Science.gov

Sample records for at200 analytical balance

  1. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  2. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  3. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  4. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  5. Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.

  6. Unrestricted Factor Analytic Procedures for Assessing Acquiescent Responding in Balanced, Theoretically Unidimensional Personality Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2003-01-01

    This article describes and proposes an unrestricted factor analytic procedure to: (a) assess the dimensionality and structure of a balanced personality scale taking into account the potential effects of acquiescent responding, and (b) correct the individual trait estimates for acquiescence. The procedure can be considered as an extension of ten…

  7. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.

  8. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons. PMID:25350022

  9. Balanced Input Allows Optimal Encoding in a Stochastic Binary Neural Network Model: An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Deco, Gustavo; Hugues, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological experiments have demonstrated a remarkable effect of attention on the underlying neural activity that suggests for the first time that information encoding is indeed actively influenced by attention. Single cell recordings show that attention reduces both the neural variability and correlations in the attended condition with respect to the non-attended one. This reduction of variability and redundancy enhances the information associated with the detection and further processing of the attended stimulus. Beyond the attentional paradigm, the local activity in a neural circuit can be modulated in a number of ways, leading to the general question of understanding how the activity of such circuits is sensitive to these relatively small modulations. Here, using an analytically tractable neural network model, we demonstrate how this enhancement of information emerges when excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents are balanced. In particular, we show that the network encoding sensitivity -as measured by the Fisher information- is maximized at the exact balance. Furthermore, we find a similar result for a more realistic spiking neural network model. As the regime of balanced inputs has been experimentally observed, these results suggest that this regime is functionally important from an information encoding standpoint. PMID:22359550

  10. A novel analytical approximation technique for highly nonlinear oscillators based on the energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, Md. Alal; Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Ismail, Ahmad Faris

    In the present paper, a novel analytical approximation technique has been proposed based on the energy balance method (EBM) to obtain approximate periodic solutions for the focus generalized highly nonlinear oscillators. The expressions of the natural frequency-amplitude relationship are obtained using a novel analytical way. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated on three benchmark oscillatory problems, namely, the simple relativistic oscillator, the stretched elastic wire oscillator (with a mass attached to its midpoint) and the Duffing-relativistic oscillator. For an initial oscillation amplitude A0 = 100, the maximal relative errors of natural frequency found in three oscillators are 2.1637%, 0.0001% and 1.201%, respectively, which are much lower than the errors found using the existing methods. It is highly remarkable that an excellent accuracy of the approximate natural frequency has been found which is valid for the whole range of large values of oscillation amplitude as compared with the exact ones. Very simple solution procedure and high accuracy that is found in three benchmark problems reveal the novelty, reliability and wider applicability of the proposed analytical approximation technique.

  11. Analytical Solutions to the Near-Neutral Atmospheric Surface Energy Balance with and without Heat Storage for Urban Climatological Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, C. P.; Chan, B. K.; Hashim, M. A.

    1991-04-01

    Analytical solutions are presented to the near-neutral atmospheric surface energy balance with the new approach of including the participation of heat storage in the building substrate. Analytical solutions are also presented for the first time for the case without heat storage effect. By a linearization process, the governing equations are simplified to a set of time-dependent, linear, first-order equations from which explicit solutions are readily obtainable. The results compare well with those obtained by numerical solutions upon the set without linearization when applied to the tropical city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  12. Experimental and Analytical Study of Balanced-Diaphragm Fuel Distributors for Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, David M.; Gold, Harold

    1950-01-01

    A method of distributing fuel equally to a plurality of spray nozzles in a gas-turbine engine by means of balanced-diaphragm fuel distributors is presented. The experimental performance of three of eight possible distributor arrangements are discussed. An analysis of all eight arrangements is included. Criterions are given for choosing a fuel-distributor arrangement to meet specific fuel-system requirements of fuel-distribution accuracy, spray-nozzle pressure variations, and fuel-system pressures. Data obtained with a model of one distributor arrangement indicated a maximum deviation from perfect distribution of 3.3 percent for a 44 to 1 range (19.5 to 862 lb/hr) of fuel-flow rates. The maximum distributor pressure drop was 125 pounds per square inch. The method used to obtain the required wide range of flow control in the distributor valves consisted in varying the length of a constant-area flow path.

  13. Analytical model and measurements of the target erosion depth profile of balanced and unbalanced planar magnetron cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. J. S.; Escrivão, M. L.; Teixeira, M. R.; Maneira, M. J. P.; Nunes, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The erosion depth profile of planar targets in balanced and unbalanced magnetron cathodes with cylindrical symmetry is measured along the target radius. The magnetic fields have rotational symmetry. The horizontal and vertical components of the magnetic field B are measured at points above the cathode target with z = 2 × 10-3 m. The experimental data reveal that the target erosion depth profile is a function of the angle θ made by B with a horizontal line defined by z = 2 × 10-3 m. To explain this dependence a simplified model of the discharge is developed. In the scope of the model, the pathway lengths of the secondary electrons in the pre-sheath region are calculated by analytical integration of the Lorentz differential equations. Weighting these lengths by using the distribution law of the mean free path of the secondary electrons, we estimate the densities of the ionizing events over the cathode and the relative flux of the sputtered atoms. The expression so deduced correlates for the first time the erosion depth profile of the target with the angle θ. The model shows reasonably good fittings to the experimental target erosion depth profiles confirming that ionization occurs mainly in the pre-sheath zone.

  14. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaw, P. K.; Diamond, P. H.; Nordman, H.; Bourdelle, C.

    2014-06-15

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E × B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  15. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance.

    PubMed

    Koulikov, Alexei O; Meili, Markus

    2003-01-01

    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ((137)Cs, (134)Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for (137)Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a). potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ("carrier") of caesium; (b). the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c). the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of (137)Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the (137)Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the (137)Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects.

  16. Elastic scattering of polarised deuterons from 16O at 200, 400 and 700 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sen, Nguyen; Yanlin, Ye; Arvieux, J.; Gaillard, G.; Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J. C.; Hasegawa, T.; Soga, F.; Antonuk, L. E.; Cameron, J. M.; Lam, S. T.; Neilson, G. C.; Roy, G.; Sheppard, D. M.; Babinet, R.

    1987-03-01

    Angular distributions of cross section, and Ay and Ayy analysing powers were measured for polarised deuteron elastic scattering from 16O at 200, 400 and 700 MeV. The data at 200 MeV bear evidence of the nuclear rainbow phenomenon while those at 400 and 700 MeV are reminiscent of the proton scattering results at equivalent energies. The data were analysed in terms of the optical model. The real central potential shape changes from an attractive Woods-Saxon form at 200 MeV to a wine-bottle-bottom form with a repulsive interior at 700 MeV. The total reaction cross sections deduced display a clear nuclear transparency effect in the present energy domain in agreement with predictions from the Glauber theory optical limit. Comparison with previous results for 40Ca and 58Ni targets is made.

  17. The system water-sodium oxide-silicon dioxide at 200, 250, and 300°

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Jack J.; Fournier, Robert O.; Morey, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    Studies were made of the H2O-Na2O-SiO2 system at its vapor pressure at 200, 250, and 300??. Three different sodium trisilicate hydrates were encountered in the investigation. At 300??, Na2Si3O7??5H2O is found: at 250??, Na2Si3O7??6H2O; and at 200??, Na2Si3O7??11H2O. The liquid immiscibility previously reported to exist in the system was found to be a quenching phenomenon caused by the decomposition of the hydrates to unstable, supersaturated, viscous liquids. Under conditions where equilibrium is maintained, as temperature is lowered, the hydrates decompose to quartz, sodium disilicate, and liquid. The retrograde solubility of sodium disilicate and its tendency to form supersaturated solutions during heating from 25 to 250?? account for higher solubilities reported by others than were found in this study. The solubility of sodium disilicate in water is 26% at 200??, 9% at 250??, and 5% at 300??. Sodium metasilicate solubility is 38% at 200?? and 34% at 250??; this compound is incongruently soluble at 300??.

  18. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Owen D.; Mack, Steven J.; Lancaster, Alex K.; Single, Richard M.; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 suggest that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online. PMID:18638659

  19. A study of a nursing department performance measurement system: using the Balanced Scorecard and the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Wang, Chen-Chin; Dai, Yu-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    The health care industry is under pressure from government and private entities as well as from market conditions to contain costs. In an effort to respond to these pressures, the case hospital in this study implemented a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in January 2003 and integrated it with the hospital's formal incentive plan for non-physicians in January 2005. The nursing department's performance improved in the 2 years following the introduction of the plan. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the performance improvement that results from integrating the BSC with an incentive plan in the nursing field. The results provide insight into the current BSC performance metrics applied by the case nursing department, and could be used as guidelines by other health care organizations that wish to implement BSC-based incentive plans.

  20. A study of a nursing department performance measurement system: using the Balanced Scorecard and the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Wang, Chen-Chin; Dai, Yu-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    The health care industry is under pressure from government and private entities as well as from market conditions to contain costs. In an effort to respond to these pressures, the case hospital in this study implemented a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in January 2003 and integrated it with the hospital's formal incentive plan for non-physicians in January 2005. The nursing department's performance improved in the 2 years following the introduction of the plan. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the performance improvement that results from integrating the BSC with an incentive plan in the nursing field. The results provide insight into the current BSC performance metrics applied by the case nursing department, and could be used as guidelines by other health care organizations that wish to implement BSC-based incentive plans. PMID:20050491

  1. Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti during ion irradiation at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Loomis, B.A. Chung, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    The results of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat no. 832665) that was irradiated with 4.5 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup ++} ions at 200 {degrees}C are presented. Dose effects were investigated for fluences ranging from 0.5 to 5 dpa. When the irradiation dose was increased, the relative number density of black dots and dislocation loops was nearly constant and accompanied by an increase in the size of the defects. Cavity formation was not observed in any of the specimens, indicating high resistance of the alloy to void swelling at the lower temperature of the experiments.

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 200 State Route 17 (MJ035), Maywood, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Crutcher, J.W.; Carrier, R.F.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-02-01

    The property discussed in this report and properties in its vicinity contaminated with residues from the former Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) were included as a decontamination research and development project under the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. As part of this project, DOE is conducting radiological surveys in the vicinity of the site to identify properties contaminated with residues derived from the MCW. The principal radionuclide of concern is thorium-232. The radiological survey discussed in this report is part of that effort and was conducted, at the request of DOE, by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A radiological survey of the commercial property at 200 State Route 17, Maywood, New Jersey, was conducted during 1987. The survey and sampling of the ground surface and subsurface were carried out on September 2, 1987. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Earth at 200 Ma: Global palaeogeography refined from CAMP palaeomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Torsvik, Trond H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Gaina, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed approximately 200 Ma ago as a prelude to the breakup of Pangea, and may have been a cause of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Based on a combination of (i) a new palaeomagnetic pole from the CAMP related Argana lavas (Moroccan Meseta Block), (ii) a global compilation of 190-210 Ma poles, and (iii) a re-evaluation of relative fits between NW Africa, the Moroccan Meseta Block and Iberia, we calculate a new global 200 Ma pole (latitude = 70.1° S, longitude = 56.7° E and A95 = 2.7°; N = 40 poles; NW Africa co-ordinates). We consider the palaeomagnetic database to be robust at 200 ± 10 Ma, which allows us to craft precise reconstructions near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: at this very important time in Earth history, Pangea was near-equatorially centered, the western sector was dominated by plate convergence and subduction, while in the eastern sector, the Palaeotethys oceanic domain was almost consumed because of a widening Neothethys. We show that there has been negligible net displacement of the Moroccan Meseta relative to Africa since 200 Ma. We calculate a new fit between Iberia and NW Africa, showing that models inferring minor Cretaceous rotation and major Cretaceous sinistral translation of Iberia relative to Europe are inconsistent with palaeomagnetic Iberia-Africa fits at 200 Ma. During Pangea breakup (~ 195 Ma, opening of the Central Atlantic), and shortly after the CAMP outburst, Laurasia rotated clockwise relative to Gondwana around an Euler pole located in SE Iberia. The CAMP and its likely contribution to climate change, mass extinction and Pangea breakup profoundly changed planet Earth and we show that CAMP was sourced by a deep mantle plume that started its disturbing journey from the core-mantle boundary.

