, Bashir A; Khan, Naseer A
Cystic lymphangioma usually confined to head and neck is a well-recognized tumor that occurs during childhood. However, a cardiac lymphangioma is exceptionally uncommon and a particularly rare form of disease. We report a case of cystic lymphangioma arising from the right ventricular wall, and presenting as pericardial mass in a young female, who presented with a history of exercise intolerance in the form of breathlessness on exertion and palpitations. The management of such a case was a difficult task; however, she underwent near total resection of the mass, and is doing well for the last 2 years.
Waldschmidt, U.; Waldschmidt, Juergen; Cholewa, D.; Stroedter, L.
Retroperitoneal Lymphangiomas are rare tumor-like lesions, predominantly found in the new-born period and pediatric age. They are always benign. About 1 percent of Lymphangiomas arise in the retroperitoneal space. Until now surgical excision was the only consistently effective method. Compete excision of the tumor is in more than a half of the cases not possible, and the rate of occurrences is about 50 percent. Because of this background new therapeutic methods were sought. In 1986 we have introduced the interstitial laser therapy in the treatment of the Lymphangiomas and treated more than 200 cases, 10 of them were located in the retroperitoneum. Technique and results are discussed.
Bhayya, Harsha; Pavani, D.; Avinash Tejasvi, M. L.; Geetha, P.
Lymphangiomas are benign hamartomatous tumors of the lymphatic channels which present as developmental malformations arising from sequestration of lymphatic tissue that do not communicate with the rest of the lymphatic channels. Lymphatic vessels are filled with a clear protein-rich fluid containing few lymph cells. It can also occur in association with hemangioma. The onset of lymphangiomas are either at birth (60% to 70%) or up to two years of age (90%) and rare in adults. Lymphangiomas have marked predilection for the head and neck region (50-70%). The most common location in the mouth is the dorsum of tongue, followed by lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. On tongue, they may present as a localized or a diffused growth which may enlarge to cause macroglossia, impaired speech and difficulty in mastication. Herewith, we present a rare case of lymphangioma of tongue leading to macroglossia in a 8-year-old boy. PMID:26681873
Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi
Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.
Benninghoff, Michael G; Todd, William U; Bascom, Rebecca
Adult benign thoracic lymphangiomas typically present as incidental mediastinal lesions, or, more rarely, as solitary pulmonary nodules. Symptomatic compression of vital structures may require lesion resection or sclerotherapy. In the present report, we describe the incidental finding of a solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in a 38-year-old woman with chronic arm and shoulder pain. Positron emission tomography revealed that the lesion was highly fluorodeoxyglucose-avid. Biopsy exposed benign tissue consistent with lymphangioma. After continued radiographic tests, the lesion was determined to be an unlikely source of the patient's chronic pain. The present report is, to our knowledge, the first published case of solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in the medical literature.
Ramírez-Ortega, Miguel Angel; Villegas-Romero, Javier; Márquez-Díaz, Adrián; Gómez-Díaz, Antonio
Cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery is an uncommon tumor; its incidence is 1:160,000. Our objective was to present the case of a patient with cystic lymphangioma of mesentery located at the colon. Female 25 years, attending consultation with a clinical picture suggestive of right ovarian cyst and increased abdominal perimeter. On physical examination abdominal painful tumor was identified, with deep palpation and mobilization. Abdominal ultrasound findings suggested giant right ovarian cyst. Laparotomy showed a cystic mass (18 x 11 cm size) depending mesenterium and involving sigmoid colon, surgical intervention was done after two days for bowel preparation. Resection of the cyst, and colon section involving sigmoid colon with termino-terminal anastomosis, was performed. The pathological report was: cystic lymphangioma of sigmoid mesentery. There was no recurrence at six month follow up. Cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery is a benign abdominal tumor, which occurs frequently in children but in adults is rare. We found 49 cases of mesenteric cysts reported in Mexico, of which 21 were lymphangiomas with a range of 1 to 73 years of age.
Alonso, Juan; Barbier, Luis; Alvarez, Julio; Romo, Laura; Martín, Jesús C; Arteagoitia, Iciar; Santamaría, Joseba
Cervical cystic lymphangioma (CCL) is a rare and benign tumour involving congenital and cystic abnormalities derived from lymphatic vessels. The most accepted treatment continues to be surgical excision. However, when this infiltrates vital neurovascular neck structures, complete excision is difficult and if only partial, the recurrence rate is very high. The most frequently used alternative treatment is to inject sclerosants into the lesion. The use of these techniques has reported good results in children; however, there are few references thereof with regard to adults. We are reporting on a cervical cystic lymphangioma in a male aged 22, treated with an intra-lesion injection of 20 cc with 0.01 mg/cc dilution of OK-432 (picibanil) in physiological serum. Sole complications were fever and local reaction where the solution was injected. One month after treatment the lymphangioma had totally remitted and sixteen months later continues in remittance.
Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; San-Román-Sánchez, Daniel; Marrero-Santiago, Héctor; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Gil-Guillén, Carlos; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis
Among immigrants of sub-Saharan origin, parasitic infection is the leading cause of eosinophilia, which is generally interpreted as a defense mechanism. A side effect of the inflammatory mediators released by eosinophils is damage to host organs, especially the heart. The main objectives of this study were to i) assess cardiac involvement in asymptomatic sub-Saharan immigrants with eosinophilia, ii) relate the presence of lesions with the degree of eosinophilia, and iii) study the relationship between cardiac involvement and the type of causative parasite. In total, the study included 50 black immigrants (37 patients and 13 controls) from sub-Saharan Africa. In all subjects, heart structure and function were evaluated in a blinded manner using Sonos 5500 echocardiographic equipment. The findings were classified and described according to established criteria. The diagnostic criteria for helminthosis were those reported in the literature. Serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significant association was found between the presence of eosinophilia and structural alterations (mitral valve thickening). However, the lack of an association between the degree of eosinophilia and heart valve disease and the absence of valve involvement in some patients with eosinophilia suggest the role of other factors in the appearance of endocardial lesions. There was also no association between the type of helminth and valve involvement. We, therefore, suggest that transthoracic echocardiography be performed in every sub-Saharan individual with eosinophilia in order to rule out early heart valve lesions.
Pickering, S P; Fletcher, B D; Bryan, P J; Abramowsky, C R
A newborn male presented with bilateral nephromegaly and mild hypertension. Function of the right kidney was reduced on excretory urography. Ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity and poorly defined corticomedullary junctions. Areas of decreased medullary enhancement were seen on CT. Renal biopsy demonstrated lymphangioma, probably arising from the peripelvic renal tissues.
Mneimneh, Sirin; Tabaja, Ali; Rajab, Mariam
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare disorder characterized by the triad of vascular malformations, venous varicosities, and bone and soft-tissue hypertrophy. We present a case of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with limb hypertrophy, port-wine stains, lymphangiomas, and venous varicosities in the limbs. PMID:26587303
Mneimneh, Sirin; Tabaja, Ali; Rajab, Mariam
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare disorder characterized by the triad of vascular malformations, venous varicosities, and bone and soft-tissue hypertrophy. We present a case of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with limb hypertrophy, port-wine stains, lymphangiomas, and venous varicosities in the limbs.
Marrero-Santiago, Héctor; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Gil-Guillén, Carlos; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis
Background Among immigrants of sub-Saharan origin, parasitic infection is the leading cause of eosinophilia, which is generally interpreted as a defense mechanism. A side effect of the inflammatory mediators released by eosinophils is damage to host organs, especially the heart. The main objectives of this study were to i) assess cardiac involvement in asymptomatic sub-Saharan immigrants with eosinophilia, ii) relate the presence of lesions with the degree of eosinophilia, and iii) study the relationship between cardiac involvement and the type of causative parasite. Methodology/Principle findings In total, the study included 50 black immigrants (37 patients and 13 controls) from sub-Saharan Africa. In all subjects, heart structure and function were evaluated in a blinded manner using Sonos 5500 echocardiographic equipment. The findings were classified and described according to established criteria. The diagnostic criteria for helminthosis were those reported in the literature. Serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significant association was found between the presence of eosinophilia and structural alterations (mitral valve thickening). However, the lack of an association between the degree of eosinophilia and heart valve disease and the absence of valve involvement in some patients with eosinophilia suggest the role of other factors in the appearance of endocardial lesions. There was also no association between the type of helminth and valve involvement. Conclusions We, therefore, suggest that transthoracic echocardiography be performed in every sub-Saharan individual with eosinophilia in order to rule out early heart valve lesions. PMID:28234952
Alsmady, M M; Aladaileh, M A; Al-Zaben, K; Saleem, M M; Alimoglu, O
Mediastinal lymphangioma is a rare entity and chylopericardium is a rare form of pericardial effusion. We report a case of acute chylous cardiac tamponade due to a cervicomediastinal lymphangioma in a one-year-old boy. A chest x-ray revealed marked cardiac enlargement and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion. Emergency surgery was performed whereby a pericardial window was created, followed by excision of the lymphangioma.
Posada García, Celia; García-Cruz, Aranzazu; García-Doval, Ignacio; De La Torre, Carlos; Cruces, Manuel José
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal vascular disease with uncertain histogenesis. It is characterized by clinical and histologic polymorphism. The "lymphangioma-like" variant is very uncommon, accounting for less than 5% of all cases. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman, HIV negative, with a 4-year history of classic Kaposi sarcoma treated with cryotherapy who developed new bullous lesions on her lower extremities. Biopsy revealed histologic findings of lymphangioma-like KS (LLKS), together with areas of classic KS; HHV-8 staining was positive. Diagnosis of LLKS was made and the patient was proposed for radiotherapy. The lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare morphologic expression of KS characterized by dilated and bizarrely shaped vascular channels lined by flattened endothelium permeating the dermis. "Bulla-like" lesions have been considered as a clinical hallmark of this variant. Its histologic appearance suggests a lymphatic origin of KS and it may resemble other vascular tumors. Findings of areas of typical KS and positive staining for HHV-8 may help to make a definitive diagnosis.
Golinelli, Gloria; Toso, Andrea; Borello, Giovanni; Aluffi, Paolo; Pia, Francesco
The present study reports a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy of a giant cystic cervicomediastinal lymphangioma using OK-432. To the best of our knowledge, percutaneous sclerotherapy of a mediastinal lymphangioma using OK 432 has not previously been reported in the English literature. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adikari, S; Philippidou, M; Samuel, M
Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare occurrence on the penis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a single lesion of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum on the penis resembling genital warts. We report the case to increase awareness of this rare condition which may mimic sexually transmitted infections such as genital warts.
Nain Rattan, Kamal; S Malik, Vivek; Garsa, Vipin
Lymphangioma is an extremely rare cause of scrotal swelling. We are reporting such a tumor in a one and half year old child presenting with a painless, progressive scrotal swelling. The mass was evaluated and excised completely. Histopathology confirmed it as Lymphangioma. PMID:23277887
Suthiwartnarueput, Worapop; Kiatipunsodsai, Siriphut; Kwankua, Amolchaya; Chaumrattanakul, Utairat
Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicystic mesothelioma and lymphangiomyoma. Immunohistochemical study for factor VIII-related antigen, D2-40, calretinin and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45) are essential for diagnosis. Factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 are positive in lymphangioma but negative in benign multicystic mesothelioma. HMB-45 shows positive study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces of the lymphangiomyoma. We report a case of small-bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in a 2-year-and-9-mo-old boy who presented with rapid abdominal distension and vomiting. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a multiseptated mass at the right lower quadrant with a whirl-like small-bowel dilatation, suggestive of a mesenteric cyst with midgut volvulus. The intraoperative findings revealed a huge, lobulated, yellowish pink, cystic mass measuring 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm, that was originated from the small bowel mesentery with small-bowel volvulus and small-bowel dilatation. Cut surface of the mass revealed multicystic spaces containing a milky white fluid. The patient underwent tumor removal with small-bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopic examination revealed that the cystic walls were lined with flat endothelial cells and comprised of smooth muscle in the walls. The flat endothelial cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 but negative for calretinin. HMB-45 showed negative study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces. Thus
Harjai, Man Mohan; Jha, Manvendu
To compare the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in treatment of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas. Between July 2007 and May 2009, 120 patients, sixty each of peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, were administered intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5-1 U/kg in children less than one year of age and 1 to 15 units in children more than one year of age and 1 to 3 ml of 2% sodium tetradecyl sulphate, depending on the size of the lesion at intervals of 14 days. Patients more than 20 years of age and those with diffuse or visceral lesions were excluded from the study. Complete resolution occurred in 16 patients (53%) of haemangiomas and 14 patients (47%) of lymphangiomas treated with bleomycin, while the results were 12 patients (40%) and 10 patients (33%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. The satisfactory resolution (resolution more than 50%) occurred in eight patients (27%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas groups treated with bleomycin, while the results were six patients (20%) and eight patients (27%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. Poor response rate was observed in six patients (20%) of haemangiomas and eight patients (27%) of lymphangiomas of bleomycin group and 12 patients (40%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. No pulmonary fibrosis or other serious side effects were found. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate are effective sclerosants in peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, but bleomycin was found to be more efficacious.
Schuster, T; Grantzow, R; Nicolai, T
The aim of the study was to introduce a classification of lymphangioma colli, which allows us to predict the expected morbidity and prognosis with surgical treatment. We defined 4 types, dependent on the volume of the lymphangioma as assessed by prenatal ultrasound or clinically: type I included tumors which had no or only a minimal effect on the contour of the neck; type II lymphangiomas were smaller than a line drawn at the lateral border of the head; type III tumors exceeded this line; in type IV the lymphangioma extended beyond the midline of the body. We report on the pre- and postoperative findings in 36 cases operated on between 1988 and 2000, mean follow-up was 4.2 years. 25 % of the cases were classified as type I, 36 % as type II, 22 % as type III, and 17 % as type IV. Cesarean section was carried out for 79 % of type III and IV lymphangiomas following prenatal diagnosis (71 %) and for 14 % of type I and II. MRT was indicated in 38 % of type II compared to 86 % in type III and IV lymphangiomas. Endoscopy was necessary in 25 % of type III and in 66 % of type IV lymphangiomas. In 2 cases (type I and IV), imaging revealed an intrathoracic portion. In 64 % of type I and II cases, resection was complete compared to 21 % in infants with more extended tumors. In all type IV cases, at least one further operation was required, likewise in 25 % of type III lymphangiomas. Postoperative effusion and infection occurred significantly more often in group IV than in groups I to III. 5 nerval lesions remained in children with operated type IV lymphangioma and 2 in type III cases. A visible lack of facial symmetry was evident at the follow-up examination in 83 % of type IV cases and moderate asymmetry was found in 19 % of all type I and II cases. Tracheostomy and gastrostomy were required only in type IV. The introduced classification of lymphangioma colli enables predictive statements to be made concerning the morbidity and prognosis with surgical therapy. The prognosis
Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Ching-Yi; Lee, Bai-Chin
Circulating leukocyte subtypes and monocyte subsets are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that an increased leukocyte subtype would predict severe coronary stenosis and extensive plaque involvement. We retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory, and coronary CT data in a total of 588 asymptomatic adults (69% men; mean age, 57 ± 9 years) undergoing a general health check-up. Intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count had the strongest association with mixed and calcified plaque scores, whereas the numbers of neutrophils and classical CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes were significantly associated with non-calcified plaque score. Only high CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count (>12 cells/μL) significantly predicted extensive plaque involvement [odds ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 1.84-5.43), P < 0.001; quartile 4 vs. 1-3] and severe coronary stenosis [3.67 (1.84-7.33), P < 0.001; quartile 4 vs. 1-3] after adjustments for Framingham Risk Score (FRS), metabolic syndrome, and C-reactive protein. The CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte count, when added to FRS, significantly reclassified 30.4 and 26.7% of the overall and 50.2 and 36.2% of the intermediate-risk population (FRS 6-20%) for predicting extensive plaque involvement and severe coronary stenosis, respectively. Thus, in asymptomatic individuals, intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte could independently predict severe CAD and improve risk stratification.
Fernandes, Bianca Furlan; Moraes, Érika Neves de Souza; de Oliveira, Francini Rossetto; Benevides, Gabriel Núncio; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; Ferreira, Cristiane Rúbia; de Alcântara, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Tokeshi, Flavio; Martinês, João Augusto Dos Santos; Ferronato, Ângela Espósito
Lymphangioma is a rare, benign lesion derived from a malformation of the lymphatic system, which is more frequently found in the head, neck, and axilla. However, it may be present anywhere in the body, and the diagnosis involves adults as children with some distinct clinical features among them. In pediatric patients, abdominal cystic lymphangioma occurs mostly in the mesentery presenting abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or, more rarely, hemorrhage. The authors report the case of a child with a short-course history of fever, abdominal pain, and constipation. The physical examination disclosed the presence of an abdominal mass and signs of peritoneal irritation. Imaging was consistent with a cystic lesion compressing the sigmoid colon and laterally displacing the remaining loops. Exploratory laparotomy was undertaken, and a sigmoidectomy, followed by Hartman's colostomy, was performed. Histological examination revealed the nature of the lesion as a cystic lymphangioma. The authors highlight the clinical features of this entity and call attention to this disease in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen or abdominal pain, mainly in pediatric patients.
Kim, Dong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae
We present a rare case of adult intussusception due to cecal lymphangioma. A 30-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and a palpatable mass on the right lower quadrant. Preoperative radiologic studies by ultrasound and computed tomography showed ileocolic intussusception with a multiseptated cystic tumor as a leading point on the cecum. An ileocecectomy was performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathology showed a cecal lymphangioma. Although endoscopic polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection is recommended for pedunculated or semi-pedunculated colonic lymphangiomas less than 2 cm in size, it is proper to treat large or symptomatic colonic lymphangiomas with limited a bowel resection or a tumor resection. PMID:21602970
Ganesh, C.; Sangeetha, G. S.; Narayanan, Vivek; Umamaheswari, T. N.
Lymphangioma is a benign hamartomatous tumor of lymphatic vessels. This lymphatic malformation is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of lymphatic vessels. Extra-oral lymphangiomas occur more frequently in the neck region predominantly in the posterior triangle, while intra-oral lymphangiomas are commonly seen in the tongue mainly on the dorsum surface. Various imaging modalities such as ultrasound and color Doppler are very useful in viewing the extent of the lesion. In most of the cases, surgical excision is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is good for most patients, but recurrence has also been reported in some cases, presumably because the lesion is interwoven between muscle fibers, preventing complete removal. This case report discusses the clinical features, color Doppler imaging, histopathology, and treatment of lymphangioma. PMID:24228212
Kubachev, Kubach; Abdullaev, Elbrus; Babyshin, Valentin; Neronov, Dmitriy; Abdullaev, Abakar
Retroperitoneal lymphangioma is a rare location and type of benign abdominal tumors. The clinical presentation of this rare disease is nonspecific, ranging from abdominal distention to sepsis. Here we present a 73-year-old female patient with 3-month history of back pain. USG and CT revealed a huge cystic mass which was surgically excised and appeared to be lymphangioma on histopathology. PMID:27843456
Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Chang Yeom; Sgrignoli, Bradford
Purpose To report the patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in 12 cases of orbital lymphangioma. Methods In this study, orbital lymphangioma was diagnosed based on clinical, radiologic (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), and histologic findings when possible. Patients whose vision was not compromised by orbital lymphangioma, or that did not have increased intraocular pressure (IOP), received oral corticosteroids. Orbital lymphangioma that affected vision or increased IOP was treated by surgery, which included aspiration of blood or partial resection with or without injection of a sclerosant. Results Four patients without compromised vision responded well to oral corticosteroids. Eight patients with compromised vision underwent some form of surgery. Bleeding recurred in three patients after aspiration of blood and in two after partial resection and intralesional injection of a sclerosant. Overall, five patients were treated successfully by aspiration of blood, intralesional injection of a sclerosant, and application of continuous negative pressure by appropriate drainage. Partial resection was successful in two patients with organized hematoma. Conclusions Orbital lymphangioma that does not compromise vision can be treated medically using oral corticosteroids. Patients with threatened vision or elevated IOP due to acute hemorrhage should be treated by aspiration of blood, intralesional injection of a sclerosant, and application of continuous negative pressure. Partial resection may be effective only in patients with organized hematoma. PMID:28534344
Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Chang Yeom; Sgrignoli, Bradford; Yoon, Jin Sook
To report the patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in 12 cases of orbital lymphangioma. In this study, orbital lymphangioma was diagnosed based on clinical, radiologic (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), and histologic findings when possible. Patients whose vision was not compromised by orbital lymphangioma, or that did not have increased intraocular pressure (IOP), received oral corticosteroids. Orbital lymphangioma that affected vision or increased IOP was treated by surgery, which included aspiration of blood or partial resection with or without injection of a sclerosant. Four patients without compromised vision responded well to oral corticosteroids. Eight patients with compromised vision underwent some form of surgery. Bleeding recurred in three patients after aspiration of blood and in two after partial resection and intralesional injection of a sclerosant. Overall, five patients were treated successfully by aspiration of blood, intralesional injection of a sclerosant, and application of continuous negative pressure by appropriate drainage. Partial resection was successful in two patients with organized hematoma. Orbital lymphangioma that does not compromise vision can be treated medically using oral corticosteroids. Patients with threatened vision or elevated IOP due to acute hemorrhage should be treated by aspiration of blood, intralesional injection of a sclerosant, and application of continuous negative pressure. Partial resection may be effective only in patients with organized hematoma.
Ulusan, Zeynep; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Tasar, Mehmet; Kalender, Mehmet; Tansel Darcin, Osman
Summary Abstract Behcet’s syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with vasculitis, and arterial, venous and cardiac disorders. Thirty-eight Behcet’s disease patients were examined prospectively with echocardiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography, and coagulation parameters were determined. Deep venous insufficiency was found in 16 patients, venous thrombosis in seven, one patient had iliac artery stenosis, three had carotid arterial intimal proliferation, two patients had aortic annulus dilatation, six had aortic valve insufficiency, and three had mitral valve insufficiency. None had coagulation defects. To decrease morbidity and mortality rates, a multidisciplinary approach is important for early diagnosis of cardiovascular involvement in Behcet’s disease. PMID:24844550
Amodeo, Ilaria; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Raffaeli, Genny; Colombo, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Cavalli, Riccardo; Leva, Ernesto; Mosca, Fabio
Lymphatic malformations are benign anomalies derived from the abnormal development of lymphatic channels. Usually asymptomatic, they can cause compression on adjacent structures or present acute complications (bleeding or infection). Small asymptomatic lesions can be conservatively managed since the possibility of spontaneous regressions is described, while symptomatic lesions require active management. Less invasive therapeutic options are now preferred instead of surgery (sclerotherapy, laser therapy). However, there are not uniform therapeutic protocols. We present the case of a term newborn with an abdominal cystic lymphangioma extending from the umbilical to the right inguinal area, reaching the medial surface of the right tight. Despite its large dimensions, which classically request surgical management, the patient was by chance asymptomatic, and the mass did not determine compression on the surrounding organs. Therefore, conservative management was tried, and a close clinical and radiological follow-up was started. This approach permitted a spontaneous regression of the mass and to avoid major surgical intervention. Our purpose is to underline the possibility of conservative management of the major multicystic masses and to focus on less invasive therapeutic options, like sclerotherapy, oral therapy, and laser therapy.
Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Castiglione, Francesca; Maio, Vincenza; Morelli, Caterina; Martin, Alessandra; Messineo, Antonio; Taddei, Gian Luigi
Mesenteric cysts are rare and are associated with heterogeneous pathological conditions. We describe an extraordinary case of mesenteric calcified cystic lymphangioma in a 10-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge only 6 mesenteric calcified cystic lymphangioma have been reported. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scan documented a calcified cyst which dislocated and compressed the ileum. Laparatomy revealed that the cyst arose in the mesentery at 100 cm from the ileocecal valve. The cystic wall was composed of fibrosclerotic calcified tissue and had an endothelial lining. In the adjacent fibrofatty stroma there were distended hemolymphatics. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. At follow-up 6 months after surgery the patient is well. Calcified cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intra-abdominal calcified cyst in children.
Tunc, M.; Sadri, E.; Char, D.
AIM—To evaluate retrospective data on the clinical findings, histological features, radiological diagnosis, and management outcomes in orbital lymphangioma. METHODS—Data on 26 orbital lymphangioma patients managed over 16 years were re-evaluated. The computed tomograph and magnetic resonance scans and histological slides were reviewed. Parametric techniques were used to assess correlations among clinical, radiological, and histopathological factors. RESULTS—At presentation proptosis was present in 85%, ptosis in 73%, and restrictive eye movements in 46% of patients. The accuracy of the initial radiology interpretations was 77%. 24 cases required one or more surgeries. The mean follow up was 9.2 years (range 1-14 years). 58% of patients developed recurrences. In cases that recurred, motility restriction was significantly more frequent at initial examination than cases without recurrence (p<0.05). After therapy, 75% of patients were satisfied with their visual function and cosmetic appearance. CONCLUSIONS—Conservative management of orbital lymphangioma with multiple partial resections may achieve satisfactory results. Keywords: orbital lymphangioma PMID:10209440
Luo, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chen-Sheng; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsueh, Chuen
Cystic lymphangiomas (CL) rarely present as intra-abdominal masses. Abdominal CL is often discussed in conjunction with mesenteric cysts; however, their histology, location and age of presentation differ significantly. In an attempt to establish a best diagnostic and treatment modality, we report our experience dealing with intra-abdominal CL during a 5-year period. Between January 1998 and December 2003, 12 patients, 7 boys and 5 girls, with a diagnosis of CL were reviewed. Modes of clinical presentation, location of CL, methods of diagnosis, surgical intervention and histological examination were all analyzed. The ages of the 12 patients ranged from 8 days to 6 years. Eleven of the 12 patients were symptomatic with abdominal pain, abdominal distention or palpable mass , dysuria and severe acute abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Abdominal ultrasound was done preoperatively in all patients. At laparotomy, 5 CL were located in the omentum, 5 in the mesentery, and another 2 in the retroperitoneum. All omental CL were completely excised without difficulty. CL removal required resection of both the cyst and intestine in 2 patients. One of 2 retropritoneal CL was removed with small areas of the posterior wall of the cyst remaining on the inferior vena cava (IVC). There were no major postoperative complications, deaths, or recurrences in this series. Intra-abdominal CL are usually involved in young children and are usually symptomatic. A preoperative diagnosis is possible with ultrasound study. Complete excision of the cysts with or without intestinal resection is mandatory to prevent recurrence. The long-term prognosis is excellent.
Karazincir, Sinem; Akoğlu, Sebahat; Güler, Hayal; Balci, Ali; Babayiğit, Cenk; Eğilmez, Ertuğrul
To investigate pulmonary involvement by high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are asymptomatic and lifelong non-smoker. Twenty-five patients with RA who are asymptomatic and lifelong non-smoker were included in the study. After clinical and laboratory investigations, plain chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT were performed. End expiratory HRCT slices were obtained for air trapping. Chest X-ray, PFT and HRCT findings showed 12%, 16%, 48% abnormalities, respectively. Interstitial involvement was the most common finding on HRCT (36%) and followed by air trapping (20%). Bronchiectasis, pulmonary nodule, and pleural disease were seen in 16%, 12%, and 12% of patients, respectively. None of patients had emphysema and honeycomb pattern. There was no statistically significant correlation between HRCT findings and disease activity criteria, RF positivity, PFT results and duration of the disease. Our study shows that pulmonary involvement is not always together with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function in patients with RA. New studies are needed which investigating the effects of radiologically detected lung involvement on prediction of survival and treatment choice in asymptomatic and nonsmoker RA patients.
Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Saridogan, Erdinc; Ozler, Sibel; Danisman, Nuri
Fetal lymphangioma is a hamartomatous congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system, which is embracing the fetal skin (sometimes mucous membranes) and the subcutaneous tissue. The general consensus is that it occurs as a result of failure in lymphatic drainage. A 36-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology clinic at 22 weeks' gestation, because of a fetal right-sided axillary mass revealed by ultrasonography. The mass measuring 5x7x7cm in three dimensions had a multilocular structure without colour Doppler flow and well-circumscribed borders. Amniocentesis revealed a normal constitutional karyotyping. Lymphangioma was considered as prediagnosis. A healthy female baby weighing 3470 grams was delivered at term. Neonatal examination and the postnatal MRI confirmed the diagnosis. The baby is still on follow-up with the medical treatment of Sirolimus an anti-proliferative drug, and the mass got smaller significantly in 8 months after delivery.
Treharne, Linda J; Murison, Maxwell S C
Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is an uncommon skin condition characterized by large muscular-coated lymphatic cisterns that lie deep with in the subcutaneous tissue and communicate with dilated dermal lymphatics. Patients suffer from edema and lymphatic leakage. Surgical excision and reconstruction is the gold standard for therapy. However, this can be mutilating. The authors present a patient who suffered widespread disease of his scrotum who had excellent symptomatic relief by treatment with the CO(2) laser.
Nicolle, Lindsay E
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding. Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been identified as a major issue for antimicrobial stewardship programs. This review summarizes and evaluates recent studies which extend our knowledge of the occurrence, management, and outcomes of bacteriuria. The reported prevalence of bacteriuria is higher in some developing countries than generally reported for developed countries, but reasons for this remain unclear. Clinical studies of young women, renal transplant patients, and patients undergoing minor nontraumatic urologic procedures confirm that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria for these populations is not beneficial, and may be harmful. There is also no benefit for treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria prior to orthopedic surgery to decrease postoperative surgical site infection. Studies continue to report substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use for treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Recent publications confirm that asymptomatic bacteriuria is benign in most patients. Management strategies for pregnant women with recurrent bacteriuria require further clarification. There is a continuing problem with inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and sustainable strategies to optimize antimicrobial use for this problem are needed.
Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo
Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum. PMID:27329721
Dull RB, Friedman SK, Risoldi ZM, Rice EC, Starlin RC, Destache CJ. Antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in noncatheterized adults: a systematic review. Pharmacotherapy . 2014;34(9):941-960. PMID: 24807583 ...
Méndez-Gallart, R; Bautista, A; Estévez, E; Rodríguez-Barca, P
Abdominal Cystic lymphangiomas (ACL) are uncommon benign masses usually presented during infancy. Although extremely rare, they may cause complications; therefore, the recommended therapy is surgical excision. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of ACL in pediatric population. From January 1994 to December 2009, 10 patients (6 females; 4 males) with diagnostic confirmation of ACL were retrospectively included in study. Children's age ranged between 9 months and 8 years (mean age at diagnosis was 2.5 years). Clinical presentation, cyst location, imaging studies employed, surgical approach and pathologic features were analyzed. The most common symptom was abdominal pain but three cases were incidentally detected. One case had presented with acute abdomen after traumatic haemorrhage of the tumor. All patients were diagnosed with ultrasonography as first-line radiological study. MRI was used in last three cases. At surgery, concomitant bowel resection was necessary in 3 children. Location of the lesion (omentum, mesentery) did not influence the outcome but surgery was more difficult (operative time over three hours) in patients with lymphangioma affecting mesentery of the jejunum. Mean hospital stay after surgery was 6.7 days. Mean follow-up was 5.1 years. No recurrence of the cystic lymphangioma was noticed during follow-up. One case developed an intestinal occlusion due to bowel adhesions 1 year after surgery. ACL usually affect infants and young children and may present with spectrum of symptoms from an incidental finding to an acute life-threatening abdominal obstruction. Complete excision of the tumor is a safe and effective method in the management of ACL in pediatric population. Surgery is mandatory to avoid potential complications.
Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Serrat Soto, Alberto; Calero, Hermógenes; Verrier Hernández, Alberto
The treatment of cervicofacial lymphangiomas has been changing in recent years. OK-432 appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment option for patients of all ages. An intracystic injection of OK-432 produces a local inflammatory reaction, leading to resolution of the lesion. Cosmetically, the outcome is excellent, leaving no lesions on the skin at the injection site, unlike other sclerosing agents. It may thus be considered as the treatment of choice, especially in cases where surgical treatment is associated with the possibility of serious functional or cosmetic side effects.
V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.
Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537
Seca, Mariana; Borges, Pedro; Reimão, Pedro; Gomes, Miguel; Meireles, Angelina
Background. Lymphangioma is a rare venolymphatic lesion, characterized by dilation of lymphatic vessels. It may occur as an isolated lesion or, more often, represent the surface component of a deep orbital lymphangioma. Case. We report a case of a conjunctival lymphangioma on a 58-year-old male that had simultaneously an upper respiratory tract infection. Excision and biopsy confirmed the nature of the lesion, and there has been no relapse to date. Conclusion. Conjunctival lymphangioma is a rare condition in which the diagnose, must be kept in mind in patients with a red eye resistance to topical therapy and in association with an upper respiratory tract infection. Finally, it is also necessary to be aware of possible recurrence of the lesion. PMID:22666617
Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Hong, Suk Joo; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Hwan Hoon
We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials.
LaPolla, J.; Foucar, E.; Leshin, B.; Whitaker, D.; Anderson, B.
The clinical and pathological features of a case of multifocal lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva are reported in a patient with chronic lymphedema of a lower extremity. Ten years previously the patient had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although lymphangioma circumscriptum is an extremely rare complication of altered lymphatic drainage, the presence of multiple noninflammatory vesicular appearing lesions in this setting should suggest the correct diagnosis.
Cozzi, Denis A; Zani, Augusto; d'Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Piserà, Antonietta; Roggini, Mario; Cozzi, Francesco
We report the first neonate successfully treated with one-stage complete excision of massive cervicomediastinal lymphangioma producing alarming respiratory distress. Early postoperative course was complicated by refractory bilateral chylothorax, which effectively responded to insertion of external pleuroperitoneal shunts. At the 6-year follow-up, the child remains symptom free and recurrence free. One-stage resection for cervicomediastinal lymphangioma is curative and well tolerated even shortly after birth.
Hitzerd, Emilie; van Hamont, Dennis; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A
Pelvic cystic masses are frequently observed in women. Most lesions are benign and of ovarian origin. However, non-ovarian lesions can be easily confused with cystic ovarian masses on imaging, which hampers diagnostic and therapeutic management. In this report, a rare case of mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking an ovarian cystic mass, discovered as an incidental finding on orthopaedic MRI in an adult female, is presented. The report highlights the sometimes difficult diagnostic process of pelvic cystic masses, due to an extensive differential diagnosis and the fact that imaging is often inconclusive. Even though most cystic masses are of ovarian origin, non-ovarian causes can mimic ovarian masses and should be considered as differential diagnoses. Surgical exploration may be necessary to exclude malignant causes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Morrone, A. |; Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C.
A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Maruani, Annabel; Brown, Shanna; Lorette, Gerard; Pondaven-Letourmy, Soizick; Herbreteau, Denis; Eisenbaum, Allan
Vascular lesions such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas can cause significant mortality and morbidity, as well as amblyopia when located in the orbit. Oral propranolol can regress infantile hemangioma during infancy and up to 23 months of age, but its effect on lymphangioma has not been demonstrated. We present two cases of lymphatic malformations treated with oral propranolol. Patient 1 is a 2-year-old boy with macrocystic bilateral cervical lymphangioma extending to the pharynx and larynx and microcystic lymphangioma of the tongue. The patient was started on propranolol 2 mg/kg/day starting at 17 months of age, and after 3 months only a very slight decrease in tongue volume was noted. Patient 2 is a 3.5-year-old boy with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of right facial complex lymphangioma with venous malformation. The patient was placed on oral propranolol 2 mg/kg/day. After 3 months of treatment, no change in the lesion was noted except for a transient decrease in the size of the conjunctival telangiectasia. Propranolol 2 mg/kg/day was not effective in treating lymphatic malformations in two children, both older than 17 months at the time of treatment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rattan, Kamal Nayan; Nair, Vimoj J; Pathak, Manish; Kumar, Sanjay
Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results.
Introduction Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group. Case presentation We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Conclusion Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results. PMID:19946589
Mennemeyer, R; Smith, M
A 27-year-old Caucasian female complained of persistent, poorly localized abdominal pain of several months' duration, found to be due to a multicystic diffuse lesion involving omentum, peritoneum and pelvic viscera. Three resections were required within a ten-month period for symptomatic control. The tumor showed many of the clinical, operative, gross and light microscopic features of intra-abdominal lymphagioma. Tissues removed at the third operation, however, were examined by electron microscopy, and found to consist of a myriad of small cysts and channels lined by mesothelial cells. In view of these findings, the lesion was regarded as a cystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Similarities between lymphangioma and peritoneal mesothelioma are discussed. It is suggested that electron microscopic examination of lining cells of cystic lesions which are considered grossly consistent with lymphagiomas may yield additional similar cases.
Okami, Jiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Fujiwara, Ayako; Konishi, Koji; Kanou, Takashi; Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Teshima, Teruki; Higashiyama, Masahiko
Thoracic lymph node recurrence after complete resection is common in non-small-cell lung cancer but it mostly occurs along with distant metastases. The recurrent disease might be localized and curative intent radiation therapy is the treatment of choice if no evidence of hematogenous metastasis is observed. We sought to describe the outcomes of thoracic radiotherapy for thoracic lymph node recurrences. Fifty patients who had developed thoracic lymph node recurrence after complete resection received curative intent radiotherapy between 1997 and 2009. The clinical endpoints included the tumor response, overall survival, progression-free survival, locoregional recurrence within the irradiated field, and any other recurrence. The planned total radiotherapy was completed in 49 patients with minor toxicity. The median follow-up time after radiotherapy was 41 (19-98) months among the survivors. The response to treatment was complete response in 65%, partial response in 24%, and progressive disease in 10% of the evaluated patients. The median overall survival after radiotherapy was 37.3 months. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rate were 36.1%, 22.2%, and 61.1%, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that the absence of symptoms and the involvement of a single lymph node station were significant factors associated with a better overall survival. Radiation therapy for thoracic lymph node recurrence after complete resection is safe and provides acceptable disease control. This treatment provides a better outcome if the disease is asymptomatic and has a single-station involvement. Early detection of the recurrence may thus improve the effectiveness of this treatment.
Nagata, Hiroshi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Canbay, Emel; Ishibashi, Haruaki; Narita, Makoto; Mike, Makio; Kano, Nobuyasu
We report a case of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma in a 30-year-old woman who presented with abdominal distention and pain. Imaging studies revealed a large, thin-walled multicystic mass occupying the whole abdomen. Based on a preoperative diagnosis of multicystic mesothelioma, we performed laparotomy, which revealed a tumor arising from the gastropancreatic ligament in the posterior wall of the omental bursa. We resected the tumor completely, without the adjacent viscera. The final pathological diagnosis was cystic lymphangioma, based on the immunohistochemical findings of positive CD31 and CD34 expression, the presence of smooth muscle confirmed by smooth muscle antigen and desmin, and negative calretinin, WT-1 and cytokeratins 5/6 expression. Multicystic mesotheliomas and cystic lymphangiomas are so similar in morphology that immunohistochemical staining should be fully utilized to differentiate them.
Luo, Dinghai; Ye, Liping; Wu, Weidan; Zheng, Haihong; Mao, Xinli
We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case.
Ye, Liping; Wu, Weidan; Zheng, Haihong
We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case. PMID:28408932
Vurucu, S; Battal, B; Kocaoglu, M; Akin, R
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare disorder characterised by congenital vascular hamartomas, limb hypertrophy, lymphangiomas and atresia of lymph vessels with non-pitting oedema. A 6-year-old girl with KTS was referred to our hospital for evaluation of intractable seizures. In addition to findings consistent with KTS, we also found hemimegalencephaly, retroperitoneal lymphangioma and double inferior vena cava. All of these associations in the same patient with KTS are unique in the English literature. We report on the multidedector CT and MRI features of such an unusual case.
Rami, Mohamed; Mahmoudi, Abdelhalim; El Madi, Aziz; Khalid; Khattala; Afifi, Moulay Abderrahmane; Bouabdallah, Youssef
Giant cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon mesenteric tumor which is usually reported in children. In this paper, we describe 3 cases, that was admitted in our department, two with abdominal distension, pain, and an abdominopelvic mass; the other present an acute abdomen. Preoperative studies including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography failed to determine the cause of the pain for the female patients. The laparotomy found a giant cystic tumor of the small bowel mesentery. The histological study showed a tumor that was diagnosed as a cystic lymphangioma. Based on those three cases a review of the literature is suggested.
Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore
Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.
Withana, Milinda; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Warnakulasooriya, Sachini; Wimalachandra, Manu; Gooneratne, Lallindra; Rajapakse, Senaka
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital mesodermal abnormality characterized by bone and soft tissue hypertrophy, extensive hemangioma and venous abnormalities. We report the case of a patient with two additional rare clinical manifestations in the background of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, namely, acanthocytosis and splenic and retroperitoneal lymphangioma. A 24-year-old Sri Lankan man from North Central Province in Sri Lanka presented to our general medical unit with symptomatic anaemia. He had been diagnosed with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome at the age of six years, with hemihypertrophy of his right lower limb and strawberry naevi over both lower limbs. His blood film results were positive for acanthocytes, which accounted for more than 20% of the red blood cell population. He was also found to have extensive splenic lymphangiomas and a large retroperitoneal lymphangioma encasing the mesentric vessels in the right para-aortic region. An extensive battery of tests to identify a secondary cause for the acanthocytosis failed to show any positive results. Retroperitoneal lymphangioma has been reported in association with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome once before, but an association with acanthocytosis has never been reported. Given the rarity of all three conditions this is not surprising. The cause of acanthocytosis in this setting is currently unresolved. It is plausible that this may be a primary association with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, as an alternative aetiology was not found.
Limaiem, F; Khalfallah, T; Marsaoui, L; Bouraoui, S; Lahmar, A; Mzabi, S
Adult intussusception is a relatively rare clinical entity. Almost 90% of cases of intussusception in adults are secondary to a pathologic condition that serves as a lead point. Lymphangioma of the small bowel is an unusual tumour that has been rarely reported to cause intussusception. In this paper, we present a rare case of adult intussusception due to jejunal lymphangioma. A 22-year-old female patient with a medical history significant for anaemia presented with intermittent colicky abdominal pain, diarrhoea and oedema of the inferior limbs for the past three months. Ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a typical target sign with dilated intestinal loops. At laparotomy, a jejuno-jejunal intussusception was found. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed. Macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen revealed a pedunculated polyp measuring 2 cm in diameter. Histological sections of the polyp revealed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer of the jejunum several markedly dilated thin-walled lymphatic spaces lined with single layers of flat endothelial cells. The final pathologic diagnosis was submucosal lymphangioma. This case report indicates that intussusception, although rare in adults, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Moreover, it should be taken into consideration that lymphangioma is one of the possible lesions that can cause intussusception.
Mittermayer, C; Blaicher, W; Deutinger, J; Bernaschek, G; Lee, A
Lymphangiomas are benign tumours of the lymphatic system. Early prenatal diagnosis is important to permit a planned delivery and provide adequate postnatal care. It thereby improves prognosis and allows the option of terminating the pregnancy if poor outcome is predicted. We report two cases, a giant haemangiolymphoma and a lymphangioma. 2D and 3D US findings are presented and differential diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis are discussed.
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is a standard of obstetrical care and is included in most antenatal guidelines. There is good evidence that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria will decrease the incidence of pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and there are no new data that would indicate otherwise. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies means any conclusion about the strength of this association needs to be drawn cautiously. A better understanding of the mechanism by which treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria could prevent preterm delivery is needed. While several rapid screening tests have been evaluated, none perform adequately to replace urine culture for detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria. Until there are data from well-designed trials that establish the optimal duration of therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, standard treatment courses are recommended.
Wang, Jayson; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin
Intra-abdominal cysts have a variety of origins, of which lymphatic and mesothelial types are the most commonly encountered. Here we describe a combined mesothelial cyst and lymphangioma arising within the small bowel subserosa of an 80-year-old woman. This was found incidentally at laparotomy performed for an unrelated condition. To date, such a hybrid lesion has not been previously reported. The ways by which this lesion might have arisen are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Chen, Chin-Fan; Chuang, Chieh-Han; Lu, Chien-Yu; Hu, Ching; Kuo, Ting-Lu; Hsieh, Jan-Sing
We report the case of a patient with ileocolic intussusception caused by cecal lymphangioma. A 45-year-old man visited our hospital with a 2-month history of frequent episodes of watery diarrhea (>/= 5 times/day) and intermittent abdominal pain. A cecal submucosal tumor with mucosal ulceration and partial obstruction of the colonic lumen was identified by colonoscopy. He was admitted to our hospital 2 days later due to aggravation of his abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the right abdomen with no peritoneal signs. A double-contrast lower gastrointestinal series showed a right-side colonic lesion with indentation and a peripheral, beak-like sign. Abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed an intra-abdominal mass with the characteristic sausage sign, highly suggestive of intussusception. The patient subsequently underwent right hemicolectomy. The final diagnosis was ileocolic intussusception with cecal lymphangioma, which was confirmed by histopathology. He had an uneventful recovery with follow-up in our hospital. This case highlights the possibility of colonic lymphangioma as the leading point of adult intussusception, and this should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis in this uncommon clinical condition.
Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki
Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.
Iliadou, Eleftheria; Papapetropoulos, Nektarios; Karamatzanis, Eleftherios; Saravakos, Konstantinos
Primary lymphangiomas or lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign lesions that are described infrequently in the literature. The majority of the published cases concern adults. We report a case of a lymphangiomatous lesion of the right palatine tonsil of a 9-year-old boy. Our clinical suspicion was confirmed by the histological examination after tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of primary lymphangioma of the tonsil was made. In this case we discuss the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion and present a short review of the current literature. PMID:27872780
Sheiner, Eyal; Mazor-Drey, Efrat; Levy, Amalia
The present study was aimed to test the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, among patients in whom antibiotic treatment was recommended, and perinatal outcome. Our study was also designed to characterize common bacteria and risk factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and asymptomatic bacteriuria was conducted. Patients with urinary tract infection were excluded from the analysis. Multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 199,093 deliveries, 2.5% (n = 4890) were in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. E. coli was the most common pathogen associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, representing 78.6% of the cultures with specified growth. Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to deliver preterm (PTD, 13.3%vs. 7.6%, odd ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval CI 1.7-2.0; P < 0.001) and deliver low birth-weight neonates (<2500 g, 13.3%vs. 7.9%, OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.0; P < 0.001). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was independently associated with PTD (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.7; P < 0.001), fertility treatments, hypertensive disorders, recurrent abortions, diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnion and oligohydramnion, premature rupture of membranes and labour induction, in a multivariable analysis with backwards elimination. Perinatal mortality rates (1.5%vs. 1.4%; P = 0.707) as well as low 5 min Apgar scores (0.8%vs. 0.6%; P = 0.065) were comparable between the groups. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery.
Salman, Andac; Sarac, Gonca; Can Kuru, Burce; Cinel, Leyla; Yucelten, Ayse Deniz; Ergun, Tulin
Acquired progressive lymphangioma (APL), or benign lymphangioendothelioma, is an unusual entity derived from vascular structures. Clinically and histopathologically it may resemble Kaposi's sarcoma and well-differentiated angiosarcoma, causing a diagnostic problem. We report an individual with APL initially diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma who underwent unnecessary laboratory testing. Imiquimod 5% cream stopped the progression of the lesion. Awareness of this rare entity may prevent patients from undergoing excessive testing. Imiquimod may be used as a safe, effective treatment option. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pootrakul, Llana; Nazareth, Michael R; Cheney, Richard T; Grassi, Marcelle A
Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) results from the development of abnormal lymphatic vasculature and is characterized by the presence of grouped vesicles filled with clear or colored fluid. Vulvar localization is uncommon. Abnormalities of the lymphatic system, such as lymphedema and cystic hygroma, are well-known features of genetic disorders such as Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome. We report the case of a patient with NS who presented with LC of the vulva. We also discuss the expanding spectrum of clinical anomalies associated with the presentation of NS.
