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Sample records for at200 analytical balance

  1. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  2. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  3. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  4. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  5. Analytical balance-based Faraday magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; De Santis, Roberto; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance in which we were able to apply magnetic fields up to 0.14 T. We calibrated it with a 1 mm Ni sphere previously characterized in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The proposed magnetometer reached a theoretical sensitivity of 3 × 10-8 A m2. We demonstrated its operation on magnetic composite scaffolds made of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite. To confirm the validity of the method, we measured the same scaffold properties in a SQUID magnetometer. The agreement between the two measurements was within 5% at 0.127 T and 12% at 24 mT. With the addition, for a small cost, of a permanent magnet and computer controlled linear translators, we were thus able to assemble a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance, which is a virtually ubiquitous instrument. This will make simple but effective magnetometry easily accessible to most laboratories, in particular, to life sciences ones, which are increasingly interested in magnetic materials.

  6. Supercapacitor operating at 200 degrees celsius.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel S; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Silva, Glaura G; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-01-01

    The operating temperatures of current electrochemical energy storage devices are limited due to electrolyte degradation and separator instability at higher temperatures. Here we demonstrate that a tailored mixture of materials can facilitate operation of supercapacitors at record temperatures, as high as 200°C. Composite electrolyte/separator structures made from naturally occurring clay and room temperature ionic liquids, with graphitic carbon electrodes, show stable supercapacitor performance at 200°C with good cyclic stability. Free standing films of such high temperature composite electrolyte systems can become versatile functional membranes in several high temperature energy conversion and storage applications.

  7. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  8. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  9. Slackline Training (Balancing Over Narrow Nylon Ribbons) and Balance Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors. Five biomedical and psychological databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) were screened using the following search terms with Boolean conjunctions: (slacklin* OR slack-lin* OR tight rop* OR tightrop* OR Slackline-based OR line-based OR slackrop* OR slack-rop* OR floppy wir* OR rop* balanc* OR ropedanc* OR rope-danc*) STUDY SELECTION: Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that applied slackline training as an exercise intervention compared with an inactive control condition focusing on static and dynamic balance performance (perturbed and non-perturbed single leg stance) in healthy children, adults and seniors were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale] were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) calculated as weighted Hedges' g served as main outcomes in order to compare slackline training versus inactive control on slackline standing as well as dynamic and static balance performance parameters. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects, inverse-variance model. Eight trials (mean PEDro score 6.5 ± 0.9) with 204 healthy participants were included. Of the included subjects, 35 % were children or adolescents, 39 % were adults and 26 % were seniors

  10. Unrestricted Factor Analytic Procedures for Assessing Acquiescent Responding in Balanced, Theoretically Unidimensional Personality Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2003-01-01

    This article describes and proposes an unrestricted factor analytic procedure to: (a) assess the dimensionality and structure of a balanced personality scale taking into account the potential effects of acquiescent responding, and (b) correct the individual trait estimates for acquiescence. The procedure can be considered as an extension of ten…

  11. Balanced differential phase-shift keying detector performance: an analytical study.

    PubMed

    Mlejnek, M

    2006-08-01

    A simple explanation of the observed approximately 3 dB advantage of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) balanced detection over the intensity-modulated directly detected (IM-DD) type detection that can be easily used for system engineering purposes is presented. A Gaussian approximation is used to describe the tails of the detected noisy random signals leading to an analytical explanation of the observed approximately 3 dB advantage of DPSK balanced detection over the IM-DD type detection.

  12. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.

  13. An analytical description of balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Oliver

    2011-02-01

    Conceptually, the only flaw in the standard steady-state free precession theory is the assumption of quasi-instantaneous radio-frequency pulses, and 10-20% signal deviations from theory are observed for common balanced steady-state free precession protocols. This discrepancy in the steady-state signal can be resolved by a simple T(2) substitution taking into account reduced transverse relaxation effects during finite radio-frequency excitation. However, finite radio-frequency effects may also affect the transient phase of balanced steady-state free precession, its contrast or its spin-echo nature and thereby have an adverse effect on common steady-state free precession magnetization preparation methods. As a result, an in-depth understanding of finite radio-frequency effects is not only of fundamental theoretical interest but also has direct practical implications. In this article, an analytical solution for balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency pulses is derived for the transient phase (under ideal conditions) and in the steady state demonstrating that balanced steady-state free precession key features are preserved but revealing an unexpected dependency of finite radio-frequency effects on relaxation times for the transient decay. Finally, the mathematical framework reveals that finite radio-frequency theory can be understood as a generalization of alternating repetition time and fluctuating equilibrium steady-state free precession sequence schemes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Implicit, semi-analytical solution of the generalized Riemann problem for stiff hyperbolic balance laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Eleuterio F.; Montecinos, Gino I.

    2015-12-01

    We present a semi-analytical, implicit solution to the generalized Riemann problem (GRP) for non-linear systems of hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms. The solution method is based on an implicit, time Taylor series expansion and the Cauchy-Kowalewskaya procedure, along with the solution of a sequence of classical Riemann problems. Our new GRP solver is then used to construct locally implicit ADER methods of arbitrary accuracy in space and time for solving the general initial-boundary value problem for non-linear systems of hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms. Analysis of the method for model problems is carried out and empirical convergence rate studies for suitable tests problems are performed, confirming the theoretically expected high order of accuracy.

  15. Analytical study of the energy rate balance equation for the magnetospheric storm-ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clúa de Gonzalez, A. L.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1998-11-01

    We present some results of the analytical integration of the energy rate balance equation, assuming that the input energy rate is proportional to the azimuthal interplanetary electric field, Ey, and can be described by simple rectangular or triangular functions, as approximations to the frequently observed shapes of Ey, especially during the passage of magnetic clouds. The input function is also parametrized by a reconnection-transfer efficiency factor (which is assumed to vary between 0.1 and 1). Our aim is to solve the balance equation and derive values for the decay parameter compatible with the observed Dst peak values. To facilitate the analytical integration we assume a constant value for through the main phase of the storm. The model is tested for two isolated and well-monitored intense storms. For these storms the analytical results are compared to those obtained by the numerical integration of the balance equation, based on the interplanetary data collected by the ISEE-3 satellite, with the values parametrized close to those obtained by the analytical study. From the best fit between this numerical integration and the observed Dst the most appropriate values of are then determined. Although we specifically focus on the main phase of the storms, this numerical integration has been also extended to the recovery phase by an independent adjust. The results of the best fit for the recovery phase show that the values of may differ drastically from those corresponding to the main phase. The values of the decay parameter for the main phase of each event, m, are found to be very sensitive to the adopted efficiency factor, , decreasing as this factor increases. For the recovery phase, which is characterized by very low values of the power input, the response function becomes almost independent of the value of and the resulting values for the decay time parameter, r, do not vary greatly as varies

  16. A novel analytical approximation technique for highly nonlinear oscillators based on the energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, Md. Alal; Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Ismail, Ahmad Faris

    In the present paper, a novel analytical approximation technique has been proposed based on the energy balance method (EBM) to obtain approximate periodic solutions for the focus generalized highly nonlinear oscillators. The expressions of the natural frequency-amplitude relationship are obtained using a novel analytical way. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated on three benchmark oscillatory problems, namely, the simple relativistic oscillator, the stretched elastic wire oscillator (with a mass attached to its midpoint) and the Duffing-relativistic oscillator. For an initial oscillation amplitude A0 = 100, the maximal relative errors of natural frequency found in three oscillators are 2.1637%, 0.0001% and 1.201%, respectively, which are much lower than the errors found using the existing methods. It is highly remarkable that an excellent accuracy of the approximate natural frequency has been found which is valid for the whole range of large values of oscillation amplitude as compared with the exact ones. Very simple solution procedure and high accuracy that is found in three benchmark problems reveal the novelty, reliability and wider applicability of the proposed analytical approximation technique.

  17. Analytic Lyman-alpha wing diagnostics and the chromospheric excitation balance in cool dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayley, K. G.

    1994-01-01

    I show that the Lyman alpha wings of cool dwarfs can be understood in terms of a very simple model, based on a simplified representation of the chromospheric hydrogen excitation balance and approximate analytic wing diagnostics in partial redistribution. Much of the complexity of the radiation transfer in the partially coherent and steeply temperature-sensitive Lyman alpha line is circumvented by this technique. The result is an expedient scheme for inverting the Lyman alpha wing profile to determine the characteristic free electron density and its gradient in the middle chromosphere. This represents an important new diagnostic for constraining chromospheric models and their radiative losses. I apply this diagnostic to the Lyman alpha wing profiles of the Sun and AU Mic and show that current instrumentation, most notably the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, is capable of providing the necessary data.

  18. A class of analytic solutions for the thermally balanced magnetostatic prominence sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Wu, S. T.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented for the nonlinear interplay between magnetostatic equilibrium and energy balance in a Kippenhahn-Schlueter type solar prominence sheet. A class of theoretical models is presented, expressed in closed analytic forms, thus facilitating the direct illustration of the nonlinear physical properties. The model couples the equilibrium between magnetic field, plasma pressure, and weight on the one hand, with the balance between a rho-squared T radiative loss, a rho wave heating (where rho equals plasma density, and T equals plasma temperature), and thermal conduction channeled along magnetic field lines on the other. The steady solutions are divided into three classes, and are characterized by the total wave heating in the prominence sheet which is greater than, equal to, or less than the total radiative loss. The compaction of the plasma along the field lines, under its own weight, and the energy transport effects determine which of the three basic behaviors obtains in a particular situation. A discussion is presented of the implications of the steady solutions for the formation of prominences.

  19. An improved algorithm for balanced proper orthogonal decomposition using analytic tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jonathan; Rowley, Clarence

    2012-11-01

    Balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD) can be used in flow control applications to identify coherent structures of interest and to form reduced-order models. Doing so involves simulating impulse responses of the direct and adjoint systems, in order to compute factorizations of the empirical Gramians. We present a new variant of the BPOD algorithm that simultaneously reduces its computational cost and increases its accuracy. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is used to identify the slow eigenvectors that dominate the long-time behavior of the impulse responses, and the contribution of these eigenvectors to the empirical Gramians is then accounted for analytically. This procedure greatly reduces the error inherent in truncating the impulse responses after a finite time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by applying it to the flow past a two-dimensional cylinder, at a Reynolds number of 100. Reduced-order models are computed for the restriction of the wake dynamics to the stable subspace. Models generated using the analytic tail method yield the same accuracy as those computed using traditional BPOD, with a 70% reduction in computation time. Supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-09-1-0257, NSF GRFP.

  20. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 < 1 MHz phase-modulated pulses were sufficient to achieve significant improvements in broadband (>10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  1. Simplified analytical model and balanced design approach for light-weight wood-based structural panel in bending

    Treesearch

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified analytical model and balanced design approach for modeling lightweight wood-based structural panels in bending. Because many design parameters are required to input for the model of finite element analysis (FEA) during the preliminary design process and optimization, the equivalent method was developed to analyze the mechanical...

  2. Analytical Solutions to the Near-Neutral Atmospheric Surface Energy Balance with and without Heat Storage for Urban Climatological Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, C. P.; Chan, B. K.; Hashim, M. A.

    1991-04-01

    Analytical solutions are presented to the near-neutral atmospheric surface energy balance with the new approach of including the participation of heat storage in the building substrate. Analytical solutions are also presented for the first time for the case without heat storage effect. By a linearization process, the governing equations are simplified to a set of time-dependent, linear, first-order equations from which explicit solutions are readily obtainable. The results compare well with those obtained by numerical solutions upon the set without linearization when applied to the tropical city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  3. FTNMR analysis of siloxane polymers at 200 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Happe, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Proton NMR is an accepted method for analyzing silicone cushion material for methyl, phenyl, and vinyl content. Recent interest in the preparation of cushion material with a low vinyl content has required the reevaluation of the NMR method of analysis. The new analytical requirement was that vinyl fragment contents were to be measured at the 0.20 wt % level with an accuracy of 10%. A 200-MHz high resolution Fourier transform NMR spectrometer was used and parameters optimized.

  4. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  5. Learning Analytics to Support Teachers during Synchronous CSCL: Balancing between Overview and Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Anouschka

    2015-01-01

    Learning analytics (LA) are summaries, visualizations, and analyses of student data that could improve learning in multiple ways, for example by supporting teachers. However, not much research is available yet concerning how LA may support teachers to diagnose student progress and to intervene during student learning activities. There is evidence…

  6. Experimental and Analytical Study of Balanced-Diaphragm Fuel Distributors for Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, David M.; Gold, Harold

    1950-01-01

    A method of distributing fuel equally to a plurality of spray nozzles in a gas-turbine engine by means of balanced-diaphragm fuel distributors is presented. The experimental performance of three of eight possible distributor arrangements are discussed. An analysis of all eight arrangements is included. Criterions are given for choosing a fuel-distributor arrangement to meet specific fuel-system requirements of fuel-distribution accuracy, spray-nozzle pressure variations, and fuel-system pressures. Data obtained with a model of one distributor arrangement indicated a maximum deviation from perfect distribution of 3.3 percent for a 44 to 1 range (19.5 to 862 lb/hr) of fuel-flow rates. The maximum distributor pressure drop was 125 pounds per square inch. The method used to obtain the required wide range of flow control in the distributor valves consisted in varying the length of a constant-area flow path.

  7. Inter-model, analytical, and experimental validation of a heat balance based residential cooling load calculation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dongyi

    Scope and method of study. A systematic validation of the ASHRAE heat balance based residential cooling load calculation procedure (RHB) has been performed with inter-model comparison, analytical verification and experimental validation. The inter-model validation was performed using ESP-r as the reference model. The testing process was automated through parametric generation and simulation of large sets of test cases for both RHB and ESP-r. The house prototypes covered include a simple Shoebox prototype and a real 4-bedroom house prototype. An analytical verification test suite for building fabric models of whole building energy simulation programs has been developed. The test suite consists of a series of sixteen tests covering convection, conduction, solar irradiation, long-wave radiation, infiltration and ground-coupled floors. Using the test suite, a total of twelve analytical tests have been done with the RHB procedure. The experimental validation has been conducted using experimental data collected from a Cardinal Project house located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. During the diagnostic process of the experimental validation, comparisons have also been made between ESP-r simulation results and experimental data. Findings and conclusions. It is concluded RHB is acceptable as a design tool on a typical North American house. Analytical tests confirmed the underlying mechanisms for modeling basic heat transfer phenomena in building fabric. The inter-model comparison showed that the differences found between RHB and ESP-r can be traced to the differences in sub-models used by RHB and ESP-r. It also showed that the RHB-designed systems can meet the design criteria and that the RHB temperature swing option is helpful in reducing system over-sizing. The experimental validation demonstrated that the systems designed with the method will have adequate size to meet the room temperatures specified in the design, whether or not swing is utilized. However, actual system

  8. Analytical and experimental performance evaluation of an integrated Si-photonic balanced coherent receiver in a colorless scenario.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Poulin, Michel; Painchaud, Yves; Pelletier, Martin; Paquet, Carl; Plant, David V

    2014-03-10

    We study analytically and experimentally the performance limits of a Si-photonic (SiP) balanced coherent receiver (CRx) co-packaged with transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) in a colorless WDM scheme. Firstly, the CRx architecture is depicted and characterization results are presented. Secondly, an analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the CRx output is rigorously developed and various noise sources in the context of colorless reception are outlined. Thirdly, we study experimentally the system-level CRx performance in colorless reception of 16 × 112 Gbps PDM-QPSK WDM channels. Using a 15.5 dBm local oscillator (LO) power, error free transmissions over 4800 and 4160 km at received powers of -3 and -21 dBm per channel, respectively, were achieved in a fully colorless and preamplifierless reception. Next, a set of measurements on one of the center WDM channels is performed where the LO power, received signal power, distance, and number of channels presented to the CRx are swept to evaluate the performance limits of colorless reception. Results reveal that the LO beating with optical noise incoming with the signal is a dominant noise source regardless of received signal power. In the high received signal power regime (~0 dBm/channel), the self-beat noise from out-of-band (OOB) channels is an additional major noise source especially for small LO-to-signal power ratio, short reach and large number of OOB channels. For example, at a received signal power of 0 dBm/channel after 1600 km transmission, the SNR difference between the fully filtered and colorless scenarios, where 1 and 16 channels are passed to the CRx respectively, grows from 0.5 to 3.3 dB as the LO power changes from 12 to 0 dBm. For low received power (~-12 dBm/channel), the effect of OOB channels becomes minor while the receiver shot and thermal noises become more significant. We identify the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and sensitivity as the two important CRx specifications that

  9. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaw, P. K.; Diamond, P. H.; Nordman, H.; Bourdelle, C.

    2014-06-15

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E × B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  10. Load balancing prediction method of cloud storage based on analytic hierarchy process and hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuze; Lin, Fan; Yang, Lvqing; Nie, Jing; Tan, Qian; Zeng, Wenhua; Zhang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of the cloud computing platform scale and rapid growth of users and applications, how to efficiently use system resources to improve the overall performance of cloud computing has become a crucial issue. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses an analytic hierarchy process group decision (AHPGD) to evaluate the load state of server nodes. Training was carried out by using a hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm (HHGA) for optimizing a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). The AHPGD makes the aggregative indicator of virtual machines in cloud, and become input parameters of predicted RBFNN. Also, this paper proposes a new dynamic load balancing scheduling algorithm combined with a weighted round-robin algorithm, which uses the predictive periodical load value of nodes based on AHPPGD and RBFNN optimized by HHGA, then calculates the corresponding weight values of nodes and makes constant updates. Meanwhile, it keeps the advantages and avoids the shortcomings of static weighted round-robin algorithm.

  11. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, N.; Rybalchenko, A.; Shevelko, V. P.; Al-Turany, M.; Kollegger, T.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  12. Reply to "Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance" by C. J. van der Veen (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Terence J.

    2017-07-01

    Two approaches to ice-sheet modeling are available. Analytical modeling is the traditional approach (Van der Veen, 2016). It solves the force (momentum), mass, and energy balances to obtain three-dimensional solutions over time, beginning with the Navier-Stokes equations for the force balance. Geometrical modeling employs simple geometry to solve the force and mass balance in one dimension along ice flow (Hughes, 2012a). It is useful primarily to provide the first-order physical basis of ice-sheet modeling for students with little background in mathematics. The geometric approach uses changes in ice-bed coupling along flow to calculate changes in ice elevation and thickness, using a floating fraction ϕ along a flow line or flow band, where ϕ = 0 for sheet flow, 0 < ϕ < 1 for stream flow, and ϕ = 1 for shelf flow. An attempt is made to reconcile the two approaches.

  13. Results from Cu+Au collisions at 200 GeV in PHENIX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, Ya. A.; Kotov, D. O.; Safonov, A. S.; Ivanishchev, D. A.; Riabov, V. G.; Riabov, Yu. G.; Samsonov, V. M.

    2016-01-22

    Collisions of asymmetric nuclei (Cu+Au) differ essentially from the case of symmetric nuclei (Cu+Cu, Au+Au) collisions in the geometry of overlap region. This leads to a number of consequences, which provide more absolute and accurate information about fundamental properties of matter under extreme conditions. Nuclear modification factors for π-mesons in Cu+Au interactions at 200 GeV were measured in PHENIX Experiment at RHIC. New experimental data on measurement of flows of different order (v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}) for light hadrons in Cu+Au interactions at 200 GeV will be discussed in this paper.

  14. The system water-sodium oxide-silicon dioxide at 200, 250, and 300°

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Jack J.; Fournier, Robert O.; Morey, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    Studies were made of the H2O-Na2O-SiO2 system at its vapor pressure at 200, 250, and 300??. Three different sodium trisilicate hydrates were encountered in the investigation. At 300??, Na2Si3O7??5H2O is found: at 250??, Na2Si3O7??6H2O; and at 200??, Na2Si3O7??11H2O. The liquid immiscibility previously reported to exist in the system was found to be a quenching phenomenon caused by the decomposition of the hydrates to unstable, supersaturated, viscous liquids. Under conditions where equilibrium is maintained, as temperature is lowered, the hydrates decompose to quartz, sodium disilicate, and liquid. The retrograde solubility of sodium disilicate and its tendency to form supersaturated solutions during heating from 25 to 250?? account for higher solubilities reported by others than were found in this study. The solubility of sodium disilicate in water is 26% at 200??, 9% at 250??, and 5% at 300??. Sodium metasilicate solubility is 38% at 200?? and 34% at 250??; this compound is incongruently soluble at 300??.

  15. Experimental study of electromagnetic heating of gold nanoparticle dispersions at 200 kHz.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Wen, Dongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Remote heating of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by low frequency electromagnetic field has been recently proposed as a potential thermal treatment for deep-seated tumors - almost all the studies were conducted on a commercial device at 13.56 MHz. This work investigates the electromagnetic heating of GNP dispersions at 200 kHz. GNPs are synthesized based on an improved citrate reduction method, and the influence of particle concentration and impurity on the bulk heating effect at 200 kHz are investigated. The results demonstrate that GNPs alone can contribute to an appreciable bulk temperature increase, which increases with GNP concentration in a nonlinear fashion. For a nonmagnetic material, the specific absorption rate of GNPs can reach that of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle dispersions. Such a result cannot be explained by either the Joule heating or hysteresis heating mechanism.