  4. An analytical model of non-photorespiratory CO₂release in the light and dark in leaves of C₃species based on stoichiometric flux balance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Adams, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Leaf respiration continues in the light but at a reduced rate. This inhibition is highly variable, and the mechanisms are poorly known, partly due to the lack of a formal model that can generate testable hypotheses. We derived an analytical model for non-photorespiratory CO₂ release by solving steady-state supply/demand equations for ATP, NADH and NADPH, coupled to a widely used photosynthesis model. We used this model to evaluate causes for suppression of respiration by light. The model agrees with many observations, including highly variable suppression at saturating light, greater suppression in mature leaves, reduced assimilatory quotient (ratio of net CO₂ and O₂ exchange) concurrent with nitrate reduction and a Kok effect (discrete change in quantum yield at low light). The model predicts engagement of non-phosphorylating pathways at moderate to high light, or concurrent with processes that yield ATP and NADH, such as fatty acid or terpenoid synthesis. Suppression of respiration is governed largely by photosynthetic adenylate balance, although photorespiratory NADH may contribute at sub-saturating light. Key questions include the precise diel variation of anabolism and the ATP : 2e⁻ ratio for photophosphorylation. Our model can focus experimental research and is a step towards a fully process-based model of CO₂ exchange.

  5. Functional comparisons between unimodal and bimodal analytical relationships in terms of water balance predictions for the case study of the Vesuvius volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Nunzio; Nasta, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Optimal performance of large-scale numerical modeling of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system mandates accurate assessment and description of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention (WRF) and hydraulic conductivity (HCF) functions. These functions are commonly described by simple unimodal analytical relations that guarantee mathematical flexibility with few parameters in the majority of soil types. However, other soils, like volcanic soils, are characterized by a complex structure yielding a bimodal or even a multimodal distribution of pore sizes. In these cases, reliable hydrologic predictions can be obtained resorting to more complex hydraulic functions, yet more accurate and robust ones. To overcome some drawbacks of the classic unimodal hydraulic relationships, Romano et al. (2011) have developed closed-form bimodal lognormal relations for improving the description of both WRF and HCF. However, the reliability of this description of the soil hydraulic behavior is often tested at the curve fitting level only. Comparisons between unimodal and bimodal soil hydraulic relationships are more effective and informative when performed in functional terms. Therefore, as the primary objective of this study, we used a hydrological balance model to quantify and compare soil moisture flow and storage regimes for 14 years (1999-2012), when characterized by unimodal or bimodal approximations of 39 measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics collected in volcanic Vesuvian soil located in the Campania Region Plain (Naples, Southern Italy).

  6. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  7. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediment by Pressure-Balanced Cold Fiber Solid Phase Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengrui; Shuai, Qin; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-09-20

    An improved performance of the cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) technique was accomplished with the use of the pressure-balanced procedure. In order to obtain a pressure-balanced state during extraction at 200 °C, 7 mL of air volume was withdrawn from 10 mL commercial vials, while 15 mL was withdrawn from vials where 5 μL of diethylamine was added as a modifier/displacer. The benefits of the balanced system were demonstrated for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from solid matrixes, including sand and certified sediment samples. Results showed the pressure-balanced procedure enhanced the extraction efficiency of the method, especially for high volatility compounds, as the leakage of analytes was mitigated under sample temperature conditions of 200 °C. Analytical precision was also improved, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4% to 8% for all analytes under study. For the determination of PAHs in certified sediment samples, pressure-balanced CF-SPME yielded more accurate results in comparison to nonpressure-balanced CF-SPME. The proposed methodology provided the additional benefit of improved recoveries at lower pressures. PMID:27562230

  8. Experimental deformation of chalcopyrite single crystals at 200°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig-Michaeli, Christa; Siemes, Heinrich

    1987-04-01

    Prismatic specimens of chalcopyrite, CuFeS 2, cut from a large natural crystal were experimentally deformed at 200°C, 300 MPa confining pressure and a strain rate of approximately 4·10 -6 s -1. Orientation determinations discriminating [001] and [100] within the pseudocubic crystal structure, were carried out by X-ray texture goniometry using 103-reflections. Eight different orientations—[001], [100], [110], [111], [021], [221], [421], [821]—were tested by compression. The specimens were subjected to permanent axial shortenings of between 0.7% and 2.3%. After deformation, pre-polished specimen surfaces were inspected by means of interference contrast methods. Two-surface analysis of glide line orientations and of the sense of glide steps allows determination of the glide plane and assignment of the glide direction to a specific quadrant within a stereographic projection that is drawn from the top surface of the crystal. The height of slip steps further confines the glide directions which are assumed to be along low index lattice lines. The main deformation mechanism in all specimens, except the [001]-sample, was by slip on {112}. Coarse slip bands and fine slip lines of remarkably straight character often extend throughout the crystal indicating a planar slip behaviour. They all agree with {112}<31¯1¯> slip and {112}<3¯11> slip, respectively. The two slip modes are not crystallographically equivalent but the critical resolved shear stresses are similar, about 80 MPa. The Burgers vector {1}/{2<311>} = 0.986 nm is large and it is expected that the dislocations would undergo a complex dissociation into partials. The formerly predicted, "sphalerite-like", slip directions <11¯0>, <02¯1> are not consistent with the recent observations. In the [001]-specimen {112}<111¯> twinning was the main glide mode. The twins exhibit a pronounced wavy character in sections across n1 and are straight in sections along n1. The twinning shear stress was 115 MPa.

  9. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  10. Technical Evaluation of Biogeochemical Transformation of Iodine at 200-UP-1, Hanford, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Cordova, E.; Brooks, S.; Moser, E.; Wells, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-12-01

    nitrate was present. No iodate reduction was observed in the absence of nitrate. Additionally, several isolates have been identified that can oxidize iodide. Currently, analytical techniques are underway to quantify the effect of microbial interaction on iodine speciation along with characterization of these diverse microbial isolates.

  11. Jet fragmentation functions for identified particles in p+p collisions at 200 GeV in the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Elena

    2008-10-01

    According to theoretical predictions, jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions modifies the jet energy and multiplicity distributions, as well as the jet hadrochemical composition. The measurement of jet fragmentation functions in p+p collisions at 200 GeV provides a baseline to study jet modifications in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. A cone algorithm is used to reconstruct jets in the STAR Time Projection Chamber and Electromagnetic Calorimeter; a study of the jet energy resolution based on PYTHIA+GEANT simulations is reported. We present the results on distributions of jet fragments in p+p collisions at 200 GeV in STAR for charged hadrons and identified particles at different jet energies and cone radii. The results are compared to MLLA (modified leading logarithmic approximation) calculations which provide a good description of the data at higher jet energies.

  12. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  13. Analysis of Spark-Ignition Engine Knock as Seen in Photographs Taken at 200,000 Frames Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr.; Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1946-01-01

    A motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, is presented, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs a second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph. A motion picture of a complete combustion process, including the development of knock, taken at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second is also presented to assist the reader in orienting the photographs of the knock development taken at 200,000 frames per second. The photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second are analyzed and the conclusion is made that the type of knock in the spark-ignition engine involving violent gas vibration originates as self-propagating disturbance starting at a point in the.burn1ig or autoigniting gases and spreading out from that point through the incompletely burned gases at a rate as high as 6800 feet per second, or about twice the speed of sound in the burned gases. Apparent formation of free carbon particles in both the burning and the burned gas is observed within 10 microseconds after passage of the knock disturbance through the gases.

  14. Nuclear and related analytical techniques in ecology: Impact of geoecological factors on the balance of trace elements in the human organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Lyapunov, S. M.; Okina, O. I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    Current capabilities of the nuclear and related analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis, and atomic adsorption spectrometry—are used to carry out multielement analysis of a wide range of foodstuffs and drinking water in various regions of Russia. The results of a more than 20-year-long collaboration of the Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research Sector, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, in this field are presented. It is shown that the trace element content of agricultural products depends on the ecological and geochemical conditions in a particular region. A possibility of lettuce and spinach variety determination with respect to Cd and Pb contamination of the soil is demonstrated in the experiment with artificially produced soil contamination. Principles that may underlie accumulation of heavy metals and toxic elements by basidiomycetes are determined. Out of a great deal of human diets in use, the six most typical ones are selected and the intake of macro- and micronutrients from these diets by a human is evaluated. The effect produced on the human organism by the basic elements intake with the food and possible risks are discussed. Dependence of the trace element content of the drinking water on the ecological and geochemical conditions is investigated in three regions of Russia. It is shown that the quality of drinking water critically depends on the condition of the water supply system.

  15. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  16. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  17. Life Test Results for Water Heat Pipes Operating at 200 °C to 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    2008-01-01

    For lunar or planetary bases to be viable, a robust electric generating system will be required for powering the habitat. Water heat pipes offer an attractive solution for lunar base heat rejection, and would serve as a qualification for them on other long duration missions. Successful operation near the upper end of water operating range is a requirement for the application. Results are reported for life tests on water heat pipes that were operated at various temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C. Tests were conducted on twenty three gravity-assisted water heat pipes. Eleven titanium/water heat pipes and ten Monel/water heat pipes were tested at temperatures above 200 °C. Two cupronickel heat pipes were also assembled and tested. Titanium alloys tested included CP-2 titanium, as well as two beta-titanium alloys, namely 15-3 and Nitinol alloys. Some of the titanium alloy life tests used wicks fabricated from CP-2 titanium screen or porous felt. Monel alloys tested included 400 and K-500 alloys. Some of the Monel heat pipes contained copper/nickel wicks that were fabricated by brazing nickel-plated copper felt metal wicks. Although most of the envelope/material combinations exhibit favorable results at 200 °C, some of the combinations failed at higher temperatures. Causes of failure included stress-creep of envelopes and corrosion at axial or end cap welds. This information represents a significant advance in selection of materials for 200 °C to 300 °C water heat pipes. Life testing work is being continued.

  18. Liquid-Like Water Confined in Stacks of Biological Membranes at 200 K and Its Relation to Protein Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weik, M.; Lehnert, U.; Zaccai, G.