Siddique, Khurram; Bhandari, Santosh; Basu, Sanjoy
Mesenteric cyst lymphangiomas (MCLs) are rare benign tumours of unknown aetiology seen mostly in children. Clinical presentation can be diverse ranging from incidental abdominal cysts to an acute abdomen. A 24-year-old previously fit and healthy young man presented with a 2-week history of cramping, central abdominal pain and vomiting requiring acute hospital admission. He was a diagnostic conundrum despite extensive preoperative investigations. Recurring symptoms required urgent surgical exploration, resection and histological confirmation with a successful outcome. We review the literature and present here this rare case in an adult of MCL that has the potential to grow, invade and develop major life-threatening complications. PMID:22778193
Siddique, Khurram; Bhandari, Santosh; Basu, Sanjoy
Mesenteric cyst lymphangiomas (MCLs) are rare benign tumours of unknown aetiology seen mostly in children. Clinical presentation can be diverse ranging from incidental abdominal cysts to an acute abdomen. A 24-year-old previously fit and healthy young man presented with a 2-week history of cramping, central abdominal pain and vomiting requiring acute hospital admission. He was a diagnostic conundrum despite extensive preoperative investigations. Recurring symptoms required urgent surgical exploration, resection and histological confirmation with a successful outcome. We review the literature and present here this rare case in an adult of MCL that has the potential to grow, invade and develop major life-threatening complications.
Uncu, Y; Uncu, G; Esmer, A; Bilgel, N
The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is reported as 2-14% during pregnancy. Fetal and maternal complications like acute pyelonephritis, hypertension, anemia, preterm labor, low-birth-weight infants and intrauterine growth retardation can be expected. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy and its relation to pregnancy complications. The study involved 270 pregnant women up to 32 gestational weeks during a 9-month period. At the initial visit, they were screened with urine culture in order to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria. A control group was formed in a retrospective manner from the first day of the study with 186 pregnant women who delivered in our clinic and who were not screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 9.31%. Escherichia coli accounted for 79%, which was the most frequent of the isolates. We observed recurrence and had to apply treatment again to 21.7% of the women. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of leucocyturia as a screening test for asymptomatic bacteriuria were 91.3%, 83.6%, 45.6% and 98.5%, respectively. We diagnosed preterm labor in six of 23 (26%) with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 16 in 163 (9.3%) women in the urine culture negative group. The ratio acute pyelonephritis in the group which was routinely screened and treated for asymtomatic bacteriuria was 0.5% while the prevalence was 2.1% in the nonscreened group. Considering the relatively high incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy and the relevant complications, we propose to screen and treat asymptomatic bacteriuria routinely in all pregnant women.
Moulin, L; Rumbo, C; Romero, P; Pedraza, N; Garcia Hervá, D; Orce, G; Trentadue, J; Ramisch, D; Gondolesi, G
We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with intestinal failure owing to a cystic lymphangioma compromising the root of the mesentery, not amenable to resection, leading to intestinal failure. Oncologic treatment was attempted to reduce tumor size with no response; therefore, she was listed for multivisceral transplantation. Resection of the tumor required resection of all abdominal organs with vascular inflow and outflow. A multivisceral graft (liver, stomach, duodenum-pancreas and spleen complex, small bowel, and right colon) was implanted. For vascular reconstruction, donor's superior vena cava was sutured to the recipient's suprahepatic veins in a common patch. For arterial inflow, an arterial conduit was placed directly to the infrarenal aorta, and sutured to an aortic patch of the graft. Cold ischemia time was 8:45 hours; warm ischemia time was 35 minutes. A double-layer gastrogastric anastomosis and piloroplasty was made; and the distal reconstruction was performed with ileocolic side-to-end anastomosis that allowed to perform of a Bishop-Koop ileostomy for endoscopic monitoring. The patient recovered well after the procedure and was discharged 36 days after transplantation with intestinal sufficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing cystic lymphangioma as an indication for multivisceral transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takeda, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Hiromi
Omental cystic lymphangioma is an extremely rare abdominal mass caused by congenital malformation. An 8-year-old premenarchal girl reported abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large multicystic mass measuring 22 cm in diameter, which occupied the entire abdominal cavity with ascites. Emergency laparoscopy revealed a ruptured large cystic mass originating from the greater omentum; this was followed by successful laparoscopic-assisted excision. The pathological diagnosis was omental cystic lymphangioma. The present findings show that omental cystic lymphangioma masquerading as mucinous ovarian neoplasia was a rare cause of acute abdominal events in a young girl. The present case shows that minimally invasive surgery can be a feasible option, which might achieve a favorable outcome in a young patient with an omental cystic lymphangioma. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tewari, Anurag; Munjal, Munish; Kamakshi; Garg, Shuchita; Sood, Dinesh; Katyal, Sunil
Summary Successful airway management of an infant or child with macroglossia prerequisites recognition of a potential airway problem. We describe our experience with a debilitated 13-year-old girl who presented with severe macroglossia, secondary to lymphangioma of the tongue. Along with the social discomfort she had inability to speak, eat or drink properly and exposure-induced dryness. Such patients are a challenge for the anaesthesiologists due to the anticipated difficult intubation associated with the oral mucosa occupying lesion. It also becomes pertinent to rule out any of the associated congenital anomalies. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation and attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway is emphasized. We endeavor to review the available literature regarding patient's perioperative management of such patients. PMID:20640084
Kiningham, R B
Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 4 to 7 percent of pregnancies and is associated with the development of acute pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low-birth-weight infants. Treatment of bacteriuria prevents up to 80 percent of cases of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. All women should be screened for bacteriuria by a urine culture at the first prenatal visit. Women with bacteriuria should be treated with appropriate antibiotics and should be monitored throughout pregnancy to identify recurrences. Women with persistent bacteriuria require antibiotic suppression until delivery and urologic evaluation following delivery. Urologic evaluation during pregnancy is indicated if bacteriuria persists despite antibiotic therapy.
Kohga, Atsushi; Kawabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Yuto; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Okumura, Takuya; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Isogaki, Jun; Suzuki, Kenji; Komiyama, Akira
Intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon; additionally, those affecting the gastrointestinal tract are rare and account for less than 1% of cases. Intussusception caused by a cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel is extremely rare. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who visited our emergency room with a complaint of abdominal pain. A computed tomography image revealed ileo-ileal intussusception with a leading hypovascular mass measuring 1 cm in a diameter. Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted ileal resection was performed. The surgical specimen consisted of a soft polycystic mass. Macroscopically, a pedunculated polyp with a convolutional pattern was found. Microscopically, the inner surfaces of the cysts were covered with a single layer of endothelial cells. On immunohistochemical examination, the endothelial cells were partially positive for D2-40 and CD34. Smooth muscle cells were also found around the cysts. The lesion was diagnosed as a cystic lymphangioma. Dozens of cases of small bowel lymphangiomas have previously been reported. Of these, cases with intussusception were very rare. This is the first case of small bowel intussusception due to lymphangioma treated by single-incision laparoscopic-assisted surgery. PMID:28104992
Kohga, Atsushi; Kawabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Yuto; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Okumura, Takuya; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Isogaki, Jun; Suzuki, Kenji; Komiyama, Akira
Intraabdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon; additionally, those affecting the gastrointestinal tract are rare and account for less than 1% of cases. Intussusception caused by a cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel is extremely rare. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who visited our emergency room with a complaint of abdominal pain. A computed tomography image revealed ileo-ileal intussusception with a leading hypovascular mass measuring 1 cm in a diameter. Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted ileal resection was performed. The surgical specimen consisted of a soft polycystic mass. Macroscopically, a pedunculated polyp with a convolutional pattern was found. Microscopically, the inner surfaces of the cysts were covered with a single layer of endothelial cells. On immunohistochemical examination, the endothelial cells were partially positive for D2-40 and CD34. Smooth muscle cells were also found around the cysts. The lesion was diagnosed as a cystic lymphangioma. Dozens of cases of small bowel lymphangiomas have previously been reported. Of these, cases with intussusception were very rare. This is the first case of small bowel intussusception due to lymphangioma treated by single-incision laparoscopic-assisted surgery.
Molina, Jesús Pérez; Meza, Jesús Gaitán; Reyes, Juan Carlos Lona; Barón, Guadalupe Panduro; Hernández, Juan Francisco Castro
The relation between asymptomatic bacteriuria and spontaneous preterm birth is a controversial topic. To determine the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and spontaneous preterm birth. Case-control study in 92 preterm pregnancies and 92 term pregnancies at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca between June 2005 and January 2006. Asymptomatic bacteriuria as a risk factor of spontaneous preterm birth was investigated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was more frequent in cases (p = 0.048); with a trend to be associated with preterm birth (OR: 2.39; CI 95: 1.10-5.28). From 92 preterm newborns, 21 (22.8%) had less than 32 weeks, and 71 (77.2%) +/- 32 weeks. Most frequent isolated bacteriae were: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria had a moderate trend to be associated with preterm birth, and infectious processes are only a part of its multiple etiologies.
Tulsyan, Shruti; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Kalpa; Yadav, Divya; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar
We describe the lymphoscintigraphy findings of a 25-year-old female patient who was undergoing presurgical workup for lymphangiomas of the vulva. She had a history of treatment for disseminated tuberculosis 6 years back and presented with herpetiform oozing vesicles in the external genitalia. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed cutaneous tracer accumulation in the vulval lesions and demonstrated the presence of densely calcified inguinal nodes secondary to healed tuberculosis as the etiology of secondary lymphangioma. PMID:28242996
Rambhia, Kinjal D; Khopkar, Uday S
Subcutaneous or deep granuloma annulare is a benign asymptomatic condition characterized by firm asymptomatic nodules in deep subcutaneous tissues that may be associated with intradermal lesions. A 53-year-old female presented with asymptomatic skin-colored, firm nodules over the right ring finger. Histopathology revealed a palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposition in the dermis suggestive of granuloma annulare. Isolated and unilateral involvement of a single digit with clusters of nodules of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (GA) in an adult is rare and differentiation from its simulator rheumatoid nodule is essential. PMID:26538728
Bories, Claire; Jagannath, Sundar
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent the earlier phases of plasma cell dyscrasias. Their definition is based on absence of end-organ damage with presence of a malignant clone that grows in the bone marrow. They share, as a common feature, the risk of progression to a symptomatic disease. MGUS progression risk is approximately 1% per year, and SMM has a risk of progression of 10% for the first 5 years which tapers off over time. The main purpose of identification of these earlier phases of the plasma cell dyscrasia was to identify patients who do not warrant treatment with chemotherapy, in whom the risk of treatment outweighs the benefit. Over the years, the definitions have not been modified to incorporate developments in imaging (magnetic resonance or positron emission and computed tomography), or genomics to identify patients at highest risk of progression within 2 years, where wait and watch might not be an appropriate option. In the absence of such definition, patients who have only a 50% chance of progression within 2 years are being offered therapy, which might also not be an optimal approach. In this review, we provide an overview of the definition, current prognostic factors, and risk stratifications in asymptomatic gammopathies, and discuss clinical trial outcomes in high-risk SMM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
India has a large burden of individuals harboring asymptomatic gallstones. Based on Markov model decision and cost analysis, selective and concomitant cholecystectomy is recommended for special indications like hemolytic disorders and stones in endemic areas. Expectant management should be adopted in all others. The evolution of laparoscopy should not alter the indications of cholecystectomy. Since more than 90% patients with asymptomatic gallstones remain clinically "silent", routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not indicated for the vast majority of subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become much safer, there remains associated morbidity and mortality. The risks of the operation outweigh the complications if stones are left in-situ. Patients should be counseled about the natural history and available management options, their advantages and disadvantages, and should be part of the decision making process. Prophylactic routine cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed selectively or concomitantly in a specific subgroup of patients.
Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.
Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I
Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104
Kovacević, Z; Jovanović, D; Rabrenović, V; Dimitrijević, J; Djukanović, J
The study involved 120 young males (aged 20.5 +/- 2.5 years) having undergone successful kidney biopsy because of asymptomatic haematuria with the aims to assess the prevalence of histological diagnosis and the natural history of the disease. The patients were selected from the population of conscripts who were referred to our clinic as a result of asymptomatic microhaematuria. All patients had a negative history of kidney disease, normal creatinine clearance (Ccr), while extrarenal causes of microhaematuria were excluded. The patients were divided into a group of 62 patients with isolated microhaematuria (IMH; proteinuria < 0.3 g/day) and a group of 58 patients with asymptomatic microhaematuria and proteinuria (AMHP; proteinuria > 0.3 g/day). After kidney biopsy patients were monitored for 3-9 years. Normal biopsies and minor abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients, who had IgA nephritis more frequently and significantly higher total pathohistological score. Based on the clinical and histological features, recommendations on patients' ability for military service were made. During the follow-up period, normal Ccr maintained in all patients. Macrohaematuria appeared in 42 patients and proteinuria worsened in eight patients (seven with AMHP). Urinary abnormalities disappeared in 20 patients with IMH and in eight with AMHP (p = 0.04). Minimal histological changes and disappearance of urinary abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients. Kidney biopsy is useful only in patients with AMHP but it is not necessary in IMH patients.
Nicolle, Lindsay E
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common. In healthy women, asymptomatic bacteriuria increases with age, from <1% in newborns to 10% to 20% of women age 80 years, but is uncommon in men until after age 50 years. Individuals with underlying genitourinary abnormalities, including indwelling devices, may also have a high frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria, irrespective of age or gender. The prevalence is very high in residents of long-term-care facilities, from 25% to 50% of women and 15% to 40% of men. Escherichia coli is the most frequent organism isolated, but a wide variety of other organisms may occur. Bacteriuria may be transient or persist for a prolonged period. Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria identified in early pregnancy and who are untreated have a risk of pyelonephritis later in pregnancy of 20% to 30%. Bacteremia is frequent in bacteriuric subjects following mucosal trauma with bleeding, with 5% to 10% of patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock. These two groups with clear evidence of negative outcomes should be screened for bacteriuria and appropriately treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in other populations is benign and screening and treatment are not indicated. Antimicrobial treatment has no benefits but is associated with negative outcomes including reinfection with antimicrobial resistant organisms and a short-term increased frequency of symptomatic infection post-treatment. The observation of increased symptomatic infection post-treatment, however, has led to active investigation of bacterial interference as a strategy to prevent symptomatic episodes in selected high risk patients.
de Mendonça, Vitor R; Barral-Netto, Manoel
Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection carriers represent a major threat to malaria control worldwide as they are silent natural reservoirs and do not seek medical care. There are no standard criteria for asymptomaticPlasmodium infection; therefore, its diagnosis relies on the presence of the parasite during a specific period of symptomless infection. The antiparasitic immune response can result in reducedPlasmodium sp. load with control of disease manifestations, which leads to asymptomatic infection. Both the innate and adaptive immune responses seem to play major roles in asymptomatic Plasmodiuminfection; T regulatory cell activity (through the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β) and B-cells (with a broad antibody response) both play prominent roles. Furthermore, molecules involved in the haem detoxification pathway (such as haptoglobin and haeme oxygenase-1) and iron metabolism (ferritin and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase) have emerged in recent years as potential biomarkers and thus are helping to unravel the immune response underlying asymptomatic Plasmodium infection. The acquisition of large data sets and the use of robust statistical tools, including network analysis, associated with well-designed malaria studies will likely help elucidate the immune mechanisms responsible for asymptomatic infection. PMID:26676319
Rosseland, A R; Glomsaker, T B
Patients with asymptomatic bile duct stones exhibit typical signs, such as elevated liver function tests, dilated bile ducts on ultrasound, a history of jaundice, or pancreatitis. The incidence of asymptomatic bile duct stones is about 10%, but up to 2% of patients show no signs of the disease. Bile duct stones can be diagnosed by using clinical judgement, scoring systems, or discriminant function tests. Which diagnostic modality is most reliable, cost-effective and safe, varies with different hospitals. Which therapy is most effective, safe and the cheapest also varies with different departments, but in the future an increasing number of departments will use the one-stage laparoscopic approach.
Macías, Alejandro E; Trujillo, Gloria P; Dubey, Luis A; Ramírez, Omar A; Arreguín, Virginia; Muñoz, Juan M; Macías, Juan H; Mosqueda, Juan L
The detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls may be important due to its effects on subsequent pregnancies. To describe the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls and the value of the nitrite test for screening. Cross-sectional study in girls aged 9 to 13 years. Bacteriuria was defined as the growth of > 100,000 CFU/mL in 2 consecutive urine specimens. Three hundred and twenty seven girls were included. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 7 girls, so the prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI, 1 to 4.4%). Escherichia coli was the isolated agent in all the cases. Focused interrogatory found history of urinary symptoms in 6 girls. The utility values of the nitrite test were: sensitivity, 1; specificity, 0.9; positive likelihood ratio, 10; and negative predictive value, 1. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls in this Mexican study is similar to the one reported internationally; it is reasonable to consider its early detection to avoid its effects on future pregnancies. Nitrite test seems to be good for screening.
Sasaki, Ryosuke; Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko
A 16-year-old girl presented with a 9-year history of vesicles on the vulva. She had initially taken a wait-and-see approach, but required treatment because of bleeding. Histological examination of a biopsied vesicle revealed dilated lymph channels in the upper dermis, suggesting lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC). The challenge for this pathology has been to find a conservative treatment with low morbidity and better results than those reported for surgical excision, which has been the mainstay of therapy. In this case, LC of the vulva was successfully treated using a 10,600-nm CO2 laser and long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Use of the 10,600-nm CO2 laser and long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser appeared effective for treating LC.
Smaill, Fiona M; Vazquez, Juan C
Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies and, if not treated, up to 30% of mothers will develop acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with low birthweight and preterm birth. To assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on the development of pyelonephritis and the risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (19 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Fourteen studies, involving almost 2000 women, were included. Antibiotic treatment compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the incidence of pyelonephritis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.41; 11 studies, 1932 women; very low quality evidence). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of low birthweight babies (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93; six studies, 1437 babies; low quality evidence) and preterm birth (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.62; two studies, 242 women; low quality evidence). A reduction in persistent bacteriuria at the time of delivery was seen (average RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.53; four studies; 596 women). There were very limited data on which to estimate the effect of antibiotics on other infant outcomes and maternal adverse effects were rarely described.Overall, all 14 studies were assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias. While many studies lacked an adequate description of methods and the risk of bias could only be assessed as unclear, in almost all studies there was at least one domain where the risk of bias was judged as high. The three primary outcomes were assessed with
Barrón-Romero, B L; Barreda-González, J; Doval-Ugalde, R; Zermeño-Eguia Liz, J; Huerta-Peña, M
Rotaviruses and other enteropathogenic agents were detected in 288 (42.1%) of 684 children in day care centers of Instituto Politecnico Nacional in Mexico City. The same agents were also found in 114 (37.7%) of 302 adults directly involved in the care of the children. The study was carried out from July to December 1982 and from July 1983 to February 1984. Rotaviruses were the main enteropathogenic agents found and were detected in 169 (29.9%) of 564 children without diarrhea and in 34 (28.3%) of 120 children with diarrhea. These viruses were present in 62 (20.5%) of 302 adults without diarrhea. Of all rotavirus-positive individuals, 20% were also positive for other enteropathogens. All these observations indicate that asymptomatic rotavirus infections are not a rare event in children and that diarrhea caused by rotavirus infections is only one of the expressions of their presence. PMID:2991328
Ferroni, Matthew; Taylor, Aisha Khalali
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding and frequently detected in premenopausal nonpregnant women, institutionalized patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, and the ambulatory elderly population. Despite clear recommendations regarding diagnosis and management of ASB in these populations from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), there remains an alarming rate of antimicrobial overuse. This article reviews definitions of ASB, epidemiology of ASB, literature surrounding ASB in diabetic patients, risk factors of ASB, microbiologic data regarding bacterial virulence, use of ASB strains for treatment of symptomatic urinary tract infection, and approaches to addressing translational barriers to implementing IDSA recommendations regarding diagnosis and management of ASB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano; Roganti, Ariel
A Cochrane systematic review has shown that drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2011) and reference lists of identified articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with four- to seven-day treatments. The trials were generally of limited quality. The 'no cure rate' for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly higher for the single-dose than for the short-course treatment; however, these results were not statistically significant and showed heterogeneity. When comparing the trials that used the same antibiotic in both treatment and control groups with the trials that used different antibiotics in both groups, the 'no cure rate' risk ratio was similar. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria rate between treatment and control groups. Slight differences were detected for preterm births and pyelonephritis although, apart from one trial, the sample size of the trials was inadequate. Single-dose treatment was associated with a decrease in reports of 'any side-effects' . Single-dose regimen of antibiotics may be less effective than the seven-day regimen. Women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated by the standard regimen of
Pockett, Charissa R; Dicken, Bryan; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Ross, David B; Ryerson, Lindsay M
Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a complex disorder involving thoracic and abdominal asymmetries. Congenital heart disease is often accompanied by an intestinal rotation abnormality (IRA) that may predispose to bowel ischemia and infarction. There is controversy in the literature whether asymptomatic infants with HS must be screened for IRA and, if present, whether a prophylactic Ladd procedure should be performed. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent a Ladd procedure from January 2007 to December 2010 at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. Twenty-nine patients underwent a Ladd procedure, 22 without HS but with symptomatic malrotation and 7 with HS and asymptomatic malrotation. Asymptomatic HS patients had a complication rate of 57 % after a prophylactic Ladd procedure compared with a complication rate of 9 % in the symptomatic non-HS population. The management of asymptomatic IRA in patients with HS remains controversial. We suggest that HS patients be screened for IRA and that asymptomatic patients be managed conservatively.
Villar, J; Lydon-Rochelle, M T; Gülmezoglu, A M; Roganti, A
A Cochrane systematic review has shown that drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and the reference lists of articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Eight studies involving over 400 women were included. All were comparisons of single dose treatment with four to seven day treatments. The trials were generally of poor quality. No difference in 'no-cure' rate was detected between single dose and short course (4-7 day) treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women (relative risk 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.54) as well as in the recurrent asymptomtic bacteriuria (relative risk 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.66). However these results showed significant heterogeneity. No differences were detected for preterm births and pyelonephritis although sample size of trials was small. Longer duration treatment was associated with an increase in reports of adverse effects (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.91). There is not enough evidence to evaluate whether single dose or longer duration doses are more effective in treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Because single dose has lower cost and increases compliance, this comparison should be explored in a properly
Zhanel, George G.
The treatment of urinary tract infections is discussed. Specific issues considered include the definition of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the controversies of who should be treated, and antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. (MLW)
Zhanel, George G.
The treatment of urinary tract infections is discussed. Specific issues considered include the definition of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the controversies of who should be treated, and antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. (MLW)
Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Sy, Raymond W; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in the intracellular calcium homeostasis of cardiac cells. Affected patients typically present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by emotional/physical stress. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with adrenergic stress. Genetic testing can be confirmatory in some patients. Treatment for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia includes medical and surgical efforts to suppress the effects of epinephrine at the myocardial level and/or modulation of calcium homeostasis. Mortality is high when untreated and sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of the disease. First-degree relatives of a proband should be offered genetic testing if the causal mutation is known. If the family mutation is not known, relatives should be clinically evaluated with provocative testing. In the absence of rigorous trials, prophylactic treatment of the asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient appears to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Jayamanne, H; Brown, J; Stephenson, B M
Parastomal hernias are common and often asymptomatic. We report the first known case in which later, acute symptoms developed owing to gallstone ileus in a sac containing both omentum and small bowel. Urgent computed tomography established the diagnosis.
García, Coralith; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.; Santos, Jose I.; Ko, GwangPyo
Sixty-three children in periurban Mexico City were examined for the occurrence of asymptomatic norovirus (NoV) infection from June to August 1998. NoV was detected in 48 of 161 stool specimens (29.8%), with 31 children (49.2%) having at least one positive stool. Asymptomatic NoV infection occurred commonly during summertime in a Mexican pediatric population. PMID:16891526
Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia
Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum.
Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia
Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856
Aigere, E O S; Okusanya, B O; Eigbefoh, J O; Okome, G B O
Detection and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is important to avert the attendant maternal and fetal morbidity. Other than urine culture, no other screening test is unequivocal. The use of enhanced urinalysis test to detect ASB in pregnancy was investigated. This was a prospective observational study which compared enhanced urinalysis with dipstick tests and urine culture. Clean catch midstream urine specimen was collected from 150 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant women. Tests of validity were used for comparison. Enhanced urinalysis detected bacteriuria as much as urine culture (4% vs. 4.7%). Itwas 57.1% sensitive and 98.6% specific. It had a false negative rate of 42.9% and was 96.7% accurate when compared to urine culture. Enhanced urinalysis took 1-2 hours to be done and required skills to use the microscope and was more expensive than dipstick urinalysis. The accuracy of enhanced urinalysis and its ability to detect ASB as much as urine culture connotes that it can be used to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy albeit only in secondary and tertiary health centres because of the cost and technicality involved.
Buppajarntham, Aubonphan; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Rutjanawech, Sasinuj; Mundy, Linda M
The diagnosis of gnathostomiasis typically includes a triad of eosinophilia, migratory skin lesions, and exposure risk. The cutaneous manifestations are protean yet often involve intermittent migratory swellings and creeping skin eruptions with abscesses or nodules, which vary in onset and duration. We report the first case of gnathostomiasis presenting as fever and eosinophilia without cutaneous migratory and internal organ involvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lin, Ming-Yee; Timmer, Ferdinand C. A.; Oriel, Brad S.; Zhou, Guangwei; Guinan, John J.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; Herrmann, Barbara S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rauch, Steven D.
Objective The objective of this study was to explore the useful of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing for detecting endolymphatic hydrops, especially in the second ear of patients with unilateral Ménière disease (MD). Methods This study was performed at a tertiary care academic medical center. Part I consisted of postmortem temporal bone specimens from the temporal bone collection of the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary; part II consisted of consecutive consenting adult patients (n = 82) with unilateral MD by American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria case histories. Out-come measures consisted of VEMP thresholds in patients and histologic saccular endolymphatic hydrops in postmortem temporal bones. Results Saccular hydrops was observed in the asymptomatic ear in six of 17 (35%) of temporal bones from donors with unilateral MD. Clinic patients with unilateral MD showed elevated mean VEMP thresholds and altered VEMP tuning in their symptomatic ears and, to a lesser degree, in their asymptomatic ears. Specific VEMP frequency and tuning criteria were used to define a “Ménière-like” response. This “Ménière-like” response was seen in 27% of asymptomatic ears of our patients with unilateral MD. Conclusions Bilateral involvement is seen in approximately one third of MD cases. Saccular hydrops appears to precede symptoms in bilateral MD. Changes in VEMP threshold and tuning appear to be sensitive to these structural changes in the saccule. If so, then VEMP may be useful as a detector of asymptomatic saccular hydrops and as a predictor of evolving bilateral MD. PMID:16735912
Kullich, W; Ulreich, A; Klein, G
More than 800 patients suffering from primary gout or asymptomatic hyperuricemia were examined for the values of total cholesterol and triglycerides and the pattern of lipoproteins. The values for HDL (high-density-lipoprotein = alpha-lipoprotein), LDL (low-density-lipoprotein = beta-lipoprotein) and VLDL (very-low-density-lipoprotein = pre-beta-lipoprotein), found in lipid electrophoresis, were significant abnormal as well in the group of patients with gout (n = 147) as in the group of patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (n = 700) versus the healthy controls. It was remarkable, that the values of lipoproteins in asymptomatic hyperuricemia almost were abnormal just as often as in primary gout. Approximately 80% of both groups showed an increased LDL, around 35% a decreased HDL, and an increased VLDL was found in 72% of patients with gout and in 54% of asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Pathological changes of all lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL) appeared in 23% of patients with gout and in 20% of patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Only 2.7% of patients with gout and 4.8% with hyperuricemia showed a normal lipometabolism.
Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth, or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status and thus, low birth weight. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery and the development of pyelonephritis after delivery. I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Trial quality was assessed. Thirteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.10). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.32). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight babies (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.80). Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. An apparent reduction in preterm delivery is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in preterm birth, but this association should be interpreted with caution.
Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status which is associated with low birth weight. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery, and the development of pyelonephritis. I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Date of last search: December 2000. Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Trial quality was assessed. Fourteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.10). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.32). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight babies (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.80). Antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. An apparent reduction in preterm delivery is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in preterm birth, but this association should be interpreted with caution.
Smaill, F; Vazquez, J C
Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies and, if not treated, up to 30% of mothers will develop acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with low birthweight and preterm delivery. To assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the development of pyelonephritis and the risk of low birthweight and preterm delivery. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2007). Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. We assessed trial quality. Fourteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was poor. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.48). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of low birthweight babies (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.89) but a difference in preterm delivery was not seen. Antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. A reduction in low birthweight is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this association should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of the included studies.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are common in older community dwellers (ages 65 and older) and nursing home residents. The challenge involved in distinguishing ASB from UTI in this population results from other comorbid illnesses that may present with symptoms similar to UTI and from elderly adults who have cognitive impairment not being able to report their symptoms. This article reviews the most updated information on diagnosis, microbiology, management, and prevention of ASB and UTI as they pertain to older community dwellers and nursing home residents.
Guinto, Valerie T; De Guia, Blanca; Festin, Mario R; Dowswell, Therese
Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 5% to 10% of pregnancies and, if left untreated, can lead to serious complications. To assess which antibiotic is most effective and least harmful as initial treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2010) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing two antibiotic regimens for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria. Review authors independently screened the studies for inclusion and extracted data. We included five studies involving 1140 women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. We did not perform meta-analysis; each trial examined different antibiotic regimens and so we were not able to pool results. In a study comparing a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g with a five-day course of cefuroxime, there was no significant difference in persistent infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 7.75), shift to other antibiotics (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.45), or in allergy or pruritus (RR 2.73, 95% CI 0.11 to 65.24). A comparison of seven-day courses of 400 mg pivmecillinam versus 500 mg ampicillin, both given four times daily, showed no significant difference in persistent infection at two weeks or recurrent infection, but there was an increase in vomiting (RR 4.57, 95% CI 1.40 to 14.90) and women were more likely to stop treatment early with pivmecillinam (RR 8.82, 95% CI 1.16 to 66.95). When cephalexin 1 g versus Miraxid(R) (pivmecillinam 200 mg and pivampicillin 250 mg) were given twice-daily for three days, there was no significant difference in persistent or recurrent infection. A one- versus seven-day course of nitrofurantoin resulted in more persistent infection with the shorter course (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.40), but no significant difference in symptomatic infection at two weeks, nausea, or preterm birth. Comparing cycloserine with sulphadimidine, no significant differences in
Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Oscar; Granados, José Enrique; Frey, Joachim; Serrano, Emmanuel; Velarde, Roser; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Fandos, Paulino; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón
The susceptibility of the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection, and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected in the Iberian ibex, coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August, 35.4%; September, 8.7%; November, 4.3%). Infections without clinical outcome were, however, still detected in the last handling in November. Sequencing and cluster analyses of the M. conjunctivae strains found 1 year later in the ibex population confirmed the persistence of the same strain lineage that caused the IKC outbreak but with a high prevalence (75.3%) of mostly asymptomatic infections and with lower DNA load of M. conjunctivae in the eyes (mean quantitative PCR [qPCR] cycle threshold [CT ], 36.1 versus 20.3 in severe IKC). Significant age-related differences of M. conjunctivae prevalence were observed only under IKC epizootic conditions. No substantial effect of systemic IgG on M. conjunctivae DNA in the eye was evidenced with a linear mixed-models selection, which indicated that systemic IgG does not necessarily drive the resolution of M. conjunctivae infection and does not explain the epidemiological changes observed. The results show how both epidemiological scenarios, i.e., severe IKC outbreak and mostly asymptomatic infections, can consecutively occur by entailing mycoplasma persistence.IMPORTANCEMycoplasma infections are reported in a wide range of epidemiological scenarios that involve severe disease to asymptomatic infections. This study allows a better understanding of the transition between two different Mycoplasma conjunctivae epidemiological scenarios described in wild host populations and highlights the ability of M
Fazio, Giovanni; Mossuto, Claudia; Basile, Ivana; Gennaro, Francesca; D'Angelo, Luciana; Visconti, Claudia; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Pipitone, Salvatore; Novo, Salvatore
This retrospective study was planned for a good risk assessment of asymptomatic patients affected by ventricular pre-excitation. From 1985 to 2007, 124 patients with an atrioventricular pathway (electrocardiographic signs of ventricular pre-excitation) were admitted to our cardiology division. The average age was 7 years (range 1 month to 18 years). The mean follow-up period in the whole population of patients was 4.2 years (range 1-13 years). Four patients were lost during the follow-up. During this period, all patients remained in good health. In all of them, we performed a Holter evaluation every year. An intermittent pathway was detected in 18 patients (15%), and four of them (3.4%) showed a supraventricular tachycardia even though they were asymptomatic patients. An ergometric test was performed in 76 asymptomatic patients; 16 children (21%) showed a total abrupt vanishing of delta wave. A transoesophageal electrophysiological evaluation was performed in 14 patients. According to our data, asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in children has a good outcome during a short-term (4 years) follow-up. The usefulness of electrophysiological evaluation (in particular its predictive value) is uncertain.
Altan, Ahmet; Akbulut, Nıhat
Elongation of the styloid process is a rare condition. Only 4% of patients have clinical symptoms where elongated styloid process (ESP) occasionally irritates or disrupts adjacent anatomical structures, which is called Eagle syndrome. This present report was aimed at reporting an asymptomatic ESP with unusual width and length. PMID:28246562
Mall, Nathan A.; Kim, H. Mike; Keener, Jay D.; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Yamaguchi, Ken
Background: The purposes of this study were to identify changes in tear dimensions, shoulder function, and glenohumeral kinematics when an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear becomes painful and to identify characteristics of individuals who develop pain compared with those who remain asymptomatic. Methods: A cohort of 195 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear was prospectively monitored for pain development and examined annually for changes in various parameters such as tear size, fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle, glenohumeral kinematics, and shoulder function. Forty-four subjects were found to have developed new pain, and the parameters before and after pain development were compared. The forty-four subjects were then compared with a group of fifty-five subjects who remained asymptomatic over a two-year period. Results: With pain development, the size of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear increased significantly, with 18% of the full-thickness tears showing an increase of >5 mm, and 40% of the partial-thickness tears had progressed to a full-thickness tear. In comparison with the assessments made before the onset of pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores for shoulder function were significantly decreased and all measures of shoulder range of motion were decreased except for external rotation at 90° of abduction. There was an increase in compensatory scapulothoracic motion in relation to the glenohumeral motion during early shoulder abduction with pain development. No significant changes were found in external rotation strength or muscular fatty degeneration. Compared with the subjects who remained asymptomatic, the subjects who developed pain were found to have significantly larger tears at the time of initial enrollment. Conclusions: Pain development in shoulders with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear is associated with an increase in tear size. Larger tears are more likely to develop pain in the short term than are smaller
Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K
Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. PMID:23776357
To identify the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly population and to examine associated risk factors, complications and natural history, and whether treatment improves prognosis. A literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library was undertaken of studies published from 1980 to 2009. A total of 70 articles were identified. Emphasis was given to randomised controlled trials, review articles and more recent publications. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in the elderly, especially among institutionalised or hospitalised patients. Risk factors include cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, structural urinary tract abnormalities and indwelling catheters. Antimicrobial therapy does not result in improved survival or genitourinary morbidity and may potentially cause avoidable side effects and the emergence of resistant organisms. Bacteriuria is common in functionally impaired elderly patients. In the absence of symptoms or signs of infection, routine dipstick screening and subsequent antimicrobial therapy is not recommended.
Yasui, T; Sakamoto, H; Kishi, H; Komiyama, M; Iwai, Y; Yamanaka, K; Nishikawa, M; Nakajima, H
The authors report four cases of patients with documented asymptomatic intact aneurysms that subsequently ruptured. Case 1 involves a 64-year-old woman who had two unruptured aneurysms, i.e., an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and a posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm, both were discovered during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms. At that time, only the posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm was clipped. Seven years later, the patient bled fatally from a 5-mm untreated anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had measured approximately 3 mm on an angiogram obtained 7 years earlier. Case 2 is that of a 50-year-old woman who bled from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had been discovered 6 years earlier when she suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. At that time, she had refused surgery for the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. She recovered well from the second SAH. Case 3 is that of a 74-year-old woman who bled from a left paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm that had been discovered incidentally 3 years earlier during evaluation of vertigo. She had not agreed to have a clipping at that time the aneurysm was first discovered because of her age and the difficult location of the aneurysm. She eventually made an uneventful recovery. In the fourth case, during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms, a 59-year-old man was discovered to have a large basilar bifurcation aneurysm. He underwent a craniotomy for clipping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm, however, was unclippable and was instead coated with Bemsheet. Four months later, the patient bled from the aneurysm and entered a vegetative state. The indications for surgery on unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms are still unclear. The cases reported herein show that asymptomatic aneurysms, especially anterior communicating aneurysms and aneurysms once exposed surgically, do carry a certain risk for future hemorrhage and
Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L
We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.
Donzé, C; Dinh, A; Heinzlef, O; Hautecoeur, P
The prescription of methylprednisolone for multiple sclerosis acute relapse involves sterilization of urine. An observational study was conducted to clarify the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in case of asymptomatic bacteriuria found before methylprednisolone. Ninety-seven patients were included; 32 patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria. Seventeen patients were treated and 15 were not. The number of urinary tract infections in the month following the methylprednisolone was the same in the two groups. The results seem in favor of a therapeutic abstention. A larger study will be performed to confirm these results and determine appropriate recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Widmer, Mariana; Lopez, Ivana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano; Roganti, Ariel
A previous Cochrane systematic review has shown that antibiotic drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015) and reference lists of identified articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with short-course (four- to seven-day) treatments. The risk of bias of trials included in this review was largely unclear, and most trials were at high risk of performance bias. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. When the any antibiotic agent was used, the 'no cure' rate for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly lower for the short-course treatment over the single-dose treatment, although there was evidence of statistical heterogeneity (average risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.88; women = 1502, studies = 13; I² = 56%; very low quality evidence). Data from only good quality trials also showed better cure rates with short (four- to seven-day) regimens of the same microbial agent (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.33; women = 803, studies = two; I² = 0%; high quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the
Mueller, Linda; Baud, David; Bertelli, Claire; Greub, Gilbert
The giant Lausannevirus was recently identified as a parasite of amoeba that replicates rapidly in these professional phagocytes. This study aimed at assessing Lausannevirus seroprevalence among asymptomatic young men in Switzerland and hopefully identifying possible sources of contact with this giant virus. The presence of anti-Lausannevirus antibodies was assessed in sera from 517 asymptomatic volunteers who filled a detailed questionnaire. The coreactivity between Lausannevirus and amoeba-resisting bacteria was assessed. Lausannevirus prevalence ranged from 1.74 to 2.51%. Sporadic condom use or multiple sexual partners, although frequent (53.97 and 60.35%, respectively), were not associated with anti-Lausannevirus antibodies. On the contrary, frequent outdoor sport practice as well as milk consumption were significantly associated with positive Lausannevirus serologies (p = 0.0066 and 0.028, respectively). Coreactivity analyses revealed an association between Criblamydia sequanensis (an amoeba-resisting bacterium present in water environments) and Lausannevirus seropositivity (p = 0.001). Lausannevirus seroprevalence is low in asymptomatic Swiss men. However, the association between virus seropositivity and frequent sport practice suggests that this member of the Megavirales may be transmitted by aerosols and/or exposure to specific outdoor environments. Milk intake was also associated with seropositivity. Whether the coreactivity observed for C. sequanensis and Lausannevirus reflects a common mode of acquisition or some unexpected cross-reactivity remains to be determined.
Sharp, Victoria J; Barnes, Kerri T; Erickson, Bradley A
Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is defined as the presence of three or more red blood cells per high-power field visible in a properly collected urine specimen without evidence of infection. The most common causes of microscopic hematuria are urinary tract infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and urinary calculi. However, up to 5% of patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria are found to have a urinary tract malignancy. The risk of urologic malignancy is increased in men, persons older than 35 years, and persons with a history of smoking. Microscopic hematuria in the setting of urinary tract infection should resolve after appropriate antibiotic treatment; persistence of hematuria warrants a diagnostic workup. Dysmorphic red blood cells, cellular casts, proteinuria, elevated creatinine levels, or hypertension in the presence of microscopic hematuria should prompt concurrent nephrologic and urologic referral. The upper urinary tract is best evaluated with multiphasic computed tomography urography, which identifies hydronephrosis, urinary calculi, and renal and ureteral lesions. The lower urinary tract is best evaluated with cystoscopy for urethral stricture disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and bladder masses. Voided urine cytology is no longer recommended as part of the routine evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, unless there are risk factors for malignancy.
Park, Chang Min; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung
Objective To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Results Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. Conclusion The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition. PMID:11752963
Izuchukwu, Kenneth Ebele; Oranu, Emmanuel Okwudili; Bassey, Goddy; Orazulike, Ngozi Clare
Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been reported to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. This study sought to determine the prevalence and complications of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst parturient in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). The study was a prospective cohort study involving 220 eligible antenatal attendees. Urine culture and sensitivity was conducted for each participant and the fetomaternal outcome between affected and unaffected women were compared and p value <0.05 was considered significant. Sixty-five of the participants had asymptomatic bacteriuria giving a prevalence of 29.5%. Twenty-three (35.4%) cultures yielded Klebsiella spp while Fifty-eight (89%) of the cultured organisms were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. There was no statistical difference in the rate of prelabour rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, birth asphyxia and low birth weight between affected and unaffected women. Contrary to widely held view, there was no significant increase in adverse pregnancy outcome amongst affected women.
Nicolle, Lindsay E.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571
Singh, Harinder R
Use of medications for attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder and preparticipation sports physical examination has led to an increase in number of electrocardiograms (ECG) performed during adolescence. Interpreting ECGs in children and young adults must take into account the evolutionary changes with age and the benign variants, which are usually not associated with heart disease. It is crucial for primary-care providers to recognize the changes on ECG associated with heart disease and risk of sudden death. In this article, the significance, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic workup of these findings in the asymptomatic teenager are discussed.
Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A.; Williams, Todd R.; Spizarny, David L.
We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management. PMID:24421952
Guinto, Valerie T; De Guia, Blanca; Festin, Mario R; Dowswell, Therese
Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 5% to 10% of pregnancies and, if left untreated, can lead to serious complications. Objectives To assess which antibiotic is most effective and least harmful as initial treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2010) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing two antibiotic regimens for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria. Data collection and analysis Review authors independently screened the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Main results We included five studies involving 1140 women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. We did not perform meta-analysis; each trial examined different antibiotic regimens and so we were not able to pool results. In a study comparing a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g with a five-day course of cefuroxime, there was no significant difference in persistent infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 7.75), shift to other antibiotics (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.45), or in allergy or pruritus (RR 2.73, 95% CI 0.11 to 65.24). A comparison of seven-day courses of 400 mg pivmecillinam versus 500 mg ampicillin, both given four times daily, showed no significant difference in persistent infection at two weeks or recurrent infection, but there was an increase in vomiting (RR 4.57, 95% CI 1.40 to 14.90) and women were more likely to stop treatment early with pivmecillinam (RR 8.82, 95% CI 1.16 to 66.95). When cephalexin 1 g versus Miraxid® (pivmecillinam 200 mg and pivampicillin 250 mg) were given twice-daily for three days, there was no significant difference in persistent or recurrent infection. A one- versus seven-day course of nitrofurantoin resulted in more persistent infection with the shorter course (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.40), but no significant difference in symptomatic infection at two weeks
Hamard, Marion; Amzalag, Gaël; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre
Asymptomatic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare and severe complication of chronic urolithiasis. We report a case of 56-year-old woman with a nephrocutaneous fistula (NFC) which developed from a superinfected urinoma following calyceal rupture due to an obstructing calculus in the left ureter. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and came to the emergency department for a painless left flank fluctuating mass. This urinoma was superinfected, with a delayed development of renal abscesses and perirenal phlegmon found on contrast-enhanced uro-computed tomography (CT), responsible for left renal vein thrombophlebitis and left psoas abscess. Thereafter, a 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy revealed a nonfunctional left kidney, leading to the decision of left nephrectomy. Chronic urolithiasis complications are rare and only few cases are reported in medical literature. A systematic medical approach helped selecting the best imaging modality to help diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, uro-CT scan and renal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DMSA are the most sensitive imaging modalities to investigate morphological and functional urinary tract consequences of NFC, secondary to chronic urolithiasis. PMID:28299237
Kadokura, M; Nonaka, M; Yamamoto, S; Kataoka, D; Tanio, N; Iyano, K; Oki, A; Kawada, T; Takaba, T
Asymptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax (ASPT) is an uncommon condition. Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1997, 269 patients were admitted to our department with spontaneous pneumothorax. Of the 269 patients, 5 had no symptoms at the time of discovery. Their ages ranged from 15 to 61 years (mean, 37.8 years), and all of them were male. Of the 5 patients with no complaints, 2 had bilateral metachronous pneumothoraces and 3 had hemilateral pneumothorax. All of these ASPTs were revealed by chest roentgenographs taken during medical examinations or follow-up studies relating to other diseases. The mean value of body mass index (BMI) was 19.96 +/- 1.4 (range 18.7 - 22.1). Two of the 5 patients underwent bilateral partial lung resection. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens showed elastofibrosis, scar formation, and an interruption of the elastic fiber of the pleura. In these 5 cases, clinical courses were uneventful, and relapse of the pneumothorax did not occur. Clinical physicians should be aware of the possibility of asymptomatic pneumothorax, as well as the optimal radiographic techniques for revealing small pneumothoraces.
Wolf, B; Norrgard, K; Pomponio, R J; Mock, D M; McVoy, J R; Fleischhauer, K; Shapiro, S; Blitzer, M G; Hymes, J
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder of biotin recycling. Children with profound biotinidase deficiency usually have neurological and cutaneous symptoms in early childhood, but they may not develop symptoms until adolescence. We now report on a man and a woman with profound biotinidase deficiency who are asymptomatic and who were diagnosed only because their biotinidase-deficient children were identified by newborn screening. These adults have never exhibited symptoms of the disorder and are homozygous for two different mutations resulting in different aberrant enzymes. There is no evidence of an increased dietary intake of biotin to explain why they have remained asymptomatic. Although these adults may still be at risk for developing symptoms, they could represent a small group of individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency who will never develop clinical problems. Their lack of symptoms suggests that there are probably epigenetic factors that protect some enzyme-deficient individuals from developing symptoms. These individuals broaden the spectrum of expression of biotinidase deficiency.
Hamard, Marion; Amzalag, Gaël; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre
Asymptomatic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare and severe complication of chronic urolithiasis. We report a case of 56-year-old woman with a nephrocutaneous fistula (NFC) which developed from a superinfected urinoma following calyceal rupture due to an obstructing calculus in the left ureter. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and came to the emergency department for a painless left flank fluctuating mass. This urinoma was superinfected, with a delayed development of renal abscesses and perirenal phlegmon found on contrast-enhanced uro-computed tomography (CT), responsible for left renal vein thrombophlebitis and left psoas abscess. Thereafter, a 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy revealed a nonfunctional left kidney, leading to the decision of left nephrectomy. Chronic urolithiasis complications are rare and only few cases are reported in medical literature. A systematic medical approach helped selecting the best imaging modality to help diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, uro-CT scan and renal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DMSA are the most sensitive imaging modalities to investigate morphological and functional urinary tract consequences of NFC, secondary to chronic urolithiasis.
Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z
Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.
Kyle, Robert A; Remstein, Ellen D; Therneau, Terry M; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kurtin, Paul J; Hodnefield, Janice M; Larson, Dirk R; Plevak, Matthew F; Jelinek, Diane F; Fonseca, Rafael; Melton, Lee Joseph; Rajkumar, S Vincent
Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma-cell proliferative disorder associated with a high risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma or amyloidosis. Prognostic factors for the progression and outcome of this disease are unclear. We searched a computerized database and reviewed the medical records of all patients at Mayo Clinic who fulfilled the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group for the diagnosis of smoldering multiple myeloma between 1970 and 1995. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy specimens were studied, and patients were followed throughout the course of disease. During the 26-year period, 276 patients fulfilled the criteria for smoldering multiple myeloma. During 2131 cumulative person-years of follow-up, symptomatic multiple myeloma or amyloidosis developed in 163 persons (59%). The overall risk of progression was 10% per year for the first 5 years, approximately 3% per year for the next 5 years, and 1% per year for the last 10 years; the cumulative probability of progression was 73% at 15 years. At diagnosis, significant risk factors for progression included the serum level and type of monoclonal protein, the presence of urinary light chain, the extent and pattern of bone marrow involvement, and the reduction in uninvolved immunoglobulins. The proportion of plasma cells in the bone marrow and the serum monoclonal protein level were combined to create a risk-stratification model with three distinct prognostic groups. The risk of progression from smoldering multiple myeloma to symptomatic disease is related to the proportion of bone marrow plasma cells and the serum monoclonal protein level at diagnosis. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe
Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981
Olamijulo, Joseph Ayodeji; Adewale, Chris Olu; Olaleye, Olalekan
This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), the commonest bacterial isolates and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern among 556 pregnant women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria. Women with a bacterial count over 100,000 colony-forming units per millilitre of the same organisms in paired urine samples were considered to have ASB. The prevalence of ASB was 14.6%. Klebsiella was the commonest micro-organism (39.2%) isolated. ASB was significantly associated with marital status, body mass index and parity. There was a significant relationship between urinary nitrites and ASB. The isolated organisms showed remarkable resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cloxacillin and trimethoprim but good sensitivity to ofloxacin, gentamycin and ceftazidime. These facts have implications for the management of ASB in pregnancy.
Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C
Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing chromotrope 2R stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques for testing feces from 193 captive mammals demonstrated that 3 animals (1.6%) shed Encephalitozoon bieneusi spores. These include two critically endangered species (i.e., black lemurs, Eulemur macaco flavifrons; and Visayan warty pig, Sus cebifrons negrinus) and a threatened species (mongoose lemur, Eulemur mongoz). The concentration of spores varied from 2.7 x 10(5) to 5.7 x 10(5)/g of feces, and all infections were asymptomatic. The study demonstrates that E. bieneusi spores can originate from captive animals, which is of particular epidemiologic importance because the close containment of zoological gardens can facilitate pathogen spread to other animals and also to people such as zoo personnel and visitors.
Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A.; Atalay, Michael K.; Rowin, Ethan J.; Maron, Martin S.
Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling. PMID:24955057
Kim, Jiwon; Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A; Atalay, Michael K; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S
Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling.
Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus
A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895
Mansour, Joshua; Mangaonkar, Abhishek; Kota, Vamsi
In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter. PMID:27847832
Eyer, M M; Läng, M; Aujesky, D; Marschall, J
Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is widespread and may result in antibiotic side-effects, excess costs to the healthcare system, and may potentially trigger antimicrobial resistance. According to international management guidelines, ASB is not an indication for antibiotic treatment (with few exceptions). To determine reasons for using antibiotics to treat ASB in the absence of a treatment indication. A qualitative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland during 2011. We interviewed 21 internal medicine residents and attending physicians selected by purposive sampling, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Responses were analysed in an inductive thematic content approach using dedicated software (MAXQDA(®)). In the 21 interviews, the following thematic rationales for antibiotic overtreatment of ASB were reported (in order of reporting frequency): (i) treating laboratory findings without taking the clinical picture into account (N = 17); (ii) psychological factors such as anxiety, overcautiousness, or anticipated positive impact on patient outcomes (N = 13); (iii) external pressors such as institutional culture, peer pressure, patient expectation, and excessive workload that interferes with proper decision-making (N = 9); (iv) difficulty with interpreting clinical signs and symptoms (N = 8). In this qualitative study we identified both physician-centred factors (e.g. overcautiousness) and external pressors (e.g. excessive workload) as motivators for prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Also, we interpreted the frequently cited practice of treating asymptomatic patients based on laboratory findings alone as lack of awareness of evidence-based best practices. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schnarr, J; Smaill, F
Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy.
Attitude towards one's illness vs. attitude towards a surgical operation, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm and asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.
Stanisić, M; Rzepa, T
Two most frequent asymptomatic diseases qualifying for vascular surgery are abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Emotions experienced by the patient activate processes of dealing with the cognitive dissonance of asymptomatic disease. The aim of this paper was to compare the reasons involved in decision making on surgery in two asymptomatic vascular pathologies. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the ICAS group-27 (CAS or CEA) and the AAA group-23 (EVAR or open surgical operation (OSR). Specific questionnaire regarding: 1) self-image; 2) attitude to one's illness; 3) reasons for decision on surgery was applied for the study. The χ² test was used to for the analysis. The AAA patients reacted emotionally (88.2%) comparing to ICAS patients reacting "rationally" (59.3%) (α=0.05). In AAA patients attitude towards themselves had worsened (α=0.001) AAA patients were less likely to seek support in decision on surgery (α=0.01). ICAS patients are internally motivated (78.7%), whereas AAA patients are externally motivated (63.9%) (α=0.001). Reasons underlying the decision on surgery, were predominantly rational (55.8%). In the process of decision-making on surgery by asymptomatic patients, evolutionary transformation takes place - the emotional attitude to one's illness leads to rationally evaluated decision. Regardless of the causes the process of making a decision on surgical operation tended to run more smoothly in ICAS patients. The ICAS patients tended to display a rational attitude to their illness. AAA patients displayed a distinctly emotional attitude towards their illness.
Reyes, David; Locke, James
Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain
Reyes, David; Locke, James
Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain
Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell disorder characterized by the presence of one or both features of serum M-protein at least 30 g/l and bone marrow plasma cell infiltration at least 10%. The standard of care is no treatment until symptomatic progression occurs. However, the risk of progression to active multiple myeloma is not uniform, and several markers are useful for identifying SMM patients at high risk of progression to active multiple myeloma. Overall, the presence of these factors is useful to stratify SMM patients according to their risk but the forthcoming challenge is to identify high and ultra-high-risk SMM patients because they can benefit from early treatment. A randomized trial that focused on high-risk SMM patients allocated to receive early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone vs. observation did report a significant benefit with respect to time to progression and overall survival. High-risk SMM patients should be targeted for early treatment, and more such efforts should be made to identify the ultra-high-risk subgroup within the high-risk SMM patient population which may be considered as early multiple myeloma and thereby candidates for receiving therapy before they develop myeloma-related symptomatology.
Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.
Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606
Iacoponi, S; Calleja, J; Hernandez, G; de la Cuesta, R Sainz
Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare tumour that originates from the abdominal peritoneum with a predisposition to the pelvic peritoneum. It typically affects women of reproductive age. There have been less than 200 cases of this rare neoplasia reported to date. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred to our centre because of the detection of a peritoneal carcinomatosis during a gynaecological exam. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The findings included multiple cysts appearing as 'a bunch of grapes' occupying the omentum. Biopsies were taken during the surgery and the results showed benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Benign multicystic mesothelioma can simulate other conditions, such as malignant ovarian tumours or cystic lymphangioma. It is often diagnosed accidentally during surgery performed for another reason. The diagnosis is interoperative, observing multicystic structures grouped as a 'bunch of grapes' containing clear fluid with thin walls made of connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice and is based on the removal of the cysts from the abdominal cavity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered as a primary treatment in patients with recurrences or even as a part of primary treatment associated with surgery. Survival at 5 years is 100% and invasive or malignant progression is extraordinary. The treatment approach should be multidisciplinary, and the patient should be referred to a referral centre.
Iacoponi, S; Calleja, J; Hernandez, G; de la Cuesta, R Sainz
Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare tumour that originates from the abdominal peritoneum with a predisposition to the pelvic peritoneum. It typically affects women of reproductive age. There have been less than 200 cases of this rare neoplasia reported to date. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred to our centre because of the detection of a peritoneal carcinomatosis during a gynaecological exam. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The findings included multiple cysts appearing as ‘a bunch of grapes’ occupying the omentum. Biopsies were taken during the surgery and the results showed benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Benign multicystic mesothelioma can simulate other conditions, such as malignant ovarian tumours or cystic lymphangioma. It is often diagnosed accidentally during surgery performed for another reason. The diagnosis is interoperative, observing multicystic structures grouped as a ‘bunch of grapes’ containing clear fluid with thin walls made of connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice and is based on the removal of the cysts from the abdominal cavity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered as a primary treatment in patients with recurrences or even as a part of primary treatment associated with surgery. Survival at 5 years is 100% and invasive or malignant progression is extraordinary. The treatment approach should be multidisciplinary, and the patient should be referred to a referral centre. PMID:26715942
Puig, J G; Beltrán, L M; Mejía-Chew, C; Tevar, D; Torres, R J
Sonography has detected urate deposits in 34%-42% of the patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This may prompt reclassification of asymptomatic hyperuricemia into "asymptomatic gout" and consideration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) to resolve urate deposits. In patients with gout and no visible tophi, sonography has detected urate deposits in half of the patients. This may allow diagnosing "tophaceous gout" and influencing the serum urate target level, prophylaxis to avoid acute gout flares during ULT, and clinical follow-up. Current accessibility to sonography may better classify patients with hyperuricemia and gout and contribute to delineate therapeutic objectives and clinical guidance.
Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-sook; Kwon, Jeong-taik
Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe. We performed a craniotomy and abscess removal. Bacteriological culture proved negative. Her chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple AVFs. Therapeutic embolization of multiple pulmonary AVFs was performed and antibiotics were administered for 8 weeks. A 45-year-old woman presented with a 7-day history of progressive left hemiparesis. She had no remarkable past medical history or family history. On admission, blood examination showed a white blood cell count of 6290 cells/uL and a high sensitive C-reactive protein of 2.62 mg/L. CT and MR imaging with MR spectroscopy revealed an enhancing lesion involving the right motor and sensory cortex with marked perilesional edema that suggested a brain abscess. A chest CT revealed a pulmonary AVF in the right upper lung. The pulmonary AVF was obliterated with embolization. There needs to consider pulmonary AVF as an etiology of cerebral abscess when routine investigations fail to detect a source. PMID:28061502
Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.
Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes.
Labi, A-K; Yawson, A E; Ganyaglo, G Y; Newman, M J
Asymptomatic bacteriuria, the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of acute urinary tract infection, predisposes pregnant women to the development of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, with an attendant pregnancy related complications. To measure the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ante-natal clients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana and its' associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study involving 274 antenatal clients was conducted over a period of 4 weeks. A face to face questionnaire was completed and midstream urine collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 5.5%. It was associated with sexual activity during pregnancy (Fisher's Exact 5.871, p-value 0.0135), but not with sexual frequency. There were no significant associations with educational status, parity, gestational age, marital status and the number of foetuses carried. The commonest organism isolated was Enterococcus spp (26.7%) although the enterobacteriaceae formed the majority of isolated organisms (46.7%). Nitrofurantoin was the antibiotic with the highest sensitivity to all the isolated organisms. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ante-natal clients at this large teaching hospital in Ghana is 5.5%, which is lower than what has been found in other African settings. Enterococcus spp was the commonest causative organism. However, due to the complications associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, a policy to screen and treat- all pregnant women attending the hospital, is worth considering.
Martorano, Lisa M; Cannella, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Jenifer R
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignant proliferation of endothelial cells within the skin. The clinical presentation is characterized by clusters of violaceous macules and papules that often appear on the distal extremities or trunk with or without oral mucosal involvement. Mucocutaneous lesions are present at onset of diagnosis in a minority of cases. The lesions can evolve to include the mucous membranes of the gastric mucosa and the lungs. We present a unique case of KS in a 45-year-old, asymptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man with mucocutaneous involvement to highlight the importance of recognizing KS in immunocompromised patients.
Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J
We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.
Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762
Isernhagen, Allan Jürgen; Cosenza, Mariana; da Costa, Marcio Carvalho; Médici, Kerlei Cristina; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor
This study demonstrated that bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV)-5 infected calves can develop encephalitis and remain asymptomatic. Seven calves were infected intranasally and monitored for 30 days. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was performed from the onset of neurological signs. Multiple sections of brain and the trigeminal ganglion were submitted to histopathology. Virus detection (PCR and isolation) was performed on CSF and tissues. Four calves developed signs of neurologic disease and died. Three calves remained asymptomatic and were euthanized 30 days post-infection. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear pleocytosis occurred in symptomatic and asymptomatic calves. BoHV-5 was isolated and viral DNA was detected in multiple areas of the encephalon of all calves. The viral DNA was detected in the CSF of 2 calves showing neurological signs. Histologically, inflammation was noted in the brain of all calves and confirmed that the encephalitis caused by BoHV-5 may be mild and asymptomatic. PMID:22654135
Jackson, Daren C.; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Rocque, Brandon G.; Wilbrand, Stephanie M.; Mitchell, Carol C.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Dempsey, Robert J.
The role played by vessel disease in stroke-related cognition dysfunction is unclear. We assessed the impact of significant atherosclerotic disease on cognition—even in patients asymptomatic for stroke. We hypothesized that patients would perform poorly relative to controls, but that symptomatic/asymptomatic status (history of stroke/transient ischemic attack) would have no effect. Fifty-two carotid endarterectomy candidates with >60% carotid stenosis and 17 controls underwent a 60-min neuropsychological test protocol. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients showed deficits in executive function, delayed verbal recall, and general knowledge. Patients symptomatic for stroke also performed worse on tests of language and motor/visuomotor ability. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients differed in working memory and language task performance. Although all patients showed deficits in executive function and memory, only symptomatic patients showed additional deficits in language and motor function. Cognitive abnormalities in patients viewed as “asymptomatic” for stroke underscore the need for early identification and treatment. PMID:26663810
Nelson, Joan M; Good, Elliot
Overuse of urinalysis in older adults to investigate vague changes in condition such as confusion, lethargy, and anorexia, has led to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated antibiotic resistance.
Chafetz, N; Baumrind, S; Murray, W R; Genant, H K
A radiographic stereophotogrammetric technique (SPG) was used to evaluate quantitatively the presence of early femoral prosthesis subsidence after total hip arthroplasty (THA). This paper focuses on the measurement of subsidence in 12 patients who remained asymptomatic during the first two years after surgery. Only one of these had SPG estimated subsidence in excess of one millimeter at any timepoint. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that early postoperative subsidence is not a common finding among asymptomatic THA patients.
Phillips, Gemma; Lopman, Ben; Rodrigues, Laura C; Tam, Clarence C
Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. In this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. Healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of England during the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in England (1993-1996). Rotavirus infection was identified using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare exposures reported by participants with rotavirus infection with those of participants who tested negative. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing responses in the data set. The age-adjusted prevalence of asymptomatic rotavirus infection was 11%; prevalence was highest in children under age 18 years. Attendance at day care was a risk factor for asymptomatic rotavirus infection in children under age 5 years; living in a household with a baby that was still in diapers was a risk factor in older adults. The results suggest that asymptomatic rotavirus infection is transmitted through the same route as rotavirus infectious intestinal disease: person-to-person contact. More work is needed to understand the role of asymptomatic infections in transmission leading to rotavirus disease.
Awonuga, D O; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Fawole, A O; Olala, F A; Onimisi-Smith, H O
Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is the major risk factor for symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Screening and identification of bacteriuria during pregnancy have been recommended. To determine the prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with pregnancy. The study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among consecutive patients presenting for the first antenatal visit at a University College Hospital, during a period of two months. Relevant information obtained from all the patients recruited for the study included age, parity, educational level, gestational age and occupation of participant. Haemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were also retrieved and recorded. Main outcome measures were prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities. There were 205 eligible participants with a mean age of 30.6 ± 4.3 years and a mean gestational age at booking of 20.9 ±7.0 weeks. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 22(10.7%). The isolated pathogens were predominantly coliforms (Klebsiella and E. coli) accounting for 45.5% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (27.3%). Only gentamycin, nitrofurantoin and ofloxacin demonstrated high efficacy against these uropathogens with antibiotic sensitivity rates of 72.7%-81.8%. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this centre is relatively high. This underscores the need for routine screening of pregnant women for bacteriuria.
Izuchukwu, Kenneth Ebele; Oranu, Emmanuel Okwudili; Bassey, Goddy; Orazulike, Ngozi Clare
Introduction Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been reported to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. This study sought to determine the prevalence and complications of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst parturient in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods The study was a prospective cohort study involving 220 eligible antenatal attendees. Urine culture and sensitivity was conducted for each participant and the fetomaternal outcome between affected and unaffected women were compared and p value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Sixty-five of the participants had asymptomatic bacteriuria giving a prevalence of 29.5%. Twenty-three (35.4%) cultures yielded Klebsiella spp while Fifty-eight (89%) of the cultured organisms were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. There was no statistical difference in the rate of prelabour rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, birth asphyxia and low birth weight between affected and unaffected women. Conclusion Contrary to widely held view, there was no significant increase in adverse pregnancy outcome amongst affected women. PMID:28819490
Workman, Alan D; Glicksman, Jordan T; Parasher, Arjun K; Carey, Ryan M; Brooks, Steven G; Kennedy, David W; Nabavizadeh, Seyed A; Learned, Kim O; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D
Objective Sinonasal neoplasms have a high rate of recurrence following treatment, and current guidelines support the use of a variety of surveillance techniques. Recent work demonstrates that performance parameters of surveillance modalities may differ with sinonasal tumors in particular when compared with head and neck tumors overall. This study aims to characterize the value of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a screening tool in asymptomatic patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania hospital. Methods Records of asymptomatic patients without suspicious endoscopy or suspicious imaging other than PET during the first 3 years following definitive treatment for sinonasal malignancy were screened and analyzed for inclusion in the cohort. Disease recurrence was determined by biopsy following suspicious PET evaluation. Results PET/CT scans (n = 111) were performed for 45 disease-free asymptomatic patients with no evidence of disease on endoscopy, and 6.3% were suspicious and prompted biopsy during this period, revealing 3 cases of disease recurrence. Overall specificity for PET/CT alone was 96.3% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.0%), with a negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI, 94.8%-100%). All recurrences were detected between 7 and 12 months, and all patients with true recurrence diagnosed by PET/CT had extrasinonasal involvement of tumor at the time of surgery. Conclusion We examined performance parameters of (18)FDG PET/CT in asymptomatic patients with no evidence of disease on endoscopy during the posttreatment period for sinonasal malignancy. The ability of PET/CT to detect recurrences that may be missed by structural imaging or endoscopy makes it a valuable tool for clinicians.
Dellepiane, M; Medicina, MC; Mora, R; Salami, A
Summary Alterations of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic nystagmus, and visuo-vestibular-ocular reflex, have already been described in patients with AIDS and HIV-1 positive asymptomatic subjects. The introduction to the clinical practice of posturographic techniques allows us to study, with precision, postural perturbation that may be present when performing Romberg’s test and to study the vestibulo-spinal reflex as a component of the vestibular system. The relative lack of studies on posturography and AIDS, encouraged us to continue our research on the vestibular system both in asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive patients and in patients with AIDS (IV stage according to the classification proposed by the Centre for Disease Control). Recordings were made in group 1 (control group, 55 normal subjects), in group 2 (15 asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects), and in group 3 (15 patients with AIDS stage IV). Static and dynamic posturography were carried out using Tonnies platform system (Tonnies GmbH & Co., Wurzburg, Germany) and the data were analysed with Tonnies Posturographic Tübingen (TPOST) software vers. 5.19. In asymptomatic HIV+ subjects, we observed an increase in RW, RA and M3 reflex latency. AIDS patients (stage IV) exhibited significant alterations in almost all the posturographic parameters and the electromyographic potentials. Our results validate static and dynamic posturography as a method for otoneurological investigation and appear to confirm that the entire vestibular system is involved since the earliest stages of the HIV infection. In the HIV+ subjects, a variable dysfunction in the reflex control to long latency was observed, which is correlated with the alteration of the central dopaminergic system; in AIDS patients, the central nervous system damage appears more important, globally distributed and correlated also with immunosuppression. PMID:16749603
Muenchhoff, Julia; Poljak, Anne; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Gupta, Veer B.; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Raftery, Mark; Masters, Colin L.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Martins, Ralph N.; Sachdev, Perminder S.
The autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) is far less prevalent than late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), but enables well-informed prospective studies, since symptom onset is near certain and age of onset is predictable. Our aim was to discover plasma proteins associated with early AD pathology by investigating plasma protein changes at the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of ADAD. Eighty-one proteins were compared across asymptomatic mutation carriers (aMC, n = 15), symptomatic mutation carriers (sMC, n = 8) and related noncarriers (NC, n = 12). Proteins were also tested for associations with cognitive measures, brain amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism. Fewer changes were observed at the asymptomatic than symptomatic stage with seven and 16 proteins altered significantly in aMC and sMC, respectively. This included complement components C3, C5, C6, apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-I and M, histidine-rich glycoprotein, heparin cofactor II and attractin, which are involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and vascular health. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism differed only at the symptomatic stage, whereas changes in inflammation and vascular health were evident at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages. Due to increasing evidence supporting the usefulness of ADAD as a model for LOAD, these proteins warrant further investigation into their potential association with early stages of LOAD. PMID:27381087
Todorova, A; Litvinenko, I; Todorov, T; Tincheva, R; Avdjieva, D; Tincheva, S; Mitev, V
The human X chromosome carries regions prone to genomic instability: deletions in the Xp22.31 region, involving the steroid sulfatase gene (STS) cause X-linked ichthyosis; rearrangements in the Xp21.2 region are associated with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD or BMD); and the Xq27.3 unstable region, containing the (CGG)n repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene is associated with fragile X syndrome. We report on a family with two affected boys, the elder diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, the younger with DMD, and both suffering from severe ichthyosis. The family was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and haplotype analysis. The mother proved to be an asymptomatic carrier of all three non-contiguous mutation events, involving the STS gene, the DMD gene and a FMR1 expansion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of an asymptomatic carrier of three different X-linked disorders, involving severe genetic rearrangements on both long and short arms of the X chromosomes. The boy with fragile X syndrome has inherited a triple recombinant maternal X chromosome, this way inheriting the FMR1 expansion and ichthyosis, originating most probably from different maternal Xes and excluding the DMD gene deletion. The transmission of these extremely defective maternal chromosomes to the next generation involved several recombinations.
Nagaraja, Vivek; McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Getzug, Terri; Khanna, Dinesh
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) commonly affects patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The GI involvement is quite heterogeneous varying from asymptomatic disease to significant dysmotility causing complications like malabsorption, weight loss and severe malnutrition. This review focuses on the management of GI involvement in SSc and has been categorized based on the segment of GIT involved. A brief discussion on the role of patient reported outcome measures in SSc-GI involvement has also been incorporated. PMID:26005632
Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. PMID:26925912
Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.
Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791
Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia.
Kapoor, Meenu; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, Mamta; Mehrotra, Ravi; Dwivedi, Manisha
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a clonal disorder of unknown etiology involving multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell and belongs to the spectrum of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). It is rarest of the CMPD with no case reported from India. The case being presented was detected incidentally during routine investigations in an adult female who presented with mild abdominal discomfort.
Quílez, C; Martínez, J; Gómez, A; Trigo, C; Palazón, J M; Belda, G; Pérez-Mateo, M
Chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is a well known entity although little has been reported. In most cases chronic asymptomatic elevation of amylase is due to a salival isoamylase increase or macroamylasemia. However, we have studied 10 cases with an increase in amylases due to pancreatic isoamylase and an increase in the remaining pancreatic enzymes which remained elevated during the follow up period ranging from 2 to 60 months. The amylase values ranged from 186 to 1,600; the lipase from 176 to 3,989, trypsin from 476 to 2,430 and pancreatic isoamylase from 122 to 1,263. In all patients CT and echography were carried out, which discarded structural damage. Nonetheless, an indirect test of pancreatic function presented unexplained pathologic values in 4 out of 10 patients. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is of unknown etiology with no associated structural pancreatic pathology demonstrable by the usual study methods.
Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P
Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.
Ajayi, Akinola B.; Nwabuisi, Charles; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Ajayi, Nanji S.; Fowotade, Adeola; Fakeye, Olurotimi O.
Objective To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacteriology and sensitivity pattern in Ilorin using the gold standard of urine culture. Methods A prospective study was carried out from 1st July to 31st October 2007, at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) on 125 consenting asymptomatic pregnant women. A structured proforma was used to collect information from the women and a midstream urine specimen collected for bacteriological culture. Results Of the 125 pregnant women, 50 had bacteriuria on urine culture giving a prevalence of 40%. The mean age of the women was 28.5 years with a standard deviation of 4.95. The age ranged between 14 and 40 years. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest pathogen isolated (72%), followed by Proteus spp (14%). Most of the organisms showed good sensitivity to Nitrofurantoin and gentamicin. Conclusion The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in Ilorin is high and routine urine culture is advocated for all pregnant women at booking. PMID:22359722
Day, C.M.; Tennant, F.S. Jr.
This study was done to determine whether erythroid alterations can be found on a peripheral blood smear from an asymptomatic person exposure to excess atmospheric lead. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic adults who lived within five miles of a major Los Angeles, California freeway for five consecutive years were studied. Erythroid cytologic alterations-including-anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, polychromasia and basophilic stippling were statistically associated with increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. These findings indicate that erythroid alterations may be found on a peripheral blood smear prior to the development of clinical symptoms of lead intoxication.
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Leong-Sit, Peter; Krahn, Andrew D; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J
This article discusses the merits of electrophysiology study (EPS) and/or ablation for asymptomatic preexcitation Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) ECG pattern. Sudden deaths in asymptomatic patients are too few to merit broad screening and aggressive intervention. It also discusses the risks of ablation and the low predictive accuracy of EPS. When WPW is an incidental finding, the decision to proceed with investigation and ablation can be made considering patients' situations and preferences. An invasive strategy is targeted at patients concerned about the low risk of life-threatening arrhythmia as a first presentation after a discussion of the risks and benefits.
Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a disease that progresses slowly for years without symptoms, so patients need to be carefully managed with appropriate follow up and referred for aortic valve replacement in a timely manner. Development of symptoms is a clear indication for aortic valve intervention in patients with severe AS. The decision for early surgery in patients with asymptomatic severe AS is more complex. In this review, we discuss how to identify high-risk patients with asymptomatic severe AS who may benefit from early surgery. PMID:26981214
Volkow, Nora D; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Margus, Brad; Crawford, Thomas O
rates including hyperactivity in globus pallidus indicative of basal ganglia involvement. Changes in basal ganglia metabolism offer potential insight into targeting strategies for therapeutic deep brain stimulation. Our finding of decreased metabolism in vermis and hippocampus of asymptomatic relatives suggests that heterozygocity influences the function of these brain regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Margus, Brad; Crawford, Thomas O.
rates including hyperactivity in globus pallidus indicative of basal ganglia involvement. Changes in basal ganglia metabolism offer potential insight into targeting strategies for therapeutic deep brain stimulation. Our finding of decreased metabolism in vermis and hippocampus of asymptomatic relatives suggests that heterozygocity influences the function of these brain regions. PMID:24747834
Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Gemini, Alessandro; Castellani, Elisa; Trastulli, Stefano; Desiderio, Jacopo; Corsi, Alessia; Barberini, Francesco; Cirocchi, Roberto; Santoro, Alberto; Parisi, Amilcare; Redler, Adriano; Noya, Giuseppe
Purpose In asymptomatic patients with Stage IV colorectal cancer, the debate continues over the efficacy of primary resection compared to chemotherapy alone. The aim of this study was to define the optimal management for asymptomatic patients with colorectal cancer and unresectable liver metastases. Patients and methods Patients receiving elective surgery (n = 17) were compared to patients receiving chemotherapy only (n = 31). Data concerning patients’ demographics, location of primary tumor, comorbidities, performance status, Child–Pugh score, extension of liver metastases, size of primary, and other secondary locations were collected. Results Thirty-day mortality after chemotherapy was lower than that after surgical resection (19.3% versus 29.4%; not significant). In patients with >75% hepatic involvement, mortality at 1 month was higher after receiving surgical treatment than after chemotherapy alone (50% versus 25%). In patients with <75% hepatic involvement, 30-day mortality was similar in both groups (not significant). Thirty-day mortality in patients with Stage T3 was lower in those receiving chemotherapy (16.7% versus 30%; not significant). Overall survival was similar in both groups. The risk of all-cause death after elective surgery (2.1) was significantly higher than in patients receiving chemotherapy only (P = 0.035). Conclusion This study demonstrated that in palliative treatment of asymptomatic unresectable Stage IV colorectal cancer, the overall risk of death was significantly higher after elective surgery compared to patients receiving chemotherapy alone. However, in the literature, there is no substantial difference between these treatments. New studies are required to better evaluate outcomes. PMID:23569390
Markus, Hugh S; King, Alice; Shipley, Martin; Topakian, Raffi; Cullinane, Marisa; Reihill, Sheila; Bornstein, Natan M; Schaafsma, Arjen
Summary Background Whether surgery is beneficial for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis is controversial. Better methods of identifying patients who are likely to develop stroke would improve the risk–benefit ratio for carotid endarterectomy. We aimed to investigate whether detection of asymptomatic embolic signals by use of transcranial doppler (TCD) could predict stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods The Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES) was a prospective observational study in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis of at least 70% from 26 centres worldwide. To detect the presence of embolic signals, patients had two 1 h TCD recordings from the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery at baseline and one 1 h recording at 6, 12, and 18 months. Patients were followed up for 2 years. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack. All recordings were analysed centrally by investigators masked to patient identity. Findings 482 patients were recruited, of whom 467 had evaluable recordings. Embolic signals were present in 77 of 467 patients at baseline. The hazard ratio for the risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack from baseline to 2 years in patients with embolic signals compared with those without was 2·54 (95% CI 1·20–5·36; p=0·015). For ipsilateral stroke alone, the hazard ratio was 5·57 (1·61–19·32; p=0·007). The absolute annual risk of ipsilateral stroke or transient ischaemic attack between baseline and 2 years was 7·13% in patients with embolic signals and 3·04% in those without, and for ipsilateral stroke was 3·62% in patients with embolic signals and 0·70% in those without. The hazard ratio for the risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischaemic attack for patients who had embolic signals on the recording preceding the next 6-month follow-up compared with those who did not was 2·63 (95% CI 1·01–6·88; p=0·049), and for ipsilateral stroke
Nikolić, A; Klun, I; Bobić, B; Ivović, V; Vujanić, M; Zivković, T; Djurković-Djaković, O
Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animal-to-person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed.
Wang, Fu-Wei; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Tu, Ming-Shium; King, Tai-Ming; Wang, Jui-Ho; Hsu, Chao-Wen; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Wen-Chi
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis in Taiwanese general population. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal diverticulosis was assessed, and a medical history and demographic data were obtained from each subject. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the risk factors of colorectal diverticulosis. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalence of colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5%. On univariate logistic regression analysis, age over 60 years old, male, adenomatous polyp, current smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with diverticulosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age over 60 years old (relative risk [RR], 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-6.47), adenomatous polyps (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18-4.61) and heavy alcohol consumption (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.08) were independent predictors for colorectal diverticulosis. The prevalence of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5% in Taiwan. Age over 60 years old, adenomatous polyp and heavy alcohol consumption may affect the risk of development of the disease.
Forni, J; Miles, K; Hamill, M
This audit aimed to determine the usefulness of microscopy to detect presumptive rectal gonorrhoea (GC) infection in asymptomatic men. We retrospectively audited more than 400 male patients attending a London genitourinary medicine clinic from January 2005 to March 2007 who tested rectal culture positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and compared this with the microscopy detection rate. In total, 123/423 (29%) of culture positive samples were microscopy positive. Of those that tested microscopy negative (300/423), 64 (21%) were symptomatic and 236 (79%) asymptomatic. In addition, a time and motion study examined 81 rectal slides over a two-week period to identify microscopy reading time required to make a presumptive diagnosis of GC. Three slides were positive, resulting in six hours and 45 minutes to detect one positive sample. Given the low sensitivity for rectal microscopy coupled with the length of time required to obtain a presumptive positive rectal GC result, we believe rectal microscopy is no longer a cost-effective tool screening for asymptomatic men, and this report supports the BASHH guideline that it is not recommended in the management of asymptomatic rectal infection.
García-Martín, Antonia; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Castro, José Miguel; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel
Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), even asymptomatic, have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on reversibility or improvement of cardiovascular disorders with surgery are controversial. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic PHP, to explore their relationship with calcium and PTH levels, and analyze the effect of parathyroidectomy on those cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective, observational study of two groups of patients with asymptomatic PHP: 40 patients on observation and 33 patients who underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical data related to PHP and various cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients at baseline and one year after surgery in the operated patients. A high prevalence of obesity (59.9%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%), high blood pressure (47.2%), and dyslipidemia (44.4%) was found in the total sample, with no difference between the study groups. Serum calcium and PTH levels positively correlated with BMI (r=.568, P=.011, and r=.509, P=.026 respectively) in non-operated patients. One year after parathyroidectomy, no improvement occurred in the cardiovascular risk factors considered. Our results confirm the high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in patients with asymptomatic PHP. However, parathyroidectomy did not improve these cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Gadalla, N; Kichouh, M; Boulet, C; Machiels, F; De Mey, J; De Maeseneer, M
To evaluate the appearance of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were examined by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The plantar fascia was evaluated for thickness, echogenicity, vascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, andcalcifications. The study included 14 men and 17 women (age, 17-79 years; mean, 45 years). The mean thickness of the plantar fascia in men was 3.7 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), and in women 3.5 mm (range, 1.7-5.1 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 4 men (bilateral in 2). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in men was 5.4 mm (range, 4.3-7 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 5 women ( bilateral in 4). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in women was 4.7 mm (range, 4.2-5.1 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between both heels. Hypoechogenicity was observed in 3 men (bilateral in 2), and in 5 women (bilateral in 6). Hypervascularity, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications were not observed. A thickness greater than 4 mm and hypoechogenicity, are common in the plantar fascia of asymptomatic subjects. Findings that were not seen in asymptomatic subjects include a thickness greater than 7 mm, hypervascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications.
Ganger, Anita; Agarwal, Rinki; Kumar, Vinod
A male patient aged 37 years, referred with the diagnosis of right eye intravitreal cysticercosis, was diagnosed as asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst after thorough evaluation. The patient was kept under observation, since baseline visual acuity was unaffected. No change was noted over the period of 6 months.
Hitter, E; Ronge, R; Walschap, G; Mahler, C; Keuppens, F; Denis, L
We report 2 rare cases of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula. The diagnosis was made incidentally during hospitalization for other reasons. The role of calculus in the etiological pathogenesis of nephrocutaneous fistula is emphasized. Although classically surgical treatment is indicated a more conservative approach can be advocated in some asymptomatic cases.
Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena
Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique
Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.
Muratori, Paolo; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Fabbri, Angela; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco; Muratori, Luigi
Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can present with symptoms ranging from those that are insidious and nonspecific to acute hepatitis with jaundice. However, some patients have no symptoms at diagnosis and are identified incidentally. We investigated disease progression and outcomes of these 2 groups of patients. We performed a retrospective study to compare clinical, immunologic, and histologic features and outcomes of patients with asymptomatic vs. symptomatic AIH. We analyzed data collected from 305 patients (90 asymptomatic and 215 with symptoms), diagnosed with AIH from 1994 and 2013, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of the Autoimmune Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System in Bologna, Italy. At diagnosis, patients with asymptomatic AIH had significantly lower mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (7.0- ± 8.0-fold the upper limit of normal) than patients with symptomatic disease (23.0- ± 18.0-fold the upper limit of normal; P < .001), and lower mean levels of bilirubin (1.4 ± 1.4 mg/dL vs. 8.6 ± 10.4 mg/dL; P < .001). Asymptomatic patients also had significantly lower histologic grades (7.0 ± 2.5) than symptomatic patients (9.0 ± 2.9; P < .001). However, larger proportions of asymptomatic patients had anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibodies type 1 (26.8% vs. 13.1%; P < .006), and associated autoimmune thyroid (26.7% vs. 12.6%; P = .003) or skin (8.9% vs. 2.3%; P = .010) disorders. Age at onset, sex, response to therapy, disease progression, genetic factors, and other autoantibody markers did not differ between patients with asymptomatic vs. symptomatic disease. Patients with asymptomatic vs. symptomatic AIH have similar courses of disease progression and responses to immunosuppressive agents, and therefore should receive the same treatment. Patients affected by thyroid or dermatologic autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing subclinical liver disease, and should be assessed routinely for AIH. Copyright © 2016 AGA
Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra
Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941
Larrieu, E; Frider, B; del Carpio, M; Salvitti, J C; Mercapide, C; Pereyra, R; Costa, M; Odriozola, M; Pérez, A; Cantoni, G; Sustercic, J
Until a short time ago, hydatidosis was considered a pathology that could only be resolved surgically. However, in recent years progress has been made with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, and new information on the natural history of hydatidosis has helped define new criteria for its treatment. It is now known that as many as 67% of the carriers of liver cysts who are asymptomatic remain so throughout their lives. This situation produces special results in immunologic testing. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 97% with asymptomatic carriers, while the double diffusion arc 5 test (DD5) achieves a sensitivity of only 31% with the same population. On the other hand, imaging studies based on ultrasonography have become the method of choice to detect asymptomatic carriers. Ultrasonography studies are 49% to 73% more sensitive than serological tests, and they can even be used as a part of epidemiological surveillance systems and to monitor control programs. Treatment schemes have also been modernized. Treating asymptomatic carriers chemotherapeutically with albendazole produces favorable results in as many as 69% of cases, while such minimally invasive surgical treatments as puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) reduce average cyst volume by as much as 66%. These factors have made it possible for hospital services in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, to establish a treatment scheme for asymptomatic carriers. It is based on the monitoring of small cysts (type Ia on the modified Gharbi scale); initial treatment with albendazole, followed by PAIR if there is no response, in larger or more complex cysts (types Ib, II, and III); and follow-up of inviable or dead cysts (types IV and V).
Davenport, Eddie D; Rupp, Karen A N; Palileo, Edwin; Haynes, Jared
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. The U.S. Air Force (USAF) ECG library database containing over 1.2 million ECGs collected over the past 68 yr was used to identify 638 individual aviators with WPW pattern. Demographic, medical history, and outcome data were obtained by medical record review. Aviators who developed high risk features defined as symptoms, arrhythmia, or ablation of a high risk pathway, were compared to those who remained asymptomatic. Prevalence of WPW pattern was 0.30% among all USAF aviators. Of the 638 individuals, 64 (10%) progressed to the combined endpoint of SCD, arrhythmia, and/or ablation of a high risk pathway over 6868 patient years, with average follow-up of 10.5 yr. There were two sudden cardiac deaths (0.3%). Annual risk of possible sudden incapacitation was 0.95% and of SCD 0.03%. Those that progressed to high risk were significantly younger, had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, and better physical fitness testing scores. WPW pattern on ECG found in asymptomatic aviators confers < 1% annual risk of arrhythmia or incapacitating events with the highest risk in the younger, healthier, and most fit populations.Davenport ED, Rupp KAN, Palileo E, Haynes J. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern ECG in USAF aviators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):56-60.
Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida
The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum. PMID:25479608
Wehlin, Lena; Löfdahl, Magnus; Lundahl, Joachim; Sköld, Magnus
COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction. It has, however, become clear that COPD also is a systemic disease. In the present study, we sought to investigate its impact on different peripheral leukocyte subpopulations that are recognized as important effector cells in the lung tissue. We enrolled 20 patients with stable, moderate COPD (FEV1, 33 to 69%). Ten asymptomatic smokers and 10 nonsmokers served as control groups. Flow cytometry and whole blood analysis were used to minimize unwanted ex vivo modulation. Oxidative burst and adhesion molecule mobilization were analyzed on freshly drawn cells and after in vitro activation. We found reduced oxidative burst in neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils after in vitro stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in both COPD patients and asymptomatic smokers as compared to nonsmoking control subjects. Vascular involvement was determined as increased soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in the COPD group. There were no differences in adhesion molecule expression among the three groups. However, in COPD patients who had smoked the same morning prior to blood sampling, we found a reduced ability to mobilize adhesion molecule CD11b after TNF plus fMLP activation in all investigated cell types. "Acute" smoking did not significantly alter respiratory burst measurements. Both COPD patients and asymptomatic smokers have increased levels of sICAM-1 and a reduced intracellular oxidative burst in vitro, indicating a vascular endothelial activation and a possible state of refractoriness in circulating phagocytes in COPD. Although expression and mobilization of adhesion molecules were similar between groups, the acute smoke effect on CD11b points out the value of information on smoking behavior when analyzing function of peripheral inflammatory cells in a smoking population.
Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida
The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum.
Soumagne, Thibaud; Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Veil-Picard, Matthieu; Guillien, Alicia; Claudé, Frédéric; Puyraveau, Marc; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Roche, Nicolas; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Degano, Bruno
The relevance of screening for airway obstruction in subjects not complaining of COPD symptoms may depend on the definition of airway obstruction. Response to exercise in asymptomatic subjects with persistent airway obstruction as defined by a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <5th centile lower limit of normal (LLN) remains unknown. Dyspnoea (Borg scale), exercise tolerance and ventilatory constraints on tidal volume expansion were assessed in 20 consecutive asymptomatic subjects with persistent mild airway obstruction detected by screening (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score: -2.14±0.29; FEV1 z-score: -1.02±0.64) undergoing incremental cycle cardiopulmonary exercise testing, compared with 20 healthy controls with normal spirometry matched for age, sex, body mass index and smoking history (FEV1/FVC z-score: -0.13±0.57; FEV1 z-score: 0.32±0.67) and with 20 symptomatic patients with COPD matched for the same characteristics (FEV1/FVC z-score: -2.36±0.51; FEV1 z-score: -1.02±0.48). Asymptomatic subjects with airway obstruction had higher dyspnoea ratings than controls during incremental exercise. Asymptomatic subjects with airway obstruction had also peak oxygen consumption and peak power output that were lower than controls, and similar to those observed in patients with COPD. Although less frequent than in COPD, dynamic hyperinflation was more frequent in asymptomatic subjects with airway obstruction than in controls (85%, 50% and 10%, respectively; p=0.01 in asymptomatic subjects vs controls and p=0.04 vs COPD). Although they did not present with chronic activity-related dyspnoea, subjects with a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC
Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Aydin, Mustafa
A foreign body such as a needle in the heart can be life-threatening. While this may occur accidentally, needles may be inserted into the body by psychiatric patients or in cases involving domestic violence. A needle can migrate through the thorax toward the heart. In drug users, needles may also reach the right ventricle via the peripheral veins. Cardiac injury can occur via the esophagus after swallowing a needle. The clinical outcome may vary from an asymptomatic situation to tamponade or shock, depending on how severely the cardiac structures are affected. In injuries involving the thorax, pneumothorax may cause sudden shortness of breath. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old male prison inmate who accidentally lodged a pin in his left ventricle while asleep. As he has refused surgery, it was decided to follow the patient carefully.
Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a well-established possible complication following an atrial fibrillation ablation of pulmonary veins. Symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis range from asymptomatic to severe exertional dyspnea. The number of asymptomatic patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is greater than originally estimated; moreover, only about 22% of severe pulmonary vein stenosis requires intervention. We present a patient with severe postatrial fibrillation (AF) ablation pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, which was seen on multiple imaging modalities including cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiogram, lung perfusion scan, and pulmonary angiogram. This patient did not have any pulmonary symptoms. Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the clinical severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Our patient had an abnormal lung perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) scan, suggesting pulmonary artery blood flow redistribution. The patient ultimately underwent safe repeat atrial fibrillation ablation with successful elimination of arrhythmia. PMID:28105376
Currently, age-specific recommendations for screening mammograms in asymptomatic women that have been developed by professional, voluntary, and governmental organizations differ. While there is strong epidemiologic evidence that mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 50 years or older reduces breast cancer mortality, the evidence for mortality reduction is not as clear for women aged 40 to 49 years. However, as described in this report, findings of further mortality and survival follow-up of subjects in earlier studies, as well as observations from more recent studies, suggest reductions in mortality and better survival in younger women as well. While mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting early breast cancers, some breast cancers may develop during the intervals between screening mammograms. The costs of mammographic screening also require consideration in the process of making national screening recommendations.
Vogler, J.B. III; Brown, W.H.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.
The sacroiliac (SI) joints of 45 asymptomatic subjects were prospectively studied to define better the normal appearance of SI joints on CT scans and therby attach appropriate significance to CT signs of sacroiliitis. Joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, erosions, ankylosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and symmetry were evaluted. The results indicate that the SI joints demonstrate symmetry in patients under the age of 30 (100% of subjects in this age group). Those CT findings of sacroiliitis that occurred infrequently in the asymptomatic population, and hence may represent good indicators of sacroiliac disease, include increased sacral subchondral sclerosis in subjects under the age of 40 (11%), bilateral or unilateral uniform joint space of less than 2 mm (2% or 0%, respectively), erosions (2%), and intraarticular ankylosis (0%).
Fernández, J.; Sandino, A. M.; Pizarro, J.; Avendaño, L. F.; Pizarro, J. M.; Spencer, E.
Human rotavirus isolates from 1100 stool samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 48 different migration patterns were detected. Heterogeneity in the migration of segment 10 was observed in both long and short electropherotypes in which three long and two short patterns were identified. In spite of these variations all short and long electropherotypes were subgrouped by enzyme immunoassay as subgroups I and II respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 17% of cases and the subgrouping correlated with the corresponding electropherotypes. The same electropherotypes were present in severe, mild and asymptomatic cases and no electropherotype was particularly associated with greater virulence. Furthermore, the electropherotypes isolated from nosocomial asymptomatic cases were the same as those detected from those admitted with severe diarrhea. It seems unlikely that electropherotyping can be used to identify more virulent strains of rotavirus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:1847104
Turturro, Francesco; Calderaro, Cosma; Montanaro, Antonello; Labianca, Luca; Argento, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea
Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process) in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature. PMID:25143854
Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Cox, Mitchell; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Magalhaes, Ricardo J. Soares; Mackay, Ian M.
Influenza infection manifests in a wide spectrum of severity, including symptomless pathogen carriers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 studies to elucidate the proportional representation of these asymptomatic infected persons. We observed extensive heterogeneity among these studies. The prevalence of asymptomatic carriage (total absence of symptoms) ranged from 5.2% to 35.5% and subclinical cases (illness that did not meet the criteria for acute respiratory or influenza-like illness) from 25.4% to 61.8%. Statistical analysis showed that the heterogeneity could not be explained by the type of influenza, the laboratory tests used to detect the virus, the year of the study, or the location of the study. Projections of infection spread and strategies for disease control require that we identify the proportional representation of these insidious spreaders early on in the emergence of new influenza subtypes or strains and track how this rate evolves over time and space. PMID:27191967
Sentilhes, L; Bouhours, A-C; Bouet, P-E; Boussion, F; Biquard, F; Gillard, P; Descamps, P
To determine prenatal methods to predict and prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Articles were searched using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library. Uterine activity monitoring and bacterial vaginosis screening are not useful to predict preterm birth (EL2 and EL3 respectively). Current literature data are contradictory and insufficient to determine whether fetal fibronectin and digital cervical assessment are predictors of preterm birth. History of preterm birth (EL4), and cervical length measurement by transvaginal ultrasonography (EL2) predict preterm birth. Nevertheless, there are no intervention studies that have evaluated cervical length measurement in the prevention of preterm birth. Hospital bedrest, prophylactic tocolytic and progesterone therapy, and prophylactic cervical cerclage in patients with or without short cervix have not been shown to be effective in preventing preterm birth. Prenatal methods to prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies are currently very limited. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita
Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Skrastins, Roland; McCans, John L.