  16. Swept source OCT imaging of human anterior segment at 200 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Karol; Gora, Michalina; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej; Huber, Robert; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2009-02-01

    We present applicability of the high speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. Three dimensional imaging of the cornea with reduced motion artifacts is possible by using swept source with Fourier domain mode locking operating at 200kHz with 1300nm central wavelength. High imaging speeds allow for assessment of anterior and posterior corneal topography and generation of thickness and elevation maps.

  17. Analytical Models for Rotor Test Module, Strut, and Balance Frame Dynamics in the 40 by 80 Ft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the dynamics of a wind tunnel support system consisting of a balance frame, struts, and an aircraft or test module. Data are given for several rotor test modules in the Ames 40 by 80 ft wind tunnel. A model for ground resonance calculations is also described.

  18. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Owen D; Mack, Steven J; Lancaster, Alex K; Single, Richard M; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing the strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 indicate that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online.

  19. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Owen D.; Mack, Steven J.; Lancaster, Alex K.; Single, Richard M.; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 suggest that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online. PMID:18638659

  20. A study of a nursing department performance measurement system: using the Balanced Scorecard and the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Wang, Chen-Chin; Dai, Yu-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    The health care industry is under pressure from government and private entities as well as from market conditions to contain costs. In an effort to respond to these pressures, the case hospital in this study implemented a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in January 2003 and integrated it with the hospital's formal incentive plan for non-physicians in January 2005. The nursing department's performance improved in the 2 years following the introduction of the plan. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the performance improvement that results from integrating the BSC with an incentive plan in the nursing field. The results provide insight into the current BSC performance metrics applied by the case nursing department, and could be used as guidelines by other health care organizations that wish to implement BSC-based incentive plans.

  1. Fine Particle Sources and Cardiorespiratory Morbidity: An Application of Chemical Mass Balance and Factor Analytical Source-Apportionment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Marmur, Amit; Klein, Mitchel; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Armistead G.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Mulholland, James A.; Hopke, Philip K.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM, including biomass burning, power plants, and gasoline and diesel emissions that may be associated with adverse health risks. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have included source-apportionment estimates in their examinations of PM health effects. We analyzed a time-series of chemically speciated PM measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, and conducted an epidemiologic analysis using data from three distinct source-apportionment methods. Objective The key objective of this analysis was to compare epidemiologic findings generated using both factor analysis and mass balance source-apportionment methods. Methods We analyzed data collected between November 1998 and December 2002 using positive-matrix factorization (PMF), modified chemical mass balance (CMB-LGO), and a tracer approach. Emergency department (ED) visits for a combined cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) group were assessed as end points. We estimated the risk ratio (RR) associated with same day PM concentrations using Poisson generalized linear models. Results There were significant, positive associations between same-day PM2.5 (PM with aero-dynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations attributed to mobile sources (RR range, 1.018–1.025) and biomass combustion, primarily prescribed forest burning and residential wood combustion, (RR range, 1.024–1.033) source categories and CVD-related ED visits. Associations between the source categories and RD visits were not significant for all models except sulfate-rich secondary PM2.5 (RR range, 1.012–1.020). Generally, the epidemiologic results were robust to the selection of source-apportionment method, with strong agreement between the RR estimates from the PMF and CMB-LGO models, as well as with results from models using single-species tracers as surrogates of the source-apportioned PM2.5 values. Conclusions Despite differences among the

  2. Controlled-strain rate tests at very low strain rates of 2618 aluminum at 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. L.; Lee, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Constant strain rate tests and constant load creep tests were performed on 2618 aluminum at 200 C. The strain rates used in the constant strain rate tests were 10 to the minus 6, 10 to the minus 7, 10 to the minum 8, and 10 to the minus 9/sec. Due to the fact that the strain rates in both tests were comparable to each other, the similarities between them can therefore be studied. It was concluded that metals are essentially rate sensitive at elevated temperatures. The traditional definition of creep and plasticity used in the classical creep analysis is actually a reflection of the material behavior under different loading conditions. A constitutive equation based on the test data under one loading condition should work well for other loading conditions as long as the strain rates are in the same range as those under which the material constants are determined.

  3. Results of the radiological survey at 200 State Route 17 (MJ035), Maywood, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Crutcher, J.W.; Carrier, R.F.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-02-01

    The property discussed in this report and properties in its vicinity contaminated with residues from the former Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) were included as a decontamination research and development project under the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. As part of this project, DOE is conducting radiological surveys in the vicinity of the site to identify properties contaminated with residues derived from the MCW. The principal radionuclide of concern is thorium-232. The radiological survey discussed in this report is part of that effort and was conducted, at the request of DOE, by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A radiological survey of the commercial property at 200 State Route 17, Maywood, New Jersey, was conducted during 1987. The survey and sampling of the ground surface and subsurface were carried out on September 2, 1987. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti during ion irradiation at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Loomis, B.A. Chung, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    The results of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat no. 832665) that was irradiated with 4.5 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup ++} ions at 200 {degrees}C are presented. Dose effects were investigated for fluences ranging from 0.5 to 5 dpa. When the irradiation dose was increased, the relative number density of black dots and dislocation loops was nearly constant and accompanied by an increase in the size of the defects. Cavity formation was not observed in any of the specimens, indicating high resistance of the alloy to void swelling at the lower temperature of the experiments.

  5. Earth at 200 Ma: Global palaeogeography refined from CAMP palaeomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Torsvik, Trond H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Gaina, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed approximately 200 Ma ago as a prelude to the breakup of Pangea, and may have been a cause of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Based on a combination of (i) a new palaeomagnetic pole from the CAMP related Argana lavas (Moroccan Meseta Block), (ii) a global compilation of 190-210 Ma poles, and (iii) a re-evaluation of relative fits between NW Africa, the Moroccan Meseta Block and Iberia, we calculate a new global 200 Ma pole (latitude = 70.1° S, longitude = 56.7° E and A95 = 2.7°; N = 40 poles; NW Africa co-ordinates). We consider the palaeomagnetic database to be robust at 200 ± 10 Ma, which allows us to craft precise reconstructions near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: at this very important time in Earth history, Pangea was near-equatorially centered, the western sector was dominated by plate convergence and subduction, while in the eastern sector, the Palaeotethys oceanic domain was almost consumed because of a widening Neothethys. We show that there has been negligible net displacement of the Moroccan Meseta relative to Africa since 200 Ma. We calculate a new fit between Iberia and NW Africa, showing that models inferring minor Cretaceous rotation and major Cretaceous sinistral translation of Iberia relative to Europe are inconsistent with palaeomagnetic Iberia-Africa fits at 200 Ma. During Pangea breakup (~ 195 Ma, opening of the Central Atlantic), and shortly after the CAMP outburst, Laurasia rotated clockwise relative to Gondwana around an Euler pole located in SE Iberia. The CAMP and its likely contribution to climate change, mass extinction and Pangea breakup profoundly changed planet Earth and we show that CAMP was sourced by a deep mantle plume that started its disturbing journey from the core-mantle boundary.

  6. Bioanalysis works in the IAA AMS facility: Comparison of AMS analytical method with LSC method in human mass balance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji; Isono, Yoshimi; Setani, Kaoru; Sakai, Kumiko; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Gunji, Shinobu; Matsui, Takao

    2007-06-01

    Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA) is the first Contract Research Organization in Japan providing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis works. The 3 MV AMS machines are maintained by validated analysis methods using multiple control compounds. It is confirmed that these AMS systems have reliabilities and sensitivities enough for each objective. The graphitization of samples for bioanalysis is prepared by our own purification lines including the measurement of total carbon content in the sample automatically. In this paper, we present the use of AMS analysis in human mass balance and metabolism profiling studies with IAA 3 MV AMS, comparing results obtained from the same samples with liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Human samples such as plasma, urine and feces were obtained from four healthy volunteers orally administered a 14C-labeled drug Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, of which radioactivity was about 3 MBq (85 μCi). For AMS measurement, these samples were diluted 100-10,000-fold with pure-water or blank samples. The results indicated that AMS method had a good correlation with LSC method (e.g. plasma: r = 0.998, urine: r = 0.997, feces: r = 0.997), and that the drug recovery in the excreta exceeded 92%. The metabolite profiles of plasma, urine and feces obtained with HPLC-AMS corresponded to radio-HPLC results measured at much higher radioactivity level. These results revealed that AMS analysis at IAA is useful to measure 14C-concentration in bioanalysis studies at very low radioactivity level.

  7. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  8. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  9. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  10. Sulphur Dioxide: High Resolution Ultra-Violet Photoabsorption Cross Section Measurements at 200K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackie, D.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.; Stark, G.; Pickering, J. C.; Rufus, J.; Thorne, A.; Smith, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    Sulphur Dioxide plays an important role not only within the Earth's atmosphere but also within the complex chemistry of both the upper atmosphere of Venus and the volcanically active Jovian moon Io. The lack of high resolution laboratory studies has prevented the full, accurate determination of absorption cross sections which are the basis for reliable photochemical models. High resolution laboratory measurements of SO2 are essential to resolve the complex SO2 spectrum and yield accurate photoabsorption cross sections. Using the Imperial College UV Fourier Transform Spectrometer new high resolution (λ/δλ ~ 450,000) measurements have been recorded over a range of temperatures and pressures. As part of an on-going series of measurements, current laboratory work focused on photoabsorption cross sections of SO2 at 200K across the wavelength range 220 → 325 nm. These measurements not only compliment previous room temperature measurements obtained at Imperial College in the 190 → 220 nm and 220 → 328 nm ranges (Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16, 585 (1999) and Rufus et al.,( JGR Planets 108, 2, 5 (2003)), but also coincide with the wavelength regions being recorded by the Venus Express mission through the UV-IR spectrometer SPICAV (ESA-SCI(2001)6). Our new measurements will allow accurate analysis of the chemical processes in the upper atmosphere of Venus. These absorption cross section measurements are the first to be acquired at this resolution, temperature and pressure. Results will be presented. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05GA03G, PPARC (UK), and the Leverhulme Trust.

  11. Functional comparisons between unimodal and bimodal analytical relationships in terms of water balance predictions for the case study of the Vesuvius volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Nunzio; Nasta, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Optimal performance of large-scale numerical modeling of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system mandates accurate assessment and description of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention (WRF) and hydraulic conductivity (HCF) functions. These functions are commonly described by simple unimodal analytical relations that guarantee mathematical flexibility with few parameters in the majority of soil types. However, other soils, like volcanic soils, are characterized by a complex structure yielding a bimodal or even a multimodal distribution of pore sizes. In these cases, reliable hydrologic predictions can be obtained resorting to more complex hydraulic functions, yet more accurate and robust ones. To overcome some drawbacks of the classic unimodal hydraulic relationships, Romano et al. (2011) have developed closed-form bimodal lognormal relations for improving the description of both WRF and HCF. However, the reliability of this description of the soil hydraulic behavior is often tested at the curve fitting level only. Comparisons between unimodal and bimodal soil hydraulic relationships are more effective and informative when performed in functional terms. Therefore, as the primary objective of this study, we used a hydrological balance model to quantify and compare soil moisture flow and storage regimes for 14 years (1999-2012), when characterized by unimodal or bimodal approximations of 39 measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics collected in volcanic Vesuvian soil located in the Campania Region Plain (Naples, Southern Italy).

  12. An analytical model of non-photorespiratory CO₂release in the light and dark in leaves of C₃species based on stoichiometric flux balance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Adams, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Leaf respiration continues in the light but at a reduced rate. This inhibition is highly variable, and the mechanisms are poorly known, partly due to the lack of a formal model that can generate testable hypotheses. We derived an analytical model for non-photorespiratory CO₂ release by solving steady-state supply/demand equations for ATP, NADH and NADPH, coupled to a widely used photosynthesis model. We used this model to evaluate causes for suppression of respiration by light. The model agrees with many observations, including highly variable suppression at saturating light, greater suppression in mature leaves, reduced assimilatory quotient (ratio of net CO₂ and O₂ exchange) concurrent with nitrate reduction and a Kok effect (discrete change in quantum yield at low light). The model predicts engagement of non-phosphorylating pathways at moderate to high light, or concurrent with processes that yield ATP and NADH, such as fatty acid or terpenoid synthesis. Suppression of respiration is governed largely by photosynthetic adenylate balance, although photorespiratory NADH may contribute at sub-saturating light. Key questions include the precise diel variation of anabolism and the ATP : 2e⁻ ratio for photophosphorylation. Our model can focus experimental research and is a step towards a fully process-based model of CO₂ exchange.

  13. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  14. Technical Evaluation of Biogeochemical Transformation of Iodine at 200-UP-1, Hanford, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Cordova, E.; Brooks, S.; Moser, E.; Wells, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-12-01

    nitrate was present. No iodate reduction was observed in the absence of nitrate. Additionally, several isolates have been identified that can oxidize iodide. Currently, analytical techniques are underway to quantify the effect of microbial interaction on iodine speciation along with characterization of these diverse microbial isolates.

  15. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D; Olsen, H Lowell; Logan, Walter O , Jr; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs per second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs per second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second.

  16. Hybrid plasma bonding for void-free strong bonded interface of silicon/glass at 200 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Howlader, M M R; Kibria, M G; Zhang, F; Kim, M J

    2010-07-15

    A novel hybrid plasma bonding (HPB) that combines sequential plasma activation (reactive ion etching followed by microwave radicals) with anodic bonding has been developed to achieve void-free and strong silicon/glass bonding at low temperature. The interfacial voids were observed at the silicon/glass interface both in the anodic bonding and in the plasma activated anodic bonding, but the voids were completely disappeared in the HPB method at 200 degrees C. The bonding strength of the silicon/glass in the HPB was as high as 30 MPa at 200 degrees C, which was higher than that in the individual treatment of anodic and plasma activated bonding methods. The improved characteristic behavior of the interface in the HPB is attributed to the higher hydrophilicity and smooth surfaces of silicon and glass after sequential plasma activation. These highly reactive and clean surfaces enhance the mobility of alkaline cations from the glass surface across the interface toward the bulk of glass in the HPB. This transportation resulted in a approximately 353 nm thick alkaline depletion layer in the glass and enlarged the amorphous SiO(2) across the interface. The void-free strong bonding is attributed to the clean hydrophilic surfaces and the amorphous SiO(2) layer across the interface.

  17. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr.; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs a second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second. The photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second are analyzed and the conclusion is made that the type of knock in the spark-ignition engine involving violent gas vibration originates as self-propagating disturbance starting at a point in the.burn1ig or autoigniting gases and spreading out from that point through the incompletely burned gases at a rate as high as 6800 feet per second, or about twice the speed of sound in the burned gases. Apparent formation of free carbon particles in both the burning and the burned gas is observed within 10 microseconds after passage of the knock disturbance through the gases.

  18. [Characteristics of Raman spectra of natural clinochlore at 200 degrees C and 0.95-7.70 GPa].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Du, Jian-Guo; Li, Ying; Cui, Yue-Ju; Chen, Zhi; Li, Jing

    2010-12-01

    Variation of crystal structure of natural clinochlore with pressure was investigated by the approach of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement at 200 degrees C and up to 7.7 GPa. The 481 and 786 cm(-1) peaks shift towards high-frequency linearly with increasing pressure at 200 degrees C. The linear relations between Raman shift (N, cm(-1)) and pressure (P, GPa) for the two peaks are: N = 11.136P+482.6 (R2 = 0.987 4) and N = 5.055P+785.7 (R2 = 0.983 7), respectively. The 865 cm(-1) peak arising from the stretching mode of the Si-O(nb) shifts slightly because of the strong repulsion between T cations at the tetrahedral sites and M cations at the octahedral sites in the TOT layer. Raman shift of 481 cm(-1) and 786 means the shortening of the length of M-O(br) and Si-CO(br) bonds since the peaks are contributed by the stretching mode of the M-O(br) and Si-O(br) respectively. No phase transition of clinochlore under the experimental condition was found. The results indicate that chlorite minerals may be stable at least at a depth of 80-90 km in the cold subduction zones, and the fluid derived from chlorite dehydration may be an important fact for earthquake occurrence in the subduction zones.

  19. Bimetallic Fe-V catalyzed magnesium films exhibiting rapid and cycleable hydrogenation at 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahiri, Beniamin; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Danaie, Mohsen; Mitlin, David

    2010-01-01

    We examined hydrogen sorption in 1.5 μm thick Mg-Fe-V films, using the binary alloys as baselines. At 200 °C both Mg-V and Mg-Fe-V absorb in tens of seconds, and desorb in tens of minutes. The ternary alloys show minimal kinetic or capacity degradation even after 105 absorption/desorption cycles. Pressure—composition isotherms yield the well-known enthalpies of α-MgH2 formation (decomposition), agreeing with x-ray diffraction results. The x-ray spectrum also shows a broad hump centered near (011) reflection of CsCl-type Fe-V phase. Our hypothesis is that a densely distributed nanoscale Fe-V acts both as a potent hydrogen dissociation catalyst and a heterogeneous nucleation site.

  20. Localization of Analytic Regularity Criteria on the Vorticity and Balance Between the Vorticity Magnitude and Coherence of the Vorticity Direction in the 3D NSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, Zoran; Guberović, Rafaela

    2010-09-01

    The first part of the paper provides spatio-temporal localization of a family of analytic regularity classes for the 3D NSE obtained by Beirao Da Veiga (space-time integrability of the gradient of the velocity on {mathbb{R}^3 × (0,T)} which is out of the range of the Sobolev embedding theorem reduction to the classical Foias-Ladyzhenskaya-Prodi-Serrin space-time integrability conditions on the velocity) as well as the localization of the Beale-Kato-Majda regularity criterion (time integrability of the L ∞-norm of the vorticity). The second part introduces a family of local, scaling invariant, hybrid geometric-analytic classes in which coherence of the vorticity direction serves as a weight in the local spatio-temporal integrability of the vorticity magnitude.

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  2. Measurement of D 0 elliptic and triangular flow in Au+Au collisions at = 200 GeV at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Michael R.; STAR collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Due to their large masses, heavy quarks are predominantly produced through initial hard scatterings in heavy-ion collisions. As such, they experience the entire evolution of the hot and dense medium created in such collisions and are expected to thermalize much more slowly than light flavor quarks. For instance, the azimuthal anisotropy of charm quarks with respect to the reaction plane over a broad momentum range can provide insights into the degree of thermalization and the bulk properties of the system. Specifically at low transverse momenta we can examine the bulk properties in the strongly coupled regime. In this talk we present the STAR measurement of elliptic (v 2) and triangular flow (v 3) of D 0 mesons in Au+Au collisions at = 200 GeV obtained from the first year of physics running with the new STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker. Comparison with the azimuthal anisotropy of other particle species and a series of model calculations will be shown, and the charm quark dynamics in the sQGP medium will be discussed.

  3. Life Test Results for Water Heat Pipes Operating at 200 °C to 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    2008-01-01

    For lunar or planetary bases to be viable, a robust electric generating system will be required for powering the habitat. Water heat pipes offer an attractive solution for lunar base heat rejection, and would serve as a qualification for them on other long duration missions. Successful operation near the upper end of water operating range is a requirement for the application. Results are reported for life tests on water heat pipes that were operated at various temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C. Tests were conducted on twenty three gravity-assisted water heat pipes. Eleven titanium/water heat pipes and ten Monel/water heat pipes were tested at temperatures above 200 °C. Two cupronickel heat pipes were also assembled and tested. Titanium alloys tested included CP-2 titanium, as well as two beta-titanium alloys, namely 15-3 and Nitinol alloys. Some of the titanium alloy life tests used wicks fabricated from CP-2 titanium screen or porous felt. Monel alloys tested included 400 and K-500 alloys. Some of the Monel heat pipes contained copper/nickel wicks that were fabricated by brazing nickel-plated copper felt metal wicks. Although most of the envelope/material combinations exhibit favorable results at 200 °C, some of the combinations failed at higher temperatures. Causes of failure included stress-creep of envelopes and corrosion at axial or end cap welds. This information represents a significant advance in selection of materials for 200 °C to 300 °C water heat pipes. Life testing work is being continued.