    2005-01-01

    Confined water is of considerable current interest owing to its biophysical importance and relevance to cryopreservation. It can be studied in its amorphous or supercooled state in the “no-man's land”, i.e., in the temperature range between 150 and 235 K, in which bulk water is always crystalline. Amorphous deuterium oxide (D2O) was obtained in the intermembrane spaces of a stack of purple membranes from Halobacterium salinarum by flash cooling to 77 K. Neutron diffraction showed that upon heating to 200 K the intermembrane water space decreased sharply with an associated strengthening of ice diffraction, indicating that water beyond the first membrane hydration layer flowed out of the intermembrane space to form crystalline ice. It was concluded that the confined water undergoes a glass transition at or below 200 K to adopt an ultraviscous liquid state from which it crystallizes to form ice as soon as it finds itself in an unconfined, bulk-water environment. Our results provide model-free evidence for translational diffusion of confined water in the no-man's land. Potential effects of the confined-water glass transition on nanosecond membrane dynamics were investigated by incoherent elastic neutron scattering experiments. These revealed no differences between flash-cooled and slow-cooled samples (in the latter, the intermembrane space at temperatures <250 K is occupied only by the first membrane hydration layers), with dynamical transitions at 150 and 260 K, but not at 200 K, suggesting that nanosecond membrane dynamics are not sensitive to the state of the water beyond the first hydration shell at cryotemperatures. PMID:16055529

  19. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

    2011-01-01

    of the non-carbonated surfaces of the underlying rock was reason why the hornblende and diorite exhibited a minimum depth of carbonation. Under exposure to the scCO{sub 2}/water at 200 C and 10.34 MPa pressure for up to 42 days, the ranking of the magnitude of erosion caused by wet carbonation was in the following order; granite > albite > hornblende > diorite > quartz. The eroding-caused weight loss of granite (0.88 %) was {approx}2.4, {approx}5.2, {approx}9.8, and {approx}17.6 times greater than that of albite, hornblends, diorite, and quartz, respectively.

  20. Final Technical Report for the project titled "Manganese Based Permanent Magnet with 40 MGOe at 200°C"

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2015-12-31

    The objective of project was to develop MnBi based permanent magnet for high temperature application (~150°C). This objective is derived based on MnBi’s unique positive temperature dependence of coercivity, which is doubled from ~1 T at RT to ~2.5 T at 200°C. Because of its limited magnetization (<0.9 T at RT), the MnBi magnet is best suited to fill in the gap between rare earth based NdFeB-Dy or SmCo magnet (20 MGOe) and the AlNiCo magnet (10 MGOe) at 150°C. It is expected that if successfully developed, MnBi will effectively mitigate the world’s demand on Dy. Before this project, the highest LTP content in MnBi powder is about 90% if the quantity of the powder is less than 5 gram (using melt-spin method); or 80% if the quantity is greater than 100 gram (using conventional powder metallurgical method such as arc melting and annealing). After this project, large quantities (5kg/batch) with high LPT phase content (>92 wt%) can be routinely synthesized. This achievement is made possible by the newly developed synthesis method based on conventional metallurgical processing technique involving arc melting, two-stage ingot annealing, grinding, sieving, and vacuum annealing. Before this project, the finest powder particle size is about 35 μm with overall powder composition maintaining at about 85% LTP phase. The reason why LTP phase content is listed along with particle size is because LTP MnBi is easy to decompose when exposed to temperature higher than 350 °C. As result, only low energy ball milling can be used to refine the particle size; moreover, the ball milling time cannot exceed 4 hrs, or else the decomposed LTP MnBi phase will exceed 10%. After this project, the finest powder size is reduced to 1~5 μm while maintain the 90% LTP MnBi phase content. This achievement is made possible by a newly developed cryogenic ball milling system, which provides -70 °C ambient for the rolling container. Before this project, it is not clear if MnBi will

  1. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  2. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  3. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  4. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  5. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  6. The global distribution of natural and man-made ionospheric electric fields at 200 kHz and 540 kHz as observed by Ogo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laaspere, T.; Semprebon, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment on the polar-orbiting Ogo 6 spacecraft yielded real-time analog data in several broadband channels and essentially continuous tape-recorded data from two narrow-band (200-Hz) receivers operating at 200 and 540 kHz. The results show that the worldwide distributions of signals at 200 and 540 kHz falls into a number of different categories: (1) naturally generated broadband (auroral) hiss at polar latitudes with typical 200-kHz intensities of around 0.1 microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, maximum intensities of up to several microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, and generally lower intensities at 540 kHz; (2) nighttime midlatitude enhancements of a few microvolts per meter, which probably result either from a superposition of signals from a number of 200- and 540-kHz stations or from interference from intense signals of much higher frequencies; (3) well-defined signal peaks associated with individual ground stations operating at 200 kHz; (4) striking signal enhancements in the conjugate region of a low-latitude 200-kHz station (Ashkhabad), suggesting propagation in the whistler mode to the opposite hemisphere; and (5) occasional signal enhancements at the magnetic equator.

  7. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  8. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  9. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  10. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  12. Exact solutions of population balance equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fubiao; Flood, Adrian E.; Meleshko, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    Population balance equations have been used to model a wide range of processes including polymerization, crystallization, cloud formation, and cell dynamics, but the lack of analytical solutions necessitates the use of numerical techniques. The one-dimensional homogeneous population balance equation with time dependent but size independent growth rate and time dependent nucleation rate is investigated. The corresponding system of equations is solved analytically in this paper.

  13. Effect of high-pressure treatment of ewe raw milk curd at 200 and 300 MPa on characteristics of Hispánico cheese.

    PubMed

    Alonso, R; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Fernández-García, E; Nuñez, M

    2012-07-01

    Hispánico cheese is a semihard variety made from a mixture of cow and ewe milks. Production of ewe milk declines in summer and autumn. To surmount the seasonal shortage of ewe milk and prevent the inactivation of milk enzymes by pasteurization, curd made in spring from ewe raw milk was pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa and stored frozen for 4 mo. Thawed ewe milk curds were added to fresh curd made from pasteurized cow milk for the manufacture of experimental Hispánico cheeses. Control cheese was made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportions as those used for experimental cheeses. Experimental cheeses exhibited lower dry matter content, higher aminopeptidase activity and total free amino acid concentration, and higher levels of acetic and propionic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters compared with control cheese. In contrast, the concentration of total free fatty acids and ketones and the levels of textural parameters were significantly higher in control cheese. The use of ewe raw milk curd pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa, stored frozen and thawed for Hispánico cheese manufacture, was generally beneficial for cheese characteristics and increased cheese yield because of the lower dry matter content of experimental cheeses.

  14. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  15. BALANCE AND PIPETTE CALIBRATION AT MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yearly, every MED analytical balance and automatic pipette inventoried is certified as working or it is repaired to working condition. - - - The QA office maintains three sets of standard weights that can be used by the staff to verify balance operation routinely after the yearly...

  16. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  17. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  18. Analytical Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.

    2001-07-01

    Characterizing environmental samples has been exhaustively addressed in the literature for most analytes of environmental concern. One of the weak areas of environmental analytical chemistry is that of radionuclides and samples contaminated with radionuclides. The analysis of samples containing high levels of radionuclides can be far more complex than that of non-radioactive samples. This chapter addresses the analysis of samples with a wide range of radioactivity. The other areas of characterization examined in this chapter are the hazardous components of mixed waste, and special analytes often associated with radioactive materials. Characterizing mixed waste is often similar to characterizing waste components in non-radioactive materials. The largest differences are in associated safety precautions to minimize exposure to dangerous levels of radioactivity. One must attempt to keep radiological dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This chapter outlines recommended procedures to safely and accurately characterize regulated components of radioactive samples.

  19. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  20. Preparation of nanocrystalline silicon from SiCl4 at 200 °C in molten salt for high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Han, Ying; Wang, Liangbiao; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-03-16

    Crystalline Si nanoparticles are prepared by reduction of SiCl4 with metallic magnesium in the molten salt of AlCl3 at 200 °C in an autoclave. AlCl3 not only acts as molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. The related experiments confirm that metallic Mg reduces AlCl3 to create nascent Al which could immediately reduce SiCl4 to Si, and the by-product MgCl2 would combine with AlCl3 forming complex of MgAl2Cl8. As anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Si delivers the reversible capacity of 3083 mAh g(-1) at 1.2 A g(-1) after 50 cycles, and 1180 mAh g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) over 500 cycles.

  1. Using business analytics to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jose; Delaney, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Orlando Health has brought its hospital and physician practice revenue cycle systems into better balance using four sets of customized analytics: Physician performance analytics gauge the total net revenue for every employed physician. Patient-pay analytics provide financial risk scores for all patients on both the hospital and physician practice sides. Revenue management analytics bridge the gap between the back-end central business office and front-end physician practice managers and administrators. Enterprise management analytics allow the hospitals and physician practices to share important information about common patients. PMID:26665541

  2. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  3. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  4. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  5. Alteration of rhyolite in CO{sub 2} charged water at 200 and 350{degree}C: The unreactivity of CO{sub 2} at higher temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Geochemical and hydrologic modeling indicates that geothermal waters in the T > 270{degrees}C reservoirs beneath Yellowstone National Park have HCO{sub 3} {much_lt} Cl and contrast with waters in reservoirs at lower temperatures which attain HCO{sub 3} about equal to Cl. Experiments reacting rhyolite with 0.5 molal solutions of CO{sub 2} at 200{degrees} and 350{degrees}C were carried out to test the hypothesis of Fournier to explain the chemistry of these springs: that CO{sub 2} is relatively unreactive with volcanic rocks at temperatures >270{degrees}C. The experimental results strongly support this hypothesis. Extent of alteration is twenty-seven times greater at 200{degrees}C than at 350{degrees}C. The dominant process in the experiments appears to be the alteration of the albitic component of the rhyolite by dissolved CO{sub 2} to form a kaolinite-like alteration product plus quartz: 2NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} + 2CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2Na{sup +} + 2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4} + 4SiO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} reacts with water to form H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, more so at lower temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic considerations suggest that the reactivity of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with wallrocks is at its maximum between 150{degrees} and 200{degrees}C, consuming most of the H{sup +} and liberating equivalent amounts of cations and bicarbonate. Wallrocks in higher temperature reservoirs are relatively unreactive to dissolved CO{sub 2} which is eventually lost from the system by boiling. These observations also offer a possible explanation for the change in chemical sediments from chloride-dominated to bicarbonate-dominated salts found in the stratigraphic section at Searles Lake, California, the terminus of the Owens River which derives its dissolved load from hot springs of the Long Valley caldera. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  7. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and MSLP cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration by the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S. )

    1994-01-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones are located every 6 hours for a 10-year GCM simulation for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean SST for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, locations, and strengths of these centers and cyclones give insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. IT is found that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones. (2) The model distribution of anomalies of divergence/convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with available observations for the 1982-83 and 2986-87 El Nino events. (3) The tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model. (4) The variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers. (5) Strong divergence centers are chiefly oceanic events in the midlatitudes but are more land based in the tropics, except in the Indian. (6) Locations of divergence/convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  8. Analyzing powers for the {sup 2}H({ital {rvec p}},{ital pn}){sup 1}H reaction at 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pairsuwan, W.; Watson, J.W.; Ahmad, M.; Chant, N.S.; Flanders, B.S.; Madey, R.; Pella, P.J.; Roos, P.G. ||

    1995-11-01

    We measured the analyzing power {ital A}{sub {ital y}} and the triple differential cross section {ital d}{sup 3}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega}{sub {ital pd}}{Omega}{sub {ital ndE}}{sub {ital p}} for the {sup 2}H({ital {rvec p}},{ital pn}){sup 1}H reaction at 200 MeV. Coplanar coincidence data were taken for all combinations of neutron angles {theta}{sub {ital n}}=35{degree}, 45{degree}, or 55{degree} with proton angles {theta}{sub {ital p}}=35{degree}, 45{degree}, or 52{degree}. Protons were detected with a {Delta}{ital E}-{ital E} telescope with a 1000-{mu}m silicon surface barrier {Delta}{ital E} detector and a plastic scintillator {ital E} detector. Neutrons were detected with large-volume plastic scintillators at flight paths of 17.5 or 18 m. The overall neutron separation-energy resolution was about 3 MeV. Data are compared with plane-wave impulse-approximation calculations with a Hulthen deuteron wave function and {ital p}-{ital n} cross sections and analyzing powers obtained from {ital N}-{ital N} phase shifts. The agreement between these calculations and the data is generally good for the cross sections. The agreement for the analyzing powers is good near the point of zero recoil momentum. Our results suggest that the deuteron is a good ``neutron target`` for recoil momenta {lt}100 MeV/{ital c}.