With the current popularity of physical fitness, the family physician is often asked to advise asymptomatic individuals who wish to undertake an exercise program. In the majority of cases, adequate assessment consists of a thorough history and physical examination, along with a few simple investigations, including a resting electrocardiogram. Exercise stress testing of asymptomatic individuals produces an unacceptably high frequency of false-positive results, and its use should be restricted to those patients with cardiac symptoms or major cardiac risk factors. The potential benefits of a longterm commitment to regular exercise should be discussed with the patient and guidance provided on the optimal form of exercise program for that individual. Exercise must not be considered in isolation. Other major cardiovascular risk factors should be sought and dealt with appropriately. PMID:21286106
Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Veloudis, George; Exarchou, Elena; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos
An inguinoscrotal hernia is a common disorder that usually contains intraperitoneal organs (small intestine, colon, appendix, ovaries). Extraperitoneal ureteral herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia is a rare condition and often associated with congenital abnormalities or postoperative anatomic changes. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to avoid intraoperative ureteric injuries. We herein report the case of a ureteric herniation into an inguinoscrotal hernia incidentally found during a scheduled hernia repair. PMID:26604607
Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Bratis, Konstantinos; Karabela, Georgia; Spiliotis, George; Wijk, Kees van; Hautemann, David; Reiber, Johan H C; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Stavropoulos, Efthymios
Myopericardial inflammation, perfusion's defects and fibrosis are major causes of cardiac disease in scleroderma (SSc). We hypothesized that using inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we can identify the pathophysiology of heart disease in asymptomatic diffuse SSc. 46 recently diagnosed, asymptomatic patients with diffuse SSc had a CMR examination using a 1.5T system. ECG gated breath hold cine and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) T2 images were initially acquired. If T2 ratio<2 a stress perfusion-fibrosis protocol was applied. If T2>2 a myocarditis protocol including early (EGE) and late (LGE) gadolinium imaging was applied. SSc patients' results were compared with age and sex-matched controls and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 2/46 SSc with T2 ratio>2, the myocarditis protocol was positive for acute myocardial inflammation, who developed clinical signs of acute myocarditis shortly after the CMR evaluation. In the rest 44/46 with T2 ratio<2 the stress perfusion-fibrosis CMR identified a significant reduction in Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index (MPRI) compared with matched controls (0.6±0.4 vs 3.2±0.8, p<0.001), but not with CAD (0.6±0.4 vs 0.86±0.46, p=NS) and correlated only with the presence of digital ulcers (p<0.05). The scar was diffused and greater compared to controls, but did not differ from that assessed in CAD. Two years follow up, available in 11/44 SSc, showed further asymptomatic MPRI deterioration in all and diffuse subendocardial LGE in 8/11, without any change in LV, RV volumes and ejection fractions. CMR may reveal severe cardiac involvement in early, asymptomatic diffuse SSc with normal routine cardiac evaluation, presenting either as myocardial inflammation or as severe reduction of MPRI and diffuse fibrosis with further deterioration in the long term follow up.
Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an...Asymptomatic Prostate DAMD17-02-1-0116 Cancer 6. AUTHOR( S ) Shihua Wang, Ph.D. Dr. Steven Clinton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...SPONSORING / MONITORING 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) AGENCY REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort
Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Siński, Edward; Kowalec, Maciej; Zajkowska, Joanna; Pancewicz, Sławomir A
In Europe, human infections with "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" have mainly been restricted to immunocompromised patients. We report here the first cases of asymptomatic "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infection in immunocompetent humans (5/316 [1.6%] were infected). Due to the potential threats of infections with "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in healthy persons to the safety of the blood supply, further study of this phenomenon is required.
Schols, Saskia E M; Tick, Lidwine L W
The gross majority of extramedullary plasmacytomas arise in the lymphatic tissue of the upper respiratory tract. On average, one third of patients with a solid plasmacytoma will develop multiple myeloma, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. We describe a case of rapid recurrent extramedullary plasmacytomas in the background of an asymptomatic multiple myeloma. A 71-year-old, white Caucasian woman presented with three extramedullary plasmacytomas occurring within a short time period. The third plasmacytoma was accompanied by progressive cervical pain and swallow dysfunction. Additional immunostaining test results were negative for CD56 and showed high MIB-1 expression in the extramedullary plasmacytoma and low MIB-1 expression in the bone marrow. A conventional swallow X-ray did not show any obstruction, however a magnetic resonance imaging scan of her cervical backbone revealed an extramedullary plasmacytoma, threatening her spinal cord. A short course of radiation therapy alleviated her pain and during almost a two-year follow-up period, the multiple myeloma remained asymptomatic, despite the rise in immunoglobulin A lambda levels. After the appearance of the third plasmacytoma, systemic chemotherapy was started to prevent the development of a fourth plasmacytoma, despite the asymptomatic character of the multiple myeloma. In this case report we describe the rapid appearance of extramedullary plasmacytomas in the background of an asymptomatic multiple myeloma. An immunohistochemical analysis was negative for CD56 and showed high MIB-1 expression in the extramedullary plasmacytoma and low MIB-1 expression in the bone marrow, contributing to the potential underlying pathophysiology of the recurrent extramedullary plasmacytomas and their genetic changes. Systemic chemotherapy was started and no fourth extramedullary plasmacytoma has developed since.
Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Onishi, Tetsuari; Omar, Alaa Marbrouk Salem; Norisada, Kazuko; Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Kinoshita, Shouhiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Kumagai, Shunichi
We report the extremely rare case of a 73-year-old asymptomatic patient who has an isolated true parachute mitral valve (PMV). In the echocardiographic examination, the parasternal long-axis view showed a single papillary muscle. The short-axis view revealed the presence of a symmetric mitral valve orifice with all chordae attaching to a large anterolateral papillary muscle. Because detailed examination did not reveal the presence of other complications, this patient was diagnosed as an isolated true PMV.
Purvis, John A; Barr, Stephen H
A parachute deformity of an atrioventricular valve occurs when the chordae tendineae arise from one papillary muscle or muscle group. Sometimes, the normal number of papillary muscles is seen, but one muscle is much larger than its peers and shows some characteristic features. This is known as a parachute-like asymmetric valve and has been well described in the mitral position. We present a young, asymptomatic adult with an abnormal tricuspid valve possessing typical features of a parachute-like asymmetric valve.
Alasmari, Faisal; Seiler, Sondra M.; Hink, Tiffany; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Dubberke, Erik R.
Background. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recent studies suggest that asymptomatic carriers may be an important reservoir of C. difficile in healthcare settings. We sought to identify the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic C. difficile carriage on admission to the hospital. Methods. Patients admitted to Barnes-Jewish Hospital without diarrhea were enrolled from June 2010 through October 2011. Demographic information and healthcare and medication exposures 90 days prior to admission were collected. Stool specimens or rectal swabs were collected within 48 hours of admission and stored at −30°C until cultured. Clostridium difficile isolates were typed and compared with isolates from patients with CDI. Results. A stool/swab specimen was obtained for 259 enrolled subjects on admission. Two hundred four (79%) were not colonized, 40 (15%) had toxigenic C. difficile (TCD), and 15 (6%) had nontoxigenic C. difficile. There were no differences between TCD-colonized and -uncolonized subjects for age (mean, 56 vs 58 years; P = .46), comorbidities, admission from another healthcare facility (33% vs 24%; P = .23), or recent hospitalization (50% vs 50%; P = .43). There were no differences in antimicrobial exposures in the 90 days prior to admission (55% vs 56%; P = .91). Asymptomatic carriers were colonized with strains similar to strains from patients with CDI, but the relative proportions were different. Conclusions. There was a high prevalence of TCD colonization on admission. In contrast to past studies, TCD colonization was not associated with recent antimicrobial or healthcare exposures. Additional investigation is needed to determine the role of asymptomatic TCD carriers on hospital-onset CDI incidence. PMID:24755858
Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Dinana, Zayyin; Wahyuni, Rury Mega; Yamani, Laura Navika; Juniastuti; Soetjipto; Matsui, Chieko; Deng, Lin; Abe, Takayuki; Doan, Yen Hai; Fujii, Yoshiki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Shoji, Ikuo
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide in all age groups, and asymptomatic individuals may contribute to NoV transmission as a reservoir. Nonetheless, little information is available regarding asymptomatic NoV infection in Indonesia. We performed an epidemiological analysis of NoV infection among asymptomatic healthy volunteers in the city of Surabaya, Indonesia (population ~2.75 million). A total of 512 stool samples from 18 individuals (age range 20-42years) collected from July 2015 to June 2016 were examined. The detection of NoV and the genotype classification were carried out by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) direct sequencing method. NoV was detected in 14 of the 512 stool samples (2.7%), with 7 individuals (38.9%) having at least 1 positive stool sample. All 14 of the NoV strains detected belonged to genogroup GII. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that 10 strains (71.4%) were grouped with GII.2, 2 (14.3%) were GII.17, 1 was GII.4 Sydney 2012, and 1 was GII.1. The circulation of GII.Pg/GII.1 and GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 recombinant variants was detected among an asymptomatic population in Surabaya, Indonesia. Of the 7 positive individuals, 2 were repeatedly infected with the same strain and heterogenous strains. Taken together, our results suggest that the excretion of NoV from healthy individuals is one of the sources of NoV outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carvalho, Joaquim; Formighieri, Beatriz; Filippi, Sheila; Rossini, Lucio
Ovarian cancer is frequent and recurrence happens in about 75% of patients. As it presents high rates of relapse, the exams for this diagnosis are widely discussed. Beside this, there have been discussions about benefits for early anatomic diagnosis and whether endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be used to track the relapse of the disease. We present a case, in which anatomic location and histological definition of an asymptomatic recurrence of the ovarian cancer was misdiagnosed with conventional methods, but was possible through EUS.
Frider, Bernardo; Larrieu, Edmundo
Liver hydatidosis is the most common clinical presentation of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Ultrasonographic mass surveys have demonstrated the true prevalence, including the asymptomatic characteristic of the majority of cases, providing new insight into the natural history of the disease. This raises the question of whether to treat or not to treat these patients, due to the high and unsuspected prevalence of CE. The high rate of liver/lung frequencies of cyst localization, the autopsy findings, and the involution of cysts demonstrated in long time follow-up of asymptomatic carriers contribute to this discussion. The decision to treat an asymptomatic patient by surgery, albendazole, or puncture aspiration injection and reaspiration or to wait and watch, is based on conflicting reports in the literature, the lack of complications in untreated patients over time, and the spontaneous disappearance and involution of cysts. All these points contribute to difficulties of individual clinical decisions. The patients should be informed of the reasons and the risks of watchful/waiting without treatment, the possibility of complications, and the risks of the other options. As more information on the natural history of liver hydatidosis is acquired, selection of the best treatment will be come easier. Without this knowledge it would be very difficult to establish definitive rules of treatment. At present, it is possible to manage these patients over time and to wait for the best moment for treatment. Follow-up studies must be conducted to achieve this objective. PMID:20806427
Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E.; Dawson, William O.; Robertson, Cecile J.; Keesling, James E.; Singer, Burton H.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period. PMID:26034273
Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E; Dawson, William O; Robertson, Cecile J; Keesling, James E; Singer, Burton H
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period.
Taraszewska, Anna; Matyja, Ewa; Koszewski, Waldemar; Zaczyński, Artur; Bardadin, Krzysztof; Czernicki, Zbigniew
Glial cysts of the pineal gland are benign and mostly asymptomatic incidental lesions found in the brain MRI or at autopsy examinations. In rare cases pineal cysts become symptomatic and require surgical intervention. Symptomatic glial cysts may be clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from cystic neoplasms of the pineal region; therefore, histopathological diagnosis is critical for further prognosis and therapy in operated patients. In this paper we present detailed histopathological characteristics of symptomatic glial cysts in 2 surgical cases and of asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland found at random in 3 autopsy cases. Both surgical patients, a 19-year-old girl and a 17-year-old boy, presented with severe headaches, associated with syncope in one case and insomnia in the second one. Preoperative MR imaging suggested tumour of the pineal gland in case no. 2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens from both surgical and all autopsy cases revealed a characteristic pattern of cystic structures within the pineal gland, surrounded by layers of a dense fibrillar glial tissue and pineal parenchyma, consistent with non-neoplastic glial cysts. Although histopathological findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic cysts are essentially the same, the cyst in surgical case 1 was unilocular and partly lined with ependymal cells, whereas the cysts in other cases were multilocular, comprising cavities of various size, formed in the central part of gliotic tissue or directly within the pineal parenchyma, and lacked ependymal lining. Possible pathophysiological and clinicopathological significance of some morphological variants of pineal glial cysts is discussed.
Wolsk, Helene M.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.; Birch, Sune; Brix, Susanne; Hansel, Trevor T.; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Kebadze, Tatiana; Chawes, Bo L.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans
Background. Bacterial airway colonization is known to alter the airway mucosa immune response in neonates whereas the impact of viruses is unknown. The objective was therefore to examine the effect of respiratory viruses on the immune signature in the airways of asymptomatic neonates. Methods. Nasal aspirates from 571 asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 birth cohort were investigated for respiratory viruses. Simultaneously, unstimulated airway mucosal lining fluid was obtained and quantified for levels of 20 immune mediators related to type 1, type 2, type 17, and regulatory immune paths. The association between immune mediator levels and viruses was tested by conventional statistics and partial least square discriminant analysis. Results. Picornaviruses were detected in 58 neonates (10.2%) and other viruses in 10 (1.8%). A general up-regulation of immune mediators was found in the neonates with picornavirus (P < .0001; partial least square discriminant analysis). The association was pronounced for type 1– and type 2–related markers and was unaffected by comprehensive confounder adjustment. Detection of picornavirus and bacteria was associated with an additive general up-regulating effect. Conclusions. Asymptomatic presence of picornavirus in the neonatal airway is a potent activator of the topical immune response. This is relevant to understanding the immune potentiating effect of early life exposure to viruses. PMID:26655299
Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785
Martin, Carolina; Aguila, Blanca; Araya, Paulina; Vio, Karin; Valdivia, Sharin; Zambrano, Angara; Concha, Margarita I; Otth, Carola
Currently, it is unclear whether asymptomatic recurrent reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occur in the central nervous systems of infected people, and if these events could lead to a progressive deterioration of neuronal function. In this context, HSV-1 constitutes an important candidate to be included among the risk factors for the development of neuropathies associated with chronic neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in the brain during productive and latent HSV-1 infection using a mouse model of herpes simplex encephalitis. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration markers were evaluated in mice trigeminal ganglia and cerebral cortex during HSV-1 infection, by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR. Neuronal ICP4 viral antigen expression indicative of a reactivation episode during asymptomatic latency of HSV-1 infection in mice was accompanied by upregulation of neuroinflammatory (toll-like receptor-4, interferon α/β, and p-IRF3) and early neurodegenerative markers (phospho-tau and TauC3). HSV-1 reactivation from latency induced neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in the brain of asymptomatic mice suggesting that recurrent reactivations could be associated with cumulative neuronal dysfunctions.
Chavarría, Anahí; Roger, Beatrice; Fragoso, Gladis; Tapia, Graciela; Fleury, Agnes; Dumas, Michel; Dessein, Alain; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Neurocysticercosis (NC), a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium, may be either asymptomatic or have mild to severe symptoms due to several factors. In this study, the immunological factors that underlie NC pleomorphism were studied. Ten of the 132 inhabitants of a rural community in Mexico (Tepez) had a computerized tomography (CT) scan compatible with calcified NC, and all were asymptomatic. Their immunological profiles were compared with those of 122 CT scan negative (non-NC) subjects from the same village. NC was associated with a TH2 response (IgG4, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13). Subjects from Tepez had higher levels of specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgE) and specific cell proliferation than subjects from an area with low exposure (Ensenada). This suggests that non-NC subjects from Tepez had been exposed to T. solium and resisted infection in the brain. Distinct immunological profiles in equally exposed individuals differing in outcome of infection support the hypothesis of host-related factors in resistance to and pathogenesis of NC. This is the first study reporting the immunological profile associated with the asymptomatic form of NC.
Kandel, Leonid; Rivkin, Gurion; Friedman, Adi; Segal, David; Liebergall, Meir; Mattan, Yoav
Osteolysis around a cementless acetabular component can lead to severe bone loss. This study examined whether osteolysis should be treated while still asymptomatic. Thirty-seven liner cementation revisions were performed in 34 patients. Mean patient age was 61 years, and mean time elapsed after index surgery was 85 months (range, 36-168 months). Patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS), and mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 43-82 months). Average HHS was 87 with a pain component of 39. In asymptomatic patients, both the HHS and the pain score were significantly higher: 95 and 43, respectively (P<.01). One patient with extensive bone loss had a fracture of the acetabulum and underwent revision at another institution. Revision of the polyethylene liner and cementation of a new one is a useful technique in patients with a stable acetabular shell. This is especially true for asymptomatic patients with osteolysis and thus should be performed early; however, high dislocation rate is still a concern.
Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Uko, Emmanuel Kufre
Asymptomatic malaria infection is a common feature of malaria endemic regions in the tropics. In this prospective cross sectional survey, involving 240 children aged 1 to 8 years (Boys = 117, Girls = 123; Ratio 1:1.05), the median platelet count was 115 x 10(9)/L (IQR 97.5-190). Thirty-three out of 240 (13.75%) of the children had thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L). Malaria parasite was found to exert significant reduction in platelet count. This reduction was more pronounced in children under 5 years and also at higher parasite counts. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.017x + 96.2, r = -0.2). Thrombocytopenia is not only a feature of acute malaria infection but also that of asymptomatic malaria infection in the tropics and might be a useful indicator of malaria in children.
Kudo, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Fumiyasu; Doi, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tetsuro
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical correlates of PR-segment depression among consecutive asymptomatic patients with pericardial effusion (PE) detected by routine echocardiography. Pericardial effusion is a relatively common finding in clinical practice, but not many studies have evaluated electrocardiographic (ECG) changes associated with the occurrence of PE. Among 4,061 consecutive patients referred to our echocardiography laboratory, 176 asymptomatic patients had PE correlated with their clinical history and ECG findings. PR-segment depression was detected in 40 patients (23%). There were no significant differences in age, gender distribution or heart rate between patients with and without PR-segment depression. Fifteen post-pericardiotomy patients (33%), 19 patients (40%) with malignant disease and 6 patients (46%) with connective tissue disease had PR-segment depression, whereas no patient with heart disease (dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart disease, old myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease), renal disease or hypothyroidism had PR-segment depression, nor widespread ST-segment elevation. Among 40 patients with PR-segment depression, 8 had ST-segment elevation in the leads of epicardial derivation, 8 had upright T waves, 20 had low to inverted T waves with an isoelectric ST-segment and 4 had ST-T-wave changes due to bundle branch block. PR-segment depression was a relatively common ECG sign associated with clinically silent PE, and it was an ECG indicator of inflammatory pericardial involvement.
Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra
Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476
Arencibia, N; Agüera, M L; Rodelo, C; López, I; Sánchez-Agesta, M; Hurtarte, A; Navarro, M D; Rodríguez-Benot, A
Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is the most common form of bacterial infection in renal transplant patients, but its management is still controversial. We compared symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria, treated or untreated, during two different months (summer or winter). This longitudinal, prospective study involved routine urine cultures collected during September 2014 or March 2015. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics from the patients with positive urine cultures were described. The main outcomes were the need of hospitalization, the bacterial clearance, and the selection of the resistant pathogen. From the 538 urine cultures collected, only 61 were positive urine cultures. Twenty were untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), 28 were treated AB, and 13 were treated symptomatic bacteriuria. The more prevalent micro-organisms were E coli (27%), K pneumoniae (11%), and E faecalis (7%). There were no differences in the demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics depending on the month when the urine cultures were collected. Only 10 patients required hospitalization during follow-up, and all of them belonged to the treated group. Bacterial clearance after the treatment occurred in 20 patients of the 41 treated (48.9%) and spontaneously in 14 of the 20 patients untreated (70%). Of the treated patients, 47.6% developed a new resistance to another antibiotic. Only 7.6% of the routine urine cultures on renal transplant were positive. Untreated AB did not require hospitalization, and 70% had spontaneous bacterial clearance. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karim, Habib Md. Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md.
Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations. PMID:27413718
Mohorko, Nina; Jenko-Pražnika, Zala; Petelin, Ana
Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic properties and it is involved in metabolic regulation, especially by sensitizing tissues for insulin. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a positive effect on adiponectin levels. Therefore, our aim was to assess asymptomatic general population of the Mediterranean part of Slovenia and to evaluate the correlations between serum adiponectin levels (SALs) and diet components, dietary habits, lifestyle parameters, metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and inflammatory markers. Healthy adults aged 25-49 participated in the cross-sectional study. Linear correlation analyses were used to examine SALs on diet components, dietary habits, lifestyle parameters and all risk factors. A positive correlation between the ratio of leucine:lysine intake and adiponectin and a negative correlation between adiponectin and presence of already two components of MetS were found. Moreover, we confirmed the negative correlations between adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP), but found a negative correlation between adiponectin and visfatin. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regression analyses confirmed that besides lower homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CRP, homocysteine and BMI, also higher ratio of leucine:lysine contributes to the prediction of higher level of adiponectin. Our results indicate that high leucine:lysine intake ratio may promote the increase in SALs in clinically asymptomatic adults. On the other hand, lower SALs are due to obesity, inflammation and presence of already 2 components of metabolic syndrome.
Gökçe Çokal, B; Güneş, H N; Güler, S K; Yoldaş, T K
Vitamin B12 deficiency may be asymptomatic or present with a wide range of neurological and hematological disorders. Our aim in this study is to evaluate visual (VEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) parameters in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency who had no clinical evidence of visual impairment or neurological syndrome findings and compare the findings with healthy controls to determine whether there is a correlation between VEP and SEP parameters and serum vitamin B12 levels. 30 patients (6 females [20%], 24 males [80%]; mean age, 52 years [range 17-80 years]), and 15 healthy subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency (3 females [20%], 12 [80%] male; mean age, 49 years [range 17-78 years]) were included in the study. P100 wave latencies and amplitudes were recorded as VEP parameters, and P40 wave latencies and amplitudes were recorded as tibial SEP parameters. Comparison of VEP and SEP parameters in the patient and control groups revealed significantly prolonged SEP latencies and lower SEP amplitudes in the patient group. VEP latencies did not significantly differ between the patient and the control groups while VEP amplitudes were found to be lower in the patient group than in controls. A significant correlation was obtained between serum vitamin B12 levels and tibial SEP latencies (r > 0.5). These findings suggest that asymptomatic patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may have SEP and VEP abnormalities indicating the subclinical optic nerve and spinal cord involvement.
Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md
Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.
Rizvi, M M; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Jain, Anuj; Sarkar, Arindam
Vocal cord palsy (VCP) presenting as hoarseness of voice can be the first symptom of very serious and sinister common pathologies. But vocal cord palsy resulting from aortic aneurysm is a rare entity and still rarer is the right cord palsy due to aortic aneurysm. We are reporting a rare case in which a 52-year old male smoking for last 30 years having asymptomatic aortic aneurysm presented to us with hoarseness of voice. On Panendoscopy, no local pathology was found and CECT from base of skull to T12 was advised. CECT showed a large aneurysm involving ascending aorta and extending upto abdominal aorta with compression of the bilateral bronchi. CTVS consultation was sought and they advised for regular follow-up only. We are reporting this case to warn both the anaesthetist and the surgeon about the catastrophic complications if they are not alert in handling such cases.
Occelli, P; Blanie, M; Sanchez, R; Vigier, D; Dauwalder, O; Darwiche, A; Provenzano, B; Dumartin, C; Parneix, P; Venier, A G
An outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo occurred over a period of five months in a maternity ward involving seven infected and two colonised neonates. The skin lesions were due to epidermolytic toxin A-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Infection control measures were implemented and a retrospective case-control study performed. Contact with an auxiliary nurse was the only risk factor for cases of bullous impetigo (P<0.01). The nurse cared for all seven cases and was an asymptomatic nasal carrier of the epidemic strain. Repeated courses of decontamination treatment failed to eradicate carriage. Nine months after the last case, another neonate developed a more severe form of bullous impetigo and the auxiliary nurse was reassigned to an adult ward.
Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Moslemi, Sam; Tahamtan, Maryam; Taheri, Lohrasb; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali
The co-existence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality because of a widespread organ involvement. The gastrointestinal tract is a common site for localization of opportunistic microorganisms in AIDS. However, surgical abdominal emergencies such as intestinal perforation resulted from tuberculosis are uncommon in these patients. The asymptomatic occurrence of such intestinal perforation has not been reported our knowledge. We represent an HIV and HCV co-infected man with miliary tuberculosis and an incidentally detected free air under diaphragm in the chest X-ray eventually resulting in exploratory laparotomy which then revealed two tubercular-induced intestinal perforations. It seems that as the tuberculosis is increasing in incidence, mostly due to reactivation in HIV-infected patients especially in developing countries, we should not underestimate its acute abdominal emergencies such as bowel perforation. PMID:27162854
Ayoyi, Adelaide Ogutu; Kikuvi, Gideon; Bii, Christine; Kariuki, Samuel
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the presence of bacteria in urine without apparent symptoms of urinary tract infections. The importance of asymptomatic bacteriuria lies in the insight it provides into symptomatic infections. To determine prevalence, bacterial isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of asymptomatic bacterial urinary tract infection in pregnant women in selected clinics in Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional study involving women attending antenatal clinic at selected clinics of Nairobi County. The women who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture and sensitivity. A total of 1020 of women on their first antenatal clinic visit participated in the study; 219 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 21.5 % at 95% confidence level. Escherichia coli were the common organism isolated at 38.8%. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to imipenem and gentamycin. There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women included in the study from the Nairobi county clinics. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended among the women attending antennal clinics in Nairobi county clinics.
Quiroga, M; Oviedo, P; Chinen, I; Pegels, E; Husulak, E; Binztein, N; Rivas, M; Schiavoni, L; Vergara, M
Diarrheagenics Escherichia coli are the major agents involved in diarrheal disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of appearance of the first asymptomatic infection by the different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli in 44 children since their birth and during the first 20 months of their lives. In all of the children studied, we detected at least one category of diarrheagenic E. coli through the 20 months of the study. 510 diarrheagenic E. coli (33.5%) were obtained from the 1,524 samples collected from the 44 children during the time of the study (31.4% EAggEC, 28.8% EPEC, 27.1% DAEC, and 12.7% ETEC). Neither EHEC nor EIEC were identified. The median age for diarrheagenic E. coli colonization was 7.5 months. The mean weaning period was 12.8 months and the mean age for introduction of mixed feeding (breast fed supplemented) was 3.8 months. A significantly lower incidence of diarrheal disease and asymptomatic infections was recorded among the exclusively breast-fed rather than in the supplemented and non breast-fed infants. For ETEC, EPEC and EAggEC the introduction of weaning foods and complete termination of breast-feeding were associated with an increase of asymptomatic infections.
Furushima, Wakana; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Inoue, Yuki; Kaga, Makiko; Mizutani, Shuki
The aim was to identify the electrophysiological and psychological signs at a very early stage in asymptomatic boys with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Flash visual evoked potentials, pattern reversal, and visual event-related potentials were recorded in 6 radiologically asymptomatic boys with adrenoleukodystrophy and 22 control boys. The latency and amplitude of P100 of visual evoked potentials and P1 of event-related potentials were evaluated. Though all patients had normal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient was significantly lower than verbal intelligence quotient in 2 patients. Both P100 and P1 amplitudes were significantly greater in adrenoleukodystrophy than in controls. The difference between performance intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient exhibited significant correlation with P100 amplitude. Enlargement of visual evoked potentials might be a sign of cerebral involvement preceding the appearance of abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up of asymptomatic boys with both electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests may serve as an aid for deciding the timing of therapeutic intervention.
Ayoyi, Adelaide Ogutu; Kikuvi, Gideon; Bii, Christine; Kariuki, Samuel
Introduction Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the presence of bacteria in urine without apparent symptoms of urinary tract infections. The importance of asymptomatic bacteriuria lies in the insight it provides into symptomatic infections. To determine prevalence, bacterial isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of asymptomatic bacterial urinary tract infection in pregnant women in selected clinics in Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving women attending antenatal clinic at selected clinics of Nairobi County. The women who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture and sensitivity. Results A total of 1020 of women on their first antenatal clinic visit participated in the study; 219 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 21.5 % at 95% confidence level. Escherichia coli were the common organism isolated at 38.8%. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to imipenem and gentamycin. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women included in the study from the Nairobi county clinics. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended among the women attending antennal clinics in Nairobi county clinics. PMID:28451019
Belloni, E; Veronesi, G; Micucci, C; Javan, S; Minardi, S P; Venturini, E; Maisonneuve, P; Volorio, S; Riboni, M; Bellomi, M; Scanagatta, P; Taliento, G; Pelosi, G; Pece, S; Spaggiari, L; Pelicci, P G
Computed tomography (CT) screening of lung cancer allows the detection of early tumors. The objective of our study was to verify whether initial asymptomatic lung cancers, identified by high-resolution low-dose CT (LD-CT) on a high-risk population, show genetic abnormalities that could be indicative of the early events of lung carcinogenesis. We analyzed 78 tumor samples: 21 (pilot population) from heavy smokers with asymptomatic non-screening detected early-stage lung cancers and 57 from 5203 asymptomatic heavy smoker volunteers, who underwent a LD-CT screening study. During surgical resection of the detected tumors, tissue samples were collected and short-term cultures were started for karyotype evaluation. Samples were classified according to the normal (NK) or aneuploid (AK) karyotype. The NK samples were further analyzed by the Affymetrix single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) technology. Metaphase spreads were obtained in 73.0% of the selected samples: 80.7% showed an AK. A statistically significant correlation was found between presence of vascular invasion and abnormal karyotype. A total of 10 NK samples were suitable for SNPs analysis. Subtle genomic alterations were found in eight tumors, the remaining two showing no evidence to date of chromosomal aberrations anywhere in the genome. Two common regions of amplification were identified at 5p and 8p11. Mutation analysis by direct sequencing was conducted for the K-RAS, TP53 and EGFR genes, confirming data already described for heavy smokers. We show that: (i) the majority of screening-detected tumors are aneuploid; (ii) early-stage tumors tend to harbor a less abnormal karyotype; (iii) whole genome analysis of NK tumors allows for the detection of common regions of copy number variation (such as amplifications at 5p and 8p11), highlighting genes that might be considered candidate markers of early events in lung carcinogenesis.
Orlandi, D; Sconfienza, L M; Fabbro, E; Ferrero, G; Martini, C; Lacelli, F; Serafini, G; Silvestri, E
To characterize the rotator cable high-resolution ultrasound appearance in asymptomatic shoulders of volunteers of different age. IRB approval and volunteers' written consent was obtained. Excluding subjects with known shoulder affections, we screened 24 asymptomatic volunteers. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons high-resolution ultrasound evaluation was performed according to standard scan protocols, further excluding shoulders with partial/full-thickness cuff tears. Thus, we studied 24 shoulders in 12 young volunteers (age range 21-39 years, mean age 33 ± 8 years) and 21 shoulders in 11 elderly volunteers (age range 62-83 years, mean age 75 ± 45 years). For each shoulder, we noted rotator cable visibility and its thickness and width. Fisher's and U Mann-Whitney statistics were used. Rotator cable was less frequently detected in young than in elderly volunteers (5/24 vs. 11/21 shoulders; P = 0.034). When detected, rotator cable was significantly thicker in young (range 1.2-1.5 mm, mean thickness 1.3 ± 0.1 mm) than in elderly (range 0.9-1.4 mm, mean thickness 1.2 ± 0.1 mm) volunteers (P = 0.025), while its width was not significantly different in young (range 4.5-7.1 mm, mean 5.6 ± 1.1 mm) compared to elderly (range 2.5-7.1 mm, mean 4.2 ± 1.4 mm) volunteers (P = 0.074) although a tendency can be highlighted. Ultrasound demonstrated the different consistency of rotator cable in young and elderly asymptomatic patients, with high interobserver reproducibility.
Kim, Younoh; Radoias, Vlad
Asymptomatic conditions such as hypertension are generally hard to diagnose, absent routine medical examinations. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where most citizens do not engage in routine examinations due to limited economic resources. We study the roles of education and individual time preferences in asymptomatic disease detection and management. Using discrete choice models on a sample of 4209 hypertensive Indonesian adults surveyed between November 2007 and April 2008, we find that both education and individual time preferences play important roles. However, the effects are different for people in good health than they are for people in bad health. Education does not seem to matter for disease detection when respondents are in good general health, and its effects on disease management vary largely in magnitudes between these groups. In terms of disease detection, more educated respondents have a higher probability of being diagnosed, but only conditional on being in poor general health. Time preferences, on the other hand, matter for respondents in good general health, but the effect is not significant for those in bad health. More impatient respondents that are in good health have a higher probability of being under-diagnosed because they are more likely to forgo routine physicals. The findings point to two distinct channels through which education can affect health, and suggest that different types of policies need to be implemented, in order to reach the entire population. Traditional programs that stimulate education and improve the socio-economic status of individuals in developing countries are helpful, but they do not address the whole problem. Besides its more usual positive effects, education can also negatively affect the health of asymptomatic patients, because it reflects a higher opportunity cost of engaging in preventative health screenings.
Latorre, Julius Gene S.; Lodi, Yahia; El-Zammar, Ziad; Devasenapathy, Ashok
Background: Vasospasm occurs in up to 70% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but only half becomes symptomatic. It is unclear whether asymptomatic vasospasm (AV) detected by noninvasive testing affects outcome. Prophylactic hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic (HHH) therapy is widely used but the benefit remains unproven. We aim to determine whether AV increases the risk of poor outcome and whether HHH is safe. Methods: A total of 175 consecutive patients with aSAH without clinical vasospasm were included. Patients with sonographic (transcranial doppler) or radiologic (computed tomography [CT] Angiography) vasospasm were assigned to AV group, while those without were assigned to no vasospasm (NV) group. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between AV and HHH on poor outcome, defined as modified Rankin scale (mRS) >3 at discharge or 3 to 6 months' follow-up. Results: In all, 106 patients had NV and 25 received HHH. A total of 69 patients had AV and 54 received HHH. Asymptomatic vasospasm compared to NV was not associated with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-8.9; P = .1). Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic use in patients with AV did not improve the outcome (OR 0.16, 95%CI: 0.009-2.84; P = .2). In patients with NV, HHH use showed trend toward poor outcome after multivariable adjustment (OR 12.6, 95%CI: 1.08-146.5 P = .04). Conclusion: Asymptomatic vasospasm does not appear to be associated with poor outcome in aSAH. Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic therapy in AV was not associated with improved outcome and may be harmful to patients who do not have vasospasm. Further research is needed to validate this finding. PMID:23983851
Munster, Alex B.; Franchini, Angelo J.; Qureshi, Mahim I.; Thapar, Ankur
Objective: To systematically review temporal changes in perioperative safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in asymptomatic individuals in trial and registry studies. Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms “carotid” and “endarterectomy” and “asymptomatic” from 1947 to August 23, 2014. Articles dealing with 50%–99% stenosis in asymptomatic individuals were included and low-volume studies were excluded. The primary endpoint was 30-day stroke or death and the secondary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. Statistical analysis was performed using random-effects meta-regression for registry data and for trial data graphical interpretation alone was used. Results: Six trials (n = 4,431 procedures) and 47 community registries (n = 204,622 procedures) reported data between 1983 and 2013. Registry data showed a significant decrease in postoperative stroke or death incidence over the period 1991–2010, equivalent to a 6% average proportional annual reduction (95% credible interval [CrI] 4%–7%; p < 0.001). Considering postoperative all-cause mortality, registry data showed a significant 5% average proportional annual reduction (95% CrI 3%–9%; p < 0.001). Trial data showed a similar visual trend. Conclusions: CEA is safer than ever before and high-volume registry results closely mirror the results of trials. New benchmarks for CEA are a stroke or death risk of 1.2% and a mortality risk of 0.4%. This information will prove useful for quality improvement programs, for health care funders, and for those re-examining the long-term benefits of asymptomatic revascularization in future trials. PMID:26115734
Brembilla-Perrot, B; Ghawi, R; Dechaux, J P
The management of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is controversial especially when the patient is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics of such patients. Thirty two asymptomatic subjects with overt WPW on the surface ECG aged 14 to 68 years (average 36 +/- 15 years) underwent endocavitary or oesophageal electrophysiological study with the following protocol: programmed atrial stimulation using 1 or 2 extrastimuli over 3 cycles to evaluate the induction of paroxysmal junctional tachycardia and atrial fibrillation; atrial pacing at increasing frequencies to assess the shortest cycle conducted by the bundle of Kent. This protocol was repeated during intravenous infusion of 20 to 30 mg of Isoproterenol. Four electrophysiological characteristics were identified: the incidence of induction of junctional tachycardia was very low (2 cases, 6%); the incidence of induction of atrial fibrillation or tachycardia was similar to that of symptomatic WPW (9 cases 30%); the incidence of rapid conduction via the bundle of Kent (cycle conducted by the Kent less than 250 ms under basal conditions less than 200 ms with Isoproterenol) was 19% (6 cases); the incidence of potentially serious forms of WPW with rapid conduction in the bundle of Kent and atrial vulnerability (induction of atrial fibrillation at a frequency less than the Wenckebach point by programmed atrial stimulation) was similar to that in symptomatic WPW, 3 cases (10%). In conclusion, the asymptomatic character of the WPW is very probably due to the absence of junctional tachycardias. Nevertheless, these patients are at risk of atrial fibrillation with an incidence of potentially serious forms of 10%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Iturralde, P; Hernández, D; de Micheli, A; Colín, L; Romero, L; Villarreal, A; Férez, S; Miguel Casanova, J; Barrera, M; González-Hermosillo, J A
To evaluate the predictive value of ischemic ST segment depression without associated chest pain during exercise testing, data were analyzed from 7305 studies. Two hundred thirty six patients were included in this study and were separated in 2 groups. Group A consisted of 169 patients without chest pain who, during exercise testing, showed a positive ST segment response (at least 1.5 mm of horizontal or downward ST segment depression for at least 0.08 second, compared with the resting baseline value), and Group B consisted of 67 patients who had both chest pain and a positive ST segment response. Selective coronary angiogram was performed on all patients. Each Group was separated into 3 sub-group according to the Cohn criteria: sub-group I (asymptomatic persons 8.3 vs 19.4%); sub-group II (patients with history of Myocardial Infarction 36.7% vs 19.4%); sub-group III (patients with chronic angina 55% vs 61.2%). The clinical characteristics, coronary risk factors, distribution of coronary artery disease, and exercise test response were similar in both groups. During treadmill exercise, the mean heart rate was 140.6 +/- 22 in group A versus 127.1 +/- 23 in the group B. The pressure-rate product was 2.4 +/- 0.8 versus 1.9 +/- 0.5, respectively (P less than or equal to 0.05). The predictive value for severe coronary artery disease of an exercise test in patients with asymptomatic ischemia was 77.5% as compared with 89.6% in the group with angina. This study confirms the high frequency of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia during exercise testing, compared with patients who had angina during exercise testing, with high percentage of prediction (77.5%) for coronary artery disease.
Kumar, Arjun; Kumar, Krishan; Zeltser, Roman; Makaryus, Amgad N.
Thoracic aortic dissection is a rare, but lethal, medical condition that is either misdiagnosed as a myocardial infarction or overlooked completely. Though thoracic aortic dissections are commonly diagnosed in patients exhibiting sharp chest pain, there are some notable cases where patients do not report the expected severity of pain. We report a unique case of a patient with a thoracic aortic dissection who was initially nearly asymptomatic for eight months, in order to heighten awareness, highlight diagnosis protocol, and improve prognosis for this commonly misdiagnosed, but fatal, condition. PMID:27257400
Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J
MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.
Strecker, Thomas; Agaimy, Abbas; Zelzer, Peter; Weyand, Michael; Wachter, David Lukas
Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, atrial myxoma being the most common benign tumor of the heart. They may present with a great variety of incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resection of such a giant cardiac tumor which was found on a routine medical check-up in a 62-year-old patient. Histology confirmed diagnosis of unusually huge myxoma. This article demonstrates it’s necessary to include cardiac tumors in the differential diagnosis of subtle and non-specific cardiothoracic symptoms. PMID:25120848
The causes of sustained elevation of serum transaminases in asymptomatic adults, both hepatic and extrahepatic, are varied. In order to reach an aetiological diagnosis, a standardized protocol should be applied, aimed firstly at ruling out the most common causes, such as chronic hepatitis (viral or autoimmune), metabolic diseases, and toxic liver diseases. Several biochemical patterns, which take into account transaminase, cholestatic enzyme, muscle enzyme, ferritin and ceruloplasmin levels, as well protein electrophoresis and autoantibody measurement, will identify most causes. In cases in which a diagnosis cannot be reached with the use of these non-invasive methods, a needle liver biopsy will be justified.
Williams, J.W.; Eikman, E.A.; Greenberg, S.
Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were obtained before and at weekly intervals following hip surgery or major amputation in 158 patients. Pulmonary arteriograms were obtained in 21 of 33 patients developing perfusion patterns strongly suggesting embolism; 19 of the 21 arteriograms demonstrated pulmonary embolism. From autopsy and clinical data, 36 patients were diagnosed as having an embolus while under study, and 12 patients were suspected of having had an embolus during their illness but prior to entry into the study. Only four of these 48 patients experienced symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism. We conclude that asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is a common event in the populations studied.
Boules, Mena; Gordon, Ilyssa O.; Kirsh, Brian
We present the case of a 64-year old male with Crohn’s disease, who has intriguing endoscopic findings. Upon initial diagnosis at age 20, he received steroid therapy, but has not required any further medical intervention. He has remained relatively asymptomatic and keeps a healthy lifestyle. At routine colonoscopy, we identified pseudopolyps as well as tissue bridges within the colon, giving an unusual “swiss cheese” appearance. This case exemplifies the heterogeneity of Crohn’s disease, emphasizing the possibility of finding evidence of ongoing disease despite lack of symptoms. PMID:26425582
Lal, Brajesh K; Dux, Moira C; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Goldstein, Carly; Khan, Amir A; Yokemick, John; Zhao, Limin
Cerebrovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, coronary artery disease) and stroke can lead to vascular cognitive impairment. The Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Cognitive Function study evaluated the isolated impact of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (no prior ipsilateral or contralateral stroke or transient ischemic attack) on cognitive function. Cerebrovascular hemodynamic and carotid plaque characteristics were analyzed to elucidate potential mechanisms affecting cognition. There were 82 patients with ≥50% asymptomatic carotid stenosis and 62 controls without stenosis but matched for vascular comorbidities who underwent neurologic, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Overall cognitive function and five domain-specific scores were computed. Duplex ultrasound with Doppler waveform and B-mode imaging defined the degree of stenosis, least luminal diameter, plaque area, and plaque gray-scale median. Breath-holding index (BHI) and microembolization were measured using transcranial Doppler. We assessed cognitive differences between stenosis patients and control patients and of stenosis patients with low vs high BHI and correlated cognitive function with microembolic counts and plaque characteristics. Stenosis and control patients did not differ in vascular risk factors, education, estimated intelligence, or depressive symptoms. Stenosis patients had worse composite cognitive scores (P = .02; Cohen's d = 0.43) and domain-specific scores for learning/memory (P = .02; d = 0.42) and motor/processing speed (P = .01; d = 0.65), whereas scores for executive function were numerically lower (P = .08). Approximately 49.4% of all stenosis patients were impaired in at least two cognitive domains. Precisely 50% of stenosis patients demonstrated a reduced BHI. Stenosis patients with reduced BHI performed worse on the overall composite cognitive score (t = -2.1; P = .02; d = 0.53) and tests for learning
Loggos, S; Mitropoulos, F; Kondrafouris, K; Milonakis, M; Kanakis, M; Chantzis, A; Bobos, D; Giannopoulos, N; Azariadis, P
We present a case report of a nine-year-old asymptomatic girl with a large cystic lesion of the left hemithorax, occupying almost 80% of the left hemithorax, first believed to be a parasitic cyst that was operated and proved to be of parietal pericardial origin. Mediastinal cysts and pericardial cysts in particular are mostly discovered accidentally and so was the case with our patient. The diagnosis included not only clinical examination but also the utilization of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The only treatment for pericardial cysts is surgical excision and patients recover fully with no complication.
Williams, J W; Eikman, E A; Greenberg, S
Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were obtained before and at weekly intervals following hip surgery or major amputation in 158 patients. Pulmonary arteriograms were obtained in 21 of 33 patients developing perfusion patterns strongly suggesting embolism; 19 of the 21 arteriograms demonstrated pulmonary embolism. From autopsy and clinical data, 36 patients were diagnosed as having an embolus while under study, and 12 patients were suspected of having had an embolus during their illness but prior to entry into the study. Only four of these 48 patients experienced symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism. We conclude that asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is a common event in the populations studied. PMID:7059242
Fox, Philip R; Schober, Karsten A
Cardiomyopathy distinguishes a heterogeneous group of myocardial disorders that represent the most prevalent cause of feline heart disease. Etiology is uncertain and the natural history is presently unresolved. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common of these conditions, and while the majority of affected cats are asymptomatic, a proportion is at risk to develop serious morbidities--the most devastating of which include congestive heart failure, arterial thromboembolism, and cardiac death. Predicting when or whether an asymptomatic cat might develop morbidity is hindered by lack of evidence-based clinical trials. Superimposed, these issues create an irresolvable predicament that presently confounds medical decision-making. Review of current perspectives for managing asymptomatic (occult) feline cardiomyopathy. Complex pathophysiology and (likely) sarcomeric mutations give rise to heterogeneous cardiac phenotypes and variable clinical findings. Echocardiography remains the gold standard to clarify cardiac morphology. Frequently, however, detection of echocardiographic alterations--though often of unproven clinical significance--extrapolates by inference or implication a specter of disease, and with this, leads to a path of long-term treatment and testing. Presently, there is no proof that any particular therapy reduces morbidity or prolongs survival of cats affected with occult cardiomyopathy. Recently, however, evidence has accumulated to support the belief that certain prognostic indicators suggest risk for poor outcome. Accordingly, and in absence of evidence-based clinical trials, current practice has shifted to view therapy with the intent to target pathophysiology underlying documented or perceived clinical markers, whose presence portends high risk in certain patients. Affected animals and potentially siblings should be monitored using clinical testing that also takes into account age-related comorbidities. Asymptomatic (occult) feline cardiomyopathy
Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and
Carvalho, Joaquim; Formighieri, Beatriz; Filippi, Sheila; Rossini, Lucio
Ovarian cancer is frequent and recurrence happens in about 75% of patients. As it presents high rates of relapse, the exams for this diagnosis are widely discussed. Beside this, there have been discussions about benefits for early anatomic diagnosis and whether endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be used to track the relapse of the disease. We present a case, in which anatomic location and histological definition of an asymptomatic recurrence of the ovarian cancer was misdiagnosed with conventional methods, but was possible through EUS. PMID:25789287
Piñero, R; Urrestarazu, M; Serrano, N; González, R; Olavarría, R; Moncada, J; Khassale, M; Poleo, J R
We evaluated 21 healthy asymptomatic Venezuelan volunteers free of risk factors for gastritis with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and four antral biopsies: a)2 for histological examinations, b) Urease test, c) culture and gram coloration. 13 out of 21 subjects were positive for Campylobacter pylori (61.30%) all of them had chronic gastritis and in the negative cases 7 were considered histologically normal. Urease test was positive in 12/13 with a sensitivity of 92% and 100% specificity. Frequency in our series is high for Campylobacter pylori (61.30%) and this justify prospective and massive study of the population to detect de prevalence in our country with simpler and cheaper methods.