  4. Liquid-like water confined in stacks of biological membranes at 200 k and its relation to protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weik, M; Lehnert, U; Zaccai, G

    2005-11-01

    Confined water is of considerable current interest owing to its biophysical importance and relevance to cryopreservation. It can be studied in its amorphous or supercooled state in the "no-man's land", i.e., in the temperature range between 150 and 235 K, in which bulk water is always crystalline. Amorphous deuterium oxide (D(2)O) was obtained in the intermembrane spaces of a stack of purple membranes from Halobacterium salinarum by flash cooling to 77 K. Neutron diffraction showed that upon heating to 200 K the intermembrane water space decreased sharply with an associated strengthening of ice diffraction, indicating that water beyond the first membrane hydration layer flowed out of the intermembrane space to form crystalline ice. It was concluded that the confined water undergoes a glass transition at or below 200 K to adopt an ultraviscous liquid state from which it crystallizes to form ice as soon as it finds itself in an unconfined, bulk-water environment. Our results provide model-free evidence for translational diffusion of confined water in the no-man's land. Potential effects of the confined-water glass transition on nanosecond membrane dynamics were investigated by incoherent elastic neutron scattering experiments. These revealed no differences between flash-cooled and slow-cooled samples (in the latter, the intermembrane space at temperatures <250 K is occupied only by the first membrane hydration layers), with dynamical transitions at 150 and 260 K, but not at 200 K, suggesting that nanosecond membrane dynamics are not sensitive to the state of the water beyond the first hydration shell at cryotemperatures.

  5. Nuclear and related analytical techniques in ecology: Impact of geoecological factors on the balance of trace elements in the human organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Lyapunov, S. M.; Okina, O. I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    Current capabilities of the nuclear and related analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis, and atomic adsorption spectrometry—are used to carry out multielement analysis of a wide range of foodstuffs and drinking water in various regions of Russia. The results of a more than 20-year-long collaboration of the Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research Sector, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, in this field are presented. It is shown that the trace element content of agricultural products depends on the ecological and geochemical conditions in a particular region. A possibility of lettuce and spinach variety determination with respect to Cd and Pb contamination of the soil is demonstrated in the experiment with artificially produced soil contamination. Principles that may underlie accumulation of heavy metals and toxic elements by basidiomycetes are determined. Out of a great deal of human diets in use, the six most typical ones are selected and the intake of macro- and micronutrients from these diets by a human is evaluated. The effect produced on the human organism by the basic elements intake with the food and possible risks are discussed. Dependence of the trace element content of the drinking water on the ecological and geochemical conditions is investigated in three regions of Russia. It is shown that the quality of drinking water critically depends on the condition of the water supply system.

  6. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  7. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

    2011-01-01

    of the non-carbonated surfaces of the underlying rock was reason why the hornblende and diorite exhibited a minimum depth of carbonation. Under exposure to the scCO{sub 2}/water at 200 C and 10.34 MPa pressure for up to 42 days, the ranking of the magnitude of erosion caused by wet carbonation was in the following order; granite > albite > hornblende > diorite > quartz. The eroding-caused weight loss of granite (0.88 %) was {approx}2.4, {approx}5.2, {approx}9.8, and {approx}17.6 times greater than that of albite, hornblends, diorite, and quartz, respectively.

  8. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    PubMed

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  9. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  10. Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite melt fluid. II: Felsic silicate systems at 200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, James D.; Tappen, Christine M.; Mandeville, Charles W.

    2009-02-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to determine the partitioning of Cl between rhyolitic to rhyodacitic melts, apatite, and aqueous fluid(s) and the partitioning of F between apatite and these melts at ca. 200 MPa and 900-924 °C. The number of fluid phases in our experiments is unknown; they may have involved a single fluid or vapor plus saline liquid. The partitioning behavior of Cl between apatite and melt is non-Nernstian and is a complex function of melt composition and the Cl concentration of the system. Values of DClapat/melt (wt. fraction of: Cl in apatite/Cl in melt) vary from 1 to 4.5 and are largest when the Cl concentrations of the melt are at or near the Cl-saturation value of the melt. The Cl-saturation concentrations of silicate melts are lowest in evolved, silica-rich melts, so with elevated Cl concentrations in a system and with all else equal, the maximum values of DClapat/melt occur with the most felsic melt. In contrast, values of DFapat/melt range from 11 to 40 for these felsic melts, and many of these are an order of magnitude greater than those applying to basaltic melts at 200 MPa and 1066-1150 °C. The Cl concentration of apatite is a simple and linear function of the concentration of Cl in fluid. Values of DClfluid/apat for these experiments range from 9 to 43, and some values are an order of magnitude greater than those determined in 200-MPa experiments involving basaltic melts at 1066-1150 °C. In order to determine the concentrations and interpret the behavior of volatile components in magmas, the experimental data have been applied to the halogen concentrations of apatite grains from chemically evolved rocks of Augustine volcano, Alaska; Krakatau volcano, Indonesia; Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines; Mt. St. Helens, Washington; Mt. Mazama, Oregon; Lascar volcano, Chile; Santorini volcano, Greece, and the Bishop Tuff, California. The F concentrations of these magmas estimated from apatite-melt equilibria range from 0.06 to 0.12 wt% and are

  11. Semivolatile organic compounds monitored using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer at 200m above ground in rural Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Jessica; Klinger, Andreas; Herbig, Jens; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are anthropogenically and naturally occurring chemical compounds that have vapor pressures such that they exist in both the gas and condensed phase at room temperature. Due to the fact SVOCs condense easily, they are interesting in the context of organic aerosol formation and these compounds impact atmospheric properties and human health. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS, resolution 1200 FWHM) is a method that facilitates deeper analysis of SVOCs. Our setup, consisting of a PTR-MS with a time of flight mass spectrometer coupled to a denuder sampler (DS) was stationed as part of the European ACTRIS-2 program at 200m atop the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands as of September, 2016. The DS consists of three denuders in series. The first two denuders are coated with dimethylpolysiloxane (DB1, OD 4mm, 3cm long) and consists of an assemblage of micro-channels (ID 80 micrometer). The third denuder is an activated charcoal monolith of the same dimensions but with larger (thus fewer) channels (ID 800 micrometer). The air sampled at 800mL/min is pulled through these denuders as laminar flow and the SVOCs will collide and condense on the wall. Undesirable wall losses are minimized by using a short and high flow inlet lines. The collected SVOCs are thermally desorbed under a Nitrogen (N2) gas flow and transferred to the PTR-MS through heated lines to avoid re-condensation. Evaluation of the full mass spectra revealed over 200 different compounds in the range 15-500 Da. The majority of the mass of SVOCs was contained in m/z > 100 and typical mixing ratios of the detected SVOCs were a few pmol/mol in ambient air. Discernible contamination from the DB1 coating was detected and therefore, different blank methods have been tested and evaluated using a student T-test. Proper blank correction is an important issue of this method and will be discussed in detail. Data from October 19th, 2016, are used as case studies for analyzing

  12. Web Analytics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  13. Final Technical Report for the project titled "Manganese Based Permanent Magnet with 40 MGOe at 200°C"

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2015-12-31

    The objective of project was to develop MnBi based permanent magnet for high temperature application (~150°C). This objective is derived based on MnBi’s unique positive temperature dependence of coercivity, which is doubled from ~1 T at RT to ~2.5 T at 200°C. Because of its limited magnetization (<0.9 T at RT), the MnBi magnet is best suited to fill in the gap between rare earth based NdFeB-Dy or SmCo magnet (20 MGOe) and the AlNiCo magnet (10 MGOe) at 150°C. It is expected that if successfully developed, MnBi will effectively mitigate the world’s demand on Dy. Before this project, the highest LTP content in MnBi powder is about 90% if the quantity of the powder is less than 5 gram (using melt-spin method); or 80% if the quantity is greater than 100 gram (using conventional powder metallurgical method such as arc melting and annealing). After this project, large quantities (5kg/batch) with high LPT phase content (>92 wt%) can be routinely synthesized. This achievement is made possible by the newly developed synthesis method based on conventional metallurgical processing technique involving arc melting, two-stage ingot annealing, grinding, sieving, and vacuum annealing. Before this project, the finest powder particle size is about 35 μm with overall powder composition maintaining at about 85% LTP phase. The reason why LTP phase content is listed along with particle size is because LTP MnBi is easy to decompose when exposed to temperature higher than 350 °C. As result, only low energy ball milling can be used to refine the particle size; moreover, the ball milling time cannot exceed 4 hrs, or else the decomposed LTP MnBi phase will exceed 10%. After this project, the finest powder size is reduced to 1~5 μm while maintain the 90% LTP MnBi phase content. This achievement is made possible by a newly developed cryogenic ball milling system, which provides -70 °C ambient for the rolling container. Before this project, it is not clear if MnBi will

  14. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  15. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  16. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  17. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  18. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  19. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  20. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  1. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  2. Analytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90° rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  3. Analytic materials.

    PubMed

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  4. New results on strange and multistrange baryon production and charged kaon production in sulphur sulphur interactions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Abatzis, S.; Andersen, E.; Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Bohm, J.; Carney, J.N.; Carrer, N.; de la Cruz, B.; Davies, J.P.; Di Bari, D.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fanebust, K.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Katchanov, V.A.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Kralik, I.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Lietava, R.; Loconsole, R.A.; Lovhoiden, G.; Manzari, V.; Morando, M.; Navach, F.; Narjoix, J.L.; Pellegrini, F.; Quercigh, E.; Licci, R.; Sandor, L.; Safarik, K.; Segato, G.; Singovsky, A.V.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Urban, J.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Venables, M.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Zavada, P.; O. Villalobos Baillie for the WA94 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    Strange and multistrange baryon and antibaryon production has been studied in sulphur sulphur interactions at 200 GeV/{ital c} per nucleon at central rapidity. Particle production ratios and transverse mass spectra are presented for {Lambda}, {Xi}{sup {minus}}, {bar {Xi}} and {bar {Xi}}{sup {minus}}. In addition preliminary results on charged kaon production are presented, and the status of identified charged particle track reconstruction using the Omega RICH is reviewed. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Building the Frequency Profile of the Core Promoter Element Patterns in the Three ChromHMM Promoter States at 200bp Intervals: A Statistical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lent, Heather; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Hyun-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Analysis Working Group converted data from ChIP-seq analyses from the Broad Histone track into 15 corresponding chromatic maps that label sequences with different kinds of histone modifications in promoter regions. Here, we publish a frequency profile of the three ChromHMM promoter states, at 200-bp intervals, with particular reference to the existence of sequence patterns of promoter elements, GC-richness, and transcription starting sites. Through detailed and diligent analysis of promoter regions, researchers will be able to uncover new and significant information about transcription initiation and gene function.

  6. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  7. Laser Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  8. Effect of high-pressure treatment of ewe raw milk curd at 200 and 300 MPa on characteristics of Hispánico cheese.

    PubMed

    Alonso, R; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Fernández-García, E; Nuñez, M

    2012-07-01

    Hispánico cheese is a semihard variety made from a mixture of cow and ewe milks. Production of ewe milk declines in summer and autumn. To surmount the seasonal shortage of ewe milk and prevent the inactivation of milk enzymes by pasteurization, curd made in spring from ewe raw milk was pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa and stored frozen for 4 mo. Thawed ewe milk curds were added to fresh curd made from pasteurized cow milk for the manufacture of experimental Hispánico cheeses. Control cheese was made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportions as those used for experimental cheeses. Experimental cheeses exhibited lower dry matter content, higher aminopeptidase activity and total free amino acid concentration, and higher levels of acetic and propionic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters compared with control cheese. In contrast, the concentration of total free fatty acids and ketones and the levels of textural parameters were significantly higher in control cheese. The use of ewe raw milk curd pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa, stored frozen and thawed for Hispánico cheese manufacture, was generally beneficial for cheese characteristics and increased cheese yield because of the lower dry matter content of experimental cheeses.

  9. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  10. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  11. A Complete Set of In-Plane Spin-Transfer Coefficients for p+p Elastic Scattering at 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, W. A.; Wissink, S. W.; Bacher, A. D.; Betker, A. C.; Black, T.; Choi, S.; Jiang, K.; Schmitt, W. M.; Sowinski, J.; Stephenson, E. J.; Yu, C.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary analysis has been completed for high precision measurements of the in-plane spin-transfer coefficients D_LL', D_LS', D_SL', and D_SS' for p+p elastic scattering at 200 MeV. The measurements were performed on the IUCF K600 spectrometer at lab frame angles between 5 and 15 degrees. These data span a kinematic regime (q = 50 - 170 MeV/c) which was chosen specifically to maximize sensitivity to the value of the neutral pion coupling constant g_0^2. In combination with previous spin-transfer and spin-correlation observables measured at IUCF, these results constitute an extremely robust set of single-energy high-precision polarization data for p+p scattering. Preliminary results will be presented and compared to predictions from several phase shift solutions and potential model calculations. Implications of these data for specific aspects of the NN interaction will be discussed.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline silicon from SiCl4 at 200 °C in molten salt for high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Han, Ying; Wang, Liangbiao; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-03-16

    Crystalline Si nanoparticles are prepared by reduction of SiCl4 with metallic magnesium in the molten salt of AlCl3 at 200 °C in an autoclave. AlCl3 not only acts as molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. The related experiments confirm that metallic Mg reduces AlCl3 to create nascent Al which could immediately reduce SiCl4 to Si, and the by-product MgCl2 would combine with AlCl3 forming complex of MgAl2Cl8. As anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Si delivers the reversible capacity of 3083 mAh g(-1) at 1.2 A g(-1) after 50 cycles, and 1180 mAh g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) over 500 cycles.

  13. Effects of Virtual Reality Training (Exergaming) Compared to Alternative Exercise Training and Passive Control on Standing Balance and Functional Mobility in Healthy Community-Dwelling Seniors: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Rössler, Roland; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Balance training is considered an important means to decrease fall rates in seniors. Whether virtual reality training (VRT) might serve as an appropriate treatment strategy to improve neuromuscular fall risk parameters in comparison to alternative balance training programs (AT) is as yet unclear. To examine and classify the effects of VRT on fall-risk relevant balance performance and functional mobility compared to AT and an inactive control condition (CON) in healthy seniors. The literature search was conducted in five databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (exergam* OR exer-gam* OR videogam* OR video-gam* OR video-based OR computer-based OR Wii OR Nintendo OR X-box OR Kinect OR play-station OR playstation OR virtua* realit* OR dance dance revolution) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR balanc* OR strength OR coordina* OR motor control OR postur* OR power OR physical* OR activit* OR health* OR fall* risk OR prevent*) AND (old* OR elder* OR senior*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials applying VRT as interventions focusing on improving standing balance performance (single and double leg stance with closed and open eyes, functional reach test) and functional mobility (Berg balance scale, Timed-up and go test, Tinetti test) in healthy community-dwelling seniors of at least 60 years of age were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality (PEDro scale) were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) served as main outcomes for the comparisons of VRT versus CON and VRT versus AT on balance performance and functional mobility indices. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random effects inverse-variance model. Eighteen trials (mean PEDro score: 6 ± 2) with 619 healthy community dwellers were included. The mean age of participants was 76 ± 5 years. Meaningful effects in favor of VRT

  14. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  15. Exact solutions of population balance equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fubiao; Flood, Adrian E.; Meleshko, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    Population balance equations have been used to model a wide range of processes including polymerization, crystallization, cloud formation, and cell dynamics, but the lack of analytical solutions necessitates the use of numerical techniques. The one-dimensional homogeneous population balance equation with time dependent but size independent growth rate and time dependent nucleation rate is investigated. The corresponding system of equations is solved analytically in this paper.

  16. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  17. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  18. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  19. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  20. Alteration of rhyolite in CO{sub 2} charged water at 200 and 350{degree}C: The unreactivity of CO{sub 2} at higher temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Geochemical and hydrologic modeling indicates that geothermal waters in the T > 270{degrees}C reservoirs beneath Yellowstone National Park have HCO{sub 3} {much_lt} Cl and contrast with waters in reservoirs at lower temperatures which attain HCO{sub 3} about equal to Cl. Experiments reacting rhyolite with 0.5 molal solutions of CO{sub 2} at 200{degrees} and 350{degrees}C were carried out to test the hypothesis of Fournier to explain the chemistry of these springs: that CO{sub 2} is relatively unreactive with volcanic rocks at temperatures >270{degrees}C. The experimental results strongly support this hypothesis. Extent of alteration is twenty-seven times greater at 200{degrees}C than at 350{degrees}C. The dominant process in the experiments appears to be the alteration of the albitic component of the rhyolite by dissolved CO{sub 2} to form a kaolinite-like alteration product plus quartz: 2NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} + 2CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2Na{sup +} + 2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4} + 4SiO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} reacts with water to form H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, more so at lower temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic considerations suggest that the reactivity of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with wallrocks is at its maximum between 150{degrees} and 200{degrees}C, consuming most of the H{sup +} and liberating equivalent amounts of cations and bicarbonate. Wallrocks in higher temperature reservoirs are relatively unreactive to dissolved CO{sub 2} which is eventually lost from the system by boiling. These observations also offer a possible explanation for the change in chemical sediments from chloride-dominated to bicarbonate-dominated salts found in the stratigraphic section at Searles Lake, California, the terminus of the Owens River which derives its dissolved load from hot springs of the Long Valley caldera. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  2. Comparison of the cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina and titania ultrathin protective coatings deposited at 200 °C

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Tohidi, Farzad; Samet, David; Graham, Samuel; Pierron, Olivier N

    2014-01-01

    The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH) while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface. PMID:27877645

  3. Comparison of the cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina and titania ultrathin protective coatings deposited at 200 °C.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Tohidi, Farzad; Samet, David; Graham, Samuel; Pierron, Olivier N

    2014-02-01

    The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH) while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating-substrate interface.

  4. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and MSLP cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration by the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S. )

    1994-01-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones are located every 6 hours for a 10-year GCM simulation for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean SST for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, locations, and strengths of these centers and cyclones give insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. IT is found that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones. (2) The model distribution of anomalies of divergence/convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with available observations for the 1982-83 and 2986-87 El Nino events. (3) The tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model. (4) The variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers. (5) Strong divergence centers are chiefly oceanic events in the midlatitudes but are more land based in the tropics, except in the Indian. (6) Locations of divergence/convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  5. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  6. Near-Atomic Resolution Structure Determination of a Cypovirus Capsid and Polymerase Complex Using Cryo-EM at 200kV.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowu; Zhou, Niyun; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Xurong; Xu, Bin; Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Hongrong; Cheng, Lingpeng

    2017-01-06

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows the high-resolution structural determination of biological assemblies in a near-native environment. However, all high-resolution (better than 3.5Å) cryo-EM structures reported to date were obtained by using 300kV transmission electron microscopes (TEMs). We report here the structures of a cypovirus capsid of 750-Å diameter at 3.3-Å resolution and of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complexes within the capsid at 3.9-Å resolution using a 200-kV TEM. The newly resolved structure revealed conformational changes of two subdomains in the RdRp. These conformational changes, which were involved in RdRp's switch from non-transcribing to transcribing mode, suggest that the RdRp may facilitate the unwinding of genomic double-stranded RNA. The possibility of 3-Å resolution structural determinations for biological assemblies of relatively small sizes using cryo-EM at 200kV was discussed.

  7. Using business analytics to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jose; Delaney, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Orlando Health has brought its hospital and physician practice revenue cycle systems into better balance using four sets of customized analytics: Physician performance analytics gauge the total net revenue for every employed physician. Patient-pay analytics provide financial risk scores for all patients on both the hospital and physician practice sides. Revenue management analytics bridge the gap between the back-end central business office and front-end physician practice managers and administrators. Enterprise management analytics allow the hospitals and physician practices to share important information about common patients.

  8. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  9. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  10. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  11. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  12. Experimentally Determined H2O, S, and Cl Solubilities in Phonolite Melt at 200 MPa: Implications for Volatile Exsolution and Eruption of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. D.; Tappen, C.; Sintoni, M. F.; de Vivo, B.