  9. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  10. Analytical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J; Widdop, B; Ramsey, J D; Loveland, M

    1988-09-01

    1. Major advances in analytical toxicology followed the introduction of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques in the 1940s and early 1950s and thin layer chromatography remains important together with some spectrophotometric and other tests. However, gas- and high performance-liquid chromatography together with a variety of immunoassay techniques are now widely used. 2. The scope and complexity of forensic and clinical toxicology continues to increase, although the compounds for which emergency analyses are needed to guide therapy are few. Exclusion of the presence of hypnotic drugs can be important in suspected 'brain death' cases. 3. Screening for drugs of abuse has assumed greater importance not only for the management of the habituated patient, but also in 'pre-employment' and 'employment' screening. The detection of illicit drug administration in sport is also an area of increasing importance. 4. In industrial toxicology, the range of compounds for which blood or urine measurements (so called 'biological monitoring') can indicate the degree of exposure is increasing. The monitoring of environmental contaminants (lead, chlorinated pesticides) in biological samples has also proved valuable. 5. In the near future a consensus as to the units of measurement to be used is urgently required and more emphasis will be placed on interpretation, especially as regards possible behavioural effects of drugs or other poisons. Despite many advances in analytical techniques there remains a need for reliable, simple tests to detect poisons for use in smaller hospital and other laboratories.

  11. The Distant Tail at 200 R(sub E): Comparison Between Geotail Observations and the Results from a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison between Geotail observations of plasmas and magnetic fields at 200 R(sub E) in the Earth's magnetotail with results from a time-dependent, global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The study focuses on observations from July 7, 1993, during which the Geotail spacecraft crossed the distant tail magnetospheric boundary several times while the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and was marked by slow rotations of its clock angle. Simultaneous IMP 8 observations of solar wind ions and the IMF were used as driving input for the MHD simulation, and the resulting time series were compared directly with those from the Geotail spacecraft. The very good agreement found provided the basis for an investigation of the response of the distant tail associated with the clock angle of the IMF. Results from the simulation show that the stresses imposed by the draping of magnetosheath field lines and the asymmetric removal of magnetic flux tailward of the cusps altered considerably the shape of the distant tail as the solar wind discontinuities convected downstream of Earth. As a result, the cross section of the distant tail was considerably flattened along the direction perpendicular to the IMF clock angle, the direction of the neutral sheet following that of the IMF. The simulation also revealed that the combined action of magnetic reconnection and the slow rotation of the IMF clock angle led to a braiding of the distant tail's magnetic field lines along the axis of the tail, with the plane of the braid lying in the direction of the IMF.

  12. Charged particle spectra in {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p{sub T} dN/dp{sub T} and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be {Delta}y {approximately} 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p{sub T}. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T{sub f} {approximately} 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  13. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  14. Trace-element partitioning at conditions far from equilibrium: Ba and Cs distributions between alkali feldspar and undercooled hydrous granitic liquid at 200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, George; London, David

    2002-12-01

    This study examines the effects of increasing supersaturation, attained by single-step liquidus undercooling (ΔT), on the partitioning of barium and cesium between potassic alkali feldspar (Afs) and hydrous granitic liquid at 200 MPa. The investigation is motivated by trace-element distribution patterns in granitic pegmatites which cannot be simulated by fractionation models using "equilibrium" partition coefficients, and thus its purpose is to assess if, how, and why partition coefficients for compatible and incompatible trace elements may vary when crystal growth commences far from the crystal-melt equilibrium boundary. Barium expands the liquidus stability field of potassic feldspar to higher temperatures, such that liquidi for the Ba-rich ( 0.5 wt% BaO) compositions used are 100 °C higher than for Ba-absent analogues. At low degrees of undercooling (ΔT 50 °C), values of DBaAfs/m. ( 10-20) fall within the range of previous investigations, as do values of DCsAfs/m. (<=0.10) from experiments at all temperatures. Progressively greater undercooling is manifested in the run products by increasingly skeletal to cuneiform crystal morphologies, increased compositional zonation of Afs, and the development of compositional boundary layers in glass. Whereas the partitioning behavior of Cs (incompatible) is not measurably affected, strong undercooling apparently causes the partitioning of Ba (highly compatible) to deviate from equilibrium behavior. Feldspars produced by strong undercooling (ΔT>=100 °C) are heterogeneous, such that DBaAfs/m. versus K/K+Na varies linearly between the average value at 850 °C and the equilibrium value appropriate to the temperature of growth. Hence, high supersaturation accompanying undercooling produces feldspar compositions by isothermal growth which record a vestige of the liquid line of descent (i.e., an ontogeny within zoned crystals which approximately tracks the feldspar liquidus from high temperature to the final low temperature

  15. Viscous Heating of Ions through Saturated Fine-Scale MHD Instabilities in a Z-Pinch at 200-300 KeV Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Malcolm; Coverdale, Christine; Deeney, Chris; Lepell, P. David; Jones, Brent; Apruzese, J. P.

    2006-10-01

    Pulsed power driven Z-pinches yield large X-ray powers at stagnation, the energy of which can exceed by up to factors of 3 or 4, the estimated kinetic energy of the implosion. Furthermore, when electron temperatures are measured at stagnation similar in temperatures would not lead to pressure balance. These problems can be resolved by a theoretical model in which short wavelength (ka >> 1, and viscous Lundquist number ˜ 1), fast growing, m=O MHD instabilities reach a saturated amplitude, and the associated viscous dissipation of the vortices leads to ion heating. Equating this heating rate to the equipartition of energy to electrons leads to an estimate of the ion temperature and pinch radius at pressure balance. Extremely high ion temperatures in the range of 200-300 KeV are predicted from this model for stainless steel wire array experiments on Z at Sandia. These have been confirmed from time-resolved Doppler broadening spectroscopic measurements of the optically thin Fe He-δ line. This conversion of magnetic energy into ion thermal energy occurs on the nanosecond timescale, and can prevent radiative collapse. Any accompanying loss of magnetic flux in this highly conducting plasma can be explained by the occurrence of a large number of hot spots along the axis, with electron density and temperature variating not exactly in phase. This leads to a significant value of the integral of E.dl. Dl along the axis due to the grad Pe term in Ohm's law, analogous to the magnetic field generating term found in laser-plasma interactions. Ref 1. M.G. Haines, et al; Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075003 (2006) Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-ACO4-94AL85000.

  16. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  17. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  18. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  19. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  20. Energy-balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  1. HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.

  2. Mass Balances and Analytical Methods for Biomass Pretreatment Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel ethanol has generated much renewed interest because of spiraling oil prices. Standard technical techniques exist for evaluating new sources of biomass, but what is lacking is a framework with which to apply these protocols in an integrated fashion. T...

  3. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  4. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  5. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  6. Get the Balance Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  7. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  8. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 1, Administrative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Covered are: analytical laboratory operations (ALO) sample receipt and control, ALO data report/package preparation review and control, single shell tank (PST) project sample tracking system, sample receiving, analytical balances, duties and responsibilities of sample custodian, sample refrigerator temperature monitoring, security, assignment of staff responsibilities, sample storage, data reporting, and general requirements for glassware.

  11. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  12. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  13. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  14. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  15. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  16. A balanced view of balanced solutions.

    PubMed

    Guidet, Bertrand; Soni, Neil; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Kozek, Sibylle; Vallet, Benoît; Annane, Djillali; James, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The present review of fluid therapy studies using balanced solutions versus isotonic saline fluids (both crystalloids and colloids) aims to address recent controversy in this topic. The change to the acid-base equilibrium based on fluid selection is described. Key terms such as dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis (correctly used instead of dilutional acidosis or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis to account for both the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Stewart equations), isotonic saline and balanced solutions are defined. The review concludes that dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis is a side effect, mainly observed after the administration of large volumes of isotonic saline as a crystalloid. Its effect is moderate and relatively transient, and is minimised by limiting crystalloid administration through the use of colloids (in any carrier). Convincing evidence for clinically relevant adverse effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis on renal function, coagulation, blood loss, the need for transfusion, gastrointestinal function or mortality cannot be found. In view of the long-term use of isotonic saline either as a crystalloid or as a colloid carrier, the paucity of data documenting detrimental effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis and the limited published information on the effects of balanced solutions on outcome, we cannot currently recommend changing fluid therapy to the use of a balanced colloid preparation.

  17. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  18. Homosexuality in America: At 200 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brudnoy, David

    1976-01-01

    This paper takes the position that homosexuality is still considered deviant and that homosexuals are still discriminated against in many ways. The author views the present response to homosexuality as not advancing the homosexual's cause and feels that true acceptance is yet to be achieved. (NG)

  19. DYNAMIC LOADING OF TEFLON AT 200?C

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F

    2007-06-13

    Dynamic loading experiments were performed on inert Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene) samples, initially heated to the temperature of 200 C, to test its behavior under these conditions for its use in other heated experiments. Tests were performed in the 100 mm diameter bore propellant driven gas gun with piezo-resistive manganin pressure gauges imbedded into the samples to measure loading pressures. Experimental data provided new information on the shock velocity - particle velocity relationship for the heated material and showed no adverse effect of temperature on the insulating properties of the material.

  20. Development of flexible rotor balancing criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, W. W.; Rieger, N. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several studies in which analytical procedures were used to obtain balancing criteria for flexible rotors are described. General response data for a uniform rotor in damped flexible supports were first obtained for plain cylindrical bearings, tilting pad bearings, axial groove bearings, and partial arc bearings. These data formed the basis for the flexible rotor balance criteria presented. A procedure by which a practical rotor in bearings could be reduced to an equivalent uniform rotor was developed and tested. It was found that the equivalent rotor response always exceeded to practical rotor response by more than sixty percent for the cases tested. The equivalent rotor procedure was then tested against six practical rotor configurations for which data was available. It was found that the equivalent rotor method offered a procedure by which balance criteria could be selected for practical flexible rotors, using the charts given for the uniform rotor.