Etuwewe, B; John, CM; Abdelaziz, M
Background Neonatal Tuberose sclerosis complex may be associated with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyomas. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are the most common cardiac tumours. The symptoms include haemodynamic instability and life threatening arrhythmias usually requiring early surgical intervention. Results We report a case of a 32 week gestation newborn diagnosed with a right ventricular outflow tract mass and subsequently diagnosed with tuberose sclerosis that needed early surgical intervention. Conclusion While this case needed early intervention, the need for surgical intervention in otherwise asymptomatic cases is debatable as neonatal cardiac rhabdomyomas can spontaneously regress. PMID:22368553
Olson, Eric; Bodziony, Michael; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Koby, Bradley; Goehry, Doug
Objective The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of midlumbar spinal manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility. Methods Twelve cyclists were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design after baseline testing. Six participants were in the AB group, and 6 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 3 tested conditions: baseline testing (no intervention prior to testing), condition A (bilateral midlumbar spine manipulation prior to testing), and condition B (sham acupuncture prior to testing, as a control). Testing was blinded and involved a sit-and-reach test followed by a 0.5-km cycle ergometer sprint test against 4-kp resistance. Outcome measures were sit-and-reach distance, time to complete 0.5 km, maximum heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. An additional 8 cyclists were recruited and used as a second set of controls that engaged in 3 testing sessions without any intervention to track test acclimation. An analysis of variance was used to compare dependent variables under each of the 3 conditions for the experimental group and control group #1, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze test acclimation in control group #2. Results Lumbar spine manipulation did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group changes in sit-and-reach (P = .765), 0.5-km sprint performance time (P = .877), maximum exercise heart rate (P = .944), or rating of perceived exertion (P = .875). Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study showed that midlumbar spinal manipulation did not improve hip flexibility or cyclist power output of asymptomatic participants compared with an acupuncture sham and no-treatment control groups. PMID:25435836
Olson, Eric; Bodziony, Michael; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Koby, Bradley; Goehry, Doug
The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of midlumbar spinal manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility. Twelve cyclists were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design after baseline testing. Six participants were in the AB group, and 6 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 3 tested conditions: baseline testing (no intervention prior to testing), condition A (bilateral midlumbar spine manipulation prior to testing), and condition B (sham acupuncture prior to testing, as a control). Testing was blinded and involved a sit-and-reach test followed by a 0.5-km cycle ergometer sprint test against 4-kp resistance. Outcome measures were sit-and-reach distance, time to complete 0.5 km, maximum heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. An additional 8 cyclists were recruited and used as a second set of controls that engaged in 3 testing sessions without any intervention to track test acclimation. An analysis of variance was used to compare dependent variables under each of the 3 conditions for the experimental group and control group #1, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze test acclimation in control group #2. Lumbar spine manipulation did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group changes in sit-and-reach (P = .765), 0.5-km sprint performance time (P = .877), maximum exercise heart rate (P = .944), or rating of perceived exertion (P = .875). The findings of this preliminary study showed that midlumbar spinal manipulation did not improve hip flexibility or cyclist power output of asymptomatic participants compared with an acupuncture sham and no-treatment control groups.
Markus, Birgit; Grote, Karsten; Worsch, Michael; Parviz, Behnoush; Boening, Andreas; Schieffer, Bernhard; Parahuleva, Mariana S.
Objective Stroke and transient ischemic attacks are considered as clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease due to on-going vascular inflammation and finally atherothrombosis of the carotid arteries. MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) are known to be involved in vascular inflammation and plaque destabilization. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of selected miRNAs in endarterectomy specimen from carotid arteries that were taken from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Methods and Results 11 miRNAs were selected and their expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Therefore, samples were divided into three different groups. On the one hand we investigated the expression patterns from patients in asymptomatic (n = 14) and symptomatic (n = 10) plaques; on the other hand we took samples from normal configurated internal mammary arteries (n = 15). Out of these 11 targets we identified some miRNAs, which were up- or down-regulated in either one of the two groups. Interestingly, the expression of two miRNAs was significantly different between asymptomatic and symptomatic samples, namely miR-21 (P<0.01) and miR-143 (P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, we identified miRNA subtypes which showed different expression in endarterectomy specimen from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic plaques, suggesting that these miRNAs correlated with advanced vascular inflammation and plaque stability. They may represent new therapeutic targets for vascular proliferative diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:27631489
Khezri, Somayeh; Mahmoudi, Hamid-Reza; Masoom, Seyedeh Nina; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Balighi, Kamran; Hosseini, S Hamed; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda
Background. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. Anal mucosa may be involved in PV, but the frequency and clinical profile are not fully ascertained. Objective. The aim was to investigate the involvement of the anal area in newly diagnosed PV patients. Patients and Methods. A total of 168 consecutive newly diagnosed PV patients were enrolled. Anal symptoms and signs, involvement of other body sites, and severity of disease were recorded. Results. A total of 47 out of 168 patients (27.9%) had involvement of the anal area. Anal involvement was significantly associated with PV lesions in ophthalmic (P = 0.03), nasal (P = 0.02), and genital mucosa (P < 0.001) but not the oral cavity (P = 0.24). There was a significant association between number of involved mucosal sites and anal involvement (P < 0.001). Anal involvement was associated with oral severity (P = 0.02). Constipation was the most frequent symptom (73.8%) followed by pain on defecation (50%). Seventeen patients (36%) were symptom-free. Erosion was the most frequent sign (91.5%). Conclusion. Anal involvement in PV seems to be more frequent than previously assumed. Routine anal examination is recommended even in asymptomatic patients as anal involvement appears to correlate with the severity of PV.
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A.; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J.; Redwine, Laura
Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ±10.5). Approximately 32% of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting f ewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p<0.02), less fatigue (p<0.001), better sleep (p<0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p<0.01) (overall model F=26.6, p<0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p<0.01) and peace (p<0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p=0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643
Yun, Gee Young; Kim, Woo Sub; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong
The incidence of gastric band erosion has decreased to 1%. Gastric band erosion can manifest with various clinical symptoms, although some patients remain asymptomatic. We present a case of a mostly asymptomatic patient who was diagnosed with gastric band erosion during a routine health check-up. A 32-year-old man without any underlying diseases except for non-alcoholic fatty liver underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery in 2010. He had no significant complications postoperatively. He underwent routine health check-ups with near-normal gastroduodenoscopic findings through 2014. However, in 2015, routine gastroduodenoscopy showed that the gastric band had eroded into the stomach. His gastric band was removed laparoscopically, and the remaining gastric ulcer perforation was repaired using an omental patch. Due to the early diagnosis, the infection was not serious. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 with oral antibiotics. This patient was fortunately diagnosed early by virtue of a routine health check-up; thus, eliminating the possibility of serious complications. PMID:26867553
Noonan, Sinead A.; Sachs, Peter B.; Camidge, D. Ross
Introduction Osimertinib is an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor licensed for the treatment of EGFR mutant, T790M positive, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previously unreported, common, transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPOs) were noted at the University of Colorado in patients during osimertinib therapy. Methods CT imaging and clinical notes of NSCLC patients treated at the University of Colorado with osimertinib were retrospectively reviewed. Results Seven of twenty patients (35%), developed TAPOs while on osimertinib. The radiological patterns seen included ground-glass opacities with/without nodular consolidation. The median time to first lesion development was 8.7 weeks (range: 1.6 – 43 weeks) and 6 weeks (range: 1 – 11 weeks) to resolution during continued osimertinib. Conclusions TAPOs may be a previously unrecognized, benign feature associated with osimertinib therapy, which may be mistaken for isolated pulmonary progression or the beginning of more severe pneumonitis. If new onset pulmonary lesions, especially those associated with ground-glass appearances, are asymptomatic, localized and there is no evidence of disease progression elsewhere it may be reasonable to continue treatment with osimertinib and monitor these lesions for resolution. PMID:27618759
Mennen, U; Sithebe, H
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of asymptomatic Kienböck's disease in patients who attended the Dr George Mukhari Hospital (formerly Ga-Rankuwa Hospital), as well as the relevance of ulnar variance on the disease. This was a retrospective study. In a 12 month period we reviewed postero-anterior radiographs of 1287 patients seen at our radiology department, with complaints unrelated to the upper limb including the wrist and hand. We identified 23 cases (1.9%) of asymptomatic Lichtman stage II-IV Kienböck's disease in our African population. The majority (63%) were male with an average age of 49 years, and 37% were female with an average age of 46.5 years. All cases were unilateral and all were in the dominant hand. Thirteen cases (57%) had an ulnar neutral wrist and the remaining ten (43%) had an ulnar negative variance. The vast majority (83%) were unemployed. Analysis of the data shed no further light on the aetiology. The relevance of ulnar variance as an aetiological factor is questioned.
Gopalkrishnan, K; Hinduja, I N; Kumar, T C
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted anaerobic parasite which causes vaginitis and cervicitis. The present study was carried out to determine the incidence of Trichomonas infection in semen samples of asymptomatic men and also to understand the changes of semen characteristics in the infected individuals before treatment and after treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl, 400 mg x 3x a day for 10 days). The semen obtained from 1131 men was examined for different characteristics and Trichomonas were detected in wet smear preparations in 50 cases (4.42%). The characteristics of semen in them was compared with 52 normal semen samples. Statistical analysis showed that the seminal fluid viscosity and percentage particulate debris was increased significantly in the infected group (P less than 0.001). There was no significant change in the pH of semen. Spermatozoan motility and morphologically normal forms were decreased significantly (P less than 0.001), spermatozoan viability was altered, and there was a significant change in membrane integrity (P less than 0.001) as indicated by the hypoosmotic swelling test. The significant improvement in semen characteristics were seen in 25 cases after a single course of treatment. Therefore, it is possible that in some cases, the infertility seen in asymptomatic individuals may be due to infection by Trichomonas.
Chan, Ronna L
Preterm birth is a delivery that occurs at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation and it is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm birth accounts for up to 75% of all preterm births. A number of maternal or fetal characteristics have been associated with preterm birth, but the use of individual or group biochemical markers have advanced some of the understanding on the mechanisms leading to spontaneous preterm birth. This paper provides a summary on the current literature on the use of biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. Evidence from the literature suggests fetal fibronectin, cervical interleukin-6, and α-fetoprotein as promising biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. The role of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, as well as epigenetics, has the potential to further elucidate and improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms or pathways of spontaneous preterm birth. Refinement in study design and methodology is needed in future research for the development and validation of individual or group biochemical marker(s) for use independently or in conjunction with other potential risk factors such as genetic variants and environmental and behavioral factors in predicting spontaneous preterm birth across diverse populations.
Colović, Radoje; Grubor, Nikica; Colović, Natasa
Solitary pyogenic liver abscess is usually caused by a metastatic infection through the portal blood flow or through the hepatic arterial blood flow from extra-abdominal pyogenic foci. Besides, it may be the result of local inflammatory diseases, such as cholecystitis, hydatid cyst, haematomas particularly with retained foreign bodies, etc. Suppurative cholangitis usually causes multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. Solitary pyogenic abscess is rarely caused by cholangitis, but practically always by suppurative cholangitis. Giant pyogenic liver abscess due to asymptomatic or mild cholangitis is a rarity. We present on a 63 year old man who developed a giant solitary pyogenic liver abscess in whom no other possible cause could be found or anticipated except practically almost asymptomatic choledocholithiasis accompanied with mild elevation of bilirubin content, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-GT. The patient was successfully treated operatively. Over 1800 ml. of pus was aspirated from the abscess cavity. Operative cholangiography performed in spite of the absence of gall bladder stones undilated and noninflamed common bile duct stone showed a small nonobstructing distal common bile duct stone. The duct was not dilated, the bile was clear and there were no signs of cholangitis in the inside of the common bile duct. Cholecystectomy and abscess cavity drainage led to uneventful recovery. The patient has been symptom-free for more than 3.5 years.
Cordray, Frank E
Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324
Since the first description of the Brugada syndrome (BS) in 1992, scientific progress in the understanding of this disease has been enormous; at the same time more and more individuals with the disease have been diagnosed. The profile of patients with BS has changed with more asymptomatic individuals and less expressive clinical features. Asymptomatic BS individuals are at lower arrhythmic risk than those presenting with syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD). The event incidence rate is around 0.5 % per year; this figure is relevant due to the fact that individuals have a long life expectancy and are otherwise healthy. As a result of the risk of SCD, risk stratification is of utmost importance. As the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator is the main treatment for those patients at higher risk, benefits and long-term potential risks have to be adequately considered. Some risk factors, such as spontaneous type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern, are widely accepted, whilst for others contradictory data are present. Furthermore, novel risk factors are now available that might help in the management of BS. The presence of a spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern, history of sinus node dysfunction and inducible ventricular arrhythmias during programmed electrical stimulation of the heart allow us to risk stratify these patients. PMID:28116080
Sansone, Valerio; Consonni, Olmo; Maiorano, Emanuele; Meroni, Roberto; Goddi, Alfredo
To provide new epidemiological data regarding the prevalence, distribution and macroscopic features of shoulder rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (calcific tendinopathy), and to identify the characteristics of calcific deposits associated with shoulder pain. Three hundred and two female volunteers (604 shoulders) who had been referred to a gynaecological clinic participated in the study. The subjects underwent a high-resolution ultrasonography of both shoulders, and those with a diagnosis of calcific tendinopathy compiled a standardized questionnaire relating to shoulder symptoms. We determined the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, and compared differences in distribution and macroscopic features of the symptomatic and asymptomatic calcifications. The prevalence of calcific tendinopathy was 17.8% (103 shoulders). Ninety-five shoulders (15.7%) were symptomatic; of these, calcific tendinopathy was found in 34 shoulders (33%) on imaging. Of the 509 asymptomatic (84.3%) shoulders, calcific tendinopathy was observed in 69 cases (67%). Among tendons, supraspinatus (53.4%) and infraspinatus (54.6%) were the most frequently involved. The majority of calcific deposits were of maximum diameter between 2 and 5 mm (77.9%), and were linear in form (69.9%). The involvement of multiple tendons and a location in the supraspinatus tendon were found to be significantly correlated with pain (p = 0.023, p = 0.043 respectively), as were age (p = 0.041) and an excessive body mass index (p = 0.024). In this sample from the general population of working age females, both intrinsic factors (location in supraspinatus, multiple tendon involvement) and extrinsic variables (age, abnormally high BMI) were correlated with pain in calcific tendinopathy. Level III, cross-sectional study, prevalence study.
Habegger de Sorrentino, A; Motta, P; Iliovich, E; Sorrentino, A P
The cytopathic effect of HIV on CD4 T cells, as well as the active autoimmune mechanism occurring during infection, have been documented. Of the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS, the main one produced by the monocyte-macrophage series is tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF alpha). This cytokine induces antigens such as proteinase 3 (Pr 3) or mieloperoxidase (MPO). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are directed against this type of PMN antigens. In the present paper, the role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in HIV infected patients as responsible for autoimmune phenomena in relation to opportunistic infections, was studied. A total of 88 serum samples belonging to 49 asymptomatic and 39 symptomatic HIV infected patients were tested for ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test over a neutrophil substrate. ANCA were detected in 53.8% of symptomatic patients as compared to 4.1% in asymptomatic cases (p < 0.0001). A 95.9% correlation was observed between ANCA-positive samples and pulmonary infection (n = 20). In those ANCA (+) samples 95.9% correlation was found with pulmonary infection (n = 20). Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent finding in HIV infected patients from Northeastern Argentina. When the presence of ANCA in TB(+) HIV(+) and TB(+) HIV(-) patients was studied, it was seen that positive-ANCA significantly correlated with the first group (p < 0.001). The presence of ANCA was not related to viral infections, toxoplasmosis, neurological features of AIDS, vasculitis or malignant diseases. ANCA during pulmonary infection, mostly caused by TB, as well as PMN infiltration in pulmonary parenchyma, and the deregulated immune reaction elicited by HIV, may contribute to the onset of autoimmune phenomena. The presence of human T lymphocytes reactive to heat stress proteins (Hsp), an important target of immune response against certain intracellular auto-antigens such as MPO from PMN, added to
Prather, H; Harris-Hayes, M; Hunt, D; Steger-May, K; Mathew, V; Clohisy, JC
Objective The objectives of this study are the following: 1) report passive hip ROM in asymptomatic young adults, 2) report the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of hip ROM measurements among testers of multiple disciplines, 3) report the results of provocative hip tests and tester agreement. Design descriptive epidemiology study Setting tertiary university Participants Twenty-eight young adult volunteers without musculoskeletal symptoms, history of disorder or surgery involving the lumbar spine or lower extremities were enrolled and completed the study. Methods Asymptomatic young adult volunteers completed questionnaires and were examined by two blinded examiners during a single session. The testers were physical therapists and physicians. Hip range of motion and provocative tests were completed by both examiners on each hip. Main Outcome Measurements Inter and intra-rater reliability for ROM and agreement for provocative tests was determined. Results Twenty-eight asymptomatic adults with mean age 31 years old (range 18–51 years) and mean modified Harris Hip Score of 99.5 ± 1.5 and UCLA Activity score of 8.8 ± 1.2 completed the study. Intra-rater agreement was excellent for all hip range of motion measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 0.76 to 0.97 with similar agreement if the examiner was a physical therapist or a physician. Excellent inter-rater reliability was found for hip flexion ICC 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.92), supine internal rotation ICC 0.75 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.84) and prone internal rotation ICC 0.79 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.87). The least reliable measurements were supine hip abduction (ICC 0.34) and supine external rotation (ICC 0.18). Agreement between examiners ranged from 96–100% for provocative hip tests which included the hip impingement, resisted straight leg raise, FABER/Patrick’s and log roll tests. Conclusions Specific hip ROM measures show excellent inter-rater reliability and provocative hip tests
Mittendorf, R; Williams, M A; Kass, E H
Since the first report of an association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) in 1962, greater than 30 other studies on the same subject have been published. Some of these confirmed this association while others disputed it. Now, however, by using meta-analysis (a technique considered valid by many but not all statisticians) one may conclude with increased certainty that true associations between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery (less than 37 weeks of gestation) and asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight do exist. Because asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy remains prevalent and preventable, a review of this important subject is relevant at this time.
Healey, Christopher D; Spilman, Sarah K; King, Bradley D; Sherrill, Joseph E; Pelaez, Carlos A
Older adults represent a growing proportion of trauma patients treated in the United States, and cervical spine (c-spine) fracture is an injury that is increasingly common in this population. Neck pain is a major component of current clinical clearance guidelines, but some older adults with c-spine fractures report no neck pain after injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency at which c-spine fractures were unassociated with neck pain in an aging population. A retrospective review was performed for patients 55 years or older with a c-spine fracture during a 4-year study period. All patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and were considered asymptomatic if they did not complain of neck pain on initial presentation, denied tenderness to palpation of the c-spine on examination, and were without neurologic deficit. Differences between groups were assessed with Kruskal-Wallis and χ tests. Of 173 patients with c-spine fractures, 36 (21%) were asymptomatic and reported no neck pain on presentation or on examination. The group without neck pain had higher median injury severity scores (15 vs 10; p < 0.001), were more likely to have another injured body region (69% vs 42%; p = 0.004), and had longer hospitalization (7 vs 5 days; p = 0.008) than patients with neck pain. Twenty-two percent of the symptomatic group and 19% of the asymptomatic group required halo, fusion, or other surgical intervention. Study results indicate that one fifth of patients with a c-spine fracture reported no pain on initial presentation and denied tenderness to palpation on examination. The presence or absence of pain may be an unreliable indicator of c-spine fracture in an aging population. When used in conjunction with existing clearance guidelines, denial of pain may lead to missed injury. We recommend liberal c-spine imaging for older trauma patients with significant mechanism of trauma. Therapeutic study, level III.
Mueller, N J; Fishman, J A
Cryptococcus neoformans is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. The infection generally presents as disseminated disease, involving multiple sites including the central nervous system, lungs, and skin. An increase in the incidence of primary pulmonary cryptococcal infections has been reported recently in solid organ recipients; these infections were generally symptomatic with an accelerated clinical course. We report four cases of asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ recipients (kidney, n=2, heart, n=2). In each case, an incidental finding on a routine chest radiograph led to the microbiological or histopathological diagnosis of invasive pulmonary C. neoformans infection. In these patients, cryptococcosis occurred a median of 25 months (range 7-36 months) after organ transplantation. All patients had a calcineurin inhibitor, prednisone, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil as part of their immunosuppressive therapy at the time of diagnosis. Serum cryptococcal antigen was available and positive in the three patients studied; assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all four patients revealed no organisms by smear or culture. Therapy consisted of oral fluconazole in all cases, with flucytosine in one case, combined with resection of lung tissue in two individuals. All patients have remained free of cryptococcal disease (follow-up median 42 months, from 18 to 88 months). Cryptococcal disease in solid organ recipients may present as asymptomatic, localized pulmonary disease. The natural history of such infections is unknown. New pulmonary radiographic findings should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation including serum and CSF cryptococcal antigen assays, and a biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Prolonged therapy may be used to reduce the risk of progression and dissemination during periods of intensified immune suppression.
Wedel, Thilo; Lange, Christina; Hohmeier, Ines; Cossais, François; Ebsen, Michael; Vogel, Ilka; Böttner, Martina
Background Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor known to promote the survival and maintenance of neurons not only in the developing but also in the adult enteric nervous system. As diverticular disease (DD) is associated with reduced myenteric neurons, alterations of the GDNF system were studied in asymptomatic diverticulosis (diverticulosis) and DD. Methods Morphometric analysis for quantifying myenteric ganglia and neurons were assessed in colonic full-thickness sections of patients with diverticulosis and controls. Samples of tunica muscularis (TM) and laser-microdissected myenteric ganglia from patients with diverticulosis, DD and controls were analyzed for mRNA expression levels of GDNF, GFRA1, and RET by RT-qPCR. Myenteric protein expression of both receptors was quantified by fluorescence-immunohistochemistry of patients with diverticulosis, DD, and controls. Results Although no myenteric morphometric alterations were found in patients with diverticulosis, GDNF, GFRA1 and RET mRNA expression was down-regulated in the TM of patients with diverticulosis as well as DD. Furthermore GFRA1 and RET myenteric plexus mRNA expression of patients with diverticulosis and DD was down-regulated, whereas GDNF remained unaltered. Myenteric immunoreactivity of the receptors GFRα1 and RET was decreased in both asymptomatic diverticulosis and DD patients. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for an impaired GDNF system at gene and protein level not only in DD but also during early stages of diverticula formation. Thus, the results strengthen the idea of a disturbed GDNF-responsiveness as contributive factor for a primary enteric neuropathy involved in the pathogenesis and disturbed intestinal motility observed in DD. PMID:28152033
Shiraishi, I.; Onouchi, Z.; Hayano, T.; Hamaoka, K.; Kiyosawa, N. )
Eight patients with Kawasaki disease who had sustained asymptomatic myocardial infarction 8-15 years ago (mean, 13.1 years) were reexamined by various noninvasive cardiac function tests to assess long-term prognosis. At present, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are normal in six patients. However, all eight patients had a prolonged preejection period (PEP) to left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio 30 s after amylnitrate (AN) inhalation. Six patients had perfusion defects by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and two patients developed ST segment depression in treadmill exercise testing. These patients are symptom-free even though their physical activity has not been restricted. Yet they proved to have serious abnormalities suggesting sequelae of myocardial infarction or existing myocardial ischemia. Judging from the results of noninvasive cardiac function tests and recently performed coronary angiography, five of the eight patients require coronary bypass surgery.
Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M
Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.
García Puig, J; Beltrán, L; Mejía Chew, C; Torres, R; Tebar Márquez, D; Pose Reino, A
The increase in serum urate concentrations (hyperuricaemia, ≥7.0mg/dL) creates crystals, which promote inflammation and joint lesions. Ultrasonography can reveal these urate deposits. The presence of crystals suggests that a patient with hyperuricaemia is actually experiencing asymptomatic gout, and that a patient with gout without subcutaneous tophi could experience tophaceous gout. The information offered by ultrasound (double contour sign and hyperechoic concretions mimicking clouds) enables a more specific classification of hyperuricaemia and gout. Additionally, this information can lead to relevant changes in terms of the diagnosis and therapeutic approach for patients with hyperuricaemia and gout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Zhetishev, R R; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Ivashchenko2, R A; Kamchatnov, P R
Objectives. To study the risk factors of asymptomatic cerebral infarctions (AI) and their effect on cognitive functions. Material and methods. We examined 114 patients, aged from 53 to 88 years, including 58 patients with AI (group 1), 32 women and 26 men (mean age 66.5±7.3 yeas), and 56 patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) without a history of stroke and transitory ischemic attacks, (group 2), 36 women and 20 men (mean age 64.2±6.6 yeas). Results. Cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation) were more frequent in group 1. The results of neuropsychological testing revealed worse cognitive performance in patients with AI. Conclusions. The results confirmed the negative effect of AI on cognitive functioning and higher risk of CCI progression.
Kırkızlar, Eser; Faissol, Daniel M.; Griffin, Paul M.; Swann, Julie L.
Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.
Babic, A; Mathiesen, U; Hedin, K; Bodemar, G; Wigertz, O
Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.
Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J
X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase.
Antonacci, Nicola; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Casadei, Riccardo; Ricci, Claudio; Monari, Francesco; Minni, Francesco
Cholecystocolonic fistulas (CCF) are rare complications of gallstones with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, cholecystocolonic fistulas are often asymptomatic and it is difficult to diagnose them preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is the cholecystoduodenal (70%), followed by the cholecystocolic (10-20%), and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula. Herein, we report a case of female patient with multiple episodes of acute recurrent cholangitis due to common bile duct and gallbladder stones in which preoperative imaging studies were negative for cholecystocolonic fistula that was incidentally discovered and treated during surgery and was appropriately treated. A review of the literature is reported too.
Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris
Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061
Goto, Motohide; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Ishii, Masahiro; Nakamura, Akie; Sano, Shinichiro; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Saito, Reiko; Araki, Shunsuke; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Kawada, Yasusada; Kusuhara, Koichi
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (PHP-1b) is usually diagnosed on various symptoms of hypocalcemia. Previous studies reported a few cases of autosomal dominant pattern PHP-1b identified on familial analysis with asymptomatic hypocalcemia. Herein we report the case of a 6-year-old male patient with sporadic PHP-1b incidentally detected on preoperative examination. He had neither characteristic findings of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy nor evidence of tetany. Sporadic PHP-1b was diagnosed on the basis of clinical observation and laboratory examination. In addition, genetic testing using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification indicated broad methylation abnormalities and confirmed the sporadic form of PHP-1b. Sporadic PHP-1b might often be overlooked when diagnosis is done simply on definitive clinical features. To avoid this, DNA sequencing and methylation analysis should be performed even in the absence of definitive clinical features. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Barroso, Fabio; González‐Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie
ABSTRACT Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR‐FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult‐onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal‐dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR‐FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease‐modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR‐FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation‐specific predictive genetic testing in first‐degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR‐FAP and the structured clinical follow‐up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353–360, 2016 PMID:27273296
Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie
Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.
Watanabe, Koji; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sekine, Katsunori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Igari, Toru; Tanuma, Junko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki
Seventy-one asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) -infected individuals who underwent colonoscopy for detection of diseases other than amebiasis were included in this study. Ulcerative lesions caused by Entamoeba histolytica were identified by colonoscopy and biopsy in 11.3% (8 of 71) of individuals. Stool microscopic examination hardly identified Entamoeba, whereas serum antibody against E. histolytica was often elevated in patients with subclinical intestinal amebiasis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele against E. histolytica infection (DQB1*06:01) was frequently identified in these patients. This study emphasizes the endemic nature of E. histolytica infection in our cohort and the difficulties in epidemiological control. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Magne, Julien; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Piérard, Luc A
Current guidelines recommend mitral valve surgery for asymptomatic patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular systolic function when exercise pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is present. However, the determinants of exercise PHT have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify the echocardiographic predictors of exercise PHT and the impact on symptoms. Comprehensive resting and exercise transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 78 consecutive patients (age, 61+/-13 years; 56% men) with at least moderate degenerative mitral regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice area =43+/-20 mm(2); regurgitant volume =71+/-27 mL). Exercise PHT was defined as a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) >60 mm Hg. Exercise PHT was present in 46% patients. In multivariable analysis, exercise effective regurgitant orifice was an independent determinant of exercise SPAP (P<0.0001) and exercise PHT (P=0.002). Resting PHT and exercise PHT were associated with markedly reduced 2-year symptom-free survival (36+/-14% versus 59+/-7%, P=0.04; 35+/-8% versus 75+/-7%, P<0.0001). After adjustment, although the impact of resting PHT was no longer significant, exercise PHT was identified as an independent predictor of the occurrence of symptoms (hazard ratio=3.4; P=0.002). Receiver-operating characteristics curves revealed that exercise PHT (SPAP >56 mm Hg) was more accurate than resting PHT (SPAP >36 mm Hg) in predicting the occurrence of symptoms during follow-up (P=0.032). Exercise PHT is frequent in patients with asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation. Exercise mitral regurgitation severity is a strong independent predictor of both exercise SPAP and exercise PHT. Exercise PHT is associated with markedly low 2-year symptom-free survival, emphasizing the use of exercise echocardiography. An exercise SPAP >56 mm Hg accurately predicts the occurrence of symptoms.
Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria
Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score < -2.0 standard deviation (SD) in a densitometry clinic located in the city of Blumenau (state of Santa Catarina). Anthropometric, clinical and lifestyle variables were obtained from history-taking and physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.
Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen
Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.
Mohammed, Abdel GaffarA; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz A; ALjahlan, Mohammad A; Al-Homood, Ibrahim A
The aim of this study is to use transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to determine the association between echocardiographic findings and serology. This is a prospective cross-sectional study where 50 patients with confirmed diagnoses of SLE were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics. Clinical and serological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of lupus was done in all patients. Fifty SLE patients, 46 (92%) females and 4 (8%) males, were recruited. Anti-double-stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA), anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β2-glycoproteins were positive in 52.1, 32.6, 13.3, and 15.6%, respectively. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation in 16 patients (32%), pericardial effusion in16 patients (32%), aortic regurgitation in five patients (10%), and tricuspid regurgitation in 10 patients (20%). Eleven patients had left ventricular hypertrophy (22%), and eight patients had ventricular systolic dysfunction (16%). Only four patients had ventricular diastolic dysfunction (8%). A significant association between mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation and positive anti-dsDNA (p < 0.018, p < 0.006, respectively) was found. Positive anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β 2 glycoprotein antibodies were also associated with mitral valve regurgitation (p values 0.044, 0.006, and 0.023), respectively. Active disease assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was found to be associated with increased risk of mitral valvular leaflet thickening (p value 0.028). Performing regular transthoracic echocardiogram in asymptomatic SLE patients is important for early detection and appropriate treatment of cardiac lesions. Clinically quiescent but serologically active disease and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were associated with structural heart abnormalities.
Miller, Ruth R.; Farr, Helen; Young, Bernadette C.; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Fung, Rowena; Godwin, Heather; Knox, Kyle; Votintseva, Antonina; Everitt, Richard G.; Street, Teresa; Cule, Madeleine; Ip, Camilla L. C.; Didelot, Xavier; Peto, Timothy E. A.; Harding, Rosalind M.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Crook, Derrick W.; Bowden, Rory
Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare associated mortality, but like many important bacterial pathogens, it is a common constituent of the normal human body flora. Around a third of healthy adults are carriers. Recent evidence suggests that evolution of S. aureus during nasal carriage may be associated with progression to invasive disease. However, a more detailed understanding of within-host evolution under natural conditions is required to appreciate the evolutionary and mechanistic reasons why commensal bacteria such as S. aureus cause disease. Therefore we examined in detail the evolutionary dynamics of normal, asymptomatic carriage. Sequencing a total of 131 genomes across 13 singly colonized hosts using the Illumina platform, we investigated diversity, selection, population dynamics and transmission during the short-term evolution of S. aureus. Principal Findings We characterized the processes by which the raw material for evolution is generated: micro-mutation (point mutation and small insertions/deletions), macro-mutation (large insertions/deletions) and the loss or acquisition of mobile elements (plasmids and bacteriophages). Through an analysis of synonymous, non-synonymous and intergenic mutations we discovered a fitness landscape dominated by purifying selection, with rare examples of adaptive change in genes encoding surface-anchored proteins and an enterotoxin. We found evidence for dramatic, hundred-fold fluctuations in the size of the within-host population over time, which we related to the cycle of colonization and clearance. Using a newly-developed population genetics approach to detect recent transmission among hosts, we revealed evidence for recent transmission between some of our subjects, including a husband and wife both carrying populations of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Significance This investigation begins to paint a picture of the within-host evolution of an important bacterial pathogen during its
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi
This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1–8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9–24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi
This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.
Corcioli, Fabiana; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Rinieri, Alessio; Fanci, Rosa; Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Azzi, Alberta
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) can persist in immunocompetent symptomatic and non-symptomatic individuals, as demonstrated by the finding of viral DNA in different tissues, in absence of viremia and of anti-B19V IgM. The spread and the nature of this phenomenon have not been clearly determined. In order to investigate the frequency of persistence and the tissue distribution of the three genotypes of B19V, the viral load of the persistent virus and its expression in the affected tissues, 139 tissue samples and 102 sera from 139 asymptomatic individuals have been analyzed by consensus PCRs and genotype specific PCRs for B19V detection and genotyping. Viral load was measured by real time PCR and viral mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR. Altogether, 51% individuals carried B19V DNA, more frequently in solid tissues (65%) than in bone marrow (20%). Genotype 1 was found in 28% tissue samples, genotype 2 in 68% and genotype 3 in 3% only. Viral load ranged from less then 10 copies to 7 x 10(4) copies per 10(6) cells, with the exception of two samples of myocardium with about 10(6) copies per 10(6) cells. mRNA of capsid proteins was present in two bone marrow samples only. In conclusion, in asymptomatic individuals B19V persistence is more common in solid tissues than in bone marrow, and genotype 2 persists more frequently than genotype 1. The results suggest that the virus persists without replicating, at sub-immunogenic levels.
AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Kowalewski, Gregory; Beach, Kirk W; Lal, Brajesh K; Sikdar, Siddhartha
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, and one of the major causes of disability. Approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are due to plaque rupture in the carotid arteries. The most popular diagnostic method uses Doppler ultrasound to find the percent stenosis. However, other factors, such as the hemodynamics around the plaque may play a larger role in identifying the risk of plaque rupture. It has been shown previously in simulations that non-collateral flow in the circle of Willis (COW) could cause an increase of the intraluminal velocity around carotid plaque. This added strain may increase the vulnerability of the plaque to rupture. We investigated asymmetries in flow waveforms in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. We compared clinical results of velocity waveforms in the MCA, acquired using transcranial Doppler (TCD), with a simple linear simulation model of the intra- and extracranial arterial network to investigate the relationship between contralateral and ipsilateral flow profiles in the MCA for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. In 17 out of 23 patients we found waveforms consistent with those predicted for a collateralized COW, with minimal differences in delay, velocity magnitude and resistivity index. In 6 cases, some unexpected findings were noted, such as large delays for 2 patients ≤ 50% stenosis, and a large velocity difference with low delay for 4 patients. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of incomplete intracranial collateralization on the hemodynamics around carotid plaque and to use imaging of the COW to corroborate our results.
Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen
Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.
Imwong, Mallika; Stepniewska, Kasia; Tripura, Rupam; Peto, Thomas J.; Lwin, Khin Maung; Vihokhern, Benchawan; Wongsaen, Klanarong; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dhorda, Mehul; Snounou, Georges; Keereecharoen, Lilly; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sirithiranont, Pasathorn; Chalk, Jem; Nguon, Chea; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Nosten, Francois; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Nicholas J.
Background. Asymptomatic parasitemia is common even in areas of low seasonal malaria transmission, but the true proportion of the population infected has not been estimated previously because of the limited sensitivity of available detection methods. Methods. Cross-sectional malaria surveys were conducted in areas of low seasonal transmission along the border between eastern Myanmar and northwestern Thailand and in western Cambodia. DNA was quantitated by an ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (uPCR) assay (limit of accurate detection, 22 parasites/mL) to characterize parasite density distributions for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and the proportions of undetected infections were imputed. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria as determined by uPCR was 27.5% (1303 of 4740 people tested). Both P. vivax and P. falciparum density distributions were unimodal and log normal, with modal values well within the quantifiable range. The estimated proportions of all parasitemic individuals identified by uPCR were >70% among individuals infected with P. falciparum and >85% among those infected with P. vivax. Overall, 83% of infections were predicted to be P. vivax infections, 13% were predicted to be P. falciparum infections, and 4% were predicted to be mixed infections. Geometric mean parasite densities were similar; 5601 P. vivax parasites/mL and 5158 P. falciparum parasites/mL. Conclusions. This uPCR method identified most infected individuals in malaria-endemic areas. Malaria parasitemia persists in humans at levels that optimize the probability of generating transmissible gametocyte densities without causing illness. PMID:26681777
Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Chung, Winnie; Flores, Marily; Blum, Peggy; Caviness, A Chantal; Bialek, Stephanie R; Grosse, Scott D; Miller, Jerry A; Demmler-Harrison, Gail
To assess the prevalence, characteristics, and risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through hospital-based newborn screening who were asymptomatic at birth compared with uninfected children. We included 92 case-patients and 51 controls assessed by using auditory brainstem response and behavioral audiometry. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the prevalence of SNHL, defined as ≥25 dB hearing level at any frequency and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare SNHL risk between groups. At age 18 years, SNHL prevalence was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17%-36%) among case-patients and 8% (95% CI: 3%-22%) in controls (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.2-14.5; P = .02). Among children without SNHL by age 5 years, the risk of delayed-onset SNHL was not significantly greater for case-patients than for controls (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.4-6.1; P = .5). Among case-patients, the risk of delayed-onset SNHL was significantly greater among those with unilateral congenital/early-onset hearing loss than those without (HR: 6.9; 95% CI: 2.5-19.1; P < .01). The prevalence of severe to profound bilateral SNHL among case-patients was 2% (95% CI: 1%-9%). Delayed-onset and progression of SNHL among children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection continued to occur throughout adolescence. However, the risk of developing SNHL after age 5 years among case-patients was not different than in uninfected children. Overall, 2% of case-patients developed SNHL that was severe enough for them to be candidates for cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Greene, Michael B.
Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…
Greene, Michael B.
Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…
Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Danfeng; Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Yibing
Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brueton, L A; Huson, S M; Cox, P M; Shirley, I; Thompson, E M; Barnes, P R; Price, J; Newsom-Davis, J; Vincent, A
We report six sibs with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and a Pena-Shokeir phenotype, born to a healthy woman who was discovered to have asymptomatic myasthenia gravis (MG). This is the first report of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies causing fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence in the offspring of an asymptomatic mother.
Chambers, E C
The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) does not state whether it prohibits discrimination against individuals who are infected with HIV but asymptomatic. Some courts have held that the language of the ADA is unambiguous and does not cover asymptomatic HIV as a disability because the virus is not an "impairment" that substantially limits a "major life activity." Other courts have looked behind the statutory language and found that Congress intended to protect asymptomatic individuals with HIV because the virus impairs one's ability to procreate and/or engage in sexual relations. This Comment argues that asymptomatic individuals with HIV are indeed protected under the ADA, but that the analytic framework thus far employed by the courts is flawed. Asymptomatic HIV is a protected disability not because it is independently debilitating, but because the prejudices and fears of other may prevent HIV-infected persons from fully participating in society. The ADA was enacted to prevent exactly this type of discrimination.
Fawole, Adewale; Abonour, Rafat; Stender, Michael; Shatavi, Seerin; Gaikazian, Susanna; Anderson, Joseph; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael
Asymptomatic (smoldering) multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous plasma cell proliferative disorder with a variable rate of progression to active multiple myeloma or related disorders. Hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, bone lesions or recurrent bacterial infections characterize active multiple myeloma. Some patients with asymptomatic myeloma develop active disease rapidly, and others can stay asymptomatic for many years. Those who are likely to progress within the first 2 years of diagnosis have been categorized as having high-risk disease. The availability of novel agents in the treatment of active multiple myeloma and our better understanding of the heterogeneity of asymptomatic multiple myeloma have spurred interest in the early treatment of these patients. We have reviewed the current proposed definitions of high-risk asymptomatic multiple myeloma, the concerns about future therapy in view of the transient nature, remissions and toxicities of the therapies, and the eventual relapses that characterize this incurable disease.
Bonomo, Vito; Piraino, Davide; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Evola, Salvatore; Di Piazza, Mariaconcetta; Vicari, Claudia; Lupo, Ambra; Inga, Giuseppe; Andolina, Giuseppe; Assennato, Pasquale; Novo, Salvatore
The evaluation of coronary lesions in patients with asymptomatic carotid plaque represents a very promising line of research to assess cardiovascular risk and the possible implementation of a more aggressive prevention therapy. Methods: In this study we enrolled 102 patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk but no history of coronary artery disease. The first group, consisting of 51 patients, underwent a Coronary CT scan (CCT-group) as well as carotid ultrasonography. The second group, also consisting of 51 patients, underwent coronary angiography (CA) and carotid ultrasonography. Results: The absence of a statistically significant difference between the involvement of both coronary and carotid sites, assessed by CCT and CA, confirms the role of coronary CT as a useful method in the preclinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk. In the CCT group, the correlation between atherosclerosis of carotid artery and coronary disease, as well as between the mean carotid intimal medial thickness and the number of involved coronary vessels, and between the maximum values of carotid plaque and the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50%, were statistically significant. The Agatson calcium score was also statistically associated with carotid plaque size. Conclusion: The imaging biomarkers have a key role in the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, carotid ultrasound examination and a CT-scan of coronary arteries, in a particular sub-group of patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk, can play a crucial role to assess the preventive therapeutic strategies. PMID:25147763
Background A moderate association has been found between asymptomatic parasitaemia and undernutrition. However, additional investigation using the gold standard for asymptomatic parasitaemia confirmation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is needed to validate this association. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples from children less than five years of age in a rural Ghanaian community were used to determine if an association exists between chronic undernutrition and PCR-confirmed cases of asymptomatic malaria. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 214 children less than five years of age from a community near Kumasi, Ghana. Blood samples and anthropometric measurements from these children were collected during physical examinations conducted in January 2007 by partners of the Barekuma Collaborative Community Development Programme. Results Findings from the logistic model predicting the odds of asymptomatic malaria indicate that children who experienced mild, moderate or severe stunting were not more likely to have asymptomatic malaria than children who were not stunted. Children experiencing anaemia had an increased likelihood (OR = 4.15; 95% CI: 1.92, 8.98) of asymptomatic malaria. Similarly, increased spleen size, which was measured by ultrasound, was also associated with asymptomatic malaria (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.28). Fast breathing, sex of the child, and age of the child were not significantly associated with the asymptomatic malaria. Conclusions No significant association between chronic undernutrition and presence of asymptomatic malaria was found. Children who experience anaemia and children who have splenomegaly are more likely to present asymptomatic malaria. Programmes aimed at addressing malaria should continue to include nutritional components, especially components that address anaemia. PMID:20122258
Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.
BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of
Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Ippolito, E; Cesarone, M; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements Pycnogenol and TECA (total triterpenic fraction of Centella Asiatica) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral non-stenosing plaques. This was an observational pilot substudy of the San Valentino epidemiological cardiovascular study. The study included 1363 subjects aged 45-60 without any conventional risk factors who had non stenosing atherosclerotic plaques (<50%) in at least one carotid or common femoral bifurcation, allocated into 6 groups: Group 1 (CONTROLS): management was based on education, exercise, diet and lifestyle changes. This same management plan was used in all groups; Group 2 Pycnogenol 50 mg/day; Group 3 Pycnogenol 100 mg/day; Group 4 Aspirin 100 mg/day or Ticlopidine 250 mg/day if intolerant to aspirin; Group 5 Aspirin 100 mg/day and Pycnogenol 100 mg/day; Group 6 Pycnogenol 100 mg/day plus TECA (total triterpenic fraction of Centella Asiatica) 100 mg/day. There was a six monthly follow-up up to 30 months. Plaque progression was assessed using the ultrasonic arterial score based on the arterial wall morphology and the number of plaques that progressed from the non-stenotic to the stenotic group. A secondary endpoint was to evaluate the changes in oxidative stress at baseline and at 30 months. The ultrasonic score increased significantly in groups 1, 2 and 4 but not in groups 3, 5 and 6 suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol 100 mg. The percentage of plaques that progressed from class IV to class V was 8.4% in group 2, 5.3% in group 3, 4% in group 5 and 1.1% in group 6 (P<0.0001) compared with 16.6% in group 4 (aspirin) and 21.3% in the control group suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol. The lowest rate of progression was in group 6 (Pycnogenol plus TECA). At 30 months, the oxidative stress in all the Pycnogenol groups was less than in the control group. The oxidative stress was lower in the Pycnogenol 100 mg
Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Griffin, Maura; Sabetai, Michael; Thomas, Dafydd J; Tegos, Thomas; Geroulakos, George; Labropoulos, Nicos; Doré, Caroline J; Morris, Tim P; Naylor, Ross; Abbott, Anne L
The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. This was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients undergoing medical intervention for vascular disease. Hazard ratios for ICA stenosis, clinical features, and plaque texture features associated with ipsilateral cerebrovascular or retinal ischemic (CORI) events were calculated using proportional hazards models. A total of 1121 patients with 50% to 99% asymptomatic ICA stenosis in relation to the bulb (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) were followed-up for 6 to 96 months (mean, 48). A total of 130 ipsilateral CORI events occurred. Severity of stenosis, age, systolic blood pressure, increased serum creatinine, smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, history of contralateral transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke, low grayscale median (GSM), increased plaque area, plaque types 1, 2, and 3, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) without acoustic shadowing were associated with increased risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for predicted risk versus observed CORI events as a measure of model validity. The areas under the ROC curves for a model of stenosis alone, a model of stenosis combined with clinical features and a model of stenosis combined with clinical, and plaque features were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64), 0.66 (0.62-0.72), and 0.82 (0.78-0.86), respectively. In the last model, stenosis, history of contralateral TIAs or stroke, GSM, plaque area, and DWAs were independent predictors of ipsilateral CORI events. Combinations of these could stratify patients into different levels of risk for ipsilateral CORI and stroke, with predicted risk close to observed risk. Of the 923 patients with ≥ 70% stenosis, the predicted cumulative
Liontos, Lynn Balster
Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…
Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Mamourian, Alexander; Schmitt, James E; Cloran, Francis; Vossough, Arastoo; Pukenas, Bryan; Loevner, Laurie A
Objective: While haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions involving the spine, some behave in an aggressive fashion. We investigated the utility of fat-suppressed sequences to differentiate between benign and aggressive vertebral haemangiomas. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of aggressive vertebral haemangioma and available short tau inversion-recovery or T2 fat saturation sequence were included in the study. 11 patients with typical asymptomatic vertebral body haemangiomas were selected as the control group. Region of interest signal intensity (SI) analysis of the entire haemangioma as well as the portion of each haemangioma with highest signal on fat-saturation sequences was performed and normalized to a reference normal vertebral body. Results: A total of 8 patients with aggressive vertebral haemangioma and 11 patients with asymptomatic typical vertebral haemangioma were included. There was a significant difference between total normalized mean SI ratio (3.14 vs 1.48, p = 0.0002), total normalized maximum SI ratio (5.72 vs 2.55, p = 0.0003), brightest normalized mean SI ratio (4.28 vs 1.72, p < 0.0001) and brightest normalized maximum SI ratio (5.25 vs 2.45, p = 0.0003). Multiple measures were able to discriminate between groups with high sensitivity (>88%) and specificity (>82%). Conclusion: In addition to the conventional imaging features such as vertebral expansion and presence of extravertebral component, quantitative evaluation of fat-suppression sequences is also another imaging feature that can differentiate aggressive haemangioma and typical asymptomatic haemangioma. Advances in knowledge: The use of quantitative fat-suppressed MRI in vertebral haemangiomas is demonstrated. Quantitative fat-suppressed MRI can have a role in confirming the diagnosis of aggressive haemangiomas. In addition, this application can be further investigated in future studies to predict aggressiveness of vertebral haemangiomas in early stages. PMID
Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Mamourian, Alexander; Schmitt, James E; Cloran, Francis; Vossough, Arastoo; Pukenas, Bryan; Loevner, Laurie A; Mohan, Suyash
While haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions involving the spine, some behave in an aggressive fashion. We investigated the utility of fat-suppressed sequences to differentiate between benign and aggressive vertebral haemangiomas. Patients with the diagnosis of aggressive vertebral haemangioma and available short tau inversion-recovery or T2 fat saturation sequence were included in the study. 11 patients with typical asymptomatic vertebral body haemangiomas were selected as the control group. Region of interest signal intensity (SI) analysis of the entire haemangioma as well as the portion of each haemangioma with highest signal on fat-saturation sequences was performed and normalized to a reference normal vertebral body. A total of 8 patients with aggressive vertebral haemangioma and 11 patients with asymptomatic typical vertebral haemangioma were included. There was a significant difference between total normalized mean SI ratio (3.14 vs 1.48, p = 0.0002), total normalized maximum SI ratio (5.72 vs 2.55, p = 0.0003), brightest normalized mean SI ratio (4.28 vs 1.72, p < 0.0001) and brightest normalized maximum SI ratio (5.25 vs 2.45, p = 0.0003). Multiple measures were able to discriminate between groups with high sensitivity (>88%) and specificity (>82%). In addition to the conventional imaging features such as vertebral expansion and presence of extravertebral component, quantitative evaluation of fat-suppression sequences is also another imaging feature that can differentiate aggressive haemangioma and typical asymptomatic haemangioma. The use of quantitative fat-suppressed MRI in vertebral haemangiomas is demonstrated. Quantitative fat-suppressed MRI can have a role in confirming the diagnosis of aggressive haemangiomas. In addition, this application can be further investigated in future studies to predict aggressiveness of vertebral haemangiomas in early stages.