    2004-05-01

    Silicate melt inclusion compositions demonstrate that magmas erupted from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Italy, are variably but strongly enriched in multiple volatiles and fluxing components. Water contents range from < 1 to > 6 wt.%, Cl varies from 0.2 to 1.2 wt.%, SO2 ranges from 0.05 to 0.6 wt.%, and F from 0.1 to 0.8 wt.%. The bulk compositions of these magmas range from trachybasalt to phonolite, but the highly explosive subplinian to plinian eruptive activities have involved phonolitic magma. To better understand volatile exsolution and eruptive processes of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magmas at shallow-crustal conditions, hydrothermal experiments have been conducted with a Somma-Vesuvius pumiceous phonolite sample, H2O, CaSO4, and Cl compounds to determine, simultaneously, the solubilities of H2O, S, and Cl in melt. The experiments were conducted at 200 MPa and 920-1060 degC in an internally heated pressure vessel, and the oxygen fugacity varied through a range of oxidizing conditions. The addition of comparatively low abundances of S (i.e., 0.2 to 0.4 wt.% SO2) to fluid-saturated phonolite melt causes dramatic reductions in the solubility of Cl in the melt. In fact, phonolite melts saturated in CaSO4 and a chloride-dominated brine, with or without a vapor phase, show Cl solubilities that are 25% lower than those of S-poor phonolite melts under otherwise similar conditions. This observation is qualitatively consistent with those of Botcharnikov et al. (2003) for rhyodacite melt at 200 MPa. This relationship may reflect the lower activity of Cl in S-bearing melts and coexisting S-rich aqueous fluids, and/or a competition of Cl and S for similar sites in silicate melts. This relationship also suggests that the partitioning of Cl between phonolite melt and aqueous fluid may vary as a function of the S content of melt and fluid. Preliminary results also suggest that the addition of S to fluid-saturated, Cl-bearing phonolite melts increases the solubility of H2O in melt to a small

  13. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  14. Balanced Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Kapoor M.R. Rao § Kristina Vu~kovic ¶ DTIC April 1994 ELECTE 1 SJjUN 01 1994uG - ,)ýK94-16267 "Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata...introduce the connection with propositional logic and nonlinear 0, 1 optimization. In Section 3, we show how to sign a 0,1 matrix into a 0, ±1 balanced...polytope P(A) is irreducible. Then A is perfect if and only if all the monotone completions of A are perfect 0, 1 matrices. 2.4 Propositional Logic In

  15. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  16. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  17. The effects of doping impurities and substrate crystallin on the formation of nickel suicides on silicon at 200-280° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. J.; Doland, C. M.; Wu, I. W.; Chiang, A.; Tsai, C. C.; Chu, J. J.; Lu, S. W.; Nieh, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy have been applied to investigate the effects of doping impurities and substrate crystallinity on the formation of nickel suicides at 200-280° C in nickel thin films on silicon. The systems investigated included samples with as-implanted BF2, B, F, As, and P and recrystallized (001) Si as well as P-doped low pressure chemical vapor deposited (LP-P) and B-doped plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PE-B) amorphous silicon substrates. In samples annealed at 220-280° C, substantial amounts of epitaxial NiSi2 were found to form on crystalline structure of BF2, B and F implanted samples to various extents at different temperatures. High resolution lattice imagings of cross-sectional samples showed that the epitaxial NiSi2/Si interfaces are coherent. No NiSi2 was detected in all nickel thin films deposited on implantation-amorphous specimens. NiSi2 epitaxy was found to be a sensitive function of annealing temperature. Good correlation was found between the atomic size factor and resulting stress and NiSi2 epitaxy at low temperature. The formation of Ni2Si and NiSi was observed to be influenced by the dopant species and crystallinity of the substrates. The vast difference in inducing the formation of nickel suicides in implantation-amorphous and recrystallized samples is likely due to variations in initial structure and/or dopant distribution. The finding that both n-type and p-type dopants influenced the formation of Ni2Si and NiSi suggested that they may be related to the electrical activity of the doping species in recrystallized samples. NiSi, possessing one of the lowest resistivity among all metal silicides, was found to be the only phase formed in all implantation-amorphous as well as LP-P and PE-B amorphous silicon samples annealed at 280° C. Nickel thin film appears to be an attractive candidate for the metallization of amorphous silicon devices.

  18. Trace-element partitioning at conditions far from equilibrium: Ba and Cs distributions between alkali feldspar and undercooled hydrous granitic liquid at 200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, George; London, David

    2002-12-01

    This study examines the effects of increasing supersaturation, attained by single-step liquidus undercooling (ΔT), on the partitioning of barium and cesium between potassic alkali feldspar (Afs) and hydrous granitic liquid at 200 MPa. The investigation is motivated by trace-element distribution patterns in granitic pegmatites which cannot be simulated by fractionation models using "equilibrium" partition coefficients, and thus its purpose is to assess if, how, and why partition coefficients for compatible and incompatible trace elements may vary when crystal growth commences far from the crystal-melt equilibrium boundary. Barium expands the liquidus stability field of potassic feldspar to higher temperatures, such that liquidi for the Ba-rich ( 0.5 wt% BaO) compositions used are 100 °C higher than for Ba-absent analogues. At low degrees of undercooling (ΔT 50 °C), values of DBaAfs/m. ( 10-20) fall within the range of previous investigations, as do values of DCsAfs/m. (<=0.10) from experiments at all temperatures. Progressively greater undercooling is manifested in the run products by increasingly skeletal to cuneiform crystal morphologies, increased compositional zonation of Afs, and the development of compositional boundary layers in glass. Whereas the partitioning behavior of Cs (incompatible) is not measurably affected, strong undercooling apparently causes the partitioning of Ba (highly compatible) to deviate from equilibrium behavior. Feldspars produced by strong undercooling (ΔT>=100 °C) are heterogeneous, such that DBaAfs/m. versus K/K+Na varies linearly between the average value at 850 °C and the equilibrium value appropriate to the temperature of growth. Hence, high supersaturation accompanying undercooling produces feldspar compositions by isothermal growth which record a vestige of the liquid line of descent (i.e., an ontogeny within zoned crystals which approximately tracks the feldspar liquidus from high temperature to the final low temperature

  19. Keeping Your Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance Balance is very important for people with osteoporosis. Your ... all play an important role in maintaining your balance and preventing broken bones. Medical conditions and medicines ...

  20. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Balance Disorders KidsHealth > For Parents > Balance Disorders Print A ... feel as happy and healthy as possible. How Balance Works To understand balance problems, it's important to ...

  1. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  2. An analytical model which determines the apparent T1 for Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery - Analysis of the longitudinal relaxation under the influence of discontinuous balanced (classical MOLLI) and spoiled gradient echo readouts.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Thomas; Reiter, Theresa; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf

    2017-08-09

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T1 is determined. What is missing is a rigorous analysis of the dependence of the apparent relaxation time on its real partner, readout sequence parameters and biological parameters as heart rate. This is provided in this paper for the discontinuous balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo readouts. It turns out that the apparent longitudinal relaxation rate is the time average of the relaxation rates during the readout module, and free relaxation period. Knowing the heart rate our results vice versa allow to determine the real T1 from its measured apparent partner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  4. Dizziness and Balance

    MedlinePlus

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  5. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  6. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  7. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  8. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  9. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  10. Energy-balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  11. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  12. HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.

  13. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  14. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  15. Mass Balances and Analytical Methods for Biomass Pretreatment Experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel ethanol has generated much renewed interest because of spiraling oil prices. Standard technical techniques exist for evaluating new sources of biomass, but what is lacking is a framework with which to apply these protocols in an integrated fashion. T...

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 1, Administrative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Covered are: analytical laboratory operations (ALO) sample receipt and control, ALO data report/package preparation review and control, single shell tank (PST) project sample tracking system, sample receiving, analytical balances, duties and responsibilities of sample custodian, sample refrigerator temperature monitoring, security, assignment of staff responsibilities, sample storage, data reporting, and general requirements for glassware.

  17. The Constitution at 200: Celebration Amidst Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila D.

    1987-01-01

    Current debates about the Constitution fall into the three following categories: (1) reappraisals of consitutional origins; (2) disagreements on hermeneutical principles used in contemporary applications; and (3) discussions of contemporary events whose consequences for law and political stability could not have been foreseen by the Constitution's…

  18. DYNAMIC LOADING OF TEFLON AT 200?C

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F

    2007-06-13

    Dynamic loading experiments were performed on inert Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene) samples, initially heated to the temperature of 200 C, to test its behavior under these conditions for its use in other heated experiments. Tests were performed in the 100 mm diameter bore propellant driven gas gun with piezo-resistive manganin pressure gauges imbedded into the samples to measure loading pressures. Experimental data provided new information on the shock velocity - particle velocity relationship for the heated material and showed no adverse effect of temperature on the insulating properties of the material.

  19. The Constitution at 200: Celebration Amidst Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila D.

    1987-01-01

    Current debates about the Constitution fall into the three following categories: (1) reappraisals of consitutional origins; (2) disagreements on hermeneutical principles used in contemporary applications; and (3) discussions of contemporary events whose consequences for law and political stability could not have been foreseen by the Constitution's…

  20. Homosexuality in America: At 200 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brudnoy, David

    1976-01-01

    This paper takes the position that homosexuality is still considered deviant and that homosexuals are still discriminated against in many ways. The author views the present response to homosexuality as not advancing the homosexual's cause and feels that true acceptance is yet to be achieved. (NG)

  1. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  2. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  3. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  4. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  5. Coaching for Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  6. Human Balance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vision problems, and difficulty with concentration and memory. What is balance? Balance is the ability to maintain the body’s center of mass over its base of support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  7. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  8. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  9. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  10. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model.

  11. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  12. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  13. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  14. Synthesis of cement based CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O (CASH) hydroceramics at 200 and 250 deg. C: Ex-situ and in-situ diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Meller, Nicola . E-mail: Nicola.Meller@ed.ac.uk; Hall, Christopher; Kyritsis, Konstantinos; Giriat, Gaetan

    2007-06-15

    Hydroceramic compositions in the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O (CASH) system have potential as geothermal well sealants as well as autoclaved construction materials. We report new data on phase compositions and reaction rates in hydrothermal syntheses at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C using a commercial API Class G oilwell cement alone, and at 200 deg. C with additions of silica flour and of corundum (alumina). Curing times were in the range 1-240 h. We use both ex-situ laboratory X-ray diffraction and in-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction to track rates of reaction. When cement only is hydrated, jaffeite, {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH and portlandite are formed. When silica flour is added a precursory gel forms prior to the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases xonotlite and gyrolite. Both XRD and EDD data suggest that the addition of silica flour retards the hydration of the cement at early times (< 24 h). In alumina-containing systems the rate of consumption of clinker phases is the same as in cement only systems. Jaffeite and {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH occur as intermediates but the major end product is a siliceous katoite-type hydrogarnet. Quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld refinement of ex-situ diffraction data gives results which are mostly consistent with stoichiometric constraints in all three systems examined here.

  15. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  16. Analytical Modeling of High Rate Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 13 Apr 98 Final (01 Sep 94 - 31 Aug 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical Modeling of High Rate Processes...20332- 8050 FROM: S. E. Jones, University Research Professor Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics University of Alabama SUBJECT: Final...Mr. Sandor Augustus and Mr. Jeffrey A. Drinkard. There are no outstanding commitments. The balance in the account, as of July 31 , 1997, was $102,916.42

  17. Balance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  18. Accelerated formation of metal oxide thin film at 200 °C using oxygen supplied by a nitric acid additive and residual organic suction vacuum annealing for thin-film transistor applications.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woong Hee; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-09-25

    Oxide semiconductors have gradually replaced amorphous and polycrystalline silicon for thin-film transistor (TFT) because of their high mobility and large-area uniformity. Especially, the oxide semiconductors have also achieved the low-cost manufacturing using a solution process. However, because the solution-processed oxide semiconductors require a high thermal energy to form the oxide thin film, the additional solution synthesis and annealing process are needed for low-temperature solution process. Because the conventional solution-processed oxide thin films have low oxidation level and high residual organic concentration at low annealing temperature, we propose the novel solution process that includes the nitric acid additive and the vacuum ambient annealing as an oxidizing agent and a residual organic suction, respectively. Therefore, we have successfully developed the simple oxide solution process and the soluble InZnO TFT with high field-effect mobility of 3.38 cm(2)/(V s) at 200 °C.

  19. Development of flexible rotor balancing criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, W. W.; Rieger, N. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several studies in which analytical procedures were used to obtain balancing criteria for flexible rotors are described. General response data for a uniform rotor in damped flexible supports were first obtained for plain cylindrical bearings, tilting pad bearings, axial groove bearings, and partial arc bearings. These data formed the basis for the flexible rotor balance criteria presented. A procedure by which a practical rotor in bearings could be reduced to an equivalent uniform rotor was developed and tested. It was found that the equivalent rotor response always exceeded to practical rotor response by more than sixty percent for the cases tested. The equivalent rotor procedure was then tested against six practical rotor configurations for which data was available. It was found that the equivalent rotor method offered a procedure by which balance criteria could be selected for practical flexible rotors, using the charts given for the uniform rotor.

  20. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  1. A balanced view of balanced solutions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present review of fluid therapy studies using balanced solutions versus isotonic saline fluids (both crystalloids and colloids) aims to address recent controversy in this topic. The change to the acid-base equilibrium based on fluid selection is described. Key terms such as dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis (correctly used instead of dilutional acidosis or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis to account for both the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Stewart equations), isotonic saline and balanced solutions are defined. The review concludes that dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis is a side effect, mainly observed after the administration of large volumes of isotonic saline as a crystalloid. Its effect is moderate and relatively transient, and is minimised by limiting crystalloid administration through the use of colloids (in any carrier). Convincing evidence for clinically relevant adverse effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis on renal function, coagulation, blood loss, the need for transfusion, gastrointestinal function or mortality cannot be found. In view of the long-term use of isotonic saline either as a crystalloid or as a colloid carrier, the paucity of data documenting detrimental effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis and the limited published information on the effects of balanced solutions on outcome, we cannot currently recommend changing fluid therapy to the use of a balanced colloid preparation. PMID:21067552

  2. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  3. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  4. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  5. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  6. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  7. A smartphone inertial balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  8. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  9. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  10. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  11. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  12. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  13. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  14. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  15. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  16. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  17. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  18. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  19. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  20. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  1. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  2. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  3. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  4. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  5. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  6. An Analytic Model of Dusty, Stratified, Spherical H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Lora, V.; Cantó, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. We compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.

  7. Neuroimaging of Human Balance Control: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Ellen; Thompson, Jessica; Nam, Chang S.; Franz, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    This review examined 83 articles using neuroimaging modalities to investigate the neural correlates underlying static and dynamic human balance control, with aims to support future mobile neuroimaging research in the balance control domain. Furthermore, this review analyzed the mobility of the neuroimaging hardware and research paradigms as well as the analytical methodology to identify and remove movement artifact in the acquired brain signal. We found that the majority of static balance control tasks utilized mechanical perturbations to invoke feet-in-place responses (27 out of 38 studies), while cognitive dual-task conditions were commonly used to challenge balance in dynamic balance control tasks (20 out of 32 studies). While frequency analysis and event related potential characteristics supported enhanced brain activation during static balance control, that in dynamic balance control studies was supported by spatial and frequency analysis. Twenty-three of the 50 studies utilizing EEG utilized independent component analysis to remove movement artifacts from the acquired brain signals. Lastly, only eight studies used truly mobile neuroimaging hardware systems. This review provides evidence to support an increase in brain activation in balance control tasks, regardless of mechanical, cognitive, or sensory challenges. Furthermore, the current body of literature demonstrates the use of advanced signal processing methodologies to analyze brain activity during movement. However, the static nature of neuroimaging hardware and conventional balance control paradigms prevent full mobility and limit our knowledge of neural mechanisms underlying balance control. PMID:28443007

  8. Neuroimaging of Human Balance Control: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Ellen; Thompson, Jessica; Nam, Chang S; Franz, Jason R

    2017-01-01

    This review examined 83 articles using neuroimaging modalities to investigate the neural correlates underlying static and dynamic human balance control, with aims to support future mobile neuroimaging research in the balance control domain. Furthermore, this review analyzed the mobility of the neuroimaging hardware and research paradigms as well as the analytical methodology to identify and remove movement artifact in the acquired brain signal. We found that the majority of static balance control tasks utilized mechanical perturbations to invoke feet-in-place responses (27 out of 38 studies), while cognitive dual-task conditions were commonly used to challenge balance in dynamic balance control tasks (20 out of 32 studies). While frequency analysis and event related potential characteristics supported enhanced brain activation during static balance control, that in dynamic balance control studies was supported by spatial and frequency analysis. Twenty-three of the 50 studies utilizing EEG utilized independent component analysis to remove movement artifacts from the acquired brain signals. Lastly, only eight studies used truly mobile neuroimaging hardware systems. This review provides evidence to support an increase in brain activation in balance control tasks, regardless of mechanical, cognitive, or sensory challenges. Furthermore, the current body of literature demonstrates the use of advanced signal processing methodologies to analyze brain activity during movement. However, the static nature of neuroimaging hardware and conventional balance control paradigms prevent full mobility and limit our knowledge of neural mechanisms underlying balance control.

  9. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  10. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  11. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  12. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Describes the responses of some companies to increasing demands for family-work balance in terms of flexibility in working hours and leave policies, child care, and fringe benefits. Identifies some of the effects on the "bottom line." (SK)

  13. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... right balance of electrolytes helps your body's blood chemistry, muscle action and other processes. Sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, phosphate and magnesium are all electrolytes. You get them from the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels ...

  14. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  15. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  16. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  17. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  18. Posttraumatic Balance Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    69 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 69–72 (2007) Posttraumatic Balance Disorders Michael E. Hoffer, Ben J. Balough, and Kim R...trauma is being more frequently recognized as a causative agent in balance disorders . Most of the published literature examining traumatic brain injury...TBI) after head trauma has focused on short-term prognostic indicators and neurocognitive disorders . Few data are available to guide those individuals

  19. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  20. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  1. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  2. Visual Analytics 101

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  3. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  4. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  5. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  6. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  7. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  8. SRL online Analytical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R&D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R&D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control & Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  9. SRL online Analytical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  11. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  12. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  13. Charged particle spectra in 32S + 32S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, Lawrence Paul

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/pT dN/dpT and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central 32S + 32S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be Δy ~ 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low pT. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, Tf ~ 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  14. Behavior and effects of phosphorus in the system Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5-H2O at 200 MPa(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, David; Morgan, George B.; Babb, Harold A.; Loomis, Jennifer L.

    1993-12-01

    The addition of phosphorus to H2O-saturated and initially subaluminous haplogranitic (Qz-Ab-Or) compositions at 200 MPa(H2O) promotes expansion of the liquidus field of quartz, a marked decrease of the solidus temperature, increased solubility limits of H2O in melt at low phosphorus concentrations, and fractionation of melt out of the haplogranite plane (projected along an Or28 isopleth) toward a peralkaline, silica-poor but quartz-saturated minimum composition. The partition coefficient for P2O5 between aqueous vapor and melt with an ASI (aluminum saturation index, mol Al/[mol Na+K])=1 is negligible (0.06), and consequently so are the effects of phosphorus on other melt-vapor relations involving major components. Phosphorus becomes more soluble in vapor, however, as the concentration of a NaPO3 component increases via the fractionation of melt by crystallization of quartz and feldspar. The experimental results here corroborate existing concepts regarding the interaction of phosphorus with alkali aluminosilicate melt: phosphorus has an affinity for alkalis and Al, but not Si. Phosphorus is incorporated into alkali feldspars by the exchange component AlPSi-2. For subaluminous compositions (ASI=1), the distribution coefficient of phosphorus between alkali feldspar and melt, D[P]Af/m, is 0.3. This value increases to D[P]Af/m=1.0 at a melt ASI value of 1.3. The increase in D[P]Af/m with ASI is expected from the fact that excess Al promotes the AlPSi-2 exchange. With this experimental data, the P2O5 content of feldspars and whole rocks can reveal important facets of crystallization and phosphorus geochemistry in subaluminous to peraluminous granitic systems.

  15. Extraordinary hall balance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  16. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    PubMed

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  17. Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L.; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2009-04-27

    Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

  18. Sport-specific balance.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  19. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Springer, Todd; Stephanov, Mikhail

    2014-06-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge-density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge-density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, χT /s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of (2πT)-1, characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  20. Pressure Balanced, Low Hysteresis Finger Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arora, Gul K.; Proctor, Margaret; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate: low cost photoetching fabrication technique; pressure balanced finger seal design; and finger seal operation. The tests and analyses includes: finger seal air leakage analysis; rotor-run out and endurance tests; and extensive analytical work and rig testing.

  1. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  2. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  3. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  4. Energy balance of the collisional tearing mode

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, A.; Sobel, J.R.

    1984-08-01

    The energy balance of the collisional tearing mode is examined within linear theory. It is found that in an asymmetric case the quadratic form given by Furth for the net release of magnetic energy must be completed with a term connected with the current gradient in the resistive layer. The growth-rate and the inner-layer solution are calculated in the limit where viscosity dominates over inertia. The amounts of energy going into Joule heating and either kinetic energy or viscous dissipation are calculated analytically. In the inertial regime 1/4 of the net decrease in magnetic energy goes into kinetic energy and (3)/(4) into Joule heating, while, in viscous regime, (1)/(6) goes into viscous dissipation and (5)/(6) into Joule heating. The analytical results, based on the constant-psi approximation, are in good agreement with numerical simulations when the resistive layer is sufficiently narrow.

  5. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  6. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  7. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  8. Evaluation of Analytical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Scott

    The field of food analysis, or any type of analysis, involves a considerable amount of time learning principles, methods, and instrument operations and perfecting various techniques. Although these areas are extremely important, much of our effort would be for naught if there were not some way for us to evaluate the data obtained from the various analytical assays. Several mathematical treatments are available that provide an idea of how well a particular assay was performed or how well we can reproduce an experiment. Fortunately, the statistics are not too involved and apply to most analytical determinations.