  1. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  2. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  3. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  4. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  5. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  6. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  9. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  10. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  11. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  12. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  13. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  14. Study of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations using reaction-plane-dependent balance functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; STAR Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    STAR has recently reported charge-dependent azimuthal correlations that are sensitive to the charge separation effect in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV. Qualitatively, these results agree with some of the theoretical predictions for local parity violation in heavy-ion collisions. However, a study using reaction-plane-dependent balance functions shows an alternative origin of this signal. The balance function, which measures the correlation between oppositely charged pairs, is sensitive to the mechanisms of charge formation and the subsequent relative diffusion of the balancing charges. The reaction-plane-dependent balance function measurements can be related to STAR's charge-dependent azimuthal correlations. We report reaction-plane-dependent balance functions for Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200, 62.4, 39, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV using the STAR detector. The model of Schlichting and Pratt incorporating local charge conservation and elliptic flow reproduces most of the three-particle azimuthal correlation results at 200 GeV. The experimental charge-dependent azimuthal charge correlations observed at 200 GeV can be explained in terms of local charge conservation and elliptic flow.

  15. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  16. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  17. Posttraumatic balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Michael E; Balough, Ben J; Gottshall, Kim R

    2007-01-01

    Head trauma is being more frequently recognized as a causative agent in balance disorders. Most of the published literature examining traumatic brain injury (TBI) after head trauma has focused on short-term prognostic indicators and neurocognitive disorders. Few data are available to guide those individuals who see patients with balance disorders secondary to TBI. Our group has previously examined balance disorders after mild head trauma. In this study, we study all classes of head trauma. We provide a classification system that is useful in the diagnosis and management of balance disorders after head trauma and we examine treatment outcomes. As dizziness is one of the most common outcomes of TBI, it is essential that those who study and treat dizziness be familiar with this subject. PMID:17691667

  18. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  19. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  20. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  1. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  2. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  5. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  6. Teaching the Analytical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  7. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  8. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  9. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  10. iBEST: intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training system using smartphone.

    PubMed

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Duc, Pham Duy; Syin, Chan; Zhang, Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Patients with postural instability could lead to falls and injuries while walking due to balance disorders. So those patients need regular balance training and evaluation to improve and examine balance deficiencies. But many do not notice such balance issues; resulting lack of timely preventive measures. This shows the needs of affordable and accessible solution for balance training and assessment. So iBEST (intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training) is proposed enabling to train and assess balance conveniently anywhere anytime. Moreover, therapists can remotely evaluate and manage their recovery progress. These benefits can be realized leveraging sensors from smartphone, cloud-based data analytics and web applications. iBEST employs sensorised automated balance assessment in digitizing Berg Balance Scale (BBS) clinical risk assessment tool. The initial feasibility study showed average accuracy of 90.22% using smartphone in classifying the specified BBS test items. PMID:25570790

  11. iBEST: intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training system using smartphone.

    PubMed

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Duc, Pham Duy; Syin, Chan; Zhang, Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Patients with postural instability could lead to falls and injuries while walking due to balance disorders. So those patients need regular balance training and evaluation to improve and examine balance deficiencies. But many do not notice such balance issues; resulting lack of timely preventive measures. This shows the needs of affordable and accessible solution for balance training and assessment. So iBEST (intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training) is proposed enabling to train and assess balance conveniently anywhere anytime. Moreover, therapists can remotely evaluate and manage their recovery progress. These benefits can be realized leveraging sensors from smartphone, cloud-based data analytics and web applications. iBEST employs sensorised automated balance assessment in digitizing Berg Balance Scale (BBS) clinical risk assessment tool. The initial feasibility study showed average accuracy of 90.22% using smartphone in classifying the specified BBS test items.

  12. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  13. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  14. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  15. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  16. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  17. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  18. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  19. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  20. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  1. Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Milton A.; Gordon, Margaret F.

    1996-01-01

    New college presidents are inundated with requests for their time, and their private life is often sacrificed. Each administrator must decide what is the appropriate balance among various aspects of his/her position. Physical separation of public and private lives is essential, and the role of the spouse, who may have other professional…

  2. Reactors Power Balance Based on Compact Toroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romadanov, I.

    2013-10-01

    The power balance of the plasma source system based on compact toroid with a pulse mode of formation is considered. Developed model takes into account the time dependence of the processes, in a pulsed mode of operation of the system. Also magnetic configuration shape and nuclei energy distribution fluency were considered. Analytical solution of Grad-Shafranov equation was taken to determine the shape of the separatrix and magnetic fields into the configuration. For practical calculation, program was written. Code is able to calculates volume power reactions in the confined plasma, using as input the geometry of the magnetic field, the cross section of reaction rates and energy distribution of the nuclei.

  3. Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L.; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2009-04-27

    Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

  4. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  5. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  6. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  7. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  8. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  9. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  10. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  11. Monitoring the analytic surface.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Mayes, L C; Dahl, H

    1994-01-01

    How do we listen during an analytic hour? Systematic analysis of the speech patterns of one patient (Mrs. C.) strongly suggests that the clustering of shared pronouns (e.g., you/me) represents an important aspect of the analytic surface, preconsciously sensed by the analyst and used by him to determine when to intervene. Sensitivity to these patterns increases over the course of treatment, and in a final block of 10 hours shows a striking degree of contingent responsivity: specific utterances by the patient are consistently echoed by the analyst's interventions. PMID:8182248

  12. Selection of hydronic balancing valves

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, R.C.E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the selection and setting of balance valves, which, when properly applied in the design of a hydronic system, will result in a balanced system, thus preventing over pumping without excessive energy costs.

  13. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers. PMID:20698188

  14. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers.

  15. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  16. Analytical Services Management System

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standardmore » chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.« less

  17. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  19. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  20. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  1. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  2. Balancing Computation and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, Rob

    2007-04-01

    How do you know when the science being performed on a supercomputer reflects what actually occurs inside a test tube, or in real life? The answer can be stated simply enough: “run the model on the computer, get the result, and then perform an experiment to test the result”. The adage “easier said than done” truly applies – especially when the focus is on innovative science to benefit government and industry. The trick in this case is to find the right balance of science-driven computing integrated with experiment.

  3. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  4. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  5. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  6. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  7. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  8. Analytic ICF Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M D; Hammer, J

    2003-08-27

    We apply recent analytic solutions to the radiation diffusion equation to problems of interest for ICF hohlraums. The solutions provide quantitative values for absorbed energy which are of use for generating a desired radiation temperature vs. time within the hohlraum. Comparison of supersonic and subsonic solutions (heat front velocity faster or slower, respectively, than the speed of sound in the x-ray heated material) suggests that there may be some advantage in using high Z metallic foams as hohlraum wall material to reduce hydrodynamic losses, and hence, net absorbed energy by the walls. Analytic and numerical calculations suggest that the loss per unit area might be reduced {approx} 20% through use of foam hohlraum walls. Reduced hydrodynamic motion of the wall material may also reduce symmetry swings, as found for heavy ion targets.

  9. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  10. Analytical applications of aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  11. Analytic holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.

  12. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  13. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  14. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  15. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  16. Analytical electron microscopy in mineralogy; exsolved phases in pyroxenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy has been successfully used to characterize the structure and composition of lamellar exsolution products in pyroxenes. At operating voltages of 100 and 200 keV, microanalytical techniques of x-ray energy analysis, convergent-beam electron diffraction, and lattice imaging have been used to chemically and structurally characterize exsolution lamellae only a few unit cells wide. Quantitative X-ray energy analysis using ratios of peak intensities has been adopted for the U.S. Geological Survey AEM in order to study the compositions of exsolved phases and changes in compositional profiles as a function of time and temperature. The quantitative analysis procedure involves 1) removal of instrument-induced background, 2) reduction of contamination, and 3) measurement of correction factors obtained from a wide range of standard compositions. The peak-ratio technique requires that the specimen thickness at the point of analysis be thin enough to make absorption corrections unnecessary (i.e., to satisfy the "thin-foil criteria"). In pyroxenes, the calculated "maximum thicknesses" range from 130 to 1400 nm for the ratios Mg/Si, Fe/Si, and Ca/Si; these "maximum thicknesses" have been contoured in pyroxene composition space as a guide during analysis. Analytical spatial resolutions of 50-100 nm have been achieved in AEM at 200 keV from the composition-profile studies, and analytical reproducibility in AEM from homogeneous pyroxene standards is ?? 1.5 mol% endmember. ?? 1982.

  17. Visual Analytics: How Much Visualization and How Much Analytics?

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Daniel; Mansmann, Florian; Thomas, James J.

    2009-12-16

    The term Visual Analytics has been around for almost five years by now, but still there are on-going discussions about what it actually is and in particular what is new about it. The core of our view on Visual Analytics is the new enabling and accessible analytic reasoning interactions supported by the combination of automated and visual analytics. In this paper, we outline the scope of Visual Analytics using two problem and three methodological classes in order to work out the need for and purpose of Visual Analytics. Thereby, the respective methods are explained plus examples of analytic reasoning interaction leading to a glimpse into the future of how Visual Analytics methods will enable us to go beyond what is possible when separately using the two methods.

  18. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  19. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  20. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  1. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies. PMID:27274022

  2. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies.

  3. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  4. Proficiency analytical testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Groff, J.H.; Schlecht, P.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program is a collaborative effort of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The PAT Program provides quality control reference samples to over 1400 occupational health and environmental laboratories in over 15 countries. Although one objective of the PAT Program is to evaluate the analytical ability of participating laboratories, the primary objective is to assist these laboratories in improving their laboratory performance. Each calendar quarter (designated a round), samples are mailed to participating laboratories and the data are analyzed to evaluate laboratory performance on a series of analyses. Each mailing and subsequent data analysis are completed in time for participants to obtain repeat samples and to correct analytical problems before the next calendar quarter starts. The PAT Program currently includes four sets of samples. A mixture of 3 of the 4 possible metals, and 3 of the 15 possible organic solvents are rotated for each round. Laboratories are evaluated for each analysis by comparing their reported results against an acceptable performance limit for each PAT Program sample the laboratory analyses. Reference laboratories are preselected to provide the performance limits for each sample. These reference laboratories must meet the following criteria: (1) the laboratory was rated proficient in the last PAT evaluation of all the contaminants in the Program; and (2) the laboratory, if located in the United States, is AIHA accredited. Data are acceptable if they fall within the performance limits. Laboratories are rated based upon performance in the PAT Program over the last year (i.e., four calendar quarters), as well as on individual contaminant performance and overall performance. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  5. Proficiency analytical testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Schlecht, P.C.; Groff, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    The Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program is a collaborative effort of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The PAT Program provides quality control reference samples to over 1400 occupational health and environmental laboratories in over 15 countries. Although one objective of the PAT Program is to evaluate the analytical ability of participating laboratories, the primary objective is to assist these laboratories in improving their laboratory performance. Each calendar quarter (designated a round), samples are mailed to participating laboratories and the data are analyzed to evaluate laboratory performance on a series of analyses. Each mailing and subsequent data analysis is completed in time for participants to obtain repeat samples and to correct analytical problems before the next calendar quarter starts. The PAT Program currently includes four sets of samples. A mixture of 3 of the 4 possible metals, and 3 of the 15 possible organic solvents are rotated for each round. Laboratories are evaluated for each analysis by comparing their reported results against an acceptable performance limit for each PAT Program sample the laboratory analyses. Reference laboratories are preselected to provide the performance limits for each sample. These reference laboratories must meet the following criteria: (1) the laboratory was rated proficient in the last PAT evaluation of all the contaminants in the Program; and (2) the laboratory, if located in the United States, is AIHA accredited. Data are acceptable if they fall within the performance limits. Laboratories are rated based upon performance in the PAT Program over the last year (i.e., four calendar quarters), as well as on individual contaminant performance and overall performance. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  6. Analytical chemistry of nickel.