Nzobo, Baraka J; Ngasala, Billy E; Kihamia, Charles M
Malaria is a public health problem in Tanzania affecting all age groups. It is known that school children are the age group most commonly infected with malaria parasites. Their infections are usually asymptomatic, go unnoticed and thus never get treated, result in anaemia, reduced ability to concentrate and learn in school and if fallen sick may lead to school absenteeism. Effective malaria control requires frequent evaluation of effectiveness of different malaria interventions. A cross-sectional study design involving 317 out of 350 school children aged 6-13 years from five primary schools within municipality was conducted. Multistage cluster sampling and simple random sampling methods were used to obtain primary school and study participants, respectively. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for Plasmodium parasite detection by malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) and haemoglobin level assessment by Easy Touch(®) GHb system machine. A questionnaire was administered to assess use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and anti-malarial drugs. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 5.4 % (95 % CI 3.3-8.6 %) and anaemia was 10.1 % (95 % CI 7.2-13.9 %). School children aged 6-9 years were more affected by malaria than those aged 10-13 years. The proportion of ITNs used was 90.6 % (95 % CI 86.3-93.9 %) while that of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was 71.9 % (95 % CI 66.2-77.1 %). Findings show existence of asymptomatic malaria and walking anaemia among primary school children in Morogoro municipality. The majority of school children reported use of ITNs and ACT for malaria control. These findings provide a rationale for using schools and school children to assess effectiveness of malaria interventions.
Kang, Kyung-Wook; Shin, Young Ho; Kang, Seungcheol
Many countries have hypergravity training centers using centrifuges for pilots to cope with a high gravity (G) environment. The high G training carries potential risk for the development of spinal injury. However, no studies evaluated the influence of centrifuge training on the spines of asymptomatic fighter pilots on a large scale. Study subjects were 991 male fighter pilots with high G training at one institution. Subject variables included information about physical characteristics, flight hours of pilots prior to the training, and G force exposure related factors during training. The two dependent variables were whether the pilots developed acute spinal injury after training and the severity of the injury (major/minor). The incidence of acute spinal injury after high G training was 2.3% (23 of 991 subjects). There were 19 subjects who developed minor injury and 4 subjects who developed a herniated intervertebral disc, which is considered a major injury. In multivariate analysis, only the magnitude of G force during training was significantly related to the development of acute spinal injury. However, there was no significant factor related to the severity of the injury. These results suggest that high G training could cause negative effects on fighter pilots' spines. The magnitude of G force during training seemed to be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of acute spinal injury.
Budoff, Matthew J.; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A.; Berman, Daniel S.; Druz, Regina S.; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H.; Weigold, Wm. Guy; Soman, Prem
Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a “coronary risk equivalent,” implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937
Yaggie, Ryan E.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Klumpp, David J.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) account for approximately 8 million clinic visits annually with symptoms that include acute pelvic pain, dysuria, and irritative voiding. Empiric UTI management with antimicrobials is complicated by increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens, but live biotherapeutics products (LBPs), such as asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) strains of E. coli, offer the potential to circumvent antimicrobial resistance. Here we evaluated ASB E. coli as LBPs, relative to ciprofloxacin, for efficacy against infection and visceral pain in a murine UTI model. Visceral pain was quantified as tactile allodynia of the pelvic region in response to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments. Whereas ciprofloxacin promoted clearance of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), it did not reduce pelvic tactile allodynia, a measure of visceral pain. In contrast, ASB E. coli administered intravesically or intravaginally provided comparable reduction of allodynia similar to intravesical lidocaine. Moreover, ASB E. coli were similarly effective against UTI allodynia induced by Proteus mirabilis, Enterococccus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therefore, ASB E. coli have anti-infective activity comparable to the current standard of care yet also provide superior analgesia. These studies suggest that ASB E. coli represent novel LBPs for UTI symptoms. PMID:25405579
Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; Del Valle, Elisa Elena; Rey, Paula Gabriela
Idiopathic or benign hematuria is diagnosed in children after all other possible causes have been ruled out and test results for renal or urologic pathologies are negative. To identify possible urinary risk factors for hematuria in children, we retrospectively evaluated clinical onset, family history, and metabolic risk factors of 60 children with idiopathic hematuria but without renal stones or other pathologic conditions that could explain the hematuria. All patients followed the same ambulatory protocol at that used to evaluate kidney stone-formers. Seven patients had microhematuria, three patients each had microhematuria and gross hematuria, and the remaining 50 patients had gross hematuria onset. A family history of stone disease was found in 63 % of the children. At least one urinary metabolic abnormality was present in 49 patients, while 11 patients had no metabolic abnormality. The most common urinary risk factor was idiopathic hypercalciuria (single or associated), which was found in 43.5 % of patients, followed by hypocitraturia (single or associated), present in 31.7 %. Unduly acidic urine pH as a single abnormality was found in 10 % of this pediatric patient population. We also found hyperoxaluria and, less frequently, hypomagnesuria, and hyperuricosuria. Asymptomatic idiopathic hematuria in pediatric patients may often be associated to different urinary biochemical abnormalities, similar to what is observed in pediatric kidney stone-formers.
Erdem, Iclal; Yildiz, Senol; Uzun, Gunalp; Sonmez, Guner; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Mutluoglu, Mesut; Mutlu, Hakan; Oner, Bulent
There is some concern that over a period of years, diving may produce cumulative neurological injury even in divers who have no history of decompression sickness. We evaluated asymptomatic divers and controls for cerebral white-matter lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study enrolled 113 male military divers (34.4 +/- 5.6 yr) and 65 non-diving men (33.1 +/- 9.0 yr) in good health. Exclusion criteria included any condition that might be expected to produce neurological effects. Patent foramen ovale was not assessed. A questionnaire was used to elicit diving history. A 1.5-T MRI device was used to acquire T1, T2-weighted, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of the brain. A lesion was counted if it appeared hyperintense on both T2-weighted and FLAIR images. MRI revealed brain lesions in 26 of 113 divers (23%) and in 7 of 65 (11%) controls, a difference that was statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to blood pressure, smoking history, or alcohol consumption, and no subject reported a history of head trauma or migraine. There was no relationship between MRI findings and age, diving history, or lipid profile in divers. The higher incidence of lesions in the cerebral white matter of divers confirms the possibility that cumulative, subclinical injury to the neurological system may affect the long-term health of military and recreational divers.
Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo
Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.
Katoh, T; Maruyama, R; Nishioka, K; Sano, T
The patient was a 19-year-old female student who purchased a puppy from a pet shop four weeks earlier. At the time of her first examination, an annular edematous erythema with adherent scales and vesicles surrounding its margin was seen on the left forearm. On direct examination of the vesicles, fungal elements were detected, and Microsporum canis was isolated. The puppy was a Pomeranian and was kept in the house at all times. No clinical lesions were seen on the puppy, and the Wood's lamp test was negative. However, M. canis was isolated from the animal by the hairbrush method. Symptoms disappeared after the patient was treated topically with terbinafine cream for three weeks. Although the dog received no treatment whatsoever, there was no evidence of the disease on the pet. Results of the hairbrush method performed on the pet two and three weeks later were negative, but, at five weeks, it was again positive. Human infection with M. canis from an asymptomatic dog was demonstrated in this case. Attention should be paid to preventing infections from animals without lesions.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M
Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ(2)) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.
Singh, Ramandeep; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Bemelman, Frederike J
Bacteriuria is common among renal allograft recipients. It can be categorized into asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI). However, in medical literature, the classifications of bacteriuria are often not clear or ASB is also classified as a UTI. This contributes to difficulties in interpretation of the incidence and risk factors of these two entities. In this review, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, management and the impact on renal allograft function of these two entities separately according to the recent literature. Risk factors for ASB are not completely comparable to the risk factors of UTIs. Persistent ASB has been associated with development of acute rejection and allograft pyelonephritis. The available data suggest that treatment of ASB is not very effective. Prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole does not prevent UTIs such as allograft pyelonephritis. Blood stream infections and emphysematous allograft pyelonephritis are associated with renal allograft loss. ASB is the most common manifestation of bacteriuria after renal transplantation. More effective interventions are needed to prevent bacteriuria. Renal allograft recipients with persistent ASB should be closely monitored since they could be at risk for developing not only UTIs, such as allograft pyelonephritis, but also acute rejection.
Delfa, I.L.; McLean, J.S.; Hoffstein, V.
A 30-year-old man was admitted for removal of a Silastic rod inserted four months earlier after a traumatic laceration of the flexor tendon of his left fifth finger. Otherwise he was asymptomatic and specifically denied any symptoms referable to the chest (and heart). He was a nonsmoker and had a normal history of development in childhood. The trachea was shifted to the left. The left hemithorax was dull to percussion. Expansion of the chest and vocal and tactile fremitus were reduced over the left hemithorax, and breath sounds also were decreased on the left side. The results of the remainder of the physical examination were completely normal. The roentgenograms of the chest demonstrate almost total opacification of the left hemithorax with narrowing of the intercostal spaces on the left, elevation of the left diaphragmatic leaflet, and marked shift of the mediastinal structures and trachea into the left hemithorax. Tomographic studies of the chest showed absence of the normal carina with no demonstrable bronchus to the left lung. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion scans were performed. Complete (total) unilateral agenesis of the left lung is an uncommon congenital anomaly usually associated with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or vertebral abnormalities.
Elsharawy, M A; Al-Elq, A H; Alkhadra, A H; Moghazy, K M; Elsaid, A S
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and accordingly increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at screening high risk diabetic patients for atherosclerosis in different arterial territories. All high risk asymptomatic patients attending the diabetic clinic, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia were invited to be screened for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), extra-cranial cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) over one year. All participants underwent measurement of ankle brachial pressure index, carotid Duplex scan and exercise electrocardiography (ECG). All patients underwent evaluation of conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis One hundred and sixty nine patients were invited to be screened. Of these 138 (82%) completed all the screening tests. The mean age was 53.5±7.18 years. Seventy-five (55%) had evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic group, 24 patients had PAD, 47 had CVD and 30 had CAD. There were significant differences between the atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic groups with regard to most risk factors. In age, sex adjusted, the risk of developing atherosclerosis was significantly increased with all risk factors. Dyslipidemia had the highest association (OR 9.7, 95% CI 8.1-10.2) Participation and diagnostic yield of screening for atherosclerosis had satisfactory validity and reliability. Routine screening in high-risk diabetic patients can serve as an effective tool for diagnosis of sub clinical cardiovascular disease and provide strategies to optimize risk reduction.
Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Farahani, Zahra
Castleman’s disease, giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a kind of benign lymphoproliferative disease with gentle behavior. Its etiology and prevalence are unclear. This rare disease is usually found in mediastinal area asymptomatically and incidentally. It is also rare to see this tumor in the retroperitoneum. In this study, we have introduced a 34-year-old woman who referred just with occasional abdominal pain caused by compressive symptoms. Laboratory findings only reported microcytic anemia (MCH: 18.5, MCV: 63, Hemoglobin 10.2 g/dl). Chest and abdominal X-ray imaging showed no remarkable point. In abdominal ultrasonography, a solid and firm tumor with 12.2×5.3×6.6 cm was reported in patient’s retroperitoneum. Patient’s surgery was done and the tumor (covered by a fibrous thick capsule, with no bizarre appearance and bleeding) was completely removed. Pathologic examination indicated a Castleman’s tumor, type of unicentric and hyaline-vascular. This item had been one of the rare reported items of Castleman’s disease in the retroperitoneal space. PMID:26379356
RIZEK, Camila F.; LUIZ, André Machado; de ASSIS, Gracilene Ramos; COSTA, Silvia Figueiredo; LEVIN, Anna Sara; LOPES, Marta Heloisa
SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is a cause of several life-threatening diseases and can be a normal commensal in the upper respiratory tract of healthy carriers. The carrier rate is not well established especially because there is no standard method for the isolation of N. meningitidis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare identification methods for the carrier state. Two swabs were collected from 190 volunteers: one was cultured and the other had DNA extracted directly from the sample. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to determine species and serogroups and compared the results between the methods. PCR for species determination used two pairs of primers and when there was only one amplicon, it was sequenced. The culture technique was positive in 23 (12.1%) subjects while the direct extraction method was positive in 132 (69.5%), p < 0.001. Among the 135 subjects with positive N. meningitides tests, 88 (65.2%) were serogroup C; 3 (2.2%) serogroup B; 5 (3.7%) were positive for both serogroup B and C, and 39 (28.9%) did not belong to any of the tested serogroups. In this study, PCR from DNA extracted directly from swabs identified more N. meningitidis asymptomatic carriers than the culture technique. PMID:27680165
Von Der Emde, Jürgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jürgen
From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2½ years. Larger valves (≥ A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175
Mao, XiaWa; Xu, Gang; Wu, HuiFeng; Xiao, JiaQuan
To investigate feasibility and safety of treating simple parapelvic renal cysts using flexible ureteroscopy with the Holmium laser. Between February 2010 and July 2013, a total of 21 patients, aging from 29 to 71 (49.00 ± 13.23), were diagnosed with parapelvic renal cysts by ultrasonography in combination with contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the Department of Urology Surgery, People's Hospital of the Zhejiang province. Fifteen patients were asymptomatic and 6 patients were symptomatic with flank pain. All patients underwent drainage of the cysts using flexible ureteroscopy with Holmium laser. Patients were followed up 1, 3 and 12 months after the operation. The intervention was successful in 20 patients and failed in 1 patient who, subsequently successfully underwent a laparoscopic cyst removal. There were no intra-operative and post-operative complications reported. The mean operation time was 27 min (range: 15 to 45 min). The mean hospital stay was 2.6 days (range: 1 to 5 days). Twenty patients were followed up until 15 months after surgery. After such ureteroscopic management, there were no renal cysts detected in 7 patients (35 %) and a reduction in size of the renal cysts was found in 13 patients (65 %). Flank pain subsided in all 6 (100 %) previously symptomatic patients. Flexible ureteroscopy with the Holmium laser may be a feasible and effective treatment option in selected patients with simple parapelvic renal cysts. Further prospective randomized studies that compare the procedure to laparoscopic treatments are needed.
Cooper, B C; Rabuzzi, D D
The diagnosis of myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD), commonly called temporomandibular joint syndrome, has traditionally been made on the presence of a group of clinical symptoms that produce pain and limitation of movement. The cause of this common illness has been the subject of controversy for over half a century. There has been a lack of agreement on diagnosis, a cause, and treatment. Advanced bioelectronic technology now makes an accurate diagnosis possible, based not merely on clinical symptoms, but on reproducible scientific data. A cause of MPD is discernable and reliable treatment possible, as well as long lasting resolution objectively monitorable with the Mandibular Kinesiograph (MKG 5-R) and Bioelectric Processor (EMIR). A study of mandibular movement and masticular muscle function of 26 "normal" subjects (i.e., clinically asymptomatic) revealed that the overwhelming majority did indeed have dysfunction of the muscles which move and posture the mandible. The significance of this study is twofold. First it demonstrates a valid testing procedure for measuring mandibular movement and muscle function. Second it establishes the fact that most individuals have a physical predisposition to MPD. Changes in the adaptive capacity of the neuromusculature by physical or emotional trauma could then precipitate MPD.
Metcalfe, Peter D.; Assmus, Mark; Kiddoo, Darcie
Introduction: Historically, pyeloplasties have been performed after symptoms and radiographic confirmation of an ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, with prenatal ultrasonography, the approach to patients has fundamentally changed. Increasingly, patients are diagnosed and treated before the advent of morbidity, based on imaging findings alone. However, optimum screening strategies and thresholds for intervention vary significantly, are controversial, and are not founded on outcome-based evidence. We examined all pyeloplasties performed at our institution and reviewed their indication for surgery. We hypothesized that, despite ubiquitous screening for UPJO, most pyeloplasties had been performed secondary to symptoms and did not benefit from antenatal screening. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all pyeloplasties performed at the Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, over the past 8 years. Patients were categorized according to indication for surgery: symptomatic or asymptomatic. Results: Most (60%) of our pyeloplasties were performed for symptomatic indications. Furthermore, 12% of these patients had antenatally detected hydronephrosis that was thought to have resolved spontaneously during follow-up. Of our symptomatic patients, 37% were undergoing surveillance with the expectation for spontaneous resolution. Of the 29 patients who underwent pyeloplasty, 8 suffered a preoperative loss of function on renal scans; however, only 50% returned to within 90% of their original function. Conclusion: Despite active surveillance of antenatally detected hydronephrosis, most pyeloplasties at our institution were performed for de-novo symptoms. We believe that this simple observation reinforces that our current surveillance strategies are unable to predict and eliminate all morbidity from UPJO. PMID:25553157
Shiga, Tomoko; Owada, Kiyoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuo; Nagahara, Hikaru; Shiratori, Keiko
The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI) in the general Japanese population. A total of 634 subjects (272 men aged 55.4+/-8.8 years and 362 women aged 55.2+/-8.5 years) who visited the Health Management Center at Aoyama Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) from January 2004 through January 2005 for an annual brain dry dock examination were analyzed. We evaluated 21 risk factors for ACI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal or potentially abnormal conditions were detected in 258 subjects (40.7% of all subjects who had an annual check-up program for brain disease). The most frequent abnormal finding was ACI, which was observed in 208 subjects. The significant risk factors for ACI, as determined by multivariate logistic analysis, were age (P <0.01), hypertension (P <0.01), and hypertensive vascular changes in the fundus (P <0.05). The hypertensive vascular abnormalities in the fundus might be a risk factor for ACI independent of age and hypertension.
Colomina, M J; Puig, L; Godet, C; Villanueva, C; Bago, J
The prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac valve anomalies was determined in 82 patients (69 females and 13 males) diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis and scheduled for corrective surgery (mean age at surgery 16.3 years). The preoperative study in each patient included echocardiography and ultrasound Doppler. Twenty-three valvular anomalies were found in 20 patients (24.4%). The most frequent was mitral valve prolapse. The occurrence of valvular anomalies did not correlate with sex, curve magnitude, or age at diagnosis. Eighteen patients presented a total of 20 comorbid conditions: positive family history of scoliosis (five cases), isthmic spondylolisthesis (five cases), nervous anorexia (two cases), hereditary exostosis, cystic fibrosis, ureteral stenosis, mammary hypoplasia, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, psoriasis, celiac disease, and lactose intolerance. A significant relationship was found between valvular anomalies and comorbidity. Valvular anomalies were detected in 11 out of 64 patients (17.2%) with no comorbidity and in nine out of 18 patients (50%) with a comorbid condition (Chi-square 8.2, p = 0.004). In this latter group of patients, routine echocardiographic study seems advisable in the preoperative evaluation.
Celen, Sevki; Oruç, Ayla Sargin; Karayalçin, Rana; Saygan, Sibel; Unlü, Serpil; Polat, Belgin; Danişman, Nuri
Introduction. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), occurring in 2-11% of pregnancies, is a major predisposition to the development of pyelonephritis, which is associated with obstetrical complications, such as preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ASB, the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms and the associated risk factors in an outpatient clinical setting in Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Material and Methods. Between December 2009 and May 2010, pregnant women admitted to the antenatal outpatient clinic were included in this study. The results of a complete urine analysis, midstream urine culture and antibacterial susceptibility were evaluated. Results. Of the 2011 pregnant women included, 171 had ASB (8.5%). E. coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism (76.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (14.6%). Both microorganisms were highly sensitive to fosfomycin, sensivity being 99.2% for E. coli and 88% for Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusions. In this certain geographical region, we found E. coli as the most common causative agent of ASB in the obstetric population and it is very sensitive to fosfomycin. We recommend fosfomycin for ASB in pregnant women due to its high sensitivity, ease of administration and safety for use in pregnancy.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.
Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ 2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398
Pruimboom, Leo; de Punder, Karin
Gluten-containing cereals are a main food staple present in the daily human diet, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten intake is associated with the development of celiac disease (CD) and related disorders such as diabetes mellitus type I, depression, and schizophrenia. However, until now, there is no consent about the possible deleterious effects of gluten intake because of often failing symptoms even in persons with proven CD. Asymptomatic CD (ACD) is present in the majority of affected patients and is characterized by the absence of classical gluten-intolerance signs, such as diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. Nevertheless, these individuals very often develop diseases that can be related with gluten intake. Gluten can be degraded into several morphine-like substances, named gluten exorphins. These compounds have proven opioid effects and could mask the deleterious effects of gluten protein on gastrointestinal lining and function. Here we describe a putative mechanism, explaining how gluten could "mask" its own toxicity by exorphins that are produced through gluten protein digestion.
Martínez-Vélez, David; González-Fernández, Enrique; Esteban, Jaime; Cordero-Ampuero, José
The risk of knee arthroplasty infection and appropriateness of antibiotic treatment are not clearly established in patients with preoperative asymptomatic bacteriuria. It has been the purpose to analyze the prevalence of preoperative asymptomatic bacteriuria in knee arthroplasty patients, as well as the incidence of prosthetic joint infection in those with asymptomatic bacteriuria treated and not with specific antibiotics. This prospective study included 215 consecutive knee arthroplasty patients (73 ± 6 years, 168 females) with neither urinary symptoms nor perioperative urethral catheterization. A "clean-catch" urinalysis was obtained from all patients before surgery and an urine culture if urinalysis was abnormal. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was diagnosed if >100,000 colony-forming units/ml were cultured. Patients were treated (Group A) or not (Group B) with additional specific antibiotics for urine bacteria according to surgeon criteria. Minimum follow-up reached 48 months. No patient was lost to follow-up. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was diagnosed in 11/215 patients (5.1 %) (11/11 females), and four of these 11 were treated with specific antibiotics (Group A). Only one patient in Group A suffered a prosthesis infection along the first 3 months (1/125, 0.5 %), but bacteria cultured from the wound were absolutely different to those in urine culture. No patient in Group B suffered a prosthesis infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria presents a low prevalence. We have not found any case of arthroplasty infection from urinary focus in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria whether they received or not specific antibiotics.
Osorio, Lyda; Todd, Jim; Bradley, David
Asymptomatic malaria is characteristic of high intensity transmission areas in Africa but unusual in low transmission areas in Latin America. Nevertheless, asymptomatic malaria has been reported to be frequent in areas in Latin America with high and moderate intensity of transmission. Asymptomatic malaria can affect both individuals who carry parasites and are cryptic carrier reservoirs for the community. Individuals chronically infected with malaria parasites are usually unidentifiable by most malaria control programmes. In order to identify whether asymptomatic individuals harboring malaria parasites are an important reservoir of infection in Quibdó, Chocó, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was assessed in schoolchildren. This study was part of a major study of the epidemiology of malaria in Quibdó. A total of 255 children from 5 schools were examined, of which 223 were included in the analysis. Children reported headache (34%), cough (32%), and diarrhoea (9%). None of the children presented a positive thick smear. In addition, IFA tests in a subsample of 25 children were negative. By these criteria, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in Quibdó schoolchildren is 0% (95%C.I.: 0.0-1.4). Although asymptomatic malaria in adults possibly occurs, a very low prevalence is predicted.
Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita
Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202
Matsui, Ryukichi; Nakagawa, Tomonori; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei
Atherosclerotic stenosis of major intracranial arteries is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in Asia. However, the long-term prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in healthy volunteers has not been fully examined. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the prognosis of healthy volunteers with asymptomatic ICAS and to determine the risk factors for ICAS, including asymptomatic brain parenchymal lesions. We studied 2,807 healthy Japanese volunteers with no history of stroke (mean age, 62.0 years). They were followed for a mean interval of 64.5 months. The degree of ICAS and the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 166 volunteers (5.9%) at the initial examination. Moderate and mild stenoses were observed in 1.5 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Significant risk factors for ICAS were older age and a history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. During follow-up, ischemic stroke developed in 32 volunteers. Seven strokes occurred in the ICAS group, whose stroke incidence rate was higher than that in the non-ICAS group (0.78 vs. 0.18% per year). According to a Cox regression analysis, asymptomatic ICAS was an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke after adjustment for age. Furthermore, after asymptomatic brain lesions were taken into account, ICAS was still a significant risk factor for stroke onset. In conclusion, even mild to moderate asymptomatic ICAS was a significant risk factor for future stroke, independent of asymptomatic brain lesions, in a healthy Japanese population. Mild to moderate ICAS might be a therapeutic target for stroke prevention. PMID:27047445
Saito, Hirokazu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kadono, Yoshihiro; Urata, Atsushi; Kamikawa, Kentaro; Imamura, Haruo; Tada, Shuji
Background and study aims Endoscopic removal of asymptomatic common bile duct stones (CBDS) is generally recommended. Although many reports have described the risk of complications in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), no studies have addressed this problem in the context of asymptomatic CBDS. This study examines the risk of complications arising in ERCP for asymptomatic CBDS. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 425 patients with naive papilla who underwent therapeutic ERCP for choledocholithiasis at 2 institutions in Japan for 2 years. The risk of complications was examined in patients who were divided into the asymptomatic and symptomatic CBDS groups. We used propensity score analysis to adjust for confounding effects. Results Complications were observed in 32 (7.5 %) of the 425 patients. Of the 358 patients with symptomatic CBDS, 14 patients (3.9 %) had complications. In contrast, of the 67 patients with asymptomatic CBDS, 18 patients (26.9 %) had complications. Propensity score analysis revealed that asymptomatic CBDS was a significant risk factor, with a significantly higher incidence of complications compared with symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 5.3). Moderate to severe complications were observed in 15 of 18 patients (83.3 %) in the asymptomatic CBDS group, with significantly more moderate to severe complications than those in the symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 6.7). Conclusions Asymptomatic CBDS carried a high risk of ERCP-related complications, and these were often more severe. In asymptomatic CBDS, endoscopic treatment should be carefully performed after considering the patient’s background, and detailed explanation of its possible complications should be given to patients in advance. PMID:28879226
Saito, Hirokazu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kadono, Yoshihiro; Urata, Atsushi; Kamikawa, Kentaro; Imamura, Haruo; Tada, Shuji
Endoscopic removal of asymptomatic common bile duct stones (CBDS) is generally recommended. Although many reports have described the risk of complications in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), no studies have addressed this problem in the context of asymptomatic CBDS. This study examines the risk of complications arising in ERCP for asymptomatic CBDS. This retrospective study included 425 patients with naive papilla who underwent therapeutic ERCP for choledocholithiasis at 2 institutions in Japan for 2 years. The risk of complications was examined in patients who were divided into the asymptomatic and symptomatic CBDS groups. We used propensity score analysis to adjust for confounding effects. Complications were observed in 32 (7.5 %) of the 425 patients. Of the 358 patients with symptomatic CBDS, 14 patients (3.9 %) had complications. In contrast, of the 67 patients with asymptomatic CBDS, 18 patients (26.9 %) had complications. Propensity score analysis revealed that asymptomatic CBDS was a significant risk factor, with a significantly higher incidence of complications compared with symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 5.3). Moderate to severe complications were observed in 15 of 18 patients (83.3 %) in the asymptomatic CBDS group, with significantly more moderate to severe complications than those in the symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 6.7). Asymptomatic CBDS carried a high risk of ERCP-related complications, and these were often more severe. In asymptomatic CBDS, endoscopic treatment should be carefully performed after considering the patient's background, and detailed explanation of its possible complications should be given to patients in advance.
Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cecile; Diemberger, Igor; Fantecchi, Elisa; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Petrescu, Lucian; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lip, Gregory Y H
Atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic, but outcomes require further characterization. The study objective was to investigate the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with atrial fibrillation who were prospectively enrolled in the EurObservational Research Programme - Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot General Registry. A total of 3119 patients were enrolled, and 1237 (39.7%) were asymptomatic (European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA] score I). Among symptomatic patients, 963 (51.2%) had mild symptoms (EHRA score II) and 919 (48.8%) had severe or disabling symptoms (EHRA III-IV). Permanent atrial fibrillation was 3-fold more common in asymptomatic patients than in symptomatic patients. On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.630; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.384-1.921), older age (OR, 1.019; 95% CI, 1.012-1.026), previous myocardial infarction (OR, 1.681; 95% CI, 1.350-2.093), and limited physical activity (OR, 1.757; 95% CI, 1.495-2.064) were associated significantly with asymptomatic (EHRA I) atrial fibrillation. Fully asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (absence of current and previous symptoms) was present in 520 patients (16.7%) and was associated independently with male gender, age, and previous myocardial infarction. Appropriate guideline-based prescription of oral anticoagulants was lower in these patients, and aspirin was prescribed more frequently. Mortality at 1 year was more than 2-fold higher in asymptomatic patients compared with symptomatic patients (9.4% vs 4.2%, P < .0001) and was associated independently with older age and comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and chronic heart failure. Asymptomatic atrial fibrillation is common in daily cardiology practice and is associated with elderly age, more comorbidities, and high thromboembolic risks. A higher 1-year mortality was found in asymptomatic patients compared with symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Koike, Yoichi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kita, Atushi; Itoi, Eiji
Some patients with rotator cuff tears complain of pain, whereas others are asymptomatic. Previous studies have pointed out the presence of active bone metabolism in the painful shoulder, identified with increased radioisotope uptake during bone scintigraphy. Shoulders with symptomatic rotator cuff tears will demonstrate higher radioisotope uptake than shoulders with asymptomatic tears with bone scintigraphy, reflecting active bone metabolism in symptomatic tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The study consisted of 3 groups: patients with symptomatic tears (symptomatic group), patients with asymptomatic tears (asymptomatic group), and controls (no tear group). The symptomatic group consisted of 28 shoulders from 28 patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears (pain score ≤4 on the University of California, Los Angeles [UCLA] shoulder evaluation form) who underwent bone scintigraphy followed by rotator cuff repair. Of 70 volunteers who had previously undergone bone scintigraphy for diseases unrelated to their shoulder, 34 were selected for the asymptomatic group (pain score ≥8 on the UCLA shoulder form), and 32 were selected for the no tear group. The mean radioisotope uptake in the symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic group (P = .02) and the no tear group (P = .02). Ten of 28 shoulders (36%) in the symptomatic group showed increased radioisotope uptake exceeding 2 standard deviations from the mean of the no tear group. This percentage was significantly higher when compared with the asymptomatic group (0%) (P < .01). Shoulders with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear showed higher radioisotope uptake on bone scintigraphy than those with an asymptomatic tear. The radioisotope uptake in shoulders with an asymptomatic tear was comparable with that in shoulders without a tear. Positive radioisotope uptake may be associated with pain in a subgroup of patients with rotator cuff tears.
Howard, Leigh M; Johnson, Monika; Williams, John V; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Lanata, Claudio F; Grijalva, Carlos G
Viruses are commonly detected in children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and in asymptomatic children. Longitudinal studies of viral detections during asymptomatic periods surrounding ARI could facilitate interpretation of viral detections but are currently scant. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze respiratory samples from young Andean children for viruses during asymptomatic periods within 8-120 days of index ARI (cough or fever). We compared viral detections over time within children and explored reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction cycle thresholds (CTs) as surrogates for viral loads. At least 1 respiratory virus was detected in 367 (43%) of 859 samples collected during asymptomatic periods, with more frequent detections in periods with rhinorrhea (49%) than those without (34%, P < 0.001). Relative to index ARI with human rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus (AdV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus detected, the same viruses were also detected during 32, 22, 10 and 3% of asymptomatic periods, respectively. RSV was only detected 8-30 days after index RSV ARI, whereas HRV and AdV were detected throughout asymptomatic periods. Human metapneumovirus and influenza were rarely detected during asymptomatic periods (<3%). No significant differences were observed in the CT for HRV or AdV during asymptomatic periods relative to ARI. For RSV, CTs were significantly lower during ARI relative to the asymptomatic period (P = 0.03). These findings indicate that influenza, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus and RSV detections in children with an ARI usually indicate a causal relationship. When HRV or AdV is detected during ARI, the causal relationship is less certain.
Howard, Leigh M.; Johnson, Monika; Williams, John V.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Griffin, Marie R.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.
Background Viruses are commonly detected in children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) and in asymptomatic children. Longitudinal studies of viral detections during asymptomatic periods surrounding ARI could facilitate interpretation of viral detections but are currently scant. Methods We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze respiratory samples from young Andean children for viruses during asymptomatic periods within 8-120 days of index ARI (cough or fever). We compared viral detections over time within children and explored RT-PCR cycle thresholds (CT) as surrogates for viral loads. Results At least one respiratory virus was detected in 367 (43%) of 859 samples collected during asymptomatic periods, with more frequent detections in periods with rhinorrhea (49%) than those without (34%, p<0.001). Relative to index ARI with human rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus (AdV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza virus (PIV) detected, the same virus was also detected during 32%, 22%, 10%, and 3% of asymptomatic periods, respectively. RSV was only detected 8-30 days after index RSV ARI, whereas HRV and AdV were detected throughout asymptomatic periods. Human metapneumovirus (MPV) and influenza were rarely detected during asymptomatic periods (<3%). No significant differences were observed in the CT for HRV or AdV during asymptomatic periods relative to ARI. For RSV, CT were significantly lower during ARI relative to the asymptomatic period (p=0.03). Conclusions These findings indicate that influenza, MPV, PIV, and RSV detections in children with ARI usually indicate a causal relationship. When HRV or AdV is detected during ARI, the causal relationship is less certain. PMID:26121205
Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.
Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care <20 weeks gestation with singleton pregnancies are eligible for inclusion. The intervention is a 6-day course of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100 mg) and the primary outcome is spontaneous preterm birth <37 weeks gestation. The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone) to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care). Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm) is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8). Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent
Ahmed, Aisha; Sorajja, Paul; Garberich, Ross F; Farivar, R Saeid; Harris, Kevin M; Gössl, Mario
For patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular function, current practice guidelines empirically recommend serial evaluations every 6 to 12 months. The benefit of this clinical monitoring is unknown. To determine the association of guideline adherence with clinical outcomes in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. This retrospective cohort study involved 300 patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis who were seen in the ambulatory Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital. Rates of survival and adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure hospitalization, were compared between patients who adhered to serial evaluation guidance and those who did not. Medical records were reviewed from July 25, 2007, to December 6, 2012. Data analysis took place from February 4, 2017, to July 10, 2017. All-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and major adverse clinical events during follow-up. The study population of 300 comprised 143 men (47.7%) and had a mean (SD) age of 78.6 (11.5) years. There were no differences in age, race/ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, insurance status, left ventricular function, and aortic stenosis severity between patients with (n = 202) and patients without (n = 98) guideline adherence. Aortic valve replacement (surgical or catheter based) was performed more frequently (54.0% vs 19.4%; P < .001) and the median (interquartile range) time for this performance was earlier (2.2 [1.2-3.6] years vs 3.5 [2.0-5.8] years; P < .001) in patients with guideline adherence. All-cause mortality was higher for nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07-2.30; P < .001), and these patients also had a higher rate of hospital admission for heart failure decompensation in follow-up (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.27-2.18; P < .001). Four-year survival that is free from death and heart failure hospitalization was higher for
Bladé, Joan; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Rosiñol, Laura; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A
To provide an overview on smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) including current diagnostic criteria, predictors of progression, pattern of progression, and outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature on risk factors for progression, treatment attempts to delay progression and outcome in patients with SMM. The risk factors for progression of SMM include: plasma cell mass including M-protein size and percentage of bone marrow clonal plasma cells (BMPC), abnormal free light chain ratio, proportion of phenotypically abnormal BMPC, immunoparesis, evolution pattern (evolving v nonevolving), and pattern of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Most patients with SMM progress with anemia and/or skeletal involvement. Immediate therapy with cytotoxic agents, such as melphalan/prednisone has not resulted in improved outcome. Patients should not be treated until progressive disease with end-organ damage occurs. Increasing anemia is the most reliable indicator of progression. These recently recognized predictors of outcome may be helpful for better disease monitoring and for investigation of new treatment approaches. Thus, recommendations for follow-up every to 3 to 6 months depending on the risk of progression are suggested, and clinical trials with new noncytotoxic biologically derived agents to delay progression, particularly in high-risk patients, are ongoing.
Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma
Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment.
Brown, William D.; Bearer, Elaine L.; Donahue, John E.
A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn’t been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. PMID:20179002
Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma
Background Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. PMID:26244027
Brown, William D; Bearer, Elaine L; Donahue, John E
A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn't been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.
Heida, Anke; Park, K T; van Rheenen, Patrick F
In asymptomatic patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), "monitoring" involves repeated testing aimed at early recognition of disease exacerbation. We aimed to determine the usefulness of repeated fecal calprotectin (FC) measurements to predict IBD relapses by a systematic literature review. An electronic search was performed in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to April 2016. Inclusion criteria were prospective studies that followed patients with IBD in remission at baseline and had at least 2 consecutive FC measurements with a test interval of 2 weeks to 6 months. Methodological assessment was based on the second Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklist. A total of 1719 articles were identified; 193 were retrieved for full text review. Six studies met eligibility for inclusion. The time interval between FC tests varied between 1 and 3 months. Asymptomatic patients with IBD who had repeated FC measurements above the study's cutoff level had a 53% to 83% probability of developing disease relapse within the next 2 to 3 months. Patients with repeated normal FC values had a 67% to 94% probability to remain in remission in the next 2 to 3 months. The ideal FC cutoff for monitoring could not be identified because of the limited number studies meeting inclusion criteria and heterogeneity between selected studies. Two consecutively elevated FC values are highly associated with disease relapse, indicating a consideration to proactively optimize IBD therapy plans. More prospective data are necessary to assess whether FC monitoring improves health outcomes.
Peluso, Ilaria; Teichner, Alessia; Manafikhi, Husseen; Palmery, Maura
Flavanols of Camellia sinensis exhibit uric acid (UA) lowering effect, through the modulation of both xanthine oxidase and urate excretion. In order to investigate the potential benefit of Camellia Sinenis products in asymptomatic hyperuricemia, a meta-analysis of long-term Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) with tea or tea extract has been conducted. From 20 human intervention studies selected only 5 RCT (13 interventions) were suitable for meta-analysis (n = 472). The current "normal" range set for hyperuricemia fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. Therefore on the basis of the literature data, we fixed cut-off limits for UA baseline levels of 4.5 mg/dl for women, 6.1 mg/dl for men, and 5.5 mg/dl for studies involving mixed populations. Statistically significant effects were not found, but subgroup analysis revealed that the Pooled Estimate effect was different in subjects with baseline levels under [MD (95% CI): 0.1078 (-0.0528 to 0.2684)] and over the cut-off [MD (95% CI): -0.0239 (0.3311 to 0.2833)]. However, due to the low number of RCT and to the lack of data on bioavailability, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion and more studies are needed to establish if tea flavanols could be useful in asymptomatic hyperuricemia treatment.
Cohen, Oren S; Chapman, Joab; Korczyn, Amos D; Nitsan, Zeev; Appel, Shmuel; Hoffmann, Chen; Rosenmann, Hanna; Kahana, Esther; Lee, Hedok
Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) in Jews of Libyan ancestry is caused by an E200K mutation in the PRNP gene. While carriers are born with this mutation, they usually remain asymptomatic until middle age. Early detection of conversion is crucial for understanding and eventually for the treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to report longitudinal MRI data in E200K individuals who eventually converted from healthy mutation carriers to clinically symptomatic CJD. As a part of a prospective study, asymptomatic E200K mutation carriers were scanned annually until their conversion to symptomatic disease. Standardized diffusion and anatomical MR sequences were performed before and after clinical conversion in the subjects and those were compared to 15 non-carrier siblings ("healthy controls"). Blinded radiological readings and region of interest analyses were performed. Radiological readings of individual cases failed to detect characteristic changes in the scans taken before the conversion. Region of interest analysis of diffusion changes in pre-symptomatic stage was inconclusive; however, ADC reduction was found in early and late stages of the disease. Computerized volumetric analysis revealed monotonic volume reductions in thalamus, putamen and caudate following conversion, and the lateral ventricles showed dilatation of up to 62 % after clinical conversion. Although the clinical manifestations at disease onset are variable, the diffusion abnormalities and/or volume changes in the thalamus and basal ganglia during conversion may indicate early involvement of the thalamostriatal neuronal circuit.
D'Arena, Giovanni; Gobbi, Paolo G; Broglia, Chiara; Sacchi, Stefano; Quarta, Giovanni; Baldini, Luca; Iannitto, Emilio; Falcone, Antonietta; Guariglia, Roberto; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Villani, Oreste; Martorelli, Maria Carmen; Mansueto, Giovanna; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Cascavilla, Nicola; Musto, Pellegrino
A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing pamidronate administration (60-90 mg once a month for 1 year) versus simple observation in 177 patients with asymptomatic myeloma was performed to explore whether the administration of this drug reduces the rate of and/or the time to progression to overt, symptomatic disease. No relevant side effects were recorded in pamidronate-treated patients. With a minimum follow-up of 5 years for live patients, there were 56/89 (62.9%) progressions in the pamidronate-treated group and 55/88 (62.5%) within the controls (p = NS). Median time to progression was 46 and 48 months, respectively (p = NS). Overall survival was also similar between the two groups. Skeletal-related events at the time of progression were observed in 40/55 (72.7%) controls, but only in 22/56 (39.2%) pamidronate-treated patients (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the administration of pamidronate in asymptomatic myeloma, while reducing bone involvement at progression, did not decrease the risk of transformation and the time to progression into overt myeloma.
Popević, Martin B; Janković, Srđan M; Borjanović, Srđan S; Jovičić, Slavica R; Tenjović, Lazar R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P S; Bulat, Petar
A frequently encountered exposure profile for hand-arm vibration in contemporary occupational setting comprises workers with a long history of intermittent exposure but without detectable signs of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Yet, most of the published studies deal with developed HAVS cases, rarely discussing the biological processes that may be involved in degradation of manual dexterity and grip strength when it can be most beneficial - during the asymptomatic stage. In the present paper, a group of 31 male asymptomatic vibration-exposed workers (according to the Stockholm Workshop Scale) were compared against 30 male controls. They were tested using dynamometry and dexterimetry (modelling coarse and fine manual performance respectively) and cold provocation was done to detect possible differences in manual performance drop on these tests. The results showed reduced manual dexterity but no significant degradation in hand grip strength in the exposed subjects. This suggests that intermittent exposure profile and small cumulative vibration dose could only lead to a measurable deficit in manual dexterity but not hand grip strength even at non-negligible A(8) levels and long term exposures.
Pascual, Gabriel; Wadia, Jehangir S; Zhu, Xueyong; Keogh, Elissa; Kükrer, Başak; van Ameijde, Jeroen; Inganäs, Hanna; Siregar, Berdien; Perdok, Gerrard; Diefenbach, Otto; Nahar, Tariq; Sprengers, Imke; Koldijk, Martin H; der Linden, Els C Brinkman-van; Peferoen, Laura A; Zhang, Heng; Yu, Wenli; Li, Xinyi; Wagner, Michelle; Moreno, Veronica; Kim, Julie; Costa, Martha; West, Kiana; Fulton, Zara; Chammas, Lucy; Luckashenak, Nancy; Fletcher, Lauren; Holland, Trevin; Arnold, Carrie; Anthony Williamson, R; Hoozemans, Jeroen J; Apetri, Adrian; Bard, Frederique; Wilson, Ian A; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap
Several reports have described the presence of antibodies against Alzheimer's disease-associated hyperphosphorylated forms of tau in serum of healthy individuals. To characterize the specificities that can be found, we interrogated peripheral IgG(+) memory B cells from asymptomatic blood donors for reactivity to a panel of phosphorylated tau peptides using a single-cell screening assay. Antibody sequences were recovered, cloned, and expressed as full-length IgGs. In total, 52 somatically mutated tau-binding antibodies were identified, corresponding to 35 unique clonal families. Forty-one of these antibodies recognize epitopes in the proline-rich and C-terminal domains, and binding of 26 of these antibodies is strictly phosphorylation dependent. Thirteen antibodies showed inhibitory activity in a P301S lysate seeded in vitro tau aggregation assay. Two such antibodies, CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1, which bind to the proline-rich and C-terminal regions of tau, respectively, were characterized in more detail. CBTAU-7.1 recognizes an epitope that is similar to that of murine anti-PHF antibody AT8, but has different phospho requirements. Both CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1 detect pathological tau deposits in post-mortem brain tissue. CBTAU-7.1 reveals a similar IHC distribution pattern as AT8, immunostaining (pre)tangles, threads, and neuritic plaques. CBTAU-22.1 shows selective detection of neurofibrillary changes by IHC. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of an ongoing antigen-driven immune response against tau in healthy individuals. The wide range of specificities to tau suggests that the human immune repertoire may contain antibodies that can serve as biomarkers or be exploited for therapy.