  9. Monitoring the analytic surface.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Mayes, L C; Dahl, H

    1994-01-01

    How do we listen during an analytic hour? Systematic analysis of the speech patterns of one patient (Mrs. C.) strongly suggests that the clustering of shared pronouns (e.g., you/me) represents an important aspect of the analytic surface, preconsciously sensed by the analyst and used by him to determine when to intervene. Sensitivity to these patterns increases over the course of treatment, and in a final block of 10 hours shows a striking degree of contingent responsivity: specific utterances by the patient are consistently echoed by the analyst's interventions.

  10. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  11. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  12. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  13. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  14. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  15. Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Milton A.; Gordon, Margaret F.

    1996-01-01

    New college presidents are inundated with requests for their time, and their private life is often sacrificed. Each administrator must decide what is the appropriate balance among various aspects of his/her position. Physical separation of public and private lives is essential, and the role of the spouse, who may have other professional…

  16. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  17. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  18. Finding Your Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurvis, Joan; Patterson, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Balance is not an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It is about living values by aligning behavior with what each individual believes is really important. Aligning behavior with values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. This guidebook will help readers determine…

  19. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  20. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  1. Balance functions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, A.

    2011-02-15

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

  2. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  3. Balancing Your Evaluation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willyerd, Karie A.

    1997-01-01

    Looks at different performance-measurement tools than can ensure that a training or performance solution is strategically aligned, objectively evaluated, and quantitatively measured for results. Suggests aiming for a balance among the financial, customer, and internal perspectives and the innovation and learning that can result. (Author/JOW)

  4. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  5. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  6. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  7. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  8. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  9. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  10. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  11. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  12. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  15. Analytic Modeling of Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    influenced by interests and utilities. 4.1 Carrots and Sticks An analytic model that captures the aforementioned utilitarian aspect is presented in...instead of the insurgents, to improve or worsen their welfare . The insurgents execute two types of actions: (a) violent actions, aimed to coerce potential

  16. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  17. Analytic characterization of biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Peter M; DiGrazia, Lisa M

    2017-04-15

    The biosimilar development process, comparability for biological agents, and analytic characterization of biosimilars are described. Healthcare providers must understand the requirements for biosimilar approval, including the science behind biosimilar development and testing that contributes to the totality of evidence. The foundation of development is to demonstrate that a biosimilar is highly similar to the reference product through analytic characterization. Advances in analytic techniques enable scientists to extensively characterize biological products to identify potential product differences compared with the reference product that may affect the purity, safety, and efficacy of the biosimilar candidate. When developing a biosimilar, the clinical efficacy of the biological product has been proven with trials from the reference biological product; therefore, analytic testing on the molecular structure and biological function becomes the focus. In addition, nonclinical studies in animals are performed, including toxicology and immunogenicity testing. In humans, clinical pharmacology studies are performed to evaluate the safety and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the proposed biosimilar. If there is any residual uncertainty about the proposed biological product after this testing, the developer should use guidance from the Food and Drug Administration to determine what additional clinical studies may be needed to adequately address that uncertainty. Requirements for the approval of a biosimilar product include analytic characterization, which tests for similarity in primary amino acid structure, analysis of higher-order structure using circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, detection of posttranslational modifications, assessment of optimal target binding, and testing for impurities and optimal potency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LEA in Private: A Privacy and Data Protection Framework for a Learning Analytics Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Christina M.; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Albert, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    To find a balance between learning analytics research and individual privacy, learning analytics initiatives need to appropriately address ethical, privacy, and data protection issues. A range of general guidelines, model codes, and principles for handling ethical issues and for appropriate data and privacy protection are available, which may…

  19. Aerodynamic measurements and thermal tests of a strain-gage balance in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, Richmond P.; Ferris, Alice T.; Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.; Hill, Acquilla S.

    1987-01-01

    An internal strain-gage balance designed and constructed in Europe for use in cryogenic wind tunnels has been tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Part of the evaluation was made at equilibrium balance temperatures and it consisted of comparing the data taken at a tunnel stagnation temperature of 300 K with the data taken at 200 K and 110 K while maintaining either the Reynolds number or the stagnation pressure. A sharp-leading-edge delta-wing model was used to provide the aerodynamic loading for these tests. Results obtained with the balance during the force tests were found to be accurate and repeatable both with and without the use of a convection shield on the balance. An additional part of this investigation involved obtaining data on the transient temperature response of the balance during both normal and rapid changes in the tunnel stagnation temperature. The variation of the temperature with time was measured at three locations on the balance near the physical locations of the strain gages. The use of a convection shield significantly increased the time required for the balance to stabilize at a new temperature during the temperature response tests.

  20. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  1. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  2. Generalized Subset Designs in Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Vikström, Ludvig; Hector, Gustaf; Johansson, Erik; Vikström, Conny; Trygg, Johan

    2017-06-20

    Design of experiments (DOE) is an established methodology in research, development, manufacturing, and production for screening, optimization, and robustness testing. Two-level fractional factorial designs remain the preferred approach due to high information content while keeping the number of experiments low. These types of designs, however, have never been extended to a generalized multilevel reduced design type that would be capable to include both qualitative and quantitative factors. In this Article we describe a novel generalized fractional factorial design. In addition, it also provides complementary and balanced subdesigns analogous to a fold-over in two-level reduced factorial designs. We demonstrate how this design type can be applied with good results in three different applications in analytical chemistry including (a) multivariate calibration using microwave resonance spectroscopy for the determination of water in tablets, (b) stability study in drug product development, and (c) representative sample selection in clinical studies. This demonstrates the potential of generalized fractional factorial designs to be applied in many other areas of analytical chemistry where representative, balanced, and complementary subsets are required, especially when a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors at multiple levels exists.

  3. Balanced Atmospheric Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastermann, Gottfried; Reinhardt, Maria; Klein, Rupert; Reich, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere's multi-scale structure poses several major challenges in numerical weather prediction. One of these arises in the context of data assimilation. The large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere are balanced in the sense that acoustic or rapid internal wave oscillations generally come with negligibly small amplitudes. If triggered artificially, however, through inappropriate initialization or by data assimilation, such oscillations can have a detrimental effect on forecast quality as they interact with the moist aerothermodynamics of the atmosphere. In the setting of sequential Bayesian data assimilation, we therefore investigate two different strategies to reduce these artificial oscillations induced by the analysis step. On the one hand, we develop a new modification for a local ensemble transform Kalman filter, which penalizes imbalances via a minimization problem. On the other hand, we modify the first steps of the subsequent forecast to push the ensemble members back to the slow evolution. We therefore propose the use of certain asymptotically consistent integrators that can blend between the balanced and the unbalanced evolution model seamlessly. In our work, we furthermore present numerical results and performance of the proposed methods for two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models, where we can identify the different scales clearly. The first one is a Lorenz 96 model coupled with a wave equation. In this case the balance relation is linear and the imbalances are caused only by the localization of the filter. The second one is the elastic double pendulum where the balance relation itself is already highly nonlinear. In both cases the methods perform very well and could significantly reduce the imbalances and therefore increase the forecast quality of the slow variables.

  4. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  5. Spray automated balancing of rotors - How process parameters influence performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, A. J.; Baldwin, R. M.; Fleming, D. P.; Yuhas, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of spray-automated balancing of rotors, and the influence that various operating parameters will have on balancing performance. Spray-automated balancing uses the fuel-air repetitive explosion process to imbed short, discrete bursts of high velocity, high temperature powder into a rotating part at an angle selected to reduce unbalance of the part. The shortness of the burst, the delay in firing of the gun, the speed of the disk and the variability in speed all influence the accuracy and effectiveness of the automated balancing process. The paper evaluates this influence by developing an analytical framework and supplementing the analysis with empirical data obtained while firing the gun at a rotating disk. Encouraging results are obtained, and it is shown that the process should perform satisfactorily over a wide range of operating parameters. Further experimental results demonstrate the ability of the method to reduce vibration levels induced by mass unbalance in a rotating disk.

  6. Modelling and Analysis of a New Piezoelectric Dynamic Balance Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhe; Mei, Xue-Song; Xu, Mu-Xun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator, which can be used in motorised spindle systems, is presented. The dynamic balancing adjustment mechanism is driven by an in-plane bending vibration from an annular piezoelectric stator excited by a high-frequency sinusoidal input voltage. This device has different construction, characteristics and operating principles than a conventional balance regulator. In this work, a dynamic model of the regulator is first developed using a detailed analytical method. Thereafter, MATLAB is employed to numerically simulate the relations between the dominant parameters and the characteristics of the regulator based on thedynamic model. Finally, experimental measurements are used to certify the validity of the dynamic model. Consequently, the mathematical model presented and analysed in this paper can be used as a tool for optimising the design of a piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator during steady state operation. PMID:23202182

  7. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  8. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  9. Wind tunnel balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Warren L. (Inventor); Kunz, Nans (Inventor); Luna, Phillip M. (Inventor); Roberts, Andrew C. (Inventor); Smith, Kenneth M. (Inventor); Smith, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A flow-through balance is provided which includes a non-metric portion and a metric portion which form a fluid-conducting passage in fluid communication with an internal bore in the sting. The non-metric and metric portions of the balance are integrally connected together by a plurality of flexure beams such that the non-metric portion, the metric portion and the flexure beams form a one-piece construction which eliminates mechanical hysteresis between the non-metric and the metric portion. The system includes structures for preventing the effects of temperature, pressure and pressurized fluid from producing asymmetric loads on the flexure beams. A temperature sensor and a pressure sensor are located within the fluid-conducting passage of the balance. The system includes a longitudinal bellows member connected at two ends to one of the non-metric portion and the metric portion and at an intermediate portion thereof to the other of (1) and (2). A plurality of strain gages are mounted on the flexure beams to measure strain forces on the flexure beams. The flexure beams are disposed so as to enable symmetric forces on the flexure beams to cancel out so that only asymmetric forces are measured as deviations by the strain gages.

  10. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach.

  11. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  12. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG Improving Balance with Tai Chi By the Vestibular Disorders Association ... symptoms commonly experi- enced with vestibular (inner ear balance) disorders can cause overwhelming fatigue and anxiety. Many ...

  13. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  14. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  15. Multifunctional nanoparticles: analytical prospects.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Alejandro Simón; Díaz-García, Marta Elena

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  16. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  17. Ultrasound in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Priego Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection. A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the main area of application. In sample preparation ultrasound is used to assist solid-sample treatment (e.g. digestion, leaching, slurry formation) and liquid-sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction, emulsification, homogenization) or to promote heterogeneous sample treatment (e.g. filtration, aggregation, dissolution of solids, crystallization, precipitation, defoaming, degassing). Detection techniques based on use of ultrasonic radiation, the principles on which they are based, responses, and the quantities measured are also discussed.

  18. Analytical applications of aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  19. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  20. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  1. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  2. Fabricating Cotton Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-30

    A robust, low-cost analytical device should be user-friendly, rapid, and affordable. Such devices should also be able to operate with scarce samples and provide information for follow-up treatment. Here, we demonstrate the development of a cotton-based urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, total protein, and urobilinogen assays) analytical device that employs a lateral flow-based format, and is inexpensive, easily fabricated, rapid, and can be used to conduct multiple tests without cross-contamination worries. Cotton is composed of cellulose fibers with natural absorptive properties that can be leveraged for flow-based analysis. The simple but elegant fabrication process of our cotton-based analytical device is described in this study. The arrangement of the cotton structure and test pad takes advantage of the hydrophobicity and absorptive strength of each material. Because of these physical characteristics, colorimetric results can persistently adhere to the test pad. This device enables physicians to receive clinical information in a timely manner and shows great potential as a tool for early intervention.

  3. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  4. Visual Analytics: How Much Visualization and How Much Analytics?

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Daniel; Mansmann, Florian; Thomas, James J.

    2009-12-16

    The term Visual Analytics has been around for almost five years by now, but still there are on-going discussions about what it actually is and in particular what is new about it. The core of our view on Visual Analytics is the new enabling and accessible analytic reasoning interactions supported by the combination of automated and visual analytics. In this paper, we outline the scope of Visual Analytics using two problem and three methodological classes in order to work out the need for and purpose of Visual Analytics. Thereby, the respective methods are explained plus examples of analytic reasoning interaction leading to a glimpse into the future of how Visual Analytics methods will enable us to go beyond what is possible when separately using the two methods.

  5. Analytical electron microscopy in mineralogy; exsolved phases in pyroxenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy has been successfully used to characterize the structure and composition of lamellar exsolution products in pyroxenes. At operating voltages of 100 and 200 keV, microanalytical techniques of x-ray energy analysis, convergent-beam electron diffraction, and lattice imaging have been used to chemically and structurally characterize exsolution lamellae only a few unit cells wide. Quantitative X-ray energy analysis using ratios of peak intensities has been adopted for the U.S. Geological Survey AEM in order to study the compositions of exsolved phases and changes in compositional profiles as a function of time and temperature. The quantitative analysis procedure involves 1) removal of instrument-induced background, 2) reduction of contamination, and 3) measurement of correction factors obtained from a wide range of standard compositions. The peak-ratio technique requires that the specimen thickness at the point of analysis be thin enough to make absorption corrections unnecessary (i.e., to satisfy the "thin-foil criteria"). In pyroxenes, the calculated "maximum thicknesses" range from 130 to 1400 nm for the ratios Mg/Si, Fe/Si, and Ca/Si; these "maximum thicknesses" have been contoured in pyroxene composition space as a guide during analysis. Analytical spatial resolutions of 50-100 nm have been achieved in AEM at 200 keV from the composition-profile studies, and analytical reproducibility in AEM from homogeneous pyroxene standards is ?? 1.5 mol% endmember. ?? 1982.

  6. Navy Fuels Analytical Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-03

    D2622-77) are not amenable to the small samples isolated by HPLC. Bomb calorimetry (ASTM D129-64) was investigated using several types of bombs with... heat capacity of the sample pan, even when a 22 ml "mini- bomb " is used, is likely the principal cause of this problem. The use of burning aids would...PAHs .. ... .30 4.4 Sulfur Mass Balance Determinations .......... 30 4.4.1 Conventional Combustion Bomb Analyses ...... ................... 36 4.4.2

  7. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  8. Energy balance in obesity.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jonathan

    2003-05-01

    The current epidemic of human obesity implies that whilst energy balance appears to be regulated, the extent of this regulatory process is being overwhelmed in large numbers of the population by environmental changes. Clearly, the shift towards positive energy balance reflects both alterations in energy intake and decreases in physical activity. Increased energy intake and, in particular, the rising proportion of energy from fat is linked with obesity. However, on a population level reduced levels of activity probably play the predominant role. It is apparent that individual susceptibility to weight gain varies enormously. The factors underlying this susceptibility are an area of intense research interest. Variations in BMR from that predicted appear to be linked to the propensity to gain weight. The genes responsible for this variation may include uncoupling proteins-2 and -3, with a number of studies showing a link with obesity. However, in vivo studies of these proteins have not yet demonstrated a physiological role for them that would explain the link with obesity. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis may also protect from weight gain, but the regulation of this type of thermogenesis is unclear, although the sympathetic nervous system may be important. A profusion of hormones, cytokines and neurotransmitters is involved in regulating energy intake, but whilst mutations in leptin and the melanocortin-3 receptor are responsible for rare monogenic forms of obesity, their wider role in common polygenic obesity is not known. Much current work is directed at examining the interplay between genetic background and environmental factors, in particular diet, that both lead to positive energy balance and seem to make it so hard for many obese subjects to lose weight.

  9. Dynamic balance in turbulent reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, N.; Higashimori, K.; Hoshino, M.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic balance between the enhancement and suppression of transports due to turbulence in magnetic reconnection is discussed analytically and numerically by considering the interaction of the large-scale field structures with the small-scale turbulence in a consistent manner. Turbulence is expected to play an important role in bridging small and large scales related to magnetic reconnection. The configurations of the mean-field structure are determined by turbulence through the effective transport. At the same time, statistical properties of turbulence are determined by the mean-field structure through the production mechanisms of turbulence. This suggests that turbulence and mean fields should be considered simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. Following the theoretical prediction on the interaction between the mean-fields and turbulence in magnetic reconnection presented by Yokoi and Hoshino (2011), a self-consistent model for the turbulent reconnection is constructed. In the model, the mean-field equations for compressible magnetohydrodynamics are treated with the turbulence effects incorporated through the turbulence correlation such as the Reynolds stress and turbulent electromotive force. Transport coefficients appearing in the expression for these correlations are not adjustable parameters but are determined through the transport equations of the turbulent statistical quantities such as the turbulent MHD energy, the turbulent cross helicity. One of the prominent features of this reconnection model lies in the point that turbulence is not implemented as a prescribed one, but the generation and sustainment of turbulence through the mean-field inhomogeneities are treated. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by the numerical simulation of the model equations. These predictions include the quadrupole cross helicity distribution around the reconnection region, enhancement of reconnection rate due to turbulence, localization of the reconnection region

  10. Development and application of a unified balancing approach with multiple constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Lee, C. C.; Giordano, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a general analytic approach to constrained balancing that is consistent with past influence coefficient methods is described. The approach uses Lagrange multipliers to impose orbit and/or weight constraints; these constraints are combined with the least squares minimization process to provide a set of coupled equations that result in a single solution form for determining correction weights. Proper selection of constraints results in the capability to: (1) balance higher speeds without disturbing previously balanced modes, thru the use of modal trial weight sets; (2) balance off-critical speeds; and (3) balance decoupled modes by use of a single balance plane. If no constraints are imposed, this solution form reduces to the general weighted least squares influence coefficient method. A test facility used to examine the use of the general constrained balancing procedure and application of modal trial weight ratios is also described.

  11. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  12. Earth in the balance

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Earth in the Balance is a lucid, scientifically grounded treatise on the global environments. The author's description of the world's water, air, and land use problems is clear, lively, and knowledgable. A major section of the book explores the psychological dimensions of global environmental problems. He attempts to synthesize ideas across many fields of thought. Gore offers a Global Marshall Plan - a worldwide strategic environment initiative that would help phase out older technologies and disseminate benign substitutes, change accounting methods so environmental costs are considered, and use education as a tool.

  13. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies.

  14. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  15. Mars Analytical Microimager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  16. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  17. [Balance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ruwer, Sheelen Larissa; Rossi, Angela Garcia; Simon, Larissa Fortunato

    2005-01-01

    Throughout years, the human organism goes through natural aging, having functional and structural changes. The part which is responsible for the corporal balance system also suffers from the aging process, creating great impact for the elderly. Thus, the present paper aims to study the vestibular function of old people suffering from dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment. Transversal cohort. 80 elderly individuals from two different groups were evaluated: group A - composed of 38 women and 2 men who belonged to an elderly group from Santa Maria, RS; and group B - composed of 35 women and 5 men with complaints of balance disorders. Both groups were undergone anamnesis (calling attention to aspects concerning the dizziness, tinnitus and the hearing impairment), and the vestibular function evaluation (by using the computerized system of vecto-electronystagmography SCV 5.0). The results displayed a statistical significant difference between both groups, concerning the complaints of dizziness and tinnitus, straightforward in group B. In the hypothetical diagnosis lead by the computerized examination, it was found that most individuals had presented normal diagnosis; however, it was found the predominance of vestibular disorders in the elderly such as Deficit Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome and Irritative Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome. It was concluded that the vestibular disorders, according to the vecto-electronystagmography, and to the complaints of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing impairment, are numerically similar in both studied groups.

  18. Spices and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2012-11-05

    The sensory properties of foods and beverages are primary determinants of food choice. Some flavor components have an inherent hedonic valence that influences ingestive behavior. However, these hedonic impressions may be modified and others newly formed through their association with the post-ingestive consequences of food and beverage consumption. Flavor-active compounds, including spices, also modify digestive, absorptive and metabolic processes through direct activation of signaling pathways or via neurally-mediated cephalic phase responses. These may modify energy balance through effects on food digestion, energy absorption and metabolism. Thus, collectively, flavor has the potential to modify energy balance. Attempts to purposefully augment energy and nutrient intake have largely focused on the aging population where flavor fortification is posited to correct for diminishing sensory function. Evidence of efficacy is not strong, possibly due to methodological issues such as low statistical power and failure to match documented sensory limitations with the nature of the intervention. More rigorous testing should determine the viability of this therapeutic application of food flavors. The use of flavor compounds for weight reduction has yielded mixed results. Most trials have delivered the compounds via capsule precluding assessment of flavor to outcomes. Work with red pepper suggests there is an independent, albeit subtle, sensory effect on substrate oxidation coupled with a more general reduction of appetite and enhancement of energy expenditure. Flavor active compounds hold some promise for being more a part of the solution than the problem of disordered eating and unhealthy weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  20. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  1. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  2. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  3. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct ;Analytic Renormalization Group; linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  4. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  5. [Balanced scorecard in health].

    PubMed

    Leyton-Pavez, Carolina Elena; Huerta-Riveros, Patricia Carolina; Paúl-Espinoza, Iván Renato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the installation of strategies in the higher complexity hospitals (HMC, in Spanish) of public health in Chile starting from the results of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), during the years 2011-2012. The implementation of the BSC is described, the strategies and indicators identified, and the results of the 57 HMC compared and analyzed. Starting from the comparison of the results it is discovered that the BSC allows to evaluate the installation of the strategies. Differences are identified in the installation of the strategies by geographical area, with North presenting a higher score (20.21), followed by Center (10.41) and South (19.50), which can be explained by the size and complexity of this establishments, variables that should be incorporated in the evaluation of the results of the BSC.