    PubMed

    Stoeppler, M

    1984-01-01

    Analytical chemists are faced with nickel contents in environmental and biological materials ranging from the mg/kg down to the ng/kg level. Sampling and sample treatment have to be performed with great care at lower levels, and this also applies to enrichment and separation procedures. The classical determination methods formerly used have been replaced almost entirely by different forms of atomic absorption spectrometry. Electroanalytical methods are also of increasing importance and at present provide the most sensitive approach. Despite the powerful methods available, achieving reliable results is still a challenge for the analyst requiring proper quality control measures.

  7. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  8. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  9. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  10. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  11. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  12. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  13. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  14. What is a balanced program?

    PubMed

    Mohl, P C

    1995-06-01

    "Balance" has become the watchword of psychiatry programs. It seems that almost all residency training programs claim to be balanced. But what do we mean by this term? This article summarizes the author's evolving thinking about what makes for a balanced program and suggests that diversity may be a better term. The author advocates that balance is not as simple as teaching both psychodynamics and biological psychiatry. Instead, it entails a considered, intellectual approach that involves long-term vs. other psychotherapies, neuro-science vs. psychopharmacology, theoretical pharmacology vs. practical pharmacology, social psychiatry vs. treating minority patients, representing all viewpoints in psychiatry vs. integrating them. PMID:24442525

  15. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  16. Delay effects in the human sensory system during balancing.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Gabor

    2009-03-28

    Mechanical models of human self-balancing often use the Newtonian equations of inverted pendula. While these mathematical models are precise enough on the mechanical side, the ways humans balance themselves are still quite unexplored on the control side. Time delays in the sensory and motoric neural pathways give essential limitations to the stabilization of the human body as a multiple inverted pendulum. The sensory systems supporting each other provide the necessary signals for these control tasks; but the more complicated the system is, the larger delay is introduced. Human ageing as well as our actual physical and mental state affects the time delays in the neural system, and the mechanical structure of the human body also changes in a large range during our lives. The human balancing organ, the labyrinth, and the vision system essentially adapted to these relatively large time delays and parameter regions occurring during balancing. The analytical study of the simplified large-scale time-delayed models of balancing provides a Newtonian insight into the functioning of these organs that may also serve as a basis to support theories and hypotheses on balancing and vision.

  17. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  18. An analytical framework for aeolian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. D.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The process of aeolian saltation has been a focus of extensive research, but analytical solutions for the balance between the flux of grains and the adjustment of the wind velocity profile have yet to be described. Because several of the functional relationships between variables could not be known a priori, as for example the splash functions of the impact-induced ejection of grains from the bed, the process has been studied primarily through experiments and numerical modeling. Grain-scale experiments have now however yielded robust empirical relationships for functions such as splash function distributions, and we can use these relationships to make the aeolian saltation process analytically tractable. We construct an analytical framework for steady state saltation in terms of a threshold height, above which the wind velocity is strong enough to carry a grain from reptation to saltation. This threshold height is raised as the wind profile magnitude is lowered by the increasing number of saltating grains being accelerated by the wind, until the number of grains being demoted below this threshold equals the number being promoted. Grain demotion results from the loss of energy to collisions with the bed, while grain promotion results from the distribution of splash-ejected grains that exceed the threshold height. The balance of these populations at steady state determines both the total number of grains in saltation and the saturated wind velocity profile, while the approach to this balance describes the transient evolution to this state. We also formulate the critical impact Shields stress, defined as the stress below which transport ceases (as opposed to the higher critical fluid Shields stress at which transport is initiated). The difference between the critical fluid and impact Shields stresses also implies the existence of a minimum population of saltating grains. Finally, we extend our developed framework to comment on related open questions. We test the

  19. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575

  20. In the Balance:

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The nineteenth century saw the incorporation of technology, such as the stethoscope, microscope, and thermometer, into clinical medicine. An instrument that has received less attention in the history of the role of technology in medicine is the weighing balance, or scale. Although not new to nineteenth-century medicine, it played an important part in the rise of the numerical method and its application to the development and shaping of pediatrics. This article explores the origin and development of the weighing of babies. During its clinical and scientific adoption, this simple procedure was refined and applied in a number of increasingly sophisticated and far-reaching ways: as a measure of the dimensions of the fetus and newborn, as an index of the viability of the newborn, as a means of estimating milk intake, as a way of distinguishing normality from abnormality, as a summary measure of infant health, and as an instrument of mass surveillance. In so doing it changed the way in which medical care was delivered to infants. PMID:20632732

  1. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  2. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  3. Balancing "we" and "me".

    PubMed

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  4. Well-balanced schemes for the Euler equations with gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeli, R.; Mishra, S.

    2014-02-01

    Well-balanced high-order finite volume schemes are designed to approximate the Euler equations with gravitation. The schemes preserve discrete equilibria, corresponding to a large class of physically stable hydrostatic steady states. Based on a novel local hydrostatic reconstruction, the derived schemes are well-balanced for any consistent numerical flux for the Euler equations. The form of the hydrostatic reconstruction is both very simple and computationally efficient as it requires no analytical or numerical integration. Moreover, as required by many interesting astrophysical scenarios, the schemes are applicable beyond the ideal gas law. Both first- and second-order accurate versions of the schemes and their extension to multi-dimensional equilibria are presented. Several numerical experiments demonstrating the superior performance of the well-balanced schemes, as compared to standard finite volume schemes, are also presented.

  5. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…

  6. The Balance-Scale Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Jay, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the reflections of students on a problem given in May, 1996 issue of this journal in order to share the thinking of middle school students. The problem concerned weighing on a double per balance if given a clump of clay, and a 20-gram and 50-gram balance. (ASK)

  7. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  8. Analytic pion form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.

  9. ANALYTIC MODELING OF STARSHADES

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, Webster

    2011-09-01

    External occulters, otherwise known as starshades, have been proposed as a solution to one of the highest priority yet technically vexing problems facing astrophysics-the direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars. New apodization functions, developed over the past few years, now enable starshades of just a few tens of meters diameter to occult central stars so efficiently that the orbiting exoplanets can be revealed and other high-contrast imaging challenges addressed. In this paper, an analytic approach to the analysis of these apodization functions is presented. It is used to develop a tolerance analysis suitable for use in designing practical starshades. The results provide a mathematical basis for understanding starshades and a quantitative approach to setting tolerances.

  10. VERDE Analytic Modules

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  11. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  12. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  14. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  15. Searching for balanced development.

    PubMed

    Kulessa, M

    1987-08-01

    It is significant in China, as the day of 5 billion is commemorated, that the Government has shown its full committment to a family planning program that has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most successful efforts in the world today. Since 1979, the annual population growth rate in China has gone down from 2.7% to an annual average of around 1.2%. In fact, because China makes up more than 1/5 of the world's population, the overall growth rate achieved worldwide has been reduced to about 2%. This is heavily due to the achievements of the Chinese family planning program. Even as China has lowered its birthrate, its rate of agricultural production has rapidly risen. At present, China is doing well in grain production. Although the per capita income in China is still comparatively low, the country is able to feed its citizens, and the famines that used to be a big problem are now but a bad memory. As the close relationship between population and development is observed, there is some controversy about the effects and impact of family planning on development. The belief is held that the more people there are in this world, the more progress there will be because more brains, hands, and energy will be harnessed for development. As has also been noted, however, a person is not just head and hands--a person has a mouth to feed, as well. Thus, there is a need to balance the number of people with the resources of the society. If the rate of population growth outstrips economic and social production, then hunger and poverty will result, as the fruits of development will be eaten up too rapidly.

  16. Online Visual Analytics of Text Streams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shixia; Yin, Jialun; Wang, Xiting; Cui, Weiwei; Cao, Kelei; Pei, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We present an online visual analytics approach to helping users explore and understand hierarchical topic evolution in high-volume text streams. The key idea behind this approach is to identify representative topics in incoming documents and align them with the existing representative topics that they immediately follow (in time). To this end, we learn a set of streaming tree cuts from topic trees based on user-selected focus nodes. A dynamic Bayesian network model has been developed to derive the tree cuts in the incoming topic trees to balance the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts. By connecting the corresponding topics at different times, we are able to provide an overview of the evolving hierarchical topics. A sedimentation-based visualization has been designed to enable the interactive analysis of streaming text data from global patterns to local details. We evaluated our method on real-world datasets and the results are generally favorable.

  17. Analytic integrable systems: Analytic normalization and embedding flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    In this paper we mainly study the existence of analytic normalization and the normal form of finite dimensional complete analytic integrable dynamical systems. More details, we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism F(x)=Bx+f(x) in (Cn,0) with B having eigenvalues not modulus 1 and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Meanwhile, we also prove that any complete analytic integrable differential system x˙=Ax+f(x) in (Cn,0) with A having nonzero eigenvalues and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Furthermore we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism defined on an analytic manifold can be embedded in a complete analytic integrable flow. We note that parts of our results are the improvement of Moser's one in J. Moser, The analytic invariants of an area-preserving mapping near a hyperbolic fixed point, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9 (1956) 673-692 and of Poincaré's one in H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré, II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 11 (1897) 193-239. These results also improve the ones in Xiang Zhang, Analytic normalization of analytic integrable systems and the embedding flows, J. Differential Equations 244 (2008) 1080-1092 in the sense that the linear part of the systems can be nonhyperbolic, and the one in N.T. Zung, Convergence versus integrability in Poincaré-Dulac normal form, Math. Res. Lett. 9 (2002) 217-228 in the way that our paper presents the concrete expression of the normal form in a restricted case.

  18. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-02-24

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections.

  19. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  20. Multi-Intelligence Analytics for Next Generation Analysts (MIAGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Waltz, Ed

    2016-05-01

    Current analysts are inundated with large volumes of data from which extraction, exploitation, and indexing are required. A future need for next-generation analysts is an appropriate balance between machine analytics from raw data and the ability of the user to interact with information through automation. Many quantitative intelligence tools and techniques have been developed which are examined towards matching analyst opportunities with recent technical trends such as big data, access to information, and visualization. The concepts and techniques summarized are derived from discussions with real analysts, documented trends of technical developments, and methods to engage future analysts with multiintelligence services. For example, qualitative techniques should be matched against physical, cognitive, and contextual quantitative analytics for intelligence reporting. Future trends include enabling knowledge search, collaborative situational sharing, and agile support for empirical decision-making and analytical reasoning.