Adegoke, S A; Adegun, P T
Urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may result in long term renal dysfunction. The prevalence, potential risk factors, and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) were investigated in 196 Nigerian children with SCA in stable state. These children had clinical evaluation and assessment of their mid-stream urine (MSU) for pyuria, culture, and sensitivity tests; urinalysis for proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematocrit, serum creatinine and uric acid estimation. Children with confirmed ASB were compared with those without ASB. Those with confirmed ASB were monitored for 6 months for persistence of significant growth, development of symptomatic UTI, and evaluation of renal functions. The prevalence of probable and confirmed ASB in this cohort of SCA children were 12.2% and 6.6%, respectively. Confirmed ASB was more prevalent among older (P = 0.046) and female (P = 0.003) SCA children, particularly those with pyuria (odd Ratio, OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.7-11.0, P < 0.001) and proteinuria (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 3.9-8.7, P = 0.006). Previous symptomatic UTI was not associated with ASB. Also, the mean eGFR, serum creatinine, and uric acid were not different in the group with ASB and those without ASB (P > 0.05). At the end of 6 month follow-up, two (15.4%) of the 13 children with ASB had persistence of significant growth, but none develop symptomatic UTI. Also, none of the two with persistent ASB had hypertension or deranged renal function. ASB is a significant problem in older age female SCA children, although renal functions were not different among those with and without ASB. A large scale randomized placebo-controlled trial of conventional treatment for ASB in SCA is advocated to define its long-term clinical significance.
Usón, Jacqueline; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Villaverde, Virginia; Condés, Emilia; Godo, Javier; Martínez-Blasco, Maria Jesus; Miguélez, Roberto
To date few studies have examined whether ultrasonography can depict morphologic differences in painful and painless osteoarthritis (OA). This study describes and compares the clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of patients with both painful and painless proximal interphalgeal (PIP) and/or distal interphalgeal (DIP) OA. Patients with PIP and/or DIP OA (ACR criteria) were prospectively recruited. The clinical rheumatologist chose up to 3 painful joints and up to 3 painless symmetric joints in each patient to define 2 cohorts of OA: symptomatic (SG) and asymptomatic (ASG). A conventional postero-anterior hand x ray was performed and read by one rheumatologist following the OARSI atlas, blinded to clinical and sonographic data. Ultrasound (US) was performed by an experienced rheumatologist, blinded to both clinical and radiographic data in joints previously selected by the clinical rheumatologist. US-pathology was assessed as present or absent as defined in previous reports: osteophytes, joint space narrowing, synovitis, intra-articular power doppler signal, intra-articular bony erosion, and visualization of cartilage. Radiographic and ultrasonographic intrareader reliability test was performed. A total of 50 joints in the SG and ASG were included from 20 right handed women aged 61.85 (46-73) years with PIP and DIP OA diagnosed 6.8 (1-17) years ago. 70% SG joints and ASG were right and left sided respectively. The SG showed significantly more osteophytes, synovitis and non-visualization of joint cartilage. Intrareader radiographic and ultrasonographic agreement was excellent. This study demonstrates that painful PIP and/or DIP OA have more ultrasonographic structural changes and synovitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sousa, Ricardo; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Quayle, Jonathan; Dias da Costa, Luis; Casals, Cristina; Scott, Phylip; Leite, Pedro; Vilanova, Paz; Garcia, Sebastian; Ramos, Maria Helena; Dias, Joana; Soriano, Alex; Guyot, Andrea
Background. Infection is a major complication after total joint arthroplasty. The urinary tract is a possible source of surgical site contamination, but the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective surgery and the subsequent risk of infection is poorly understood. Methods. Candidates for total hip or total knee arthroplasty were reviewed in a multicenter cohort study. A urine sample was cultured in all patients, and those with ASB were identified. Preoperative antibiotic treatment was decided on an individual basis, and it was not mandatory or randomized. The primary outcome was prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the first postoperative year. Results. A total of 2497 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of ASB was 12.1% (303 of 2497), 16.3% in women and 5.0% in men (odds ratio, 3.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.65–5.09; P < .001). The overall PJI rate was 1.7%. The infection rate was significantly higher in the ASB group than in the non-ASB group (4.3% vs 1.4%; odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–6.27; P = .001). In the ASB group, there was no significant difference in PJI rate between treated (3.9%) and untreated (4.7%) patients. The ASB group had a significantly higher proportion of PJI due to gram-negative microorganisms than the non-ASB group, but these did not correlate to isolates from urine cultures. Conclusions. ASB was an independent risk factor for PJI, particularly that due to gram-negative microorganisms. Preoperative antibiotic treatment did not show any benefit and cannot be recommended. PMID:24723280
Gołębiewska, J E; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Rutkowski, B
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are widespread in renal transplant (RTx) recipients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) as the predominant form. It is necessary to determine if AB is a risk factor for symptomatic UTIs. We analyzed clinical data and urine cultures performed within the first 12 months after RTx in 209 consecutive patients undergoing RTx at Gdańsk Transplantation Center between January 2007 and December 2009. We observed 170 AB episodes in 83 patients. This accounted for 53% of all diagnosed UTIs in 111 patients, with more than half of AB episodes occurring during the first month post transplant. The most prevalent uropathogen was Enterococcus faecium (36.8%, n = 32) and, from the second month after RTx, Escherichia coli (54.2%, n = 45). Female gender, use of induction with anti-thymocyte globulin, comorbidity measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, history of acute rejection, and cytomegalovirus infection were risk factors for developing AB, and no differences in risk factors were seen for developing a symptomatic UTI vs. an AB after RTx. All patients with AB received antibiotic therapy. AB was an independent risk factor for symptomatic UTIs, but only 21 of 152 episodes of symptomatic UTIs were preceded by AB with the same causative agent. AB is a common finding in the RTx population and AB episodes may be considered a risk factor for symptomatic infections. It remains to be determined if the treatment of AB in RTx patients is in fact helpful or harmful in preventing symptomatic infections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lam, Thach D; Lammers, Stephanie; Munoz, Claudio; Tamayo, Arturo; Spence, J David
The risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is now so low that it is important to have methods to identify those patients most likely to benefit from intervention, or who may require special consideration in choice of medical therapy. We studied the prediction of stroke, death or transient ischemic attacks (stroke/death/TIA) in patients with ACS by intracranial arterial stenosis, and microemboli on transcranial Doppler (TCD), and the effect of diabetes mellitus on microemboli, intracranial stenosis and risk of events. Patients with ACS > 60% by Doppler ultrasound were recruited from the Stroke Prevention Clinic of University Hospital, London, Canada. All 339 participants underwent TCD for detection of intracranial stenosis and detection of microemboli, and carotid ultrasound to measure extracranial stenosis and total carotid plaque area. Participants were followed for three years, to determine the risk of stroke/death/TIA. Stroke/death/TIA occurred in 38% of patients with microemboli versus 10% without (p=0.0001), and in 18% of patients with intracranial stenosis, versus 10% without (p=0.042). Diabetics were significantly more likely to have intracranial stenosis (45% vs. 29%, p =0.014), microemboli (38% vs. 10%, p <0.0001), and had significantly higher risk of stroke/death/TIA over three years (21% vs. 11% without; p=0.024). Survival free of stroke, TIA or death was significantly better without microemboli or intracranial stenosis (p<0.0001). Diabetes, microemboli and intracranial stenosis predicted higher risk of stroke, death or TIA than did extracranial stenosis or total plaque area; diabetics may need more intensive therapy.
Baur, D M; Leiba, A; Christophi, C A; Kales, S N
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been repeatedly linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while higher CRF levels are protective. This relationship is likely to be highly relevant in firefighters, who have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality during strenuous emergencies, which can require prolonged periods of near-maximal heart rates (HR) and high workloads. Abnormalities during maximal stress testing could mark future CVD risk during strenuous duties. To determine if low CRF among asymptomatic firefighters is associated with higher risk of electrocardiographic (ECG) and autonomic abnormalities during maximal exercise stress testing and recovery. Male career firefighters completed a maximal stress test exercising to volitional exhaustion (mean maximal age-predicted HR achieved 98%, standard deviation (SD) = 6.5). CRF was measured as maximal metabolic equivalents (METS) achieved. Abnormal exercise tests included the following: abnormal HR recovery; chronotropic insufficiency; exaggerated blood pressure response; and ECG abnormalities. The relationship of CRF to stress testing abnormalities was analysed using peak METS categories and peak METS as a continuous variable after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). There were 1149 study participants. CRF was inversely associated with the risk of both ECG and autonomic exercise testing abnormalities before and after adjustment for age, BMI and MetSyn. Firefighters with lower CRF are significantly more prone to exhibit abnormal stress test parameters, which may indicate higher future risk of cardiovascular events. As such, firefighters with low CRF (≤ 12 METS) should receive cardiovascular risk reduction, including efforts to improve their CRF.
Bogdanova, Yelena; Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Alexithymia, an impairment of affective and cognitive emotional processing, is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may reflect effects of the virus on brain areas that are also important for multiple cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. We hypothesized that there would be a correlation between extent of alexithymia and cognitive performance associated with these brain areas, including attention, executive function, and visuospatial processing. Thirty-four asymptomatic HIV+ participants and 34 matched healthy HIV− volunteers were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, a series of neuropsychological tests, and measures of apathy, depression, and quality of life (QoL). The HIV+ participants had significantly higher levels of alexithymia, depression and apathy than the HIV− group. The extent of alexithymia and two of its processing components (Difficulty Describing Feelings [DDF] and Externally Oriented Thinking), but not depression, correlated with performance on measures of executive and visuospatial abilities, consistent with dysfunction of the frontostriatal circuits and their cortical projections. Apathy was related to alexithymia and two processing components (Difficulty Identifying Feelings and DDF) but to only one cognitive measure. The higher rate of alexithymia, as well as cognitive dysfunction, in HIV may be a consequence of the infection on the frontostriatal system and its cortical connections. Our findings also demonstrated a dissociation of apathy and alexithymia in HIV, pointing to overlapping but distinct neural substrates within frontostriatal circuits. Alexithymia correlated strongly with QoL ratings, underscoring the importance of assessment and treatment of HIV-associated emotional and cognitive processing deficits. PMID:20036267
Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken
Background The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Methodology Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasounds. Integrity of the anterior 3mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact versus disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5mm or greater in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasounds. Results The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable-intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median 19.0mm vs. 10.0mm, p<0.0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%, p=0.09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years, p=0.37) for cable-intact compared to cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median 7.0mm vs.9.0mm, p=0.18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5mm anteriorly and 4mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. Conclusions The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable-disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. PMID:26589385
Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken
The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasound examinations. Integrity of the anterior 3 mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact vs. cable-disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5 mm or more in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasound examinations. The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median, 19.0 mm vs. 10.0 mm; P < .0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%; P = .09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years; P = .37) for cable-intact compared with cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median, 7.0 mm vs.9.0 mm; P = .18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5 mm anteriorly and 4 mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age, 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to 3 randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 and 240°·s in concentric and 30°·s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). In contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the 2 other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.
Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to three randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60°/s and 240°/s in concentric and 30°/s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). By contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the two other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.
Ammar, Tarek; Lin, Wei; Higgins, Amanda; Hayward, Lawrence J.
The diaphragm muscle of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) patients and of the M1592V HyperKPP mouse model rarely suffers from the myotonic and paralytic symptoms that occur in limb muscles. Enigmatically, HyperKPP diaphragm expresses the mutant NaV1.4 channel and, more importantly, has an abnormally high Na+ influx similar to that in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus, two hindlimb muscles suffering from the robust HyperKPP abnormalities. The objective was to uncover the physiological mechanisms that render HyperKPP diaphragm asymptomatic. A first mechanism involves efficient maintenance of resting membrane polarization in HyperKPP diaphragm at various extracellular K+ concentrations compared with larger membrane depolarizations in HyperKPP EDL and soleus. The improved resting membrane potential (EM) results from significantly increased Na+ K+ pump electrogenic activity, and not from an increased protein content. Action potential amplitude was greater in HyperKPP diaphragm than in HyperKPP soleus and EDL, providing a second mechanism for the asymptomatic behavior of the HyperKPP diaphragm. One suggested mechanism for the greater action potential amplitude is lower intracellular Na+ concentration because of greater Na+ K+ pump activity, allowing better Na+ current during the action potential depolarization phase. Finally, HyperKPP diaphragm had a greater capacity to generate force at depolarized EM compared with wild-type diaphragm. Action potential amplitude was not different between wild-type and HyperKPP diaphragm. There was also no evidence for an increased activity of the Na+–Ca2+ exchanger working in the reverse mode in the HyperKPP diaphragm compared with the wild-type diaphragm. So, a third mechanism remains to be elucidated to fully understand how HyperKPP diaphragm generates more force compared with wild type. Although the mechanism for the greater force at depolarized resting EM remains to be determined, this study provides support for
Ammar, Tarek; Lin, Wei; Higgins, Amanda; Hayward, Lawrence J; Renaud, Jean-Marc
The diaphragm muscle of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) patients and of the M1592V HyperKPP mouse model rarely suffers from the myotonic and paralytic symptoms that occur in limb muscles. Enigmatically, HyperKPP diaphragm expresses the mutant NaV1.4 channel and, more importantly, has an abnormally high Na(+) influx similar to that in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus, two hindlimb muscles suffering from the robust HyperKPP abnormalities. The objective was to uncover the physiological mechanisms that render HyperKPP diaphragm asymptomatic. A first mechanism involves efficient maintenance of resting membrane polarization in HyperKPP diaphragm at various extracellular K(+) concentrations compared with larger membrane depolarizations in HyperKPP EDL and soleus. The improved resting membrane potential (EM) results from significantly increased Na(+) K(+) pump electrogenic activity, and not from an increased protein content. Action potential amplitude was greater in HyperKPP diaphragm than in HyperKPP soleus and EDL, providing a second mechanism for the asymptomatic behavior of the HyperKPP diaphragm. One suggested mechanism for the greater action potential amplitude is lower intracellular Na(+) concentration because of greater Na(+) K(+) pump activity, allowing better Na(+) current during the action potential depolarization phase. Finally, HyperKPP diaphragm had a greater capacity to generate force at depolarized EM compared with wild-type diaphragm. Action potential amplitude was not different between wild-type and HyperKPP diaphragm. There was also no evidence for an increased activity of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger working in the reverse mode in the HyperKPP diaphragm compared with the wild-type diaphragm. So, a third mechanism remains to be elucidated to fully understand how HyperKPP diaphragm generates more force compared with wild type. Although the mechanism for the greater force at depolarized resting EM remains to be determined, this study
Background The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria is very low in non-endemic countries due to strict donor selection. The optimal strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic countries without unnecessary exclusion of blood donations is, however, still debated and asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium species may still be qualified to donate blood for transfusion purposes. Case description In April 2011, a 59-year-old Dutch woman with spiking fevers for four days was diagnosed with a Plasmodium malariae infection. The patient had never been abroad, but nine weeks before, she had received red blood cell transfusion for anaemia. The presumptive diagnosis of transfusion-transmitted quartan malaria was made and subsequently confirmed by retrospective PCR analysis of donor blood samples. The donor was a 36-year-old Dutch male who started donating blood in May 2006. His travel history outside Europe included a trip to Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar in 2005, to Thailand in 2006 and to Costa Rica in 2007. He only used malaria prophylaxis during his travel to Africa. The donor did not show any abnormalities upon physical examination in 2011, while laboratory examination demonstrated a thrombocytopenia of 126 × 109/L as the sole abnormal finding since 2007. Thick blood smear analysis and the Plasmodium PCR confirmed an ongoing subclinical P. malariae infection. Chloroquine therapy was started, after which the infection cleared and thrombocyte count normalized. Fourteen other recipients who received red blood cells from the involved donor were traced. None of them developed malaria symptoms. Discussion This case demonstrates that P. malariae infections in non-immune travellers may occur without symptoms and persist subclinically for years. In addition, this case shows that these infections pose a threat to transfusion safety when subclinically infected persons donate blood after their return in a non-endemic malaria region. Since
Chiu, N T; Jou, I M; Lee, B F; Yao, W J; Tu, D G; Wu, P S
The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Copyright 2000 The Royal College of Radiologists.
Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R., Jr.
The usefulness of computer-enhanced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in excluding the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients showing abnormal exercise electrocardiograms is evaluated. Multigated thallium scans were obtained immediately following and 3 or 4 hours after maximal exercise testing in 191 consecutive asymptomatic Air Force aircrew members who had shown abnormal exercise electrocardiograms and who were due to undergo coronary angiography. Computer enhancement of the raw images is found to lead to four false positive and two false negative scintigrams as revealed by angiographic results, while the group of 15 with subcritical coronary disease exhibited equivocal results. Results reveal that enhanced thallium scintigrams are an accurate diagnostics tool in detecting myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients and may be used in counseling asymptomatic patients on their likelihood of having coronary artery disease.
Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...
Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587
Davis, Nicole L.; Barnett, Eric J.; Miller, William C.; Dow, Anna; Chasela, Charles S.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kourtis, Athena P.; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; Juliano, Jonathan J.
Background. Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is recommended for all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed infants to avoid opportunistic infections. Cotrimoxazole has antimalarial effects and appears to reduce clinical malaria infections, but the impact on asymptomatic malaria infections is unknown. Methods. We conducted an observational cohort study using data and dried blood spots (DBSs) from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study to evaluate the impact of CPT on malaria infection during peak malaria season in Lilongwe, Malawi. We compared malaria incidence 1 year before and after CPT implementation (292 and 682 CPT-unexposed and CPT-exposed infants, respectively), including only infants who remained HIV negative by 36 weeks of age. Malaria was defined as clinical, asymptomatic (using DBSs at 12, 24, and 36 weeks), or a composite outcome of clinical or asymptomatic. Linear and binomial regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between CPT and malaria. Differences in characteristics of parasitemias and drug resistance polymorphisms by CPT status were also assessed in the asymptomatic infections. Results. CPT was associated with a 70% (95% confidence interval, 53%–81%) relative reduction in the risk of asymptomatic infection between 6 and 36 weeks of age. CPT appeared to provide temporary protection against clinical malaria and more sustained protection against asymptomatic infections, with no difference in parasitemia characteristics. Conclusions. CPT appears to reduce overall malaria infections, with more prolonged impacts on asymptomatic infections. Asymptomatic infections are potentially important reservoirs for malaria transmission. Therefore, CPT prophylaxis may have important individual and public health benefits. PMID:25900173
Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Michiko; Takase, Takako; Otsuka, Fujio
We report clinical findings in a 12-year-old girl with long-term recurrent and disseminated multiple eruptions of tinea faciei and tinea corporis, which persisted for 10 years. Mycological examination revealed the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in both scale samples from the body lesions and in brushing samples from her asymptomatic scalp, suggesting that she was an asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier on the scalp, and autoinoculation of the dermatophyte was responsible for the recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis.
Tanwar, Raman; Rathore, Kirti Vijay; Rohilla, Mahesh Kumar
Renal stones are a common affliction presenting in an acute setting. We report a case of asymptomatic renal stone in an elderly gentleman presenting initially as a discharging lumbar sinus managed by subcapsular nephrectomy and radical excision of the fistula tract. Nephrocutaneous fistula is most commonly associated with tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and rarely with complicated calyceal stones, and its occurrence with asymptomatic pelvic stones is rare. We present the points in favor of radical open surgery in the management of such patients.
Kildemoes, Anna Overgaard; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Taylor, Myra; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding
Schistosoma haematobium eggs can induce lesions in the urinary and genital tract epithelia, as eggs pass through or get trapped in the tissue. Local inflammatory reactions induced by S. haematobium eggs might affect the ability of bacteria to establish mucosal super-infection foci. S. haematobium infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria can both portray haematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia. This shared set of proxy diagnostic markers could fuel routine misdiagnosis in S. haematobium endemic areas. Furthermore, S. haematobium infected individuals might be at a higher risk of contracting bacterial urinary tract infections, which could manifest either as symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the current study was to explore whether schistosomal lesions are susceptible to super-infection by bacteria measured as asymptomatic bacteriuria. S. haematobium infection was determined by microscopy of urine samples. Furthermore, urine samples were tested with dipslides for asymptomatic bacteriuria and with dipsticks for haematuria, proteinuria and leukocytes. We found no association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and S. haematobium infection in a sample of 1040 female primary and high school students from a schistosomiasis endemic area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that asymptomatic bacteriuria is not a bias for use of micro-haematuria as a proxy diagnostic measure for S. haematobium infection in this population.
Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.
Thomas, W M; Robertson, J F; Price, M R; Hardcastle, J D
Serum CA19-9 levels have been measured in 34 patients with asymptomatic colorectal cancer, 39 age and sex matched subjects with healthy colons (as assessed at full colonoscopy) and 55 patients known to have liver metastases from primary colorectal cancers. In subjects with asymptomatic cancer the median CA19-9 was 12.75 U ml-1 (0.0-280.7 U ml-1), in the healthy controls the median CA19-9 was 12.80 U ml-1 (0.0-88.9 U ml-1) and in those with liver metastases was 62.5 U ml-1 (4.8-458.0 U ml-1). Levels were significantly higher in patients with metastatic disease than in patients with asymptomatic tumours or the healthy controls, however there was no significant difference between the asymptomatic group and the controls. Using an upper limit of normal of 37 U ml-1, the sensitivity of CA19-9 was 60.3% for the detection of colorectal cancer with liver metastases but only 17.6% for asymptomatic cancer. Serum CA19-9 estimation is of no value as a means of screening for asymptomatic colorectal cancer.
Arashiro, Patricia; Eisenberg, Iris; Kho, Alvin T.; Cerqueira, Antonia M. P.; Canovas, Marta; Silva, Helga C. A.; Pavanello, Rita C. M.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Kunkel, Louis M.; Zatz, Mayana
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscle disorder that has been associated with a contraction of 3.3-kb repeats on chromosome 4q35. FSHD is characterized by a wide clinical inter- and intrafamilial variability, ranging from wheelchair-bound patients to asymptomatic carriers. Our study is unique in comparing the gene expression profiles from related affected, asymptomatic carrier, and control individuals. Our results suggest that the expression of genes on chromosome 4q is altered in affected and asymptomatic individuals. Remarkably, the changes seen in asymptomatic samples are largely in products of genes encoding several chemokines, whereas the changes seen in affected samples are largely in genes governing the synthesis of GPI-linked proteins and histone acetylation. Besides this, the affected patient and related asymptomatic carrier share the 4qA161 haplotype. Thus, these polymorphisms by themselves do not explain the pathogenicity of the contracted allele. Interestingly, our results also suggest that the miRNAs might mediate the regulatory network in FSHD. Together, our results support the previous evidence that FSHD may be caused by transcriptional dysregulation of multiple genes, in cis and in trans, and suggest some factors potentially important for FSHD pathogenesis. The study of the gene expression profiles from asymptomatic carriers and related affected patients is a unique approach to try to enhance our understanding of the missing link between the contraction in D4Z4 repeats and muscle disease, while minimizing the effects of differences resulting from genetic background. PMID:19339494
This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.
Jia, Jiaokun; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Jing; Wu, Jianwei; Yan, Xiujuan; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Shengyun; Zhao, Xingquan
Little is known about the association between homocysteine (Hcy) and asymptomatic CAS in the healthy population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS in a Chinese community population. The current study included 5393 participants who were age of 40 years or older, and free of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and coronary artery disease. Demographic and clinical variables were investigated, and the presence of CAS was assessed by Color Doppler Ultrasound. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between Hcy levels and asymptomatic CAS. 361 (6.69%) participants were diagnosed with asymptomatic CAS, who had higher Hcy levels compared with those without (p-value for trend = 0.0001). After adjusting other possible risk factors, Hcy > 19.3μmol/L was considered as an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.05–2.23; p-value for trend = 0.0265), but with a difference between participants with diabetes and without [OR (95%CI): 2.89(1.02–8.22) vs. 1.42(0.95–2.12); P interaction < 0.05]. In this large-population, community-based study, Hcy is an independent indicator of asymptomatic CAS, especially in patients with diabetes. PMID:27869211
Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O
Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years.
Kim, Tae Yup; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Oh, Jae Keun; Ha, Yoon
Standard treatment of asymptomatic spinal cord hemangioblastoma in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease has yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to propose guidelines for the treatment of asymptomatic spinal cord hemangioblastomas in VHL disease. VHL disease patients treated for spinal cord hemangioblastomas between 1999 and 2009 were included. All spinal cord hemangioblastomas were divided into three groups: Group 1, asymptomatic tumors at initial diagnosis followed with serial imaging studies; Group 2, asymptomatic tumors at initial diagnosis that were subsequently resected; and Group 3, symptomatic tumors at initial diagnosis, all of which were resected. We identified 24 spinal cord hemangioblastomas in 12 patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 comprised 13, 4 and 7 tumors, respectively. Group 1 exhibited a smaller tumor volume (257.1 mm³) and syrinx size (0.8 vertebral columns) than those of Group 2 (1304.5 mm³, 3.3 vertebral columns) and Group 3 (1787.4 mm³, 6.1 vertebral columns). No difference in tumor volume or syrinx size was observed between Groups 2 and 3. Five tumors in Group 1 were resected during follow-up because symptoms had developed or the tumor had significantly grown. Finally, among 17 asymptomatic tumors at the initial diagnosis, nine tumors were resected. Only one tumor of these nine tumors resulted in neurological deficits, while five of seven symptomatic tumors caused neurological deficits. Selective resection of asymptomatic tumors before they cause neurological deficits might bring about better outcomes.
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred; Emery, Sean; Grund, Birgit; Sharma, Shweta; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Cooper, David A; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Llibre, Josep M; Molina, Jean-Michel; Munderi, Paula; Schechter, Mauro; Wood, Robin; Klingman, Karin L; Collins, Simon; Lane, H Clifford; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D
Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. We randomly assigned HIV-positive adults who had a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter to start antiretroviral therapy immediately (immediate-initiation group) or to defer it until the CD4+ count decreased to 350 cells per cubic millimeter or until the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or another condition that dictated the use of antiretroviral therapy (deferred-initiation group). The primary composite end point was any serious AIDS-related event, serious non-AIDS-related event, or death from any cause. A total of 4685 patients were followed for a mean of 3.0 years. At study entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients in the deferred-initiation group be offered antiretroviral therapy. The primary end point occurred in 42 patients in the immediate-initiation group (1.8%; 0.60 events per 100 person-years), as compared with 96 patients in the deferred-initiation group (4.1%; 1.38 events per 100 person-years), for a hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.62; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for serious AIDS-related and serious non-AIDS-related events were 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.50; P<0.001) and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.97; P=0.04), respectively. More than two thirds of the primary end points (68%) occurred in patients with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter. The risks of a grade 4 event were similar in the two groups, as were the risks of unscheduled hospital admissions. The initiation of
Kim, Seolhye; Chang, Yoosoo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Soo-Jin; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho
Although the association between gout and nephrolithiasis is well known, the relationship between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and the development of nephrolithiasis is largely unknown. Cohort study. 239,331 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination during January 2002 to December 2014 and were followed up annually or biennially through December 2014. Baseline serum uric acid levels of participants. The development of nephrolithiasis during follow-up. Nephrolithiasis is determined based on ultrasonographic findings. A parametric Cox model was used to estimate the adjusted HRs of nephrolithiasis according to serum uric acid level. During 1,184,653.8 person-years of follow-up, 18,777 participants developed nephrolithiasis (incidence rate, 1.6/100 person-years). Elevated uric acid level was significantly associated with increased risk for nephrolithiasis in a dose-response manner (P for trend < 0.001) in men. This dose-response association was not observed in women. In male participants, multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident nephrolithiasis comparing uric acid levels of 6.0 to 6.9, 7.0 to 7.9, 8.0 to 8.9, 9.0 to 9.9, and ≥10.0mg/dL with uric acid levels < 6.0mg/dL were 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.11), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05-1.16), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.13-1.29), 1.31 (95% CI, 1.17-1.46), and 1.72 (95% CI, 1.44-2.06), respectively. This association was observed in all clinically relevant subgroups and persisted even after adjustment for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Dietary information and computed tomographic diagnosis of nephrolithiasis were unavailable. In this large cohort study, increased serum uric acid level was modestly and independently associated with increased risk for the development of nephrolithiasis in a dose-response manner in apparently healthy men. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morishita, Kae; Kyo, Chika; Kosugi, Rieko; Ogawa, Tatsuo; Inoue, Tatsuhide
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by a glucokinase- (GCK-) activating mutation shows autosomal dominant inheritance, and its severity ranges from mild to severe. A 43-year-old female with asymptomatic hypoglycemia (47 mg/dL) was diagnosed as partial adrenal insufficiency and the administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/day) was initiated. Twelve years later, her 8-month-old grandchild was diagnosed with CHI. Heterozygosity of exon 6 c.590T>C (p.M197T) was identified in a gene analysis of GCK, which was also detected in her son and herself. The identification of GCK-activating mutations in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia patients may be useful for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology involved and preventing unnecessary glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:28163940
Casari, Erminia; Ferrario, Antonella; Morenghi, Emanuela; Montanelli, Alessandro
This study aimed to establish the different prevalence of the microorganisms investigated in the two groups considered: fertile women with symptoms and asymptomatic women with infertility problems. The data from women (n= 952) investigated for two years for quality of genital discharge and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyiticum and Chlamydia trachomatis were retrospectively analyzed. In the population of fertile women with symptoms the microrganisms most frequently involved are Gardnerella vaginalis (26.6%), Candida species (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.2%). The genital discharges of asymptomatic women with infertility problems are characterized by a prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis (19.7%), Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococci (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (8.6%). The reduction of vaginal lactobacilli flora and the presence of an elevated number of polymorphonucleates in the vaginal discharge are important parameters to consider for the evaluation of the health status of the human female urogenital tract. Our results indicate that is important to culture the vaginal discharge for Streptococcus agalactiae and for prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci. Lastly, the reasons for the prevalence of some microorganisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci, Streptococcus agalactiae) in the population of infertile asymptomatic women need to be better analyzed especially after the recent studies correlating idiopathic infertility with the presence of cervical cytokines in women with an abnormal vaginal flora.
Garcia, Herakles A; Ramírez, Oneyda J; Rodrigues, Carla M F; Sánchez, Rafael G; Bethencourt, Angelica M; Del M Pérez, Gabriela; Minervino, Antonio H H; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Teixeira, Marta M G
Trypanosoma vivax has been associated with asymptomatic infections in African and South American buffalo. In this study, T. vivax was analyzed in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Venezuela in a molecular survey involving 293 blood samples collected from 2006 to 2015 across the Llanos region. Results demonstrated constant infections (average 23%) during the years analyzed. In general, animals were healthy carriers of T. vivax with low levels of parasitemia and were diagnosed exclusively by TviCATL-PCR. However, an outbreak of severe acute infections mostly in dairy animals was reported during a prolonged drought affecting 30.4% of a buffalo herd (115 animals examined). During the outbreak, animals exhibiting anemia and neurological disorders developed fatal infections, and 7% of the herd died within nine months before treatment against trypanosomosis. Microsatellite locus genotyping (MLG) of T. vivax samples before and during the outbreak revealed similar genotypes, but outbreak isolates exhibited the most divergent MLG. Venezuelan samples from symptomless and sick buffalo did not share the MLGs previously detected in asymptomatic Brazilian buffalo. Trypanosoma evansi was not detected in the herd examined during the outbreak. However, as expected Babesia sp. (62.6%) and Anaplasma sp. (55.6%) infections were highly prevalent in asymptomatic buffalo in the studied areas. This is the first South American outbreak of highly lethal acute T. vivax infections in water buffalo. Our results suggest that chronically infected and asymptomatic buffalo living in areas of enzootic equilibrium can develop symptomatic/lethal disease triggered by stressful scarcity of green forage and water during long droughts, inappropriate management of herds and likely concomitant anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Altogether, these factors weaken buffalo immune defenses, allowing T. vivax to proliferate and, consequently, allowing for progression to wasting disease. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B
Dixon, Dustin; Taub, Marc B; Hoenes, Richard; Maples, W C
The visual system is necessary for reading. Understanding the mechanics of eye movements during reading can give insight into the reading process. The ReadAlyzer is an electronic recording system that measures eye movements while reading. Long passages on the ReadAlyzer of 800 words have recently been introduced as a tool to assess the efficiency of reading eye movements. Previously, short passages of 100 words have been used exclusively. This project was designed to determine if passage length influences the quality of reading eye movements; Optometry students (N = 40) at Southern College of Optometry were separated into 2 equal groups (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) based on the College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life questionnaire score. Each subject then performed two reading passage recordings with the ReadAlyzer: one short, one long. The order of the passages was alternated to reduce fatigue effects. Data were collected based on the ratio of fixations-to-regressions; A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the difference between short and long paragraphs for the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups combined was significant (P = 0.001) but was not significant for the symptomatic group vs. the asymptomatic group ( P = 0. 651) . Post-hoc comparisons using estimated marginal means indicated for asymptomatic, short vs. long, P = .036 and for symptomatic, short vs. long, P = 0.008. Additionally, for short length, symptomatic vs. asymptomatic, P = 0.242 and for long length, symptomatic vs. asymptomatic, P = 0.176; This information indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients will have more difficulty on longer reading passages. This finding calls into question the use of shorter length reading tests to determine a diagnosis of ocular motor dysfunction and other visual efficiency problems. American Optometric Association.
Wang, Fu-Wei; Tu, Ming-Shium; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Cheng, Lung-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a general Taiwanese population. METHODS: From January to August 2008, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroduodenal mucosal breaks were carefully assessed, and a complete medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent risk factors for asymptomatic PUD. RESULTS: Of the 572 asymptomatic subjects, 54 (9.4%) were diagnosed as having PUD. The prevalence of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and both gastric and duodenal ulcers were 4.7%, 3.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior history of PUD [odds ratio (OR), 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9], high body mass index [body mass index (BMI) 25-30: OR, 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; BMI > 30 kg/m2: OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.7] and current smoker (OR, 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6-4.4) were independent predictors of asymptomatic PUD. In contrast, high education level was a negative predictor of PUD (years of education 10-12: OR, 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8; years of education > 12: OR, 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PUD in asymptomatic subjects is 9.4% in Taiwan. Prior history of PUD, low education level, a high BMI and current smoker are independent risk factors for developing asymptomatic PUD. PMID:21448426
Cursino, Sylvia Regina Temer; da Costa, Thaís Boccia; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Silva, Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão; de Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco
PURPOSE: To search for anti-retina antibodies that serve as markers for eye disease in uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored sera from patients with uveitis, ocular toxoplasmosis (n = 30) and non-infectious, immune-mediated uveitis (n = 50) and from asymptomatic individuals who were positive (n = 250) and negative (n = 250) for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were tested. Serum anti-retina IgG was detected by an optimized ELISA using a solid-phase whole human retina extract, bovine S-antigen or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. RESULTS: Uveitis patients showed a higher mean reactivity to whole human retina extract, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and S-antigen in comparison to the asymptomatic population. These findings were independent of the uveitis origin and allowed the determination of the lower anti-retina antibody cut-off for the three antigens. Asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-positive individuals showed a higher frequency of anti-human whole retina extract antibodies in comparison to asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-negative patients. The bovine S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein ELISAs also showed a higher mean reactivity in the uveitis groups compared to the asymptomatic group, but the observed reactivities were lower and overlapped without discrimination. CONCLUSION: We detected higher levels of anti-retina antibodies in uveitis patients and in a small fraction of asymptomatic patients with chronic toxoplasmosis. The presence of anti-retina antibodies in sera might be a marker of eye disease in asymptomatic patients, especially when whole human retina extract is used in a solid-phase ELISA. PMID:21120306
Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 ± 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 ± 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21108817
Perrin, Mark J; Angaran, Paul; Laksman, Zachary; Zhang, Hanfei; Porepa, Liane F; Rutberg, Julie; James, Cynthia; Krahn, Andrew D; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; Gollob, Michael H
The aim of this study was to determine if exercise testing could expose a latent electrical substrate of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in asymptomatic gene carriers. Management of asymptomatic ARVC gene carriers is challenging because of variable penetrance of disease and the recognition that sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical manifestation. Exercise-induced abnormalities during exercise treadmill testing (ETT) were initially compared in 60 subjects: 30 asymptomatic ARVC gene carriers and 30 healthy controls. In phase 2 of the study, ETT results of 25 patients with ARVC with histories of sustained ventricular arrhythmia or cardiac arrest were evaluated to determine if ETT abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers were common to patients with a malignant electrical form of the disease. Depolarization abnormalities during ETT were found to develop more frequently in asymptomatic gene carriers compared with healthy controls: epsilon waves appeared in 4 of 28 (14%) compared with 0 of 30 (0%) (p = 0.048), premature ventricular contractions in 17 of 30 (57%) compared with 3 of 30 (10%) (p = 0.0003), and new QRS terminal activation duration ≥ 55 ms in 7 of 22 (32%) compared with 2 of 29 (7%) (p = 0.03). Superior axis premature ventricular contractions occurred only in gene carriers. In the second phase of the study, the frequency of these abnormalities was found to be high in patients with symptomatic ARVC: new epsilon waves appeared in 3 of 18 (17%), superior axis premature ventricular contractions in 21 of 25 (84%), and new terminal activation duration ≥ 55 ms in 8 of 12 (67%). Exercise testing exposes a latent electrical substrate in asymptomatic ARVC gene carriers that is shared by patients with ARVC with histories of ventricular arrhythmia. ETT may be useful in guiding treatment decisions, exercise prescription, and prioritizing medical surveillance in asymptomatic ARVC gene carriers. Copyright © 2013 American College of
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to evaluate the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated in this report. The clinical utility was based on the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on outcomes specific to each of these conditions. The prevalence of celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals and one of these non-gastrointestinal conditions was also evaluated. CELIAC DISEASE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory state of the proximal small bowel mucosa accompanied by structural and functional changes. TECHNOLOGY UNDER EVALUATION: SEROLOGIC TESTS FOR CELIAC DISEASE: There are a number of serologic tests for celiac disease available. Serologic tests are automated with the exception of the anti-endomysial antibody test, which is more time-consuming and operator-dependent than the other tests. What is the prevalence of asymptomatic celiac disease in patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated?What is the effect of the gluten-free diet on condition-specific outcomes in patients with asymptomatic celiac disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated?What is the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? The clinical utility was defined as the impact of the GFD on disease specific outcomes.What is the risk of all-cause mortality and lymphoma in individuals with asymptomatic celiac disease?What is the budget impact of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic subjects presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? The study population consisted of individuals with newly diagnosed celiac disease without any symptoms consistent with the disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions
Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers.
Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Godoy, Fabián; Pando, María E; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, María A; Ramírez, Eugenio
Human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that extracellular Tax might involve cytokine-like extracellular effects. We evaluated Tax secretion in 18 h-ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures from 15 HAM/TSP patients and 15 asymptomatic carriers. Futhermore, Tax plasma level was evaluated from other 12 HAM/TSP patients and 10 asymptomatic carriers. Proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were quantified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Intracellular Tax in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells occurred in 100% and 86.7% of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers, respectively. Percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+, proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Western blot analyses showed higher secretion levels of ubiquitinated Tax in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers. In HTLV-1-infected subjects, Western blot of plasma Tax showed higher levels in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers, whereas no Tax was found in non-infected subjects. Immunoprecipitated plasma Tax resolved on SDS-PAGE gave two major bands of 57 and 48 kDa allowing identification of Tax and Ubiquitin peptides by mass spectrometry. Relative percentage of either CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+ cells, or Tax protein released from PBMCs, or plasma Tax, correlates neither with tax mRNA nor with proviral load. This fact could be explained by a complex regulation of Tax expression. Tax secreted from PBMCs or present in plasma could potentially become a biomarker to distinguish between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers.
Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; Mol, Kristin H. J. M.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Kockx, Christel E. M.; Jansen, Ruud; Van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium can be carried asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of children. To identify potential genetic differences between M. pneumoniae strains that are carried asymptomatically and those that cause symptomatic infections, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis of 20 M. pneumoniae strains. The analyzed strains included 3 reference strains, 3 strains isolated from asymptomatic children, 13 strains isolated from clinically well-defined patients suffering from an upper (n = 4) or lower (n = 9) RTI, and one strain isolated from a follow-up patient who recently recovered from an RTI. The obtained sequences were each compared to the sequences of the reference strains. To find differences between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, a variant comparison was performed between the different groups of strains. Irrespective of the group (asymptomatic vs. symptomatic) from which the strains originated, subtype 1 and subtype 2 strains formed separate clusters. We could not identify a specific genotype associated with M. pneumoniae virulence. However, we found marked genetic differences between clinical isolates and the reference strains, which indicated that the latter strains may not be regarded as appropriate representatives of circulating M. pneumoniae strains. PMID:27833597
Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi
Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.
Malaria is a serious parasitic disease in the developing world, causing high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of malaria is complex, and the clinical presentation of disease ranges from severe and complicated, to mild and uncomplicated, to asymptomatic malaria. Despite a wealth of studies on the clinical severity of disease, asymptomatic malaria infections are still poorly understood. Asymptomatic malaria remains a challenge for malaria control programs as it significantly influences transmission dynamics. A thorough understanding of the interaction between hosts and parasites in the development of different clinical outcomes is required. In this review, the problems and obstacles to the study and control of asymptomatic malaria are discussed. The human and parasite factors associated with differential clinical outcomes are described and the management and treatment strategies for the control of the disease are outlined. Further, the crucial gaps in the knowledge of asymptomatic malaria that should be the focus of future research towards development of more effective malaria control strategies are highlighted. PMID:22289302
Alhusaini, Saud; Whelan, Christopher D; Doherty, Colin P; Delanty, Norman; Fitzsimons, Mary; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L
Temporal cortex abnormalities are common in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS) and believed to be relevant to the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we set out to determine the familiarity of temporal cortex morphologic alterations in a cohort of MTLE+HS patients and their asymptomatic siblings. A surface-based morphometry (SBM) method was applied to process MRI data acquired from 140 individuals (50 patients with unilateral MTLE+HS, 50 asymptomatic siblings of patients, and 40 healthy controls). Using a region-of-interest approach, alterations in temporal cortex morphology were determined in patients and their asymptomatic siblings by comparing with the controls. Alterations in temporal cortex morphology were identified in MTLE+HS patients ipsilaterally within the anterio-medial regions, including the entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal pole. Subtle but similar pattern of morphology changes with a medium effect size were also noted in the asymptomatic siblings. These localized alterations were related to volume loss that appeared driven by shared contractions in cerebral cortex surface area. These findings indicate that temporal cortex morphologic alterations are common to patients and their asymptomatic siblings and suggest that such localized traits are possibly heritable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Granados, Andrea; Goodall, Emma C; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek; Mahony, James
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are common but poorly characterized in university students. Thus, we characterized asymptomatic and symptomatic HRV infections by incidence, species diversity, and viral load of 502 university students during September and October of 2010 and 2011 from nasal swabs and electronically submitted symptom questionnaires. We tested all symptomatic students and randomly sampled participants who remained asymptomatic (n=25/week, over 8 weeks each study year) on a weekly basis by real-time PCR and sequenced HRV positives. HRV was identified in 33/400 (8.3%) and 85/92 (92.4%) of the asymptomatic and symptomatic students, respectively. We identified a higher than previously reported rate of HRV-B in both groups, although the distribution of HRV species was similar (P=0.37). Asymptomatic viral load averaged 1.2 log10 copies/mL lower than symptomatic HRV (P<0.001). In conclusion, asymptomatic HRV activity preceded peak symptomatic activity in September and October and was associated with lower viral load.
Olopoenia, L; Young, M; White, D; Barnes, S; Rahbar, F; Fomufod, A
One hundred thirty-five children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers were selected randomly to receive immunoglobulin (Gamimune-N, Miles Pharmaceutical Co) 200 mg/kg monthly for 1 year. All patients were seropositive by ELISA and Western blot at birth. At the time of the study, 15 symptomatic (P2) and 57 asymptomatic (P1) patients with evidence of viral infection (positive HIV culture or P24 antigen) received the immunoglobulin. Sixty-three indeterminate (PO) patients with no evidence of infection served as the control. Mean age for infants in group P2 was 32 months, 26 months for group P1, and 11 months for group PO. Significant reduction in the frequency of bacterial infections (ie, otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and acute gastroenteritis) was seen in the symptomatic group compared with both the asymptomatic and the control groups. Growth as measured by weight and height > 50th percentile was also markedly better in the symptomatic group than either asymptomatic or control patients. There was no significant difference in head circumference in all three groups. These results indicate that monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusion (IVIG) appears to be beneficial to both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV patients in reducing the frequency of bacterial infection and also enhancement of the immune response. However, symptomatic patients responded much better than the asymptomatic patients.
Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi
To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.
Al-Ammouri, Iyad; Ayoub, Fares; Dababneh, Rima
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a murmur detected on routine pre-discharge examination of asymptomatic newborn children in the first 48 hours of life warrants further investigation with echocardiography. We conducted a retrospective review of all echocardiography studies of neonates born at Jordan University Hospital between August, 2007 and June, 2014. Findings on physical examination as well as the indication of the echocardiographic studies were reviewed. We included asymptomatic neonates for whom echocardiographic studies were carried out due to the sole indication of a heart murmur on routine pre-discharge neonatal physical examination. Of 309 asymptomatic newborns with murmurs on pre-discharge examination, echocardiography revealed 68 (22%) cases of CHD, with 18 (6%) designated as significant heart disease with anticipated intervention during infancy or childhood. The most common abnormality was ventricular septal defect occurring in 36 cases. Critical heart diseases detected included hypoplastic left heart syndrome in two and aortic valve stenosis in four newborns. Although most asymptomatic neonates with heart murmurs have normal hearts, a small percentage may have significant heart disease. The decision to refer an asymptomatic newborn with a murmur for echocardiography before discharge from the hospital remains controversial and must be supported by other evidence such as murmur characteristics and local trends in parental compliance with follow-up well-baby visits.
Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge
Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.