  6. Walking the HMO balance.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  7. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  8. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  9. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  10. Analytic pion form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.

  11. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  12. [Analytical epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is reviewed from the standpoint of analytical epidemiology, which examines a statistical association between a given disease and a hypothesized factor with an aim of inferring its causality. Factors incriminated epidemiologically for stone formation include age, sex, occupation, social class (level of affluence), season of the year and climate, dietary and fluid intake and genetic prodisposition. Since some of these factors are interlinked, they are broadly classified into five categories and epidemiologically looked over here. Genetic predisposition is essentially endorsed by the more frequent episodes of stone formation in the family members of stone formers, as compared to non-stone formers. Nevertheless, some environmental factors (likely to be dietary habits) shared by family members are believed to be relatively more important than genetic predisposition. A hot, sunny climate may influence stone formation through inducing dehydration with increased perspiration and increased solute concentration with decreased urine volume, coupled with inadequate liquid intake, and possibly through the greater exposure to ultraviolet radiation which eventually results in an increased vitamin D production, conceivably correlated with seasonal variation in calcium and oxalate excretion to the urine. Urinary tract infections are importantly involved in the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones in particular. The association with regional water hardness is still in controversy. Excessive intake of coffee, tea and alcoholic beverages seemingly increase the risk of renal calculi, though not consistently confirmed. Many dietary elements have been suggested by numerous clinical and experimental investigations, but a few elements are substantiated by analytical epidemiological investigations. An increased ingestion of animal protein and sugar and a decreased ingestion of dietary fiber and green-yellow vegetables are linked with the higher

  13. Slow diffusive dynamics in a chaotic balanced neural network.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Nimrod; Burak, Yoram

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that neural noise in the cortex arises from chaotic dynamics in the balanced state: in this model of cortical dynamics, the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to each neuron approximately cancel, and activity is driven by fluctuations of the synaptic inputs around their mean. It remains unclear whether neural networks in the balanced state can perform tasks that are highly sensitive to noise, such as storage of continuous parameters in working memory, while also accounting for the irregular behavior of single neurons. Here we show that continuous parameter working memory can be maintained in the balanced state, in a neural circuit with a simple network architecture. We show analytically that in the limit of an infinite network, the dynamics generated by this architecture are characterized by a continuous set of steady balanced states, allowing for the indefinite storage of a continuous parameter. In finite networks, we show that the chaotic noise drives diffusive motion along the approximate attractor, which gradually degrades the stored memory. We analyze the dynamics and show that the slow diffusive motion induces slowly decaying temporal cross correlations in the activity, which differ substantially from those previously described in the balanced state. We calculate the diffusivity, and show that it is inversely proportional to the system size. For large enough (but realistic) neural population sizes, and with suitable tuning of the network connections, the proposed balanced network can sustain continuous parameter values in memory over time scales larger by several orders of magnitude than the single neuron time scale.

  14. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  15. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  16. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  17. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  18. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barracks, PA ST R ENGTH-’W I SDOM THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands U.S. ARMY WAR...Offshore Balancing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands September 2015

  19. Assessing and documenting fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Pinnington, Sarah; Ingleby, Sarah; Hanumapura, Prasanna; Waring, Deryn

    2016-12-07

    Concerns about inadequate patient hydration and suboptimal monitoring of fluid balance have been documented in recent reports. The Fluid Balance Improvement Project at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to identify risk factors influencing hydration and to implement a revised process to manage these risks, resulting in the development of a hydration pathway. This new approach to monitoring patient hydration, together with staff education and support, has resulted in improved compliance with fluid balance monitoring standards, as well as significant improvements in identifying patients at risk of dehydration, and an increase in patients with acute kidney injury commencing appropriate fluid balance monitoring.

  20. Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property.

    PubMed

    Li, Baobin; Peng, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property are discussed in this paper. This kind of multiwavelets can have a sampling property like Shannon's sampling theorem. It has been shown that the corresponding matrix-valued refinable mask has special structure, and an orthogonal multifilter bank {H(z),G(z)} can be reduced to a scalar valued conjugate quadrature filter (CQF) a(z) . But it does not mean that any scalar CQF can form a "good" multifilter bank which can generate a vector-valued refinable function with some degree of smoothness. In the context of balanced multiwavelets, we give the definition of transferring balance order, which a scalar CQF a(z) satisfies, to guarantee that the multiwavelet Ψ generated is balanced. On the basis of the parametrization of a scalar CQF with any length and conditions of transferring balance order, parametrization of multifilter banks which can generate interpolatory multiwavelet and interpolatory scaling function, is gotten. Moreover, some balanced interpolatory multiwavelets have been constructed. Interpolatory analysis-ready multiwavelets (armlets) are also discussed in this paper. It is known that conditions of armlets are easy to validate, compared with balanced multiwavelets. But it will be present that if the corresponding scaling function Φ is interpolatory, the multiwavelet Ψ is balanced of order n if and only if it is an armlet of order n. Finally, the application of balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property in image processing is also discussed.

  1. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balance data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.

  2. Analytic integrable systems: Analytic normalization and embedding flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    In this paper we mainly study the existence of analytic normalization and the normal form of finite dimensional complete analytic integrable dynamical systems. More details, we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism F(x)=Bx+f(x) in (Cn,0) with B having eigenvalues not modulus 1 and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Meanwhile, we also prove that any complete analytic integrable differential system x˙=Ax+f(x) in (Cn,0) with A having nonzero eigenvalues and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Furthermore we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism defined on an analytic manifold can be embedded in a complete analytic integrable flow. We note that parts of our results are the improvement of Moser's one in J. Moser, The analytic invariants of an area-preserving mapping near a hyperbolic fixed point, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9 (1956) 673-692 and of Poincaré's one in H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré, II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 11 (1897) 193-239. These results also improve the ones in Xiang Zhang, Analytic normalization of analytic integrable systems and the embedding flows, J. Differential Equations 244 (2008) 1080-1092 in the sense that the linear part of the systems can be nonhyperbolic, and the one in N.T. Zung, Convergence versus integrability in Poincaré-Dulac normal form, Math. Res. Lett. 9 (2002) 217-228 in the way that our paper presents the concrete expression of the normal form in a restricted case.

  3. Memory replay in balanced recurrent networks.

    PubMed

    Chenkov, Nikolay; Sprekeler, Henning; Kempter, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Complex patterns of neural activity appear during up-states in the neocortex and sharp waves in the hippocampus, including sequences that resemble those during prior behavioral experience. The mechanisms underlying this replay are not well understood. How can small synaptic footprints engraved by experience control large-scale network activity during memory retrieval and consolidation? We hypothesize that sparse and weak synaptic connectivity between Hebbian assemblies are boosted by pre-existing recurrent connectivity within them. To investigate this idea, we connect sequences of assemblies in randomly connected spiking neuronal networks with a balance of excitation and inhibition. Simulations and analytical calculations show that recurrent connections within assemblies allow for a fast amplification of signals that indeed reduces the required number of inter-assembly connections. Replay can be evoked by small sensory-like cues or emerge spontaneously by activity fluctuations. Global-potentially neuromodulatory-alterations of neuronal excitability can switch between network states that favor retrieval and consolidation.

  4. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  5. Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

  6. In the Balance:

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientific adoption, this simple procedure was refined and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants. PMID:20632732

  7. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  8. [Mobility and balance].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katrin; Kressig, Reto W

    2008-08-01

    Quality of life is strongly associated with the mobility of elderly people. Falls often cause restricted mobility, a decline in activities of daily living and an increased risk of institutionalisation. Frailty, commonly associated with aging, is a biologic syndrome of decreased resistance to stressors, resulting from declines across multiple physiological systems. Changes in mobility and gait constitute part of the frailty syndrome. Since more than one third of persons over the age of 65 fall each year, prevention of falls is very important. Already while taking the patients' history special emphasis should be laid on matters associated with an increased risk of falling, such as the use of more than four medications. To assess mobility several brief tests exist (i.e. Timed up & go [17], Walking while Talking [20]) which immediately yield information regarding mobility and falling risk. Patients with poor performance on such tests or those with a history of several falls should undergo a spatio-temporal gait analysis in order to determine a possible cause as well as suitable interventions. Additionally, the objective measurement of temporo-spatial gait parameters under dual task conditions may detect deficits in cognitive function. Several interventions have been shown to have favourable effects on gait stability and the occurrence of falls. Proprioceptive problems can be partially compensated for by wearing special shoes. Also, different movement exercises such as Tai Chi Chuan, Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics and social dancing are associated with better balance and gait safety, and a reduction of falls.

  9. A balanced memory network.

    PubMed

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  10. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  11. Analytic definition of spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Fang, Yan-Long; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-08-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case, the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  12. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  13. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  14. A balancing act for renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  15. Heat balance of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budyko, M. I.; Berlyand, T. G.; Yefimova, N. A.; Zubenok, L. I.; Strokina, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of improved calculations of the heat balance components of Earth's surface are reported for yearly average conditions. The technique used to determine the heat-balance components from land- and sea-based actinometric observations as well as from satellite data on the radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere system is described, with special attention given to short-wavelength solar radiation on the continents, effective radiation from the land surface, the radiation balance of the ocean surface, heat expended by both evaporation from the ocean surface, and turbulent heat transfer between the ocean surface and the atmosphere. World maps of heat-balance components show yearly average values of total radiation, radiation balance, heat expended by evaporation, the turbulent heat flow between Earth's surface and atmosphere, and heat transfer between the ocean surface and underlying waters. The global surface heat balance is estimated along with global values of the various components and the heat-balance components for different latitude zones.

  16. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern"…

  17. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  18. Multi-Intelligence Analytics for Next Generation Analysts (MIAGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Waltz, Ed

    2016-05-01

    Current analysts are inundated with large volumes of data from which extraction, exploitation, and indexing are required. A future need for next-generation analysts is an appropriate balance between machine analytics from raw data and the ability of the user to interact with information through automation. Many quantitative intelligence tools and techniques have been developed which are examined towards matching analyst opportunities with recent technical trends such as big data, access to information, and visualization. The concepts and techniques summarized are derived from discussions with real analysts, documented trends of technical developments, and methods to engage future analysts with multiintelligence services. For example, qualitative techniques should be matched against physical, cognitive, and contextual quantitative analytics for intelligence reporting. Future trends include enabling knowledge search, collaborative situational sharing, and agile support for empirical decision-making and analytical reasoning.

  19. Whole body vibration training reduces plantar foot sensitivity but improves balance control of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Schlee, Günther; Reckmann, Diego; Milani, Thomas L

    2012-01-06

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of short-time whole body vibration (WBV) training on foot vibration sensitivity of healthy subjects. Furthermore, the effects of WBV on a balance task (one-leg stand) were also evaluated. 30 young healthy subjects participated in the study. Vibration perception thresholds and balance were measured prior and after a single session of a 4-min WBV training (27Hz, 2mm horizontal amplitude). Thresholds were measured at 200Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area (first and fifth metatarsal heads and heel). Body balance was quantified using the length as well as the area described by the center of pressure (COP) at quiet, one-leg standing. Whereas vibration thresholds significantly increased after WBV training at all measured locations, there was a significant decrease in the balance related parameters after WBV exercise. The results indicate that the above-threshold, sinusoidal vibration used during WBV training is not an adequate strategy to stimulate/improve vibration sensitivity. The improvements seen in balance after WBV are likely to have neuromuscular mechanisms as their main component rather than increased foot sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction.

  1. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  2. Work-life balance: history, costs, and budgeting for balance.

    PubMed

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L

    2014-06-01

    The concept and difficulties of work-life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work-life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out.

  3. Work–Life Balance: History, Costs, and Budgeting for Balance

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    The concept and difficulties of work–life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work–life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out. PMID:25067921

  4. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  5. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  6. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  7. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  8. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  9. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  10. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  11. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  12. A world in balance.

    PubMed

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  13. Novel balance rehabilitation and training apparatus to improve functional balance.

    PubMed

    Koceja, David M; Greiwe, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    A new balance rehabilitation and training apparatus has been developed to allow a balance-impaired person to cope with his or her fear of falling while safely and independently performing exercises necessary to improve functional balance. The apparatus consists of a stable platform where the user stands and a vertical structure that supports free-floating handles that the user holds with both hands while performing various exercises. The purpose of study 1 was to determine whether this new apparatus significantly alters the biological postural control system, and the purpose of study 2 was to document the benefits of balance training using the apparatus. Study 1 was a randomized repeated-measures design with six healthy adult subjects (mean age = 35.5 yr), and study 2 was a 4 wk intervention case study with a generally healthy 63-yr-old individual. The results suggest that postural sway characteristics and the cortical and proprioceptive feedback were not limited when using the apparatus. We also observed improvements in balance control and postural stability with 4 wk of training with the apparatus. These results support that the apparatus could be an effective tool to help individuals safely and independently perform balance exercises while potentially preventing falls and minimizing fear of falling.

  14. Analytic description of the electron temperature behavior in the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Nagy, A. F.; Gombosi, T. I.; Koen, M. A.; Cariglia, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions to the well-known and commonly used time-dependent electron energy balance equation for the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere have been obtained and are discussed. The various potential heating sources for the terrestrial plasmasphere are summarized and the corresponding electron temperatures and related characteristic heating and cooling times are calculated. A comparison between the analytic expressions for the temperature variations and relevant measurements shows excellent agreement.

  15. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  16. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  18. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... tizanidine are generally effective in treating this symptom. Balance : Balance problems typically result in a swaying and “drunken” ... assistive device. Spasticity or fatigue may indirectly affect balance. Sensory deficit : Some people with MS have such ...

  19. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees.

  20. The Science of Analytic Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Pike, William A.

    2009-09-23

    The challenge of visually communicating analysis results is central to the ability of visual analytics tools to support decision making and knowledge construction. The benefit of emerging visual methods will be improved through more effective exchange of the insights generated through the use of visual analytics. This paper outlines the major requirements for next-generation reporting systems in terms of eight major research needs: the development of best practices, design automation, visual rhetoric, context and audience, connecting analysis to presentation, evidence and argument, collaborative environments, and interactive and dynamic documents. It also describes an emerging technology called Active Products that introduces new techniques for analytic process capture and dissemination.

  1. Atomic-Scale Analytical Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Thomas F

    2017-02-01

    The concept of atomic-scale tomography has been proposed in the past decade as a technique that could deliver the position of all atoms with high precision and their elemental (isotopic) identity. The technique was never intended to be limited to merely structural information and there is clearly a rich array of additional analytical information that can be brought to bear on such tomographs. In this paper, some of these types of information are considered and the implications are explored. The fuller realm of this analytical and structural information may be called atomic-scale analytical tomography.

  2. Isaac ray at 200: phrenology and expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    In honor of Isaac Ray's 200th birthday, the author examines his early career for an example of critical thinking about expert testimony. Ray, a scientist from the outset, expressed interest in phrenology, a contemporary science of the mind. This paper explores a criminal case from Maine in which phrenological testimony was proffered and which Ray critiqued. The author then examines Ray's standards of practice in relation to present concepts of admissibility of expert testimony. He concludes that Ray's quality standards remain evident in contemporary efforts to apply evidence-based science to legal matters.

  3. Performance Evaluation of the Optical AND Gate at 200 Gbps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Devendra Kr.

    2017-06-01

    The article explores performance investigation for the all optical AND logic gate at the 200 Gbps data rate. Numerical simulations have been executed and output pattern for the AND logic operation has been verified. Accordingly good extinction ratio of 15.8 dB has been observed. Investigations depict optimum optical performance metric with the key deign parameters as the pump power (>1e-4 W), pump current (>1 ‎Å), current injection efficiency (>0.5), modulator bias voltage (>1.25 V), modulator on off ratio (>10 dB) and the SOA reflectivity (>0 dB). The schematic is evident, simpler tender's option to endow different input combinations simultaneously. Furthermore, the outcomes are well sustainable to formulate forthcoming advanced higher data rate all-optical digital processing.

  4. Blackbody Cavity for Calibrations at 200 to 273 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert; Ryan, Jim; Henderson, Doug; Clayton, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory blackbody cavity has been designed and built for calibrating infrared radiometers used to measure radiant temperatures in the range from about 200 to about 273 K. In this below-room-temperature range, scattering of background infrared radiation from room-temperature surfaces could, potentially, contribute significantly to the spectral radiance of the blackbody cavity, thereby contributing a significant error to the radiant temperature used as the calibration value. The present blackbody cavity is of an established type in which multiple reflections from a combination of conical and cylindrical black-coated walls are exploited to obtain an effective emissivity greater than the emissivity value of the coating material on a flat exposed surface. The coating material in this case is a flat black paint that has an emissivity of approximately of 0.91 in the thermal spectral range and was selected over other, higher-emissivity materials because of its ability to withstand thermal cycling. We found many black coatings cracked and flaked after thermal cycling due to differences in the coefficient of expansion differences. On the basis of theoretical calculations, the effective emissivity is expected to approach 0.999. The cylindrical/conical shell enclosing the cavity is machined from copper, which is chosen for its high thermal conductivity. In use, the shell is oriented vertically, open end facing up, and inserted in a Dewar flask filled with isopropyl alcohol/dry-ice slush. A flange at the open end of the shell is supported by a thermally insulating ring on the lip of the Dewar flask. The slush cools the shell (and thus the black-body cavity) to the desired temperature. Typically, the slush starts at a temperature of about 194 K. The slush is stirred and warmed by bubbling dry air or nitrogen through it, thereby gradually increasing the temperature through the aforementioned calibration range during an interval of several hours. The temperature of the slush is monitored by use of a precise thermocouple probe.

  5. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  6. Measurement of amplified spontaneous emission at 200 A (invited; abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglio, N. M.

    1985-05-01

    Recent interest in the production of laser radiation at soft x-ray wavelengths makes appropriate the discussion of diagnostic considerations and techniques for the measurement of same. A source of soft x-ray ASE has a number of characteristics which drive the design of diagnostic instruments: (1) The anisotropy of the ASE makes target alignment a critical part of the diagnosis, and couples collection solid angle to S/N considerations in the measurement. (2) The narrow linewidth of the amplified emission and its long wavelength put a high S/N premium on spectroscopic instrumentation of high spectral resolution and good higher-order discrimination. (3) The specialized plasma conditions required to produce gain are typically short lived, requiring time-resolved or at least time-discriminating spectroscopy. (4) The nonlinear nature of the threshold processes involved in ASE requires instrumentation of large dynamic range, broad angular acceptance, and large field of view and depth of focus. Of the many possible methods for gain verification of the x-ray source, five are discussed: (1) Probe amplification; (2) spatial coherence measurement (as a function of gain length); (3) output intensity measurement (absolute measurement and nonlinear variation with gain length); (4) divergence measurement; and (5) cavity formation. In addition, recent soft x-ray laser experiments at LLNL are discussed along with descriptions of the instruments used to measure the ASE. Diagnostic design suggestions for future soft x-ray laser experiments are also presented.

  7. The relationship of abdominal muscles balance and body balance.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data.

  8. The Relationship of Abdominal Muscles Balance and Body Balance

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data. PMID:24259848

  9. Liposomes: technologies and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-01-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  10. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  11. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  12. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples required by the Clean Water Act.

  13. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  14. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  15. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  16. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  17. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  18. Analytic elements of smooth shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Otto D. L.; Nevison, Patrick R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for producing analytic elements of a smooth shape, obtained using conformal mapping. Applications are presented for a case of impermeable analytic elements as well as for head-specified ones. The mathematical operations necessary to use the elements in practical problems can be carried out before modeling of flow problems begins. A catalog of shapes, along with pre-determined coefficients could be established on the basis of the approach presented here, making applications in the field straight forward.

  19. An overview of city analytics

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Desmond J.; Batty, Michael; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Greetham, Danica Vukadinović; Grindrod, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the 14 articles in the Royal Society Open Science themed issue on City Analytics. To provide a high-level, strategic, overview, we summarize the topics addressed and the analytical tools deployed. We then give a more detailed account of the individual contributions. Our overall aims are (i) to highlight exciting advances in this emerging, interdisciplinary field, (ii) to encourage further activity and (iii) to emphasize the variety of new, public-domain, datasets that are available to researchers. PMID:28386454

  20. Analytic Potentials for Realistic Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Taylor, Aimee E.; Swanson, Kenneth R.

    2002-05-01

    Finite difference algorithms are widely used to numerically solve Laplace's equation for electrode structures that are not amendable to analytic treatment. This includes essentially all real situations. However, in many cases, it is desirable to have the solution in an analytic form. A common practice is to "fit" the numerical solution either by least squares or cubic spline approach. Neither of these approaches is really accurate, nor do they produce unique results. These limitations are avoided by our approach.