  1. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  2. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  3. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control.

  4. Appetite and energy balancing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. PMID:27059321

  5. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... It emphasizes the intercon- nected nature of the body and mind (Figure 1), combining “physical movement, breathing techniques, and ... and focus. Figure 1. The interconnected nature of body and mind and concept of balance is symbolized by the ...

  6. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    PubMed

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  7. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  8. Mass balance computation in SAGUARO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.L.; Eaton, R.R.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the development of the mass balance subroutines used with the finite-element code, SAGUARO, which models fluid flow in partially saturated porous media. Derivation of the basic mass storage and mass flux equations is included. The results of the SAGUARO mass-balance subroutine, MASS, are shown to compare favorably with the linked results of FEMTRAN. Implementation of the MASS option in SAGUARO is described. Instructions for use of the MASS option are demonstrated with the three sample cases.

  9. Balanced scorecards for performance management.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jun; Huber, Diane L

    2007-01-01

    Nurse administrators who manage nursing case management programs are challenged to demonstrate the improved quality of patient care and financial outcomes to their organization that result from such programs. This article introduces the balanced scorecard and discusses its benefits and practical concerns for adopting the scorecard. The balanced scorecard is a useful performance management tool used to both evaluate and direct case management performance in meeting organizational missions and strategies. PMID:17172968

  10. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... tizanidine are generally effective in treating this symptom. Balance : Balance problems typically result in a swaying and “drunken” ... factors for falls are complex and include: poor balance and slowed walking reduced proprioception (the sensation of ...

  11. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  12. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  13. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  14. Information Theory in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckschlager, Karel; Stepanek, Vladimir

    1982-01-01

    Discusses information theory in analytical practice. Topics include information quantities; ways of obtaining formulas for the amount of information in structural, qualitative, and trace analyses; and information measures in comparing and optimizing analytical methods and procedures. Includes tables outlining applications of information theory to…

  15. Ecological Elements of Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Fisher, S. G.; Grimm, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    In simplest terms, "water balance" can refer to the water budget in a bounded system within a specified time frame. While this mass-balance approach is important, a broader concept that includes ecological notions of balance, stability, and feedbacks is useful, especially when management goals extend to maintenance of ecological health and ecosystem integrity concomitant with water delivery. Here, we propose three ecological elements to enrich the concept of hydrologic balance. (1) A spatially explicit perspective of water and nutrient balance replaces the holistic view. For example, in fluvial landscapes, routing of water generates hydrologic connectivity via flowpaths and creates a hydrologic network. Important patches in the network include hillslopes, floodplains, riparian areas, surface channels, and hyporheic zones, each of which is characterized by unique biogeochemical processes. Different hydrologic network structures have different nutrient-removal capacities, which depend upon how their flowpaths intersect patch-specific processing. The connectivity among these patches is an important variable influencing nutrient-retention capacity of landscapes, and thereby the resulting water quality in receiving systems. (2) Temporal regime is an important component of balance. Organisms in a fluvial landscape reflect the inherent time schedule of the system, as a result of long-term interactions and adaptation to the environment. In aridland streams, the drying and flood cycle select flora whose life cycles and activities fit the hydrological regime. The existence of particular species relies on the temporal distribution of water-the input regime-more than the integral input and output balance. The match of organism life cycle and hydrologic regime is the basis for biodiversity and ecosystem functions. (3) Ecosystems are self-organized systems based on feedbacks among organisms and between organisms and the abiotic environment. They do not simply respond to

  16. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    PubMed

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  17. The Energy Balance of the Winter Boreal Landscape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    1996-11-01

    During the winter of 1993/94 a study to quantify the winter energy balance of the main cover types of the boreal landscape took place. The study was based on the southern edge of boreal forest in Canada. Measurements were made over a mature jack pine stand and a frozen lake. Shortwave albedos of 12% to 14% over the jack pine and 20% to 88% on the frozen lake (both depending on snow cover) were measured. There were correspondingly large contrasts in the total radiation inputs and the turbulent heat fluxes. The mean net all-wave radiation input was large and positive into the forest and negative over the lake. The sensible heat fluxes were of the same sign as the radiative inputs with positive values over the forest peaking at +200 W m2 and failing to 100 W m2 over the lake. The evaporation from the forest depended on whether the there was snow on the canopy. When the canopy was snow-free, the evaporation was low, about 50% of net radiation but, when there was snow on the canopy, the evaporation was large, 4 mm over a 36-hour period. The results of these experiments are being used to design much-improved descriptions of boreal forest within the next generation of climate, models.

  18. Mass balance in rapamycin autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Oyler, Alan R; Armstrong, Barbara L; Dunphy, Richard; Alquier, Lori; Maryanoff, Cynthia A; Cohen, Judith H; Merciadez, Mel; Khublall, Ada; Mehta, Rajshekhar; Patel, Ashesh; Il'ichev, Yuri V

    2008-12-15

    The immunosuppressant drug rapamycin is a complex polyene-containing natural product which undergoes autoxidation. The resulting product mixtures contained numerous monomeric and oligomeric compounds, which represented challenges for addressing mass balance in forced degradation studies and in analysis of aged developmental drug-eluting stents. A combination of SEC with ultraviolet and refractive index detection and RP-HPLC was used to account for drug loss and product formation. The mass balance methodology was subsequently validated for the determination of rapamycin and composite rapamycin autoxidation product material in developmental stent samples. This mass balance approach may find general applicability in other situations where drugs degrade to a plethora of products, which cannot be determined individually and summed. PMID:19019612

  19. Balancing on tightropes and slacklines

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Balancing on a tightrope or a slackline is an example of a neuromechanical task where the whole body both drives and responds to the dynamics of the external environment, often on multiple timescales. Motivated by a range of neurophysiological observations, here we formulate a minimal model for this system and use optimal control theory to design a strategy for maintaining an upright position. Our analysis of the open and closed-loop dynamics shows the existence of an optimal rope sag where balancing requires minimal effort, consistent with qualitative observations and suggestive of strategies for optimizing balancing performance while standing and walking. Our consideration of the effects of nonlinearities, potential parameter coupling and delays on the overall performance shows that although these factors change the results quantitatively, the existence of an optimal strategy persists. PMID:22513724

  20. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  1. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  2. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  3. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances...

  4. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances...

  5. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make...

  6. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make...

  7. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make...

  8. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make...

  9. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances...

  10. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances...

  11. 40 CFR 35.518 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.518 Section 35... Unexpended balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's final Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances...

  12. 40 CFR 35.118 - Unexpended balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unexpended balances. 35.118 Section 35... balances. Subject to any relevant provisions of law, if a recipient's Financial Status Report shows unexpended balances, the Regional Administrator will deobligate the unexpended balances and make...

  13. Numerical integration of analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, Gradimir V.; Tošić, Dobrilo ð.; Albijanić, Miloljub

    2012-09-01

    A weighted generalized N-point Birkhoff-Young quadrature of interpolatory type for numerical integration of analytic functions is considered. Special cases of such quadratures with respect to the generalized Gegenbauer weight function are derived.

  14. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  15. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  16. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  17. Analytical multikinks in smooth potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, G. P.; Correa, R. A. C.; de Souza Dutra, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present an approach that can be systematically used to construct nonlinear systems possessing analytical multikink profile configurations. In contrast with previous approaches to the problem, we are able to do it by using field potentials that are considerably smoother than the ones of the doubly quadratic family of potentials. This is done without losing the capacity of writing exact analytical solutions. The resulting field configurations can be applied to the study of problems from condensed matter to braneworld scenarios.

  18. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  19. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  20. Feasibility of Self-Reflection as a Tool to Balance Clinical Reasoning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbald, Matthew; de Bruin, Anique B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians are believed to use two predominant reasoning strategies: system 1 based pattern recognition, and system 2 based analytical reasoning. Balancing these cognitive reasoning strategies is widely believed to reduce diagnostic error. However, clinicians approach different problems with different reasoning strategies. This study explores…

  1. Walking on ballast impacts balance.

    PubMed

    Wade, Chip; Garner, John C; Redfern, Mark S; Andres, Robert O

    2014-01-01

    Railroad workers often perform daily work activities on irregular surfaces, specifically on ballast rock. Previous research and injury epidemiology have suggested a relationship between working on irregular surfaces and postural instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of walking on ballast for an extended duration on standing balance. A total of 16 healthy adult males walked on a 7.62 m × 4.57 m (25 ft × 15 ft) walking surface of no ballast (NB) or covered with ballast (B) of an average rock size of about 1 inch for 4 h. Balance was evaluated using dynamic posturography with the NeuroCom(®) Equitest System(™) prior to experiencing the NB or B surface and again every 30 min during the 4 h of ballast exposure. Dependent variables were the sway velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) sway components in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in RMS and sway velocity between ballast surface conditions and across exposure times. Overall, the ballast surface condition induced greater sway in all of the dynamic posturography conditions. Walking on irregular surfaces for extended durations has a deleterious effect on balance compared to walking on a surface without ballast. These findings of changes in balance during ballast exposure suggest that working on an irregular surface may impact postural control. PMID:24354716

  2. Finding Balance in the Winds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of and reflections concerning a group workshop facilitated by Michael Tlanusta Garrett of the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Provides information about the Native American teachings and traditions of the four winds, balance, and harmony, and discusses the use of self by group leaders as a powerful therapeutic and…

  3. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  4. The Revenue vs. Service Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savarese, John

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, students at the University of Vermont (UVM) had to carry separate ID cards, meal cards, and athletic cards. Today, the single CATcard combines all of these functions, plus library privileges, an optional declining balance program called CAT$cratch, access to computer labs, use of vending machines without quarters, and even a ride on…

  5. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  6. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  7. No Such Thing as Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ted

    2007-01-01

    The demands of the principalship today are keeping good people away. They do not want to deal with the demands on their time, the drive for great test scores, hovering parents, neglectful parents, teachers' needs, and the political hot spot that some schools have become in their communities. They do not see current principals finding balance and…

  8. Face verification with balanced thresholds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuicheng; Xu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoou

    2007-01-01

    The process of face verification is guided by a pre-learned global threshold, which, however, is often inconsistent with class-specific optimal thresholds. It is, hence, beneficial to pursue a balance of the class-specific thresholds in the model-learning stage. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction algorithm tailored to the verification task that ensures threshold balance. This is achieved by the following aspects. First, feasibility is guaranteed by employing an affine transformation matrix, instead of the conventional projection matrix, for dimensionality reduction, and, hence, we call the proposed algorithm threshold balanced transformation (TBT). Then, the affine transformation matrix, constrained as the product of an orthogonal matrix and a diagonal matrix, is optimized to improve the threshold balance and classification capability in an iterative manner. Unlike most algorithms for face verification which are directly transplanted from face identification literature, TBT is specifically designed for face verification and clarifies the intrinsic distinction between these two tasks. Experiments on three benchmark face databases demonstrate that TBT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art subspace techniques for face verification.

  9. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  10. The Mean as Balance Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  11. Balancing Our Personal & Professional Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amy, Chris; Smith, Becky F.