C, Voiculeț; O, Zara; I, Văcăroiu; C, Bogeanu; T, Tiron; F, Turcu; G, Aron; A, Ciocâlteu
Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain. The physical examination detected right dorsalis pedis artery pulse absence. Blood biochemistry emphasized hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, iPTH values above upper limits. The X-ray of right shin highlighted a vascular calcification with a "train track" aspect on the tibial-peroneal artery trunk and the thoracic X-ray (performed with low ray regime) showed calcium deposits in coronary arteries walls. Legs arteriography and coronary angiography were performed revealing multiple lesions on investigated vessels with an 80% narrowing of right coronary artery. The particularity of the case lies in the absence of angina in a chronic hemodialysis patient in whom multiple significant angiographically stenosis of the coronary arteries were found and successful endovascular therapy was performed. Conclusion. The broadening of the indication for coronary angiography should be considered in certain asymptomatic CKD stage 5D patients based on a risk score involving calcium, phosphate, PTH and acid-base imbalances, while considering their major influence on the structure and tone of vascular walls thus on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Abbreviations. ABI = ankle-brachial index,CAD = coronary artery disease,CKD = chronic kidney disease,CT = computed tomography, EBCT = electron-beam computed tomography,ESRD = end-stage renal disease,GFR = glomerular filtration rate,iPTH = intact parathormon
Voiculeț, C; Zara, O; Văcăroiu, I; Bogeanu, C; Tiron, T; Turcu, F; Aron, G; Ciocâlteu, A
Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain. The physical examination detected right dorsalis pedis artery pulse absence. Blood biochemistry emphasized hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, iPTH values above upper limits. The X-ray of right shin highlighted a vascular calcification with a “train track” aspect on the tibial-peroneal artery trunk and the thoracic X-ray (performed with low ray regime) showed calcium deposits in coronary arteries walls. Legs arteriography and coronary angiography were performed revealing multiple lesions on investigated vessels with an 80% narrowing of right coronary artery. The particularity of the case lies in the absence of angina in a chronic hemodialysis patient in whom multiple significant angiographically stenosis of the coronary arteries were found and successful endovascular therapy was performed. Conclusion. The broadening of the indication for coronary angiography should be considered in certain asymptomatic CKD stage 5D patients based on a risk score involving calcium, phosphate, PTH and acid-base imbalances, while considering their major influence on the structure and tone of vascular walls thus on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Abbreviations. ABI = ankle-brachial index,CAD = coronary artery disease,CKD = chronic kidney disease,CT = computed tomography, EBCT = electron-beam computed tomography,ESRD = end-stage renal disease,GFR = glomerular filtration rate,iPTH = intact
Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Zheng, Hairong; Zheng, Rongqin; Qian, Ming
Objective Atherosclerosis is a chronic and systemic disease and its developmental process involves the synergism of multiple risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking. The diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for strategic guidance towards suitable treatments and efficient prevention against acute cardiovascular events. This study employed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) tracking technology to characterize human carotid arteries in vivo in terms of intima-media thickness (IMT) and artery stiffness, and evaluated the statistical correlation between carotid IMT and stiffness, and the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods A total of 160 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound RF-tracking technology was employed to acquire carotid IMT and stiffness parameters: maximum IMT (MAXIMT), RF Quality IMT (RFQIMT), distensibility coefficient (), compliance coefficient (), index, index and local pulse wave velocity (). The subjects were categorized in four groups in terms of the number of risk factors: ‘zero’, ‘single’, ‘double’, and ‘multiple’, and statistical analyses of carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were performed between these different groups. Results The subjects (n = 145) with MAXIMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects. Spearman’s rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that MAXIMT correlated positively with RFQIMT, , , and , and negatively with and (p<0.01). The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the ‘zero’, ‘single’, ‘double’, and ‘multiple’ groups. Conclusions The carotid IMT and stiffness parameters obtained by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology were demonstrated to possess significant statistical correlation with the
Horiguchi, Sadaaki; Shirato, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Toshimitsu; Ono, Hisako; Yabuki, Shiho; Jojima, Kumiko; Niimi, Masanori
Objective: Prevalence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with primary varicose veins remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Here, we conducted a retrospective study to clarify the incidence of asymptomatic DVT in patients with varicose veins, especially focusing on those with superficial thrombophlebitis (STP). Results: Among 431 patients with primary varicose veins with saphenous vein incompetence, 20 (4.64%) had asymptomatic DVT. The presence of STP was a significant risk factor for asymptomatic DVT as 10 of the 24 (41.7%) patients with STP had asymptomatic DVT, and all cases having calf muscle vein thrombosis. In contrast, of the patients with primary varicose veins without STP only 2.46% had asymptomatic DVT. Conclusions: In patients with primary varicose veins with STP, significant risk factors for DVT were being over C3 on the clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological (CEAP) classification. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 13–19.) PMID:27087866
Placci, Angelo; Lovato, Luigi; Bonvicini, Marco
We describe the case of an 83-year-old asymptomatic man followed in our centre. Transoesophageal echocardiography disclosed congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) with no associated anomalies and only mild aortic regurgitation. Cardiac MR confirmed the diagnosis and revealed preserved systemic ventricle systolic function with a normal perfusional pathway. This report is a demonstration that CCTGA without associated anomalies can reach older life in an asymptomatic condition. This is the oldest asymptomatic living patient with CCTGA ever described. PMID:25336547
Salvi, M; Spaggiari, E; Neri, F; Macaluso, C; Gardini, E; Ferrozzi, F; Minelli, R; Wall, J R; Roti, E
In the present study we have recorded visual evoked cortical potentials (VECP) in 88 patients affected by autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) without clinical signs of optic neuropathy. At the time of ophthalmological examination, 37 of these patients were hyperthyroid, 41 were euthyroid, and 8 were hypothyroid; 2 were not assessed. Twenty-nine normal subjects served as controls. We performed pattern reversal visual stimulation and recorded the amplitude and latency of the cortical electric response at 100 ms (P100 wave). There were no differences in the mean P100 amplitude of TAO patients and normal subjects. The mean P100 latency in patients was 105.6 +/- 0.5 ms, significantly higher than that in normal subjects (102.0 +/- 0.5 ms; P < 0.00003). Latency in euthyroid patients did not differ from that in either hypo- or hyperthyroid patients. The VECP test was positive (latency, > or = 110.0 ms) in 21 (23.8%) TAO patients. In patients with proptosis greater than 21 mm, latency was 106.7 +/- 0.7 ms, significantly higher than that in patients with normal Hertel measurements (104.3 +/- 0.6 ms; P < 0.01). Latency was not increased in patients with acute inflammatory signs compared to those with inactive eye disease and in patients with altered extrinsic motility. In patients with an abnormal visual field study, the mean latency was 110.3 +/- 1.5 ms, significantly higher than that in patients with a normal visual field (104.7 +/- 0.4; by t test, P < 0.000003). In conclusion, we observed a prolongation of the latency of the evoked cortical response in patients with TAO without subjective visual complaints and without optic nerve compression. We believe that the study of VECP in TAO is complementary to the study of the visual field in identifying early optic nerve dysfunction in the absence of decreased visual acuity.
Perron, Gabriel G.; Quessy, Sylvain; Bell, Graham
The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health. PMID:19015729
Viani, Flávio Cesar; Cazares Viani, Paula Regina; Gutierrez Rivera, Irma Nelly; Gonçalves da Silva, Eriques; Rodrigues Paula, Claudete; Gambale, Walderez
Microsporum canis is the main zoophylic dermatophyte in dogs and cats, and it is also an important zoonotic agent. The literature showed that cats are asymptomatic carriers of M. canis. This is apparently due to host resistance and/or the presence of strains with lower virulence. This study was aimed to evaluate the keratinolytic, elastinolytic and collagenolytic activities of M. canis strains and their relationship with symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. In addition, these strains were analysed by RFLP. The strains isolated from cats with clinical dermatophytosis had higher keratinase and elastase activity than those isolated from asymptomatic animals (p minus than 0.05). There were not differences in RFLP patterns based on Hind III digestion.
Executive Summary Objective The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to evaluate the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated in this report. The clinical utility was based on the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on outcomes specific to each of these conditions. The prevalence of celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals and one of these non-gastrointestinal conditions was also evaluated. Clinical Need and Target Population Celiac Disease Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory state of the proximal small bowel mucosa accompanied by structural and functional changes. Technology Under Evaluation Serologic Tests for Celiac Disease There are a number of serologic tests for celiac disease available. Serologic tests are automated with the exception of the anti-endomysial antibody test, which is more time-consuming and operator-dependent than the other tests. Research Questions What is the prevalence of asymptomatic celiac disease in patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? What is the effect of the gluten-free diet on condition-specific outcomes in patients with asymptomatic celiac disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? What is the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? The clinical utility was defined as the impact of the GFD on disease specific outcomes. What is the risk of all-cause mortality and lymphoma in individuals with asymptomatic celiac disease? What is the budget impact of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic subjects presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? Research Methods Study Population The study population consisted of individuals with newly diagnosed celiac
Tariq, Rana; Stiris, Morten G; Smith, Hans-Jørgen
Background and purpose Why some full-thickness rotator cuff tears are symptomatic and others are asymptomatic is not understood. By comparing MRI findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic tears, we wanted to identify any tear characteristics that differed between groups. Patients and methods 50 subjects with asymptomatic and 50 subjects with symptomatic full-thickness tears were examined by MRI. Tear characteristics including tear size, tear location, the condition of the long head of the biceps, atrophy, and fatty degeneration of the muscles were compared between groups. Results Single factor logistic regression analysis showed that there were statistically significant associations between symptoms and tear size exceeding 3 cm in the medial-lateral plane, positive tangent sign, and fatty degeneration exceeding grade 1 of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Interpretation We found associations between the symptomatic status of a rotator cuff tear and MRI-derived tear characteristics. The causal relationships are unclear. PMID:20450423
Yilmaz Çiftdogan, Dilek; Vardar, Fadil
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading nongenetic cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Hearing loss due to congenital CMV infection either has onset after the newborn period or shows progressive decline in auditory thresholds. Although 90% of the congenitally infected infants are asymptomatic at birth, evidence is accumulating that these infants are at risk for audiologic, neurologic and developmental sequelae. In symptomatically infected infants, ganciclovir therapy administered in the neonatal period prevents hearing deterioration. However, preventative therapy of asymptomatic congenital CMV disease is controversial. Here in, we reported a male newborn with asymptomatic congenital CMV with bilateral SNHL. Oral treatment with valganciclovir in patient resulted in progressive improvement of SNHL, which effectively reduced the CMV viral load and was well tolerated without apparent adverse effects.
Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.
Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.
Appassakij, Hatsadee; Khuntikij, Paiwon; Kemapunmanus, Marisa; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi
The presence of a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak could have an impact on transfusion safety when there are a large number of infected persons during an epidemic. Serosurveys have found that 3% to 28% of infected persons remain asymptomatic and are potential disseminators of transfusion-associated chikungunya. However, the viremic profiles of asymptomatic chikungunya patients, the major determinant of the transfusion risk, are unknown. Data on CHIKV viremic profiles were obtained from a case-control study carried out in a chikungunya-affected area during the 2009 epidemic in Songkhla, Thailand. CHIKV-infected individuals were classified based on a combination of the patient's history and clinical and laboratory findings. There were 134 laboratory-proven CHIKV-infected cases, of whom 122 (91.0%) were symptomatic and 12 (9.0%) were asymptomatic. The viremic levels in the symptomatic infected individuals peaked on the first 3 days and lasted up to 8 days as defined by viral isolates. CHIKV genomic products were detected as late as Day 17 of illness. The viral loads observed in the symptomatic individuals (median, 5.6 × 10(5) plaque-forming units per milliliter [pfu/mL]; range, 1.3 × 10(1) -2.9 × 10(8) pfu/mL) were higher than but not significantly different from those observed in the viremic asymptomatic individuals (median, 3.4 × 10(3) pfu/mL; range, 8.4 × 10(1) -2.9 × 10(5) pfu/mL [p = 0.22, Wilcoxon test]). CHIKV infection is highly symptomatic and is associated with high-titred viremia. The viremic levels in asymptomatic CHIKV-infected individuals were in the range known to be capable of transmitting the disease to experimental animals. Asymptomatic CHIKV viremia individuals could be potential disseminators of transfusion-associated chikungunya. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.
Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.
Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; ...
Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less
Mahfouz, Ragab A; El Tahlawi, Mohammad A; Ateya, Amr A; Elsaied, Ashraf
There is an association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and increased carotid-intima media thickness (IMT), a surrogate index of atherosclerosis. This association is poorly studied in asymptomatic subjects with risk factors of CAD. To study the relationship between carotid-IMT, coronary flow reserve (CFR) and cardiac function in asymptomatic young hypertensive subjects. This study includes 82 asymptomatic young subjects with essential hypertension, and 78 healthy control subjects. Carotid-IMT was assessed with B-mode ultrasonography. Treadmill exercise test, CFR and echo Doppler study were performed for all subjects. Hypertensive group had a significantly higher carotid-IMT (0.91 + 0.13 vs. 51 ± 0.09, P < 0.01), and a significantly lower coronary flow velocity reserve (1.9 ± 0.44 vs. 3.2 ± 0.44, P < 0.003) than in control subjects, especially in those with stress induced myocardial ischemia. Multiple linear regression analyses shows that increased carotid-IMT was related to a reduced CFR (r = -843, P < 0.001) and a lower diastolic function (E/e″, r = -512, P < 0.003) in asymptomatic hypertensives. In addition the carotid-IMT showed a significant correlation with family history of hypertension in these subjects (r = 653, P < 0.002). Carotid-IMT increases significantly in asymptomatic young hypertensive patients. It has a relationship with stress-induced myocardial ischemia, decrease CFR and incipient diastolic dysfunction in those patients. It could be considered as an index for subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects with risk factors for CADs. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Bum Joon; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Ju-Hun; Koo, Ja-seong; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kwon, Sun U
The prognoses of symptomatic and asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis(ICAS) differ. Understanding the underlying pathomechanisms and predictors of progression or regression may help to clarify the differences. We herein attempted to compare the course and predictors of symptomatic ICAS to those of coexisting asymptomatic ICAS. This was a post-hoc analysis of the 'Trials of Cilostazol in Symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis-2(TOSS-2)' study, which recruited patients with acute symptomatic ICAS receiving intensive medical treatment. Changes in the status of ICAS were classified as being indicative of regression, progression or no changes. Univariate and multivariate ordinal regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of symptomatic and asymptomatic ICAS based on clinical, laboratory and radiologic data. Of the 409 patients, symptomatic ICAS demonstrated regression in 110(27%) cases and progression in 52(13%) cases. Among these patients, 250(61.1%) had asymptomatic ICAS, which regressed in 38(15%) cases and progressed in 16(6%) cases. Severe baseline stenosis, a high high-density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol level and the use of cilostazol were found to be independently associated with a favorable course of symptomatic ICAS(p＜0.001, p=0.005 and p=0.038, respectively). Regarding asymptomatic ICAS, severe stenosis, the use of angiotensin receptor antagonists and a low fasting glucose level were associated with a favorable course(p＜0.001, p=0.011 and p=0.007, respectively). Changes in atherosclerosis are more dynamic in patients with symptomatic ICAS, and the predictors of symptomatic and asymptomatic ICAS differ. In this study, changes in the status of symptomatic ICAS were associated with the level of HDL cholesterol, which is known to affect the regression of atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.
Zeng, Lingcheng; Wang, Long; Ye, Fei; Chen, Jingcao; Lei, Ting; Chen, Jian
Surgery performed during the asymptomatic phase of meningioma remains controversial. The effects of surgery and the factors associated with postsurgical complications and patient prognosis were studied to optimize surgical decisions for clinicians who treat asymptomatic patients. The medical records of 513 patients with meningiomas (112 patients were asymptomatic) treated at our hospital from May 2007 to April 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The results were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Asymptomatic meningiomas were characterized by a more common cerebral hemispheric location, a smaller size, and a lack of peritumoral edema. A significantly higher Simpson I resection rate of 95.2 % was achieved in tumors located in the cerebral hemisphere; in contrast, a rate of 66.7 % was obtained in tumors located at the skull base (P = 0.003). The overall postsurgical complication rate was 13.6 %, which was lower than the rate of 21.7 % in the symptomatic patients. Hemiplegia was the most common complication, which occurred most often in the patients with tumors in parietal locations (P = 0.015). Ninety-two percent of the asymptomatic patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 1 year after the operation, and significantly more patients younger than 60 years of age obtained a GOS score of 5 compared with patients older than 60 years of age (P = 0.006). To achieve maximal tumor resection and good patient recovery, tumor location and patient age should be carefully considered prior to choosing to perform surgery in asymptomatic patients.
Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha-Eugenia; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda-Alicia; Juárez-Barreto, Vicencio; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma-Teresa
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA-containing virus with 4 genes, C, S, X and P. The S gene codes for the surface antigen (HBsAg), which contains the "a" determinant, the main region for induction of a protective humoral immune response. To compare the genotype and sequence of the "a" determinant between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic Mexican HBV carriers. Results 21 asymptomatic (blood donors) and 12 symptomatic (with clinical signs and with >1 year lamivudine treatment) HBV carriers were studied; all patients were positive for the HBsAg in serum. Viral load, genotypes, and subtypes were determined in plasma. A fragment of the S gene including the "a" determinant was PCR amplified and sequenced to determine genotype, subtype and to identify mutations. Mean viral load was 0.7965 × 104 copies/ml in asymptomatic carriers and 2.73 × 106 copies/ml in symptomatic patients. Genotypes H, C, and F were identified in asymptomatic individuals; whereas H was dominant in symptomatic patients. A fragment of 279 bp containing the "a" determinant was amplified from all 33 carriers and sequences aligned with S gene sequences in the GenBank. Mutations identified were Y100N, T126I, Q129H and N146K in the asymptomatic group, and F93I and A128V in the symptomatic group. Conclusion Differences in genotype and in mutations in the "a" determinant were found between strains from asymptomatic and symptomatic HBV Mexican carriers. PMID:17217533
Heinonen, Santtu; Jartti, Tuomas; Garcia, Carla; Oliva, Silvia; Smitherman, Cynthia; Anguiano, Esperanza; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A. A.; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Dimo, Blerta; Suarez, Nicolas M.; Pascual, Virginia; Ramilo, Octavio
Rationale: Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of symptomatic respiratory tract infection in all age groups. However, RVs can frequently be detected in asymptomatic individuals. Objectives: To evaluate the ability of host transcriptional profiling to differentiate between symptomatic RV infection and incidental detection in children. Methods: Previously healthy children younger than 2 years old (n = 151) were enrolled at four study sites and classified into four clinical groups: RV− healthy control subjects (n = 37), RV+ asymptomatic subjects (n = 14), RV+ outpatients (n = 30), and RV+ inpatients (n = 70). Host responses were analyzed using whole-blood RNA transcriptional profiles. Measurements and Main Results: RV infection induced a robust transcriptional signature, which was validated in three independent cohorts and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with high prediction accuracy. The immune profile of symptomatic RV infection was characterized by overexpression of innate immunity and underexpression of adaptive immunity genes, whereas negligible changes were observed in asymptomatic RV+ subjects. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two main clusters of subjects. The first included 93% of healthy control subjects and 100% of asymptomatic RV+ subjects, and the second comprised 98% of RV+ inpatients and 88% of RV+ outpatients. Genomic scores of healthy control subjects and asymptomatic RV+ children were similar and significantly lower than those of RV+ inpatients and outpatients (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Symptomatic RV infection induced a robust and reproducible transcriptional signature, whereas identification of RV in asymptomatic children was not associated with significant systemic transcriptional immune responses. Transcriptional profiling represents a useful tool to discriminate between active infection and incidental virus detection. PMID:26571305
Di Mambro, Corrado; Drago, F; Milioni, M; Russo, M S; Righi, D; Placidi, S; Remoli, R; Palmieri, R; Gimigliano, F; Santucci, L M; Silvetti, M S; Prosperi, M
Many studies concern the management of young patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, but little information exists on the significance and prognosis of ventricular pre-excitation (VPE) in asymptomatic children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of sudden death in young athletes with asymptomatic VPE by transesophageal electrophysiological study (TEEPS) and their sports eligibility after the risk assessment and/or ablative treatment. Ninety-one asymptomatic children and adolescents underwent TEEPS both at rest and during adrenergic stress (exercise testing or isoproterenol infusion). After electrophysiological testing, patients were assessed in the 36 months of follow-up. Thirty-three patients (36.3 %) had a benign form of VPE and were allowed to participate in competitions. Ten patients (11 %) were at borderline risk; thus, sport eligibility was evaluated individually. Forty-eight patients (52.7 %) showed inducible sustained atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia and/or atrial fibrillation (AF), 11 of whom (12.1 % of total population) had a potential risk of sudden cardiac death due to AF inducibility during physical stress. Forty-five young athletes underwent transcatheter ablation (TCA). TCA was interrupted in 12 patients (26.7 %) because of the high procedural risk linked to septal accessory pathway (AP) location. There were no TCA-related complications, and all patients remained asymptomatic during follow-up. Most of the young athletes with asymptomatic VPE may be allowed to participate in competitive sports after an adequate risk assessment and/or ablative treatment. However, in our opinion, special care should be taken to avoid procedural complications, which are unacceptable in asymptomatic patients.
Guy, John; Feuer, William J.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Schiffman, Joyce; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R.; Lam, Byron L.
Purpose. To report the serial evaluation of asymptomatic eyes of subjects with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA. Methods. Forty-five asymptomatic G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) carriers and two patients with the mutation who developed unilateral visual loss underwent testing that included visual acuity, automated visual field, pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography every 6 months between September 2008 and March 2012. Results. Visual acuity, visual fields, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness remained stable within the normal range. Mean PERG amplitudes of carriers dropped progressively by ∼40% from baseline to 36 months. In addition, comparisons with the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral optic neuritis revealed a 3.4 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) letter loss in the LHON carriers. A single carrier developed visual loss, with PERG amplitudes dropping by half. In one of two LHON cases who presented with unilateral visual loss, visual acuity in the asymptomatic eye was ∼20/40 at baseline. The PERG amplitude of this eye was reduced to ∼30% of normal. Six months later, his visual acuity had dropped to ∼20/500. A second patient who was ∼20/20 and had a visual field defect in the asymptomatic eye at baseline remained at this level for the 18 months of follow-up. His PERG amplitudes were similar to those of asymptomatic carriers, with 0.78 μV at baseline that did not decline with follow-up. Conclusions. Declines of the PERG amplitude suggest subclinical retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in asymptomatic G11778A subjects, which is progressive. PMID:24398093
Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á
West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Paciaroni, M; Caso, V; Acciarresi, M; Baumgartner, R; Agnelli, G
Current available data do not seem to support the strategy for carotid endarterectomy prior to surgical intervention in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. However, in patients with coronary artery disease, synchronous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting should be considered where there is a proven surgical risk of <3% with unilateral asymptomatic stenosis >60% or bilateral carotid stenosis >75% on the same side as the most severe stenosis. Clarification of the optimal strategy requires an adequately powered, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. PMID:16170071
Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH.
Isley, Laura M.; Leddy, Rebecca J.; Rumboldt, Tihana; Bernard, Jacqueline M.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in males is rare and usually presents with symptoms on the affected side, such as, palpable mass or bloody nipple discharge. Even as DCIS has been reported in conjunction with gynecomastia in the same breast, we report an unusual case of a 62-year-old Caucasian male, with no family history of breast cancer, who presented with symptomatic side gynecomastia, and was incidentally found to have DCIS in a completely asymptomatic left breast. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report in literature of asymptomatic, incidentally discovered DCIS in a male patient. PMID:22530182
Masoudi, Simin; Stapleton, Fiona J; Willcox, Mark D P
The concentration of selected proteins and inflammatory mediators in tears of symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers were quantified. The level of leukotriene B4 was higher in the symptomatic group. This may suggest that inflammation can be the cause of discomfort sensation at the end of day. The present study aims to quantify the concentration of selected tear lipids and proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Unstimulated evening tears were collected using glass capillary tubes from 45 healthy, adapted contact lens wearers. Twenty-two had self-described symptoms of dryness and discomfort with contact lenses and 23 were asymptomatic. Tear proteins were assayed using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Enzyme immunoassay kits were used to measure prostaglandins, leukotriene B4, and cysteinyl leukotrienes. Ocular comfort was rated on a scale of 1 to 100 at the time of tear collection. The average evening comfort level was above 70 for the asymptomatic (83.96 ± 9.51, mean ± SE) and equal or below 70 for the symptomatic group (57.28 ± 12.38) (P < .001). LTB4 was significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic contact lens wearers (0.32 ± 0.06 ng/μL vs. 0.17 ± 0.04 ng/μL, respectively; P = .03). Lysozyme was slightly but not significantly lower in symptomatic subjects (symptomatic 0.58 ± 0.10 mg/mL vs. asymptomatic 1.73 ± 0.46 mg/mL; P = .10). The levels of lactoferrin, lipocalin 1, proline-rich 4, prolactin-induced protein, prostaglandins, and cysteinyl leukotrienes were unchanged (P > .1) between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. The LTB4 concentration was significantly higher in symptomatic contact lens wearers compared to the asymptomatic group, and this may partly mediate the discomfort response during lens wear in the symptomatic lens wearers. No other differences were found in the level of tear factors of interest between the two groups.
Brkic, Snezana; Bogavac, Mirjana A; Simin, Natasa; Hrnjakovic-Cvetkovic, Ivana; Milosevic, Vesna; Maric, Danijela
To study the role of asymptomatic maternal parvo B19 infection in severe fetal outcome in Province of Vojvodina. One hundred seventy-six pregnant women (13-25 weeks of gestation) were divided in two groups - patients with symptoms of imminent spontaneous abortion and poor pregnancy outcome and patients with normal course of pregnancy. Double serum samples were analyzed to quantify IgM and IgG to parvovirus B19. Among pregnant women with symptoms of spontaneous abortion, we found significantly higher percentage of acute parvovirus B19 infection. Asymptomatic parvo B19 infection is associated with poor fetal outcome much more than we presumed previously.
Tanwar, Raman; Rathore, Kirti Vijay; Rohilla, Mahesh Kumar
Renal stones are a common affliction presenting in an acute setting. We report a case of asymptomatic renal stone in an elderly gentleman presenting initially as a discharging lumbar sinus managed by subcapsular nephrectomy and radical excision of the fistula tract. Nephrocutaneous fistula is most commonly associated with tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and rarely with complicated calyceal stones, and its occurrence with asymptomatic pelvic stones is rare. We present the points in favor of radical open surgery in the management of such patients. PMID:25657555
Blanc, J; Bretelle, F
Describe tools designed to predict preterm birth in asymptomatic high-risk pregnancy and determine their predictive value. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Obstetric history particularly spontaneous preterm birth identifies a population at risk for preterm birth for the current pregnancy (LE3). This risk is related to the number of prior preterm birth and is even higher than the term of the prior event is more premature and that the event concerns the last pregnancy (LE3). The literature data are insufficient to recommend systematic cervical examination at each prenatal visit in asymptomatic high-risk pregnancy (multiple pregnancy, uterine malformations, history of spontaneous preterm birth, excisional cervical procedure or at least two voluntary first trimester abortion) (professional consensus). Regular recording of uterine activity and home visits for asymptomatic high-risk pregnancy did not predict nor reduce the risk of preterm birth (LE2) and are not recommended (grade B). In asymptomatic high-risk pregnancy, ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length estimates the risk of preterm birth (LE2). Shorter is the cervical length higher is the risk of preterm birth (LE3). In asymptomatic patient with prior preterm birth, ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length estimates the risk of preterm birth (LE2). The strategy of ultrasound indicated cerclage are discussed in dedicated chapter. The measurement of cervical length by transvaginal ultrasonography in asymptomatic pregnancy with uterine malformation, a history of cervical treatment, at least two voluntary abortions or having a multiple pregnancy would estimate the risk of preterm birth (LE3). A shortening of more than 10% of the cervical length at 3-week interval is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (LE3). Systematic detection of fetal fibronectin is not recommended in
Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lu, Hung-I; Ng, Shu-Hang; Kung, Chia-Te
A 54-year-old man with fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus and mediastinal hematoma was successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed migration of the fishbone into the aorta; however, the patient was asymptomatic and refused surgery. Six years later, CT showed persistent impaction of the fishbone within the aorta, but the patient was healthy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of serial CT documentation of fishbone penetration of the esophagus with migration into and prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta.
Butcher, J D
A 35-year-old, active duty Army officer presented for a screening physical exam before entering special training for HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) parachute qualification. This training involves jumping from aircraft at extreme altitudes with deployment of the parachute at relatively low altitudes (free fall). At the time of this evaluation he was assigned to a special operations airborne unit on active jump status. Careful review of his recent exercise history revealed a gradual decrease in endurance over the past several years, which he felt was due to decreased training intensity. His exercise consisted of running 3 to 4 miles four times a week and physical fitness training with his military unit three times a week. He continued to achieve high scores on the Army Physical Readiness Test.
Shimabukuro, Michio; Saito, Taro; Higa, Toru; Nakamura, Keita; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show a greater risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), but the risk stratification in asymptomatic CAD patients has not been established. This study investigated the prevalence and severity for asymptomatic CAD and predictors in T2DM patients. In a multiclinic group, diabetic patients (320 men, 186 women) without known symptoms suggestive of CAD were recruited for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Patients were categorized according to severity of coronary atherosclerosis: Grade 1 (normal findings), Grade 2 (mild atherosclerosis without significant stenosis), Grade 3 (moderate stenosis/atherosclerosis, 50-74% stenosis), Grade 4 (moderate stenosis/atherosclerosis, 75-89% stenosis), Grade 5 (severe stenosis/atherosclerosis, ≥90% stenosis). The trend for severity grade of CAD was slightly higher in men than women (P=0.054). For critical lesions (combined Grades 3-5), the prevalence was almost equal (men 44% vs. women 37%; P=0.113). Multivariate models showed that in men, HbA1c≥7.4%, dyslipidemia, duration of diabetes, retinopathy, and other type of cardiovascular diseases were predictors of critical lesions and in women, duration of diabetes and retinopathy were predictors. The prevalence and severity of asymptomatic CAD are comparably high in men and women with T2DM. Risk stratification by using MDCT might be useful to predict asymptomatic coronary lesions requiring coronary revascularization.
Tsoi, Ludwig C H; Tung, Cora C H; Wong, Eliza L Y
To determine the characteristics of asymptomatic elevated blood pressure patients in an accident and emergency setting and assess the effect of a nurse-led intervention system. Cross-sectional study. Accident and Emergency Department of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Patients with blood pressures of 140/90 mm Hg or above recorded twice (at triage and discharge) with no previous history of hypertension. Exclusion criteria were: (1) admission to hospital; (2) known hypertension; (3) referral for hypertension; (4) blood pressure higher than 180/120 mm Hg on rechecking. Patients were issued a referral by the discharge nurse to follow-up for blood pressure monitoring in primary care. Diagnosis of hypertension, follow-up rate, and risk factors of hypertension. Of 245 patients with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure, we were able to contact 222 for follow-up, of whom 136 (61%) claimed to have been followed up for their blood pressure, and 48 (22%) were diagnosed to have hypertension. The nurse time for finding one case was 28 minutes. The projected impact could be large. If this simple nursing guideline is implemented territory-wide, more than 7000 new cases of asymptomatic hypertension might be picked up annually. The implementation of a simple nurse-led hypertension referral system is a cost-effective way to screen asymptomatic subjects with elevated blood pressures in the accident and emergency department.
Avelar, Wagner M; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Coan, Ana C; Lima, Fabrício Oliveira; Guimarães, Rachel; Yassuda, Clarissa L; Oliveira, Germano P; Guillaumon, Ana T; Filho, Augusto A; Min, Li L; Cendes, Fernando
Cognitive deficits in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis have been reported. The ultimate mechanism of cognitive deficits remains unclear and might be related to subtle structural brain damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of subtle white and grey matter abnormalities associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Twenty-five patients with asymptomatic ≥70%/occlusion carotid stenosis and 25 healthy controls, matched for gender and age, underwent 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. Gray and white matter macrostructural abnormalities were evaluated with voxel-based morphometry using spm8 software. White matter microstructural abnormalities were evaluated with diffusion tensor images with the Diffusion Toolbox package and tract-based spatial statistics from FMRIB Software Library. We observed significant macro- and microstructural white matter abnormalities, and these findings were diffuse and symmetrical in both hemispheres. In contrast, gray matter atrophy was observed in the areas corresponding to the anterior circulation of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the carotid stenosis. Patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis have different patterns of gray and white matter abnormalities. While the white matter damage is diffuse, the gray matter atrophy is localized in the territory of anterior circulation ipsilateral to the stenosis. The role of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in the gray matter damage must be further investigated with longitudinal studies and comparison with neuropsychological evaluation. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Zhao, Gui-Hua; Yin, Kun; Zhong, Wei-Xia; Xiao, Ting; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Cui, Yong; Liu, Gong-Zhen; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Fa
Heishui county, located in northwest Sichuan province, southwestern China, is an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is the most intractable area. VL is never destroyed in it. Asymptomatic dogs (Leishmania parasites have been diagnosed but clinically healthy) are considered to be a potential reservoir host in zoonotic VL area, and most can lead to infection of individuals, that is a new challenge for controlling VL in humans. The present study aimed to assess the Leishmania infection rate of asymptomatic dogs in Heishui county. Total 105 asymptomatic domestic dogs were gathered from 4 districts in Heishui county to investigate the infection rate with serological and molecular methods based on ELISA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA(kDNA) PCR, respectively. Out of 105 dogs, 44 (41.9%) were positive by more than 1 method; 21 (20.0%) were positive by ELISA, and 30 (28.6%) were positive by kDNA-PCR. Our study showed that Leishmania infection of domestic dogs which is clinically healthy is prevalent in the studied district, and the asymptomatic dogs infected by Leishmania may be the primary reason for the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in the area. PMID:28095666
Okusanya, B O; Eigbefoh, J O; Ohiosimuan, O; Isabu, P A; Okpere, E E; Inyang, N J
We evaluated the usefulness of intradermal smear microscopy (IDS) in the detection of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in pregnancy. Peripheral venous blood (PVB) served as control. The preference for the collection technique of dermal blood was also assessed. One hundred and fifty (150) asymptomatic women were recruited. They had both intradermal smear and peripheral venous blood smear were made for all patients. Measures of test validity included sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate. Test of statistical significance was with Yates correlation at 95% confidence limit. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia was higher using intradermal smear (35.3% vs 33.3%) though this was not statistically significant. Intradermal smear had a sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 67%. The positive predictive value was 37.8% with accuracy rate of 58%. 41% of participants preferred the technique of collection of intradermal blood. Intradermal smear appears to have no usefulness in the detection of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in pregnancy. However, we recommend more studies on its value in pregnancy, especially amongst symptomatic pregnant women.
Zaw, Myo Thiha; Thant, Myo; Hlaing, Tin Maung; Aung, Naing Zin; Thu, Min; Phumchuea, Kanit; Phusri, Kanokwan; Saeseu, Teerawat; Yorsaeng, Ritthideach; Nguitragool, Wang; Felger, Ingrid; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Cui, Liwang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Myanmar has the heaviest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections are common in this region and may represent an important reservoir of transmission that must be targeted for malaria elimination. A mass blood survey was conducted among 485 individuals from six villages in Kayah State, an area of endemic but low transmission malaria in eastern Myanmar. Malaria infection was screened by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its association with demographic factors was explored. The prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection was 2.3% (11/485) by real-time PCR. Plasmodium vivax accounted for 72.7% (8/11) and Plasmodium falciparum for 27.3% (3/11) of infections. Men were at greater risk of infection by Plasmodium spp. than women. Individuals who worked as farmers or wood and bamboo cutters had an increased risk of infection. A combination of RDT, light microscopy and PCR diagnostics were used to identify asymptomatic malaria infection, providing additional information on asymptomatic cases in addition to the routine statistics on symptomatic cases, so as to determine the true burden of disease in the area. Such information and risk factors can improve malaria risk stratification and guide decision-makers towards better design and delivery of targeted interventions in small villages, representative of Kayah State.
Lavan, R; Knesl, O
To determine the prevalence of nine canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) pathogens in asymptomatic dogs presented at animal shelters across the United States. Ocular and oronasal swabs from asymptomatic dogs (n = 503) were tested using qPCR assay for Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus. A total of 240 (47.7%) asymptomatic dogs were PCR-positive for at least one CIRD pathogen. Prevalence of two-, three-, four-, and five-pathogen cases was 12.7, 3.8, 1.8, and 0.4%, respectively. Mycoplasma cynos (29.2%), B. bronchiseptica (19.5%), CAV-2 (12.5%), CDV (7.4%) and CPIV (3.2%) were the most commonly detected pathogens. The prevalence of traditional and newly emerging pathogens associated with CIRD is poorly defined in clinically healthy dogs. This study determined that a high percentage of asymptomatic shelter dogs harbor CIRD pathogens, including the newly emerging pathogen M. cynos and the historically prevalent pathogen B. bronchiseptica. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Saxon, Cara; Ison, Catherine
We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic. PMID:26691688
Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine
We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.
Leis, Jerome A; Rebick, Gabriel W; Daneman, Nick; Gold, Wayne L; Poutanen, Susan M; Lo, Pauline; Larocque, Michael; Shojania, Kaveh G; McGeer, Allison
This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that no longer routinely reporting urine culture results from noncatheterized medical and surgical inpatients can greatly reduce unnecessary antimicrobial therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria without significant additional laboratory workload. Larger studies are needed to confirm the generalizability, safety, and sustainability of this model of care.
Elgalib, A; Alexander, S; Tong, C Y W; White, J A
There are no evidence-based guidelines for the specific management of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. All men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with asymptomatic rectal CT by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) at a large London genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic between September 2006 and September 2009 were offered oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for seven days and invited for a test of cure (TOC) by CT NAAT four weeks after treatment. A total of 487 asymptomatic rectal CT infections were diagnosed and analysis was restricted to 165 TOCs from men whose only treatment had been doxycycline for seven days. The median time post-treatment for TOC was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR], 34-88). Only two patients tested CT-positive at follow-up. One had taken doxycycline only for three days; the other attended for TOC 240 days after the completion of doxycycline treatment and at this time presented with new symptoms in the context of ongoing high sexual risk. Our findings show that doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for seven days is highly effective treatment for asymptomatic rectal CT infection, achieving clearance of CT in 98.8% (163/165; 95% CI 95.4-99.9%) of cases. We advocate doxycycline for seven days as first-line therapy for asymptomatic rectal CT.
Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Treves, S.T.; Lebowitz, R.L.; Bauer, S.; Davis, R.T.; Retik, A.; Colodny, A.
The familial nature of vesicoureteral reflux among siblings of patients with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported to be from 8% to 32%. These included both symptomatic and asymptomatic siblings. The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in asymptomatic siblings, however, has not been studied extensively. Sixty asymptomatic siblings of patients known to have vesicoureteral reflux were studied with radionuclide voiding cystography. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 15 years (mean, 4.2 years). Vesicoureteral reflux was detected in 27 of 60 (45%) of the siblings. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 15 and bilateral in 12 of the siblings. Radionuclide cystography is more sensitive than radiographic cystography and results in a very low radiation dose to the patient. The gonadal dose with radionuclide cystography is only 1.0 to 2.0 mrads. Because of these features, radionuclide cystography is a nearly ideal technique for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in siblings of patients with known vesicoureteral reflux. All siblings (symptomatic or asymptomatic) of patients with known vesicoureteral reflux should have a screening radionuclide cystography.
Sackey, Adziri H
This study was performed to determine the prevalence of CHD among children referred with asymptomatic murmurs and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the assessment of asymptomatic heart murmurs by general paediatricians. We reviewed the records of children who had been referred by general paediatricians to a cardiology clinic for further evaluation of a heart murmur. The referring paediatricians' clinical assessment of the murmur was compared with the cardiologist's echocardiographic diagnosis. A total of 150 children were referred by paediatricians to a paediatric cardiologist for further assessment of a heart murmur. Out of 150 children, 72 had a paediatrician's diagnosis of innocent murmur; of these 72 patients, two (3%) had heart disease on echocardiography. In all, after echocardiography, a range of congenital heart lesions was found in 28 (19%) of the 150 children. CHD is not rare among children with asymptomatic heart murmurs. In this series of children with asymptomatic murmurs, 19% had heart lesions on echocardiography. Most, but not all, of the children with heart lesions were identified on clinical examination by general paediatricians.
Flynn, Colleen; Anschuetz, Greta; Asbel, Lenore; Madera, Robbie; Johnson, Caroline C
A random sample of individuals diagnosed as having gonorrhea from 2009 to 2013 were interviewed. Demographic and clinical features for asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals were examined to elucidate trends in medical care. Age, race, and sexually transmitted disease history had no association with the absence of symptoms (e.g., infection found by screening), whereas insurance coverage did for women.
Nyunt, Myat Htut; Shein, Thinzar; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Muh, Fauzi; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Han, Jin-Hee; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Kyaw, Myat Phone
Artemisinin resistance containment in Myanmar was initiated in 2011 after artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported. Molecular evidence suggests that asymptomatic malaria infections harboring drug resistance genes are present among residents of the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zone. This evidence supports efforts to eliminate these hidden infections. PMID:28221121
Grau, Juan B.; Poggio, Paolo; Sainger, Rachana; Vernick, William J.; Seefried, William F.; Branchetti, Emanuela; Field, Benjamin C.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Acker, Michael A.; Ferrari, Giovanni
Background Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is the most common etiology of acquired valve disease. Initial phases of CAVD include thickening of the cusps, whereas advanced stages are associated with biomineralization and reduction of the aortic valve area. These conditions are known as Aortic Valve Sclerosis (AVSc) and Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS), respectively. Due to its asymptomatic presentation, little is know about the molecular determinants of AVSc. The aim of this study is to correlate plasma and tissue Osteopontin (OPN) levels with echocardiographic evaluation for the identification of asymptomatic patients at risk of CAVD. In addition, we aim to analyze the differential expression and biological function of OPN splicing variants as biomarkers of early and late stages of CAVD. Methods From Jan 2010 to Feb 2011, 254 patients were enrolled in the study. Subjects were divided in three groups based on transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) evaluation: Controls (56 subjects), AVSc (90), and AVS (164). Plasma and tissue OPN levels were measured by IHC, ELISA and qPCR. Results Patients with AVSc have and AVS higher OPN levels compared to controls. OPN levels are elevated in asymptomatic AVSc patients with no appearance of calcification during TEE evaluation. Osteopontin splicing variants -a, -b, and -c are differentially expressed during CAVD progression and are able to inhibit biomineralization in a cell-based biomineralization assay. Conclusions The analysis of the differential expression of OPN splicing variants during CAVD may help in developing diagnostic and risk stratification tools to follow the progression of asymptomatic AV degeneration. PMID:22093695
Chamizo, Cristina; Moreno, Javier; Alvar, Jorge
The dog is the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in Mediterranean countries. The infection in dogs shows different clinical presentations, from subclinical/asymptomatic to a fully developed disease, depending on the host's immune responses. The Th1/Th2 dichotomy is not clear in the different forms of canine leishmaniasis, since the data available from studies of immunity response in canine leishmaniasis are scarce and fragmented. The present work describes the cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from asymptomatic dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum that present a cellular protective immune response. The results obtained from freshly isolated PBMC showed expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-18 mRNA, similar to those from non-infected dogs. However, there was almost no expression of IL-4 mRNA detected in the asymptomatic infected dogs compared to the control dogs. Unspecific stimulation with ConA promoted the expression in a greater or lower degree of all the cytokines studied. In vitro stimulation of PBMC with soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) promoted the expression of IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-18, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA, with the two first being specifically induced. Although both Th1 and Th2 cytokines are produced, cell mediated immunity observed in these L. infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs depended on the preferential expression of Th1 cytokines.
Baqain, Eyad B; Lataifeh, Isam M; Khriesat, Wadah M; Fraiwan, Nayef M; Armooti, Mohamed A
A cleft of the sternum is a rare congenital anomaly, often diagnosed as an asymptomatic condition at birth. We present a case of a large incomplete sternal cleft in a full-term baby boy. Surgical repair of the sternum with the use of Prolene mesh was performed during the neonatal period without cardiac compression.
Gold, Erin; Guthmann, Richard; Plonka, Catherine
No evidence exists to support a clinical benefit from annual pelvic examinations for asymptomatic women who receive Pap smears every 3 to 5 years. However, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee on gynecologic practice recommends annual pelvic exams.
Ordell Sundelin, Maria; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard
The Danish hematuria guidelines were revised in January 2016. Before revision, it was recommended that asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in patients more than 40 years old should be routinely urologically investigated. In the revised guidelines, patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria are not recommended to be investigated, irrespective of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether asymptomatic microscopic hematuria was predictive of neoplasia of the urinary tract in a referred cohort of patients. All patients older than 40 years referred from primary care to private clinics and public hospitals in the Central Denmark Region for evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in a 2 year period from January 2014 to December 2015 were included retrospectively. All patients had been routinely investigated with computed tomography urography and outpatient flexible cystoscopy. Patients' age and gender were recorded and the final diagnosis after full investigation was retrieved. In total, 1305 patients (492 males and 813 females) were included. Eleven patients (0.8%) were diagnosed with neoplasia in the urinary tract, including non-invasive Ta bladder tumor (n = 6), benign tumors in the kidney (n = 2), invasive bladder cancer (n = 2) and carcinoma in situ in the urinary bladder (n = 1). None of the patients had renal cancer or upper urinary tract tumors as the final diagnosis. A minority of patients with malignancies or non-invasive tumors would have been missed based on the revised Danish hematuria referral pathways.
Das, Bidyut Kumar
Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide derivative and has generally been considered to be a very safe medication. Though gastrointestinal symptoms and reversible hearing loss are common, potentially serious side effects including angioedema and cholestatic jaundice occurred in less than one percent of patients. We report a case of asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy with Azithromycin induced severe hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:22144789
Plummer, Nicholas Russell; Tokala, Ajay; Date, Ravindra S
Perforation into the gastrointestinal tract is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. We present a case of transanal protrusion of the shunt catheter in an otherwise asymptomatic patient, with only transient signs of shunt failure some 2 months prior to presentation, and discuss treatment options to rationalise our decision to treat with laparotomy and preservation of the shunt. PMID:24827668
Michova, M; Ivanov, St; Batashki, I
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and cystitis affect 4-9% of pregnancies and are associated with pyelonephritis and preterm labor. Screening for AB and adequate antimicrobal therapy prevent most of these serious complications. Twenty- nine pregnant patients, suffering from AB and 9 cases with cystitis were treated with single dose Monura (Fosfomycin trometamol) in a prospective study.
Pérez-Aguilar, Fernando; Burguera, Juan A; Benlloch, Salvador; Berenguer, Marina; Rayón, Jose M
A 39-year-old asymptomatic man showed elevated serum ferritin levels, mild hypertransaminasemia and serum ceruloplasmin almost undetectable. There was histological iron accumulation within the hepatocytes and also in the central nervous system (MRI). A genetic analysis revealed a new missense mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Two of the other four siblings were also affected by this mutation.
Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.
The use of treadmill testing in asymptomatic patients and those with an atypical chest pain syndrome is increasing, yet the proportion of false positive stress electrocardiograms increases as the prevalence of disease decreases. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of computer-enhanced thallium perfusion scintigraphy in this subgroup of patients, multigated thallium scans were obtained after peak exercise and 3 or 4 hours after exercise and the raw images enhanced by a computer before interpretations were made. The patient group consisted of 191 asymptomatic U.S. Air force aircrewmen who had an abnormal exercise electrocardiogram. Of these, 135 had normal coronary angiographic findings, 15 had subcritical coronary stenosis (less than 50 percent diameter narrowing) and 41 had significant coronary artery disease. Use of computer enhancement resulted in only four false positive and two false negative scintigrams. The small subgroup with subcritical coronary disease had equivocal results on thallium scintigraphy, 10 men having abnormal scans and 5 showing no defects. The clinical significance of such subcritical disease in unclear, but it can be detected with thallium scintigraphy. Thallium scintigrams that have been enhanced by readily available computer techniques are an accurate diagnostic tool even in asymptomatic patients with an easily interpretable abnormal maximal stress electrocardiogram. Thallium scans can be effectively used in counseling asymptomatic patients on the likelihood of their having coronary artery disease.
Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.
ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810
Psaty, Bruce M; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Branch, Kelley R
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and remains the single most common cause of death among this population. Regrettably, a significant percentage of diabetics fail to perceive the classic symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia. Among asymptomatic diabetics, the prevalence of abnormal cardiac testing appears to be high, ranging between 10% and 62%, and mortality is significantly higher in those with abnormal scans. Hence, the potential use of screening for CHD detection among asymptomatic DM individuals is appealing and has been recommended in certain circumstances. However, it was not until recently, that this question was addressed in clinical trials. Two studies randomized a total of 2,023 asymptomatic diabetics to screening or not using cardiac imaging with a mean follow up of 4.4 ± 1.4 years. In combination, both trials showed lower than expected annual event rates, and failed to reduce major cardiovascular events in the screened group compared to the standard of care alone. The results of these trials do not currently support the use of screening tools for CHD detection in asymptomatic DM individuals. However, these studies have important limitations, and potential explanations for their negative results that are discussed in this manuscript. PMID:26019384