  1. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  2. Low cost balancing unit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  3. An analytical solution for stratified tidal lagoons: Application to the validation of a numerical open boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Donald E.; Bourgeois, Alfred J.

    2001-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energy and mass balances, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. The energy, mass, and their balances from the numerical model are shown to converge to the analytical solution with a power law dependence as spatial and temporal resolution are increased. The power law convergence of the numerical results to the analytical solution validates both the finite difference scheme and the open boundary conditions used for the tidal forcing. The open boundary conditions work well because they are consistent with the characteristics of the analytical solution.

  4. Slow diffusive dynamics in a chaotic balanced neural network

    PubMed Central

    Shaham, Nimrod

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that neural noise in the cortex arises from chaotic dynamics in the balanced state: in this model of cortical dynamics, the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to each neuron approximately cancel, and activity is driven by fluctuations of the synaptic inputs around their mean. It remains unclear whether neural networks in the balanced state can perform tasks that are highly sensitive to noise, such as storage of continuous parameters in working memory, while also accounting for the irregular behavior of single neurons. Here we show that continuous parameter working memory can be maintained in the balanced state, in a neural circuit with a simple network architecture. We show analytically that in the limit of an infinite network, the dynamics generated by this architecture are characterized by a continuous set of steady balanced states, allowing for the indefinite storage of a continuous parameter. In finite networks, we show that the chaotic noise drives diffusive motion along the approximate attractor, which gradually degrades the stored memory. We analyze the dynamics and show that the slow diffusive motion induces slowly decaying temporal cross correlations in the activity, which differ substantially from those previously described in the balanced state. We calculate the diffusivity, and show that it is inversely proportional to the system size. For large enough (but realistic) neural population sizes, and with suitable tuning of the network connections, the proposed balanced network can sustain continuous parameter values in memory over time scales larger by several orders of magnitude than the single neuron time scale. PMID:28459813

  5. [Acid-base balance disorders

    PubMed

    Piva, J P; Garcia, P C; Martha, V F

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the theoretical bases on the maintenance of the acid-basic balance, the pathophysiology of the disturbances and its therapeutics in the child.METHODS: References were obtained from computerized searches on the National Library of Medicine (Medline), recent review articles and personal files.RESULTS: Acid-basic disturbances are frequently found in critical ill children. Their pathophysiology and main causes are a complex and multifactorial process. The management depends on precocious diagnosis and of the understanding of the base cause. The treatment should be adjusted for each disturbance and its base cause. Frequently it requests an aggressive correction and continuous monitoring.CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge of the physiology of the acid-basic balance as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of the main disturbances associated to the clinical situations represent a challenge for the pediatrician. The management of acid-basic balance demands appropriate and careful intervention.

  6. Analytical Model for the Thermonuclear Instability in IGNITOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinali, A.; Sonnino, G.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    The non-linear energy balance equation for thermal equilibrium and stability, is analytically and numerically investigated in order to study the thermonuclear instability in the IGNITOR experiment facility. The expressions for the ion and the electron thermal coefficients, introduced in the thermal energy balance equation, are obtained by solving the nonlinear transport equations relevant to several collisional transport regimes (in particular the banana regime). The differential equation for the temperature profile at equilibrium is solved and the resulting profile is compared with the results obtained by a full transport code. The growth of the perturbation in the temperature is analyzed by integrating the equation in time. A scenario is considered where IGNITOR is led to operate in a slightly sub-critical regime by adding a small fraction of 3He to the nominal 50-50 Deuterium-Tritium mixture and heating the plasma by ICRH power. Sponsored in part by the US DOE.

  7. Thermal balance in convective therapies.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Mancini, Elena; Canova, Cristina; Mambelli, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    Among the factors causing intradialytic haemodynamic instability, dialysate temperature has been shown to play a relevant role. An improved cardiovascular response during isolated ultrafiltration or with cooled dialysate has been described in the past. Cold dialysate may increase the external heat loss compensating for the increase in core temperature, thus avoiding vasodilatation, but it also increases myocardial contractility. However, a better haemodynamic response to dialysis treatment has long been known in convective therapies as well, and the hypothesis of a leading role for thermal balance is under discussion. In conventional haemofiltration (HF), venous blood cooling is expected, on the basis of the infusate temperature and the filtration fraction. In on-line HF, the infusate temperature and its volume may have a different impact on thermal balance depending on the site of infusion (pre- or post-dialyser). In an in vitro study comparing haemodialysis (HD) (conventional HD, dialysate 37 degrees C; and cold HD, dialysate 35.5 degrees C) with HF (pre- and post-dilution, 37 degrees C), we observed a more negative thermal balance with cold HD (-130 kJ/h) and with post-dilution HF (-75 kJ/h). The beneficial pressor effects of HF have been confirmed even in on-line HF, which actually has very few differences in the thermal balance compared with conventional HD (dialysate 37 degrees C). In on-line HF, the amount of warm infusion, often exceeding the blood flow, makes the achievement of a negative thermal balance highly unlikely. Thus, there is not sufficient evidence that vascular stability in on-line HF is solely related to different thermal energy balances. Other factors playing a relevant role in the cardiocirculatory response to convective dialysis should thus be considered.

  8. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make them...

  9. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make them...

  10. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make them...

  11. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make them...

  12. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and...

  13. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and...

  14. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and...

  15. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and...

  16. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and...

  17. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make them...

  18. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of matching approaches in observational studies, investigators typically present summary statistics for each observed pre-intervention covariate, with the objective of showing that matching reduces the difference in means (or proportions) between groups to as close to zero as possible. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to distinguish between study groups based on their distributions of the covariates using a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA). Assessing covariate balance using ODA as compared with the conventional method has several key advantages: the ability to ascertain how individuals self-select based on optimal (maximum-accuracy) cut-points on the covariates; the application to any variable metric and number of groups; its insensitivity to skewed data or outliers; and the use of accuracy measures that can be widely applied to all analyses. Moreover, ODA accepts analytic weights, thereby extending the assessment of covariate balance to any study design where weights are used for covariate adjustment. By comparing the two approaches using empirical data, we are able to demonstrate that using measures of classification accuracy as balance diagnostics produces highly consistent results to those obtained via the conventional approach (in our matched-pairs example, ODA revealed a weak statistically significant relationship not detected by the conventional approach). Thus, investigators should consider ODA as a robust complement, or perhaps alternative, to the conventional approach for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Linear stochastic system with delay: Energy balance and entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Toyonori; Iwama, Shinpei; Kimizuka, Makoto

    2009-03-01

    We study the energy balance in a linear stochastic dynamics with delay under the impact of an external periodic force. The linearity of the model, in combination with a response function method, enables us to perform detailed analytic calculations of each term in the energy balance equation. From this, we discuss thermodynamics and entropy production rate σ . With use of the delay time τ and strength of the external force A0 , σ is simply expressed as σ=σD,1(τ)+A02η(τ) , with both σD,1(τ) and η(τ) positive definite. We thus conclude that even when there is no external force (A0=0) , the entropy production rate σ=σD,1(τ) is positive, meaning that the delay force produces work, which is dissipated into a reservoir. Numerical experiments are performed to confirm theoretical results.

  20. Feasibility of Self-Reflection as a Tool to Balance Clinical Reasoning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbald, Matthew; de Bruin, Anique B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians are believed to use two predominant reasoning strategies: system 1 based pattern recognition, and system 2 based analytical reasoning. Balancing these cognitive reasoning strategies is widely believed to reduce diagnostic error. However, clinicians approach different problems with different reasoning strategies. This study explores…

  1. Feasibility of Self-Reflection as a Tool to Balance Clinical Reasoning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbald, Matthew; de Bruin, Anique B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians are believed to use two predominant reasoning strategies: system 1 based pattern recognition, and system 2 based analytical reasoning. Balancing these cognitive reasoning strategies is widely believed to reduce diagnostic error. However, clinicians approach different problems with different reasoning strategies. This study explores…

  2. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  3. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  4. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Taksu; Morimoto, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to the Galam model of opinion dynamics, which features group-majority update, in order to account for the existence of social skepticism over one-sidedness. We find that, along with majoritarian floaters and single-sided inflexibles, the inclusion of balancers, who normally act as floaters but oppose inflexibles in their presence, brings about the emergence of a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system. Around the critical point, three distinct phases of opinion dynamics separated by discontinuous changes are found.

  5. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  6. Case Presentation of Sagittal Balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul K

    2016-04-01

    Sagittal balance is an important concept in spinal coronal and kyphotic deformity correction. Sagittal alignment/lumbar lordosis is increasingly recognized and discussed in terms of surgical outcomes. Positive sagittal balance can lead to development of iatrogenic kyphosis, flatback syndrome, adjacent level degeneration, and junctional kyphosis. This concept is no longer associated only with deformity. Spine surgeons have learned that sagittal alignment/lumbar lordosis is very important even in 1-level or 2-level interbody fusion procedures, and that it can be attained, maintained, or lost during any procedure, resulting in complications.

  7. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  8. Climate Analytics as a Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  9. A PW91-like exchange with a simple analytical form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Kato, Juan C.; del Campo, Jorge M.; Gázquez, José L.; Trickey, S. B.; Vela, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    A pair of families of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange functionals is presented. The aim is to simplify the PW91 enhancement factor considerably, yet retain its shape, not degrade its performance and, within those confines, improve on it. The functionals are constructed non-empirically by taking as kernels the PBE and RPBE analytic forms and adding a Gaussian tail to comply with the asymptotic reduced-gradient constraint from non-uniform scaling. Standard heats of formation are considerably improved by the functionals compared to PBE. Globally, the new functionals exhibit much better balance in predicting thermodynamic and kinetic properties than any competing non-empirical GGA.

  10. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Balance training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  11. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  12. A Survey of Risk Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoult, Evan

    2003-03-01

    Risk Analytical Units within Wall Street firms are responsible for developing the methods used to quantify the different forms of risk inherent in the firms' activities. This talk is an overview of risk analytics. It will cover: the function and validation of valuation models; the measurement of market risk; and the measurement of the different aspects of and forms of credit risk, including the simulation of the potential counterparty credit exposure of derivatives, the estimation of obligor default probability and the simulation of the potential loss distribution of loan portfolios. Risk Analytics is an applied field that integrates finance theory, mathematics and statistical analysis. It is a field in that has attracted many physicists and one in which many physicists have flourished. The talk will conclude with an analysis of why this is so.

  13. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  14. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  15. Analytical approximations for spiral waves

    SciTech Connect

    Löber, Jakob Engel, Harald

    2013-12-15

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R{sub 0}. For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R{sub +}) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R{sub +} with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  16. Analytical approximations for spiral waves.

    PubMed

    Löber, Jakob; Engel, Harald

    2013-12-01

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R(0). For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R(+)) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R(+) with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  17. Analytical chemistry of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Evan M; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research primarily because of its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. To understand its origin, activity, and regulation, accurate and precise measurement techniques are needed. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO's unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span the picomolar-to-micromolar range in physiological milieus, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with a focus on the underlying mechanism of each technique and on approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools to create novel NO sensors.

  18. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications. PMID:28895928

  19. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of 'common ground' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve 'common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  20. Analytical Applications of NMR: Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a symposium on analytical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), discussing pulse Fourier transformation technique, two-dimensional NMR, solid state NMR, and multinuclear NMR. Includes description of ORACLE, an NMR data processing system at Syracuse University using real-time color graphics, and algorithms for…

  1. Design of Analytical Run Length for Clinical Chemistry Analytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Litao; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The expected number of unacceptable patient results E (Nu) can be set as a patient-based quality goal. Analytical run length can be designed to limit E (Nu) < 1. The new internal quality control (IQC) strategy and length of analytical run for each analyte was applied to routine IQC paralleled with the way before redesign. IQC charts were produced by QC test results to analyze and compare the performance of out-of-control error detection. Optimal analytical run lengths designed by the quality control computer software QCCS 2008 were 39 for albumin, 61 for cholesterol, 900 for triglycerides, 112 for aspartate aminotransferase, 279 for lactate dehydrogenase, 267 for alcaline phospatase, 363 for total bilirubin, 151 for ceatinine, 230 for uric acid, 46 for phosphorus PHOS, 158 for carbon dioxide, and 580 for glucose. After being redesigned, IQC strategies for ALB, CHOL, and PHOS detected more out-of-control error than before and achieved more cost-effectiveness. Using E (Nu) as a QC performance measure, frequency of QC testing can be objectively designed. Additionally, new QC strategies can help find more problems of testing systems and promote efficiency and cost savings.

  2. Analytical Applications of NMR: Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a symposium on analytical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), discussing pulse Fourier transformation technique, two-dimensional NMR, solid state NMR, and multinuclear NMR. Includes description of ORACLE, an NMR data processing system at Syracuse University using real-time color graphics, and algorithms for…

  3. Exact analytical solutions for ADAFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Asiyeh; Abbassi, Shahram; Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    We obtain two-dimensional exact analytic solutions for the structure of the hot accretion flows without wind. We assume that the only non-zero component of the stress tensor is Trϕ. Furthermore, we assume that the value of viscosity coefficient α varies with θ. We find radially self-similar solutions and compare them with the numerical and the analytical solutions already studied in the literature. The no-wind solution obtained in this paper may be applied to the nuclei of some cool-core clusters.

  4. Automated dynamic analytical model improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed and illustrated which finds minimum changes in analytical mass and stiffness matrices to make them consistent with a set of measured normal modes and natural frequencies. The corrected model is an improved base for studies of physical changes, changes in boundary conditions, and for prediction of forced responses. Features of the method are: efficient procedures not requiring solutions of the eigenproblem; the model may have more degrees of freedom than the test data; modal displacements at all the analytical degrees of freedom are obtained; the frequency dependence of the coordinate transformations are properly treated.

  5. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  6. The Revenue vs. Service Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savarese, John

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, students at the University of Vermont (UVM) had to carry separate ID cards, meal cards, and athletic cards. Today, the single CATcard combines all of these functions, plus library privileges, an optional declining balance program called CAT$cratch, access to computer labs, use of vending machines without quarters, and even a ride on…

  7. Walking on ballast impacts balance.

    PubMed

    Wade, Chip; Garner, John C; Redfern, Mark S; Andres, Robert O

    2014-01-01

    Railroad workers often perform daily work activities on irregular surfaces, specifically on ballast rock. Previous research and injury epidemiology have suggested a relationship between working on irregular surfaces and postural instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of walking on ballast for an extended duration on standing balance. A total of 16 healthy adult males walked on a 7.62 m × 4.57 m (25 ft × 15 ft) walking surface of no ballast (NB) or covered with ballast (B) of an average rock size of about 1 inch for 4 h. Balance was evaluated using dynamic posturography with the NeuroCom(®) Equitest System(™) prior to experiencing the NB or B surface and again every 30 min during the 4 h of ballast exposure. Dependent variables were the sway velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) sway components in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in RMS and sway velocity between ballast surface conditions and across exposure times. Overall, the ballast surface condition induced greater sway in all of the dynamic posturography conditions. Walking on irregular surfaces for extended durations has a deleterious effect on balance compared to walking on a surface without ballast. These findings of changes in balance during ballast exposure suggest that working on an irregular surface may impact postural control.

  8. Automatic gain-balancing circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhut, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    Energy reaching sensor is collected by telescope, modulated by chopper, spectrally filtered, and simultaneously directed onto two detectors. Gains through multiple signal paths are automatically balanced to 1 part in 10,000. Circuit compensates for slow changes in optical and electrical gains common to gas-filter correlation spectrometers.

  9. The Revenue vs. Service Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savarese, John

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, students at the University of Vermont (UVM) had to carry separate ID cards, meal cards, and athletic cards. Today, the single CATcard combines all of these functions, plus library privileges, an optional declining balance program called CAT$cratch, access to computer labs, use of vending machines without quarters, and even a ride on…

  10. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  11. Finding Balance in the Winds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of and reflections concerning a group workshop facilitated by Michael Tlanusta Garrett of the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Provides information about the Native American teachings and traditions of the four winds, balance, and harmony, and discusses the use of self by group leaders as a powerful therapeutic and…

  12. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the…

  13. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Mean as Balance Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  15. Up for Discussion: Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Susan

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that libraries include conservative 'Moral Majority' as well as liberal views of human sexuality in their acquisition of books for young adults to provide a balanced collection and blunt atttempts to limit academic freedom through censorship. Five 'New Right' choices are reviewed. (RAA)

  16. Teacher's Guide for Senior Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, William L., III; And Others

    This guide provides opportunities for students to investigate several aspects of balancing including weighing, equilibrium, symmetry, gravity, and center of gravity, bringing mathematics and science together in activities involving graphing, inequalities, and number relations. This is divided into five major sections: (1) introduction, (2)…

  17. Balanced Assessment. K-College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin

    To say that assessments must be authentic, dynamic, fluid, and formative is not to say that normative, standardized evaluations have no place in the overall assessment scheme. What is needed is a combination and balance of assessments. The tri-assessment model promotes using traditional assessments along with portfolio and performance assessments.…

  18. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the…

  19. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  20. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  1. Development of high-speed balancing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation into laser material removal showed that laser burns act in a manner typical of mechanical stress raisers causing a reduction in fatigue strength; the fatigue strength is lowered relative to the smooth specimen fatigue strength. Laser-burn zones were studied for four materials: Alloy Steel 4340, Stainless Steel 17-4 PH, Inconel 718, and Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6. Calculations were made of stress concentration factors K, for laser-burn grooves of each material type. A comparison was then made to experimentally determine the fatigue strength reduction factor. These calculations and comparisons indicated that, except for the 17-4 PH material, good agreement (a ratio of close to 1.0) existed between Kt and Kf. The performance of the 17-4 PH material has been attributed to early crack initiation due to the lower fatigue resistance of the soft, unaged laser-affected zone. Also covered in this report is the development, implementation, and testing of an influence coefficient approach to balancing a long, slender shaft under applied-torque conditions. Excellent correlation existed between the analytically predicted results and those data obtained from testing.

  2. Medical records department and balanced scorecard approach

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Ebadsichani, Afsaneh; Tofighi, Shahram; Tavakoli, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Context: The Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important source for evaluating and planning of healthcare services; therefore, hospital managers should improve their performance not only in the short-term but also in the long-term plans. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a tool in the management system that enables organizations to correct operational functions and provides feedback around both the internal processes and the external outcomes, in order to improve strategic performance and outcomes continuously. Aims: The main goal of this study was to assess the MRD performance with BSC approach in a hospital. Materials and Methods: This research was an analytical cross-sectional study in which data was collected by questionnaires, forms and observation. The population was the staff of the MRD in a hospital in Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran. Statistical Analysis Used: To analyze data, first, objectives of the MRD, according to the mission and perspectives of the hospital, were redefined and, second, indicators were measured. Subsequently, findings from the performance were compared with the expected score. In order to achieve the final target, the programs, activities, and plans were reformed. Results: The MRD was successful in absorbing customer satisfaction. From a customer perspective, score in customer satisfaction of admission and statistics sections were 82% and 83%, respectively. Conclusions: The comprehensive nature of the strategy map makes the MRD especially useful as a consensus building and communication tool in the hospital. PMID:24083257

  3. Memory replay in balanced recurrent networks

    PubMed Central

    Chenkov, Nikolay; Sprekeler, Henning; Kempter, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Complex patterns of neural activity appear during up-states in the neocortex and sharp waves in the hippocampus, including sequences that resemble those during prior behavioral experience. The mechanisms underlying this replay are not well understood. How can small synaptic footprints engraved by experience control large-scale network activity during memory retrieval and consolidation? We hypothesize that sparse and weak synaptic connectivity between Hebbian assemblies are boosted by pre-existing recurrent connectivity within them. To investigate this idea, we connect sequences of assemblies in randomly connected spiking neuronal networks with a balance of excitation and inhibition. Simulations and analytical calculations show that recurrent connections within assemblies allow for a fast amplification of signals that indeed reduces the required number of inter-assembly connections. Replay can be evoked by small sensory-like cues or emerge spontaneously by activity fluctuations. Global—potentially neuromodulatory—alterations of neuronal excitability can switch between network states that favor retrieval and consolidation. PMID:28135266

  4. Adherence to balance tolerance limits at the Upper Mississippi Science Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, C.T.; Kennedy, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Verification of balance accuracy entails applying a series of standard masses to a balance prior to use and recording the measured values. The recorded values for each standard should have lower and upper weight limits or tolerances that are accepted as verification of balance accuracy under normal operating conditions. Balance logbooks for seven analytical balances at the Upper Mississippi Science Center were checked over a 3.5-year period to determine if the recorded weights were within the established tolerance limits. A total of 9435 measurements were checked. There were 14 instances in which the balance malfunctioned and operators recorded a rationale in the balance logbook. Sixty-three recording errors were found. Twenty-eight operators were responsible for two types of recording errors: Measurements of weights were recorded outside of the tolerance limit but not acknowledged as an error by the operator (n = 40); and measurements were recorded with the wrong number of decimal places (n = 23). The adherence rate for following tolerance limits was 99.3%. To ensure the continued adherence to tolerance limits, the quality-assurance unit revised standard operating procedures to require more frequent review of balance logbooks.

  5. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  6. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  7. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  8. Cognitive Analytics Driven Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudivada, Venkat N.

    2017-01-01

    Various types of structured data collected by learning management systems such as Moodle have been used to improve student learning outcomes. Learning analytics refers to an assortment of data analysis methods used for this task. These methods typically do not consider unstructured data such as blogs, discussions, e-mail, and course messages.…

  9. Visual analytics of brain networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2012-05-15

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual Analytics of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging. PMID:22414991

  11. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-01-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve…

  12. Cognitive Analytics Driven Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudivada, Venkat N.

    2017-01-01

    Various types of structured data collected by learning management systems such as Moodle have been used to improve student learning outcomes. Learning analytics refers to an assortment of data analysis methods used for this task. These methods typically do not consider unstructured data such as blogs, discussions, e-mail, and course messages.…

  13. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  14. Generative CAI in Analytical Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, William R.; And Others

    A generative computer-assisted instruction system is being developed to tutor students in analytical geometry. The basis of this development is the thesis that a generative teaching system can be developed by establishing and then stimulating a simplified, explicit model of the human tutor. The goal attempted is that of a computer environment…

  15. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-01-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve…

  16. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics, the analysis and representation of data about learners in order to improve learning, is a new lens through which teachers can understand education. It is rooted in the dramatic increase in the quantity of data about learners and linked to management approaches that focus on quantitative metrics, which are sometimes antithetical…

  17. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  18. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  19. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  20. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  1. Generative CAI in Analytical Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, William R.; And Others

    A generative computer-assisted instruction system is being developed to tutor students in analytical geometry. The basis of this development is the thesis that a generative teaching system can be developed by establishing and then stimulating a simplified, explicit model of the human tutor. The goal attempted is that of a computer environment…

  2. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  3. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  4. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  5. Realistic Analytical Polyhedral MRI Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Tri M.; Fung, George S. K.; Han, Shuo; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry L.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Herzka, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and are used to simulate MRI acquisitions. Existing 3D analytical phantoms are unable to accurately model shapes of biomedical interest. It is demonstrated that polyhedral analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and can accurately represent 3D biomedical shapes. Theory The derivations of the Fourier transform of a polygon and polyhedron are presented. Methods The Fourier transform of a polyhedron was implemented and its accuracy in representing faceted and smooth surfaces was characterized. Realistic anthropomorphic polyhedral brain and torso phantoms were constructed and their use in simulated 3D/2D MRI acquisitions was described. Results Using polyhedra, the Fourier transform of faceted shapes can be computed to within machine precision. Smooth surfaces can be approximated with increasing accuracy by increasing the number of facets in the polyhedron; the additional accumulated numerical imprecision of the Fourier transform of polyhedra with many faces remained small. Simulations of 3D/2D brain and 2D torso cine acquisitions produced realistic reconstructions free of high frequency edge aliasing as compared to equivalent voxelized/rasterized phantoms. Conclusion Analytical polyhedral phantoms are easy to construct and can accurately simulate shapes of biomedical interest. PMID:26479724

  6. Analytic redundancy management for SCOLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a practical sensor analytic redundancy management scheme for flexible spacecraft and to demonstrate it using the SCOLE experimental apparatus. The particular scheme to be used is taken from previous work on the Grid apparatus by Williams and Montgomery.

  7. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  8. Realistic analytical polyhedral MRI phantoms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tri M; Fung, George S K; Han, Shuo; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry L; Tsui, Benjamin M W; McVeigh, Elliot R; Herzka, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    Analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and are used to simulate MRI acquisitions. Existing three-dimensional (3D) analytical phantoms are unable to accurately model shapes of biomedical interest. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polyhedral analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and can accurately represent 3D biomedical shapes. The Fourier transform of a polyhedron was implemented and its accuracy in representing faceted and smooth surfaces was characterized. Realistic anthropomorphic polyhedral brain and torso phantoms were constructed and their use in simulated 3D and two-dimensional (2D) MRI acquisitions was described. Using polyhedra, the Fourier transform of faceted shapes can be computed to within machine precision. Smooth surfaces can be approximated with increasing accuracy by increasing the number of facets in the polyhedron; the additional accumulated numerical imprecision of the Fourier transform of polyhedra with many faces remained small. Simulations of 3D and 2D brain and 2D torso cine acquisitions produced realistic reconstructions free of high frequency edge aliasing compared with equivalent voxelized/rasterized phantoms. Analytical polyhedral phantoms are easy to construct and can accurately simulate shapes of biomedical interest. Magn Reson Med 76:663-678, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  10. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to.... Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test...

  11. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture... Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform analyses... Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test methods noted therein, U.S....

  12. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to.... Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test...

  13. Elementary analytic models of climate. 1: The mean global heat balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Climate models based on global radiative equilibrium are normally so complicated that they require extensive computer codes to provide adequate accuracy. However, by simply modifying the concept of a gray atmosphere, a reasonably correct mean global temperature is obtained. This elementary model is then used to estimate the effects of changes in the abundances of minor infrared absorbers and changes in the solar constant or earth albedo. When applied to a Budyko-Sellers zonally averaged model, the quasi-gray model could give a physical basis for the latitude dependence of outgoing radiation and of opacity due to H2O vapor content. The latter effect constitutes an important positive feedback on surface temperature.

  14. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  15. The transfer of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

    2013-11-01

    Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach to clinical balance assessment can differentiate different kinds of balance disorders and a physiological approach can determine underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contributing to balance disorders. Objective measures of balance using computerized systems and wearable inertial sensors can bring more sensitive, specific and responsive balance testing to clinical practice. PMID:20485226

  17. A shallow quasi-balanced model on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvers, L. G.

    2010-12-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a shallow fluid layer over the full domain of a rotating sphere are examined. A simple quasi-balanced model has been developed that allows for a unified investigation of the midlatitude, equatorial, and polar balanced motions. These motions are based strictly on the evolution of potential vorticity. Quasi-geostrophic theory has been an extremely useful tool for studying the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic phenomena but is limited by its restriction to the midlatitudes. The simplicity of quasi-geostrophic theory facilitates an understanding of the basic physical mechanisms at work in a fluid system while retaining the ability to reproduce a surprisingly large array of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. The model presented here extends the domain of quasi-geostrophic theory while retaining the simplicity. The fully spherical version of this quasi-balanced theory is derived by partitioning the flow into nondivergent and irrotational components rather than geostrophic and ageostrophic components. The potential vorticity invertibility relation can be solved analytically by using spheroidal harmonic transforms, which improves the usefulness of the theory. Except for sectoral harmonics of low zonal wavenumber, the quasi-balanced Rossby-Haurwitz frequencies from our model agree very well with the frequencies calculated by Longuet-Higgins from the primitive equations. A pseudo-spectral model using spherical harmonic basis functions has been developed to explore various applications of this system. Among these are the dispersion of Rossby-Haurwitz waves at varying Lamb’s parameter, spherical quasi-balanced turbulence including the emergence of zonal jets, and a generalization of the anisotropic Rhines length to three-dimensional wavenumber space. We are also examining the differing behavior between Rossby wave dispersion in the equatorial and polar regions.

  18. Toward Theoretical Techniques for Measuring the Use of Human Effort in Visual Analytic Systems.

    PubMed

    Crouser, R Jordan; Franklin, Lyndsey; Endert, Alex; Cook, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Visual analytic systems have long relied on user studies and standard datasets to demonstrate advances to the state of the art, as well as to illustrate the efficiency of solutions to domain-specific challenges. This approach has enabled some important comparisons between systems, but unfortunately the narrow scope required to facilitate these comparisons has prevented many of these lessons from being generalized to new areas. At the same time, advanced visual analytic systems have made increasing use of human-machine collaboration to solve problems not tractable by machine computation alone. To continue to make progress in modeling user tasks in these hybrid visual analytic systems, we must strive to gain insight into what makes certain tasks more complex than others. This will require the development of mechanisms for describing the balance to be struck between machine and human strengths with respect to analytical tasks and workload. In this paper, we argue for the necessity of theoretical tools for reasoning about such balance in visual analytic systems and demonstrate the utility of the Human Oracle Model for this purpose in the context of sensemaking in visual analytics. Additionally, we make use of the Human Oracle Model to guide the development of a new system through a case study in the domain of cybersecurity.

  19. Entropy balance in holographic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Pourhasan, Razieh

    2012-07-01

    In systems undergoing second order phase transitions, the temperature integral of the specific heat over temperature from zero to the critical temperature is the same in both the normal and ordered phases. This entropy balance relates the critical temperature to the distribution of degrees of freedom in the normal and ordered states. Quantum criticality and fractionalization can imply an increased number of low energy degrees of freedom in both the normal and ordered states. We explore the rôle of entropy balance in holographic models of superconductivity, focussing on the interplay between quantum criticality and superconductivity. We consider models with and without a ground state entropy density in the normal phase; the latter models are a new class of holographic superconductors. We explain how a normal phase entropy density manifests itself in the stable superconducting phase.

  20. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  1. Pediatric Disorders of Water Balance

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sayali A.; Rosenthal, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Fluid homeostasis requires adequate water intake, regulated by an intact thirst mechanism, and appropriate free water excretion by the kidneys, mediated by appropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) [also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH)]. AVP exerts its antidiuretic action by binding to the X chromosome-encoded V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), a G-protein coupled receptor on the basolateral membrane of renal collecting duct epithelial cells. Following V2R activation, increased intracellular cAMP mediates shuttling of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP-2) to the apical membrane of collecting duct cells, resulting in increased water permeability and antidiuresis. Clinical disorders of water balance are common, and abnormalities in many steps involving AVP secretion and responsiveness have been described. The focus of his chapter is on the principal disorders of water balance, diabetes insipidus (DI) and the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH). PMID:19944286

  2. [Balance disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bracchi, E; Rizzo, S; Longari, F; Bernardini, M; Bizzotti, C; Frenguelli, A

    2002-10-01

    In the elderly patient, instability is a syndrome in which a loss of balance, during ambulation or while standing, can give rise to falls, with consequent disability and morbidity. Maintaining the correct static and dynamic balance is known to be the result of the synergetic functioning of different systems. In old age, however, the efficiency of these mechanisms is impaired because of the physiological process of aging, which affects all of the organs and systems of the human body. Besides that, different concomitant causes such as cardiovascular and dysmetabolic pathologies, chronic pharmacological therapies etc. contribute to the aging of our organism. The object of this study was to evaluate 40 subjects, 21 males and 19 females, aged between 70 and 86, who were referred to us with craniofacial trauma consequent to a fall. Upon hospitalization, all of the patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating the incidence of the vertigo symptom as a possible cause of the falls. All of the subjects underwent the following clinicoinstrumental examinations: standard audiometric evaluation, vestibular tests, neurological and ophthalmic examination. Careful appraisal of the results obtained enabled us to conclude that balance disorders in the elderly patient are due to the synergetic action of three factors: aging, concomitant diseases and environmental factors. In conclusion, we can affirm that balance disorders giving rise to a fall in the elderly are attributable to the concomitance of different factors that determine a clinical state of imbalance, defined by some Authors with the term "presbivertigo". It follows that a suitable diagnostic protocol must be employed, comprising a detailed medical, pharmacological and functional history, a study both of the environmental conditions in which the patient lives and the modalities according to which the traumatic event occurred. It is, last of all, indispensable that steps be taken to improve these environmental

  3. Energy balance in motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubńiski, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper present the concept of testing energy balance. The test was conducted on the test bench equipped with the alternator, battery and standard mounted current receivers. The course of measurements consisted in recording the indications of three ammeters and a tachometer. On the basis of the recorded current values, it was possible to determine: energy received from the battery, consumed by the receivers and the energy drawn from the alternator.

  4. BALANCED PRODUCTION OF RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes contain one molecule each of 79 different proteins. The genes encoding these proteins are usually at widely scattered loci and have distinctive promoters with certain common features. This minireview discusses the means by which cells manage to balance the production of ribosomal proteins so as to end up with equimolar quantities in the ribosome. Regulation at all levels of gene expression, from transcription to protein turnover, is considered. PMID:17689889

  5. Analytic model of ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    1997-04-01

    Ocean color is determined by spectral variations in reflectance at the sea surface. In the analytic model presented here, reflectance at the sea surface is estimated with the quasi-single-scattering approximation that ignores transspectral processes. The analytic solutions we obtained are valid for a vertically homogeneous water column. The solution provides a theoretical expression for the dimensionless, quasi-stable parameter ( r ), with a value of 0.33, that appears in many models in which reflectance at the sea surface is expressed as a function of absorption coefficient ( a ) and backscattering coefficient ( b b ). In the solution this parameter is represented as a function of the mean cosines for downwelling and upwelling irradiances and as the ratio of the upward-scattering coefficient to the backscattering coefficient. Implementation of the model is discussed for two cases: (1) that in which molecular scattering is the main source of upwelling light, and (2) that in which particle scattering is responsible for all the upwelled light. Computations for the two cases are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, which accounts for processes not considered in the analytic model (multiple scattering, and consequent depth-dependent changes in apparent optical properties). The Monte Carlo models show variations in reflectance with the zenith angle of the incident light. The analytic model can be used to reproduce these variations fairly well for the case of molecular scattering. For the particle-scattering case also, the analytic and Monte Carlo models show similar variations in r with zenith angle. However, the analytic model (as implemented here) appears to underestimate r when the value of the backscattering coefficient b b increases relative to the absorption coefficient a . The errors also vary with the zenith angle of the incident light field, with the maximum underestimate being approximately 0.06 (equivalent to relative errors from 12 to 17 ) for the range of

  6. Crystal structure of tetra­kis­(μ3-2-{[1,1-bis­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)-2-oxidoeth­yl]imino­meth­yl}-6-meth­oxy­phenolato)tetra­kis­[aqua­copper(II)]: a redetermination at 200 K

    PubMed Central

    Buvaylo, Elena A.; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu.; Skelton, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the tetra­nuclear title compound, [Cu4(C12H15NO5)4(H2O)4], has been previously reported by Back, Oliveira, Canabarro & Iglesias [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (2015), 641, 941–947], based on room-temperature data. In the previously published structure, no standard uncertainties are recorded for the deprotonated hy­droxy­methyl group and water mol­ecule O atoms coordinating to the metal atom indicating that they were not refined; furthermore, the H atoms of some OH groups and water mol­ecules have not been positioned accurately. Since the current structure was determined at a lower temperature, all atoms, including the H atoms of these hy­droxy groups and the water mol­ecule, have been determined more accurately resulting in improved standard uncertainties in the bond lengths and angles. Diffraction data were collected at 200 K, rather than the more usual 100 K, due to apparent disordering at lower temperatures. In addition, it is now possible to report intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O inter­actions. In the title complex molecule, which has crystallographic -4 symmetry, the CuII ions are coordinated by the tridentate Schiff base ligands and water mol­ecules, forming a tetra­nuclear Cu4O4 cubane-like core. The CuII ion adopts a CuNO5 elongated octa­hedral environment. The coordination environment of CuII at 200 K displays a small contraction of the Cu—N/O bonds, compared with the room-temperature structure. In the crystal lattice, the neutral clusters are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network propagating along the b axis. PMID:26594407

  7. Crystal structure of tetra-kis-(μ3-2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}-6-meth-oxy-phenolato)tetra-kis-[aqua-copper(II)]: a redetermination at 200 K.

    PubMed

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structure of the tetra-nuclear title compound, [Cu4(C12H15NO5)4(H2O)4], has been previously reported by Back, Oliveira, Canabarro & Iglesias [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (2015), 641, 941-947], based on room-temperature data. In the previously published structure, no standard uncertainties are recorded for the deprotonated hy-droxy-methyl group and water mol-ecule O atoms coordinating to the metal atom indicating that they were not refined; furthermore, the H atoms of some OH groups and water mol-ecules have not been positioned accurately. Since the current structure was determined at a lower temperature, all atoms, including the H atoms of these hy-droxy groups and the water mol-ecule, have been determined more accurately resulting in improved standard uncertainties in the bond lengths and angles. Diffraction data were collected at 200 K, rather than the more usual 100 K, due to apparent disordering at lower temperatures. In addition, it is now possible to report intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O inter-actions. In the title complex molecule, which has crystallographic -4 symmetry, the Cu(II) ions are coordinated by the tridentate Schiff base ligands and water mol-ecules, forming a tetra-nuclear Cu4O4 cubane-like core. The Cu(II) ion adopts a CuNO5 elongated octa-hedral environment. The coordination environment of Cu(II) at 200 K displays a small contraction of the Cu-N/O bonds, compared with the room-temperature structure. In the crystal lattice, the neutral clusters are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network propagating along the b axis.

  8. Energy balance in MIG arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Hertel, M.; Fuessel, U.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of metal inert gas (MIG) processes by spectroscopy and fluid simulations have shown that metal evaporation causes a specific spatial structure of the arc, and among others a minimum of plasma temperature at the arc centre. Changes in the arc structure and in the heat transfer to the material are closely connected with the arc energy balance; its detailed analysis has not been carried out so far under the specific impact of metal vapour. In this paper, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an MIG arc in argon including iron evaporation at the wire tip are considered. The main terms in the energy balance are discussed focusing on a comparison of the arc regions with and without metal vapour. In addition, a simple approach of the energy balance at a cross section of the MIG arc is proposed where all details of the heat transport are neglected. The MHD model and the simplified approach are in good agreement and clearly demonstrate that the specific structure in an MIG arc is mainly caused by the different temperature dependence of the plasma radiation and the electrical conductivity in argon or in argon mixtures with iron vapour.

  9. The perceptual balance of color

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Kyle C.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The cone contrasts carrying different dimensions of color vision vary greatly in magnitude, yet the perceived contrast of color and luminance in the world appears similar. We examined how this perceptual balance is adjusted by adaptation to the contrast in images. Observers set the level of L vs. M and S vs. LM contrast in 1/f noise images to match the perceived strength of a fixed level of luminance contrast. The perceptual balance of color in the images was roughly consistent with the range of contrasts characteristic of natural images. Relative perceived contrast could be strongly biased by brief prior exposure to images with lower or higher levels of chromatic contrast. Similar adaptation effects were found for luminance contrast in images of natural scenes. For both, observers reliably chose the contrast balance that appeared correct, and these choices were rapidly recalibrated by adaptation. This recalibration of the norm for contrast could reflect both changes in sensitivity and shifts in criterion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that color mechanisms adjust the range of their responses to match the range of signals in the environment, and that contrast adaptation plays an important role in these adjustments. PMID:22330367

  10. Electrolyte Balance in Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Allan E.

    1955-01-01

    Even small losses of gastrointestinal secretions when combined with reduced intake of electrolytes may seriously disturb electrolyte balance. Knowledge of the ionic composition of secretions lost is essential in planning therapy. Loss of gastric contents usually results in excessive loss of chloride; in achlorhydria this is not the case. Loss of sodium and potassium may be large in either case and is often underestimated. Small bowel obstruction results in a more balanced loss of electrolyte which may not affect acidbase balance greatly. In diarrhea loss of base predominates, and may result in a large potassium deficit. Steatorrhea due to nontropical sprue results in large fecal losses of sodium, potassium and chloride, in addition to the large calcium and phosphorus loss. In chronic peptic ulcer excessive ingestion of milk and absorbable alkalies may result in hypercalcemia, azotemia and alkalosis, without hypercalciuria. Since renal function is usually adequate in the milder gastrointestinal disturbances, electrolyte and fluid replacement should be started early, and can be guided by generally available laboratory tests, the carbon dioxide combining power and serum chloride levels, provided the predominate ionic loss is known and potassium deficiency remedied. If this is done, development of serious fluid and electrolyte deficits can usually be prevented. PMID:13260927

  11. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  12. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  13. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  14. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ≤ 0.1 ppm NO) (2) (3) Hydrogen-helium mixture (40 ±2 percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination... a blend of 40 percent ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture shall...

  15. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Hydrogen-helium mixture (40 ±2 percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO... percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture must contain less than one ppm...

  16. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Hydrogen-helium mixture (40 ±2 percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO... percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture must contain less than one ppm...

  17. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Hydrogen-helium mixture (40 ±2 percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO... percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture must contain less than one ppm...

  18. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Hydrogen-helium mixture (40 ±2 percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO... percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture must contain less than one ppm...

  19. [Striking the work-life balance].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Solutions for finding a satisfactory balance between home life and work lie in the organisation of work and the work environment. Line managers in particular have a key role to play in helping their staff maintain this balance.

  20. Carbon balance of the Alaskan boreal forest

    Treesearch

    John Yarie; Tim Hammond

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the carbon balance in a broad forest region like the Alaskan boreal forest requires the development of a number of important environmental (state factors) classes to allow for the development of carbon balance estimates.