    1996-01-01

    Campus activities programmers are encouraged to balance roles by: remembering their time is valuable; accepting their own imperfection; saying "no" when necessary; taking care of themselves; learning to request help and delegate; giving best time and energy to what matters most; focusing on life's positives; developing support systems; keeping a…

  12. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness.

  13. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  14. Development of high-speed balancing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation into laser material removal showed that laser burns act in a manner typical of mechanical stress raisers causing a reduction in fatigue strength; the fatigue strength is lowered relative to the smooth specimen fatigue strength. Laser-burn zones were studied for four materials: Alloy Steel 4340, Stainless Steel 17-4 PH, Inconel 718, and Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6. Calculations were made of stress concentration factors K, for laser-burn grooves of each material type. A comparison was then made to experimentally determine the fatigue strength reduction factor. These calculations and comparisons indicated that, except for the 17-4 PH material, good agreement (a ratio of close to 1.0) existed between Kt and Kf. The performance of the 17-4 PH material has been attributed to early crack initiation due to the lower fatigue resistance of the soft, unaged laser-affected zone. Also covered in this report is the development, implementation, and testing of an influence coefficient approach to balancing a long, slender shaft under applied-torque conditions. Excellent correlation existed between the analytically predicted results and those data obtained from testing.

  15. Medical records department and balanced scorecard approach

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Ebadsichani, Afsaneh; Tofighi, Shahram; Tavakoli, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Context: The Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important source for evaluating and planning of healthcare services; therefore, hospital managers should improve their performance not only in the short-term but also in the long-term plans. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a tool in the management system that enables organizations to correct operational functions and provides feedback around both the internal processes and the external outcomes, in order to improve strategic performance and outcomes continuously. Aims: The main goal of this study was to assess the MRD performance with BSC approach in a hospital. Materials and Methods: This research was an analytical cross-sectional study in which data was collected by questionnaires, forms and observation. The population was the staff of the MRD in a hospital in Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran. Statistical Analysis Used: To analyze data, first, objectives of the MRD, according to the mission and perspectives of the hospital, were redefined and, second, indicators were measured. Subsequently, findings from the performance were compared with the expected score. In order to achieve the final target, the programs, activities, and plans were reformed. Results: The MRD was successful in absorbing customer satisfaction. From a customer perspective, score in customer satisfaction of admission and statistics sections were 82% and 83%, respectively. Conclusions: The comprehensive nature of the strategy map makes the MRD especially useful as a consensus building and communication tool in the hospital. PMID:24083257

  16. Uncovering Students' Analytic, Practical, and Creative Intelligences: One School's Application of Sternberg's Triarchic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence presupposes that students exhibit at least three kinds of intelligence: creative, practical, and analytical. Staff at the Wake County (North Carolina) School System designed learning activities to give students balanced experiences and a time to shine in the learning mode that suits them best.…

  17. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  18. Climate Analytics as a Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  19. Adherence to balance tolerance limits at the Upper Mississippi Science Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, C.T.; Kennedy, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Verification of balance accuracy entails applying a series of standard masses to a balance prior to use and recording the measured values. The recorded values for each standard should have lower and upper weight limits or tolerances that are accepted as verification of balance accuracy under normal operating conditions. Balance logbooks for seven analytical balances at the Upper Mississippi Science Center were checked over a 3.5-year period to determine if the recorded weights were within the established tolerance limits. A total of 9435 measurements were checked. There were 14 instances in which the balance malfunctioned and operators recorded a rationale in the balance logbook. Sixty-three recording errors were found. Twenty-eight operators were responsible for two types of recording errors: Measurements of weights were recorded outside of the tolerance limit but not acknowledged as an error by the operator (n = 40); and measurements were recorded with the wrong number of decimal places (n = 23). The adherence rate for following tolerance limits was 99.3%. To ensure the continued adherence to tolerance limits, the quality-assurance unit revised standard operating procedures to require more frequent review of balance logbooks.

  20. Analytical models of helical wind-type astrophysical flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinganos, K.; Vlastou-Tsinganos, G.

    1988-01-01

    Three classes of analytic solutions of the basic hydrodynamic equations assumed to govern plasma flow in the atmosphere of a rotating astrophysical object are presented. Attention is focused on the balance of the inertial and gravitational forces with suitable pressure gradients in the presence of rotation. The solutions are written in terms of dimensionless physical parameters in order to facilitate their direct application to specific astrophysical flows, such as winds from massive premain sequence objects and T Tauri stars, and bipolar flows in young stellar objects.

  1. Analytical periodic motions in a parametrically excited, nonlinear rotating blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Luo, A. C. J.

    2013-09-01

    The stability and bifurcation analyses of periodic motions in a rotating blade subject to a torsional excitation are investigated. For high speed rotations, cubic geometric nonlinearity and gyroscopic effects of the rotating blade are considered. From the Galerkin method, the partial differential equation of the nonlinear rotating blade is simplified to the ordinary differential equations, and periodic motions and stability of the rotating blade are studied by the generalized harmonic balance method. The analytical and numerical results of periodic solutions are compared. The rich dynamics and co-existing periodic solutions of the nonlinear rotating blades are investigated.

  2. Local Parity Violation or Local Charge Conservation/Flow? A Reaction-Plane-Dependent Balance Function Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; STAR Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    STAR has recently reported charge-dependent azimuthal correlations using a three particle correlator that is sensitive to the charge separation effect in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. Qualitatively, these results agree with some of the theoretical predictions for local parity violation in heavy-ion collisions. However, a study using reaction-plane-dependent balance functions shows an alternative origin of this signal. The balance function, which measures the correlation between oppositely charged pairs, is sensitive to the mechanisms of charge formation and the subsequent relative diffusion of the balancing charges. We report reaction-plane-dependent balance functions for Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV using the STAR detector. The reaction-plane-dependent balance function analysis is consistent with the three particle correlator analysis as expected mathematically. The model of Schlicting and Pratt incorporating local charge conservation and elliptic flow can reproduce most of the three-particle azimuthal correlation results at 200 GeV.

  3. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach to clinical balance assessment can differentiate different kinds of balance disorders and a physiological approach can determine underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contributing to balance disorders. Objective measures of balance using computerized systems and wearable inertial sensors can bring more sensitive, specific and responsive balance testing to clinical practice. PMID:20485226

  4. Blackbody Cavity for Calibrations at 200 to 273 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert; Ryan, Jim; Henderson, Doug; Clayton, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory blackbody cavity has been designed and built for calibrating infrared radiometers used to measure radiant temperatures in the range from about 200 to about 273 K. In this below-room-temperature range, scattering of background infrared radiation from room-temperature surfaces could, potentially, contribute significantly to the spectral radiance of the blackbody cavity, thereby contributing a significant error to the radiant temperature used as the calibration value. The present blackbody cavity is of an established type in which multiple reflections from a combination of conical and cylindrical black-coated walls are exploited to obtain an effective emissivity greater than the emissivity value of the coating material on a flat exposed surface. The coating material in this case is a flat black paint that has an emissivity of approximately of 0.91 in the thermal spectral range and was selected over other, higher-emissivity materials because of its ability to withstand thermal cycling. We found many black coatings cracked and flaked after thermal cycling due to differences in the coefficient of expansion differences. On the basis of theoretical calculations, the effective emissivity is expected to approach 0.999. The cylindrical/conical shell enclosing the cavity is machined from copper, which is chosen for its high thermal conductivity. In use, the shell is oriented vertically, open end facing up, and inserted in a Dewar flask filled with isopropyl alcohol/dry-ice slush. A flange at the open end of the shell is supported by a thermally insulating ring on the lip of the Dewar flask. The slush cools the shell (and thus the black-body cavity) to the desired temperature. Typically, the slush starts at a temperature of about 194 K. The slush is stirred and warmed by bubbling dry air or nitrogen through it, thereby gradually increasing the temperature through the aforementioned calibration range during an interval of several hours. The temperature of the slush is monitored by use of a precise thermocouple probe.

  5. America at 200: Essays. Headline Series. No. 227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard B.; Graff, Henry F.

    Commemorating the nation's Bicentennial, this publication provides essays from two distinguished American historians entitled "The American Dream Among Nations--What Promise ? What Fulfillment?" and "From Independence to Interdependence." The first essay, written by Richard B. Morris, describes how the American Dream was shaped by and in reaction…

  6. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  7. Blackbody Cavity for Calibrations at 200 to 273 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert; Ryan, Jim; Henderson, Doug; Clayton, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory blackbody cavity has been designed and built for calibrating infrared radiometers used to measure radiant temperatures in the range from about 200 to about 273 K. In this below-room-temperature range, scattering of background infrared radiation from room-temperature surfaces could, potentially, contribute significantly to the spectral radiance of the blackbody cavity, thereby contributing a significant error to the radiant temperature used as the calibration value. The present blackbody cavity is of an established type in which multiple reflections from a combination of conical and cylindrical black-coated walls are exploited to obtain an effective emissivity greater than the emissivity value of the coating material on a flat exposed surface.

  8. Engineering redox balance through cofactor systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes.

  9. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  10. Authenticity and the analytic process.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Paolo; Gaddini, Andrea; Riefolo, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we first make a differentiation between phenomena that can be defined as spontaneous and others that can be defined as authentic. We then attempt to present authenticity as a process rather than an outcome. Finally, we try to understand the location of authentic phenomena in the sensorial and pre-symbolic communicative register. We situate authentic phenomena in the register of sensorial and pre-symbolic communication. The authentic process becomes manifest, step by step in the analytic process (Borgogno, 1999), through the vivid iconic and sensorial elements that happen to cross the analytic field. Through two brief clinical vignettes, we seek to document the progression of the analytic process, in one case through the analyst's capacity for rêverie (Bion, 1962; Ogden, 1994, 1997; Ferro, 2002, 2007), and in the other through the sensorial elements with which analyst and patient are able to tune in to each other.

  11. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  12. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  13. A Graphene Surface Force Balance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report a method for transferring graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition, which produces ultraflat graphene surfaces (root-mean-square roughness of 0.19 nm) free from polymer residues over macroscopic areas (>1 cm2). The critical step in preparing such surfaces involves the use of an intermediate mica template, which itself is atomically smooth. We demonstrate the compatibility of these model surfaces with the surface force balance, opening up the possibility of measuring normal and lateral forces, including friction and adhesion, between two graphene sheets either in contact or across a liquid medium. The conductivity of the graphene surfaces allows forces to be measured while controlling the surface potential. This new apparatus, the graphene surface force balance, is expected to be of importance to the future understanding of graphene in applications from lubrication to electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:25171130

  14. Balance Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rinalduzzi, Steno; Missori, Paolo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Currà, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stability and mobility in functional motor activities depend on a precise regulation of phasic and tonic muscular activity that is carried out automatically, without conscious awareness. The sensorimotor control of posture involves a complex integration of multisensory inputs that results in a final motor adjustment process. All or some of the components of this system may be dysfunctional in Parkinsonian patients, rendering postural instability one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Balance control is critical for moving safely in and adapting to the environment. PD induces a multilevel impairment of this function, therefore worsening the patients' physical and psychosocial disability. In this review, we describe the complex ways in which PD impairs posture and balance, collecting and reviewing the available experimental evidence. PMID:25654100

  15. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  16. Meal replacements and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-04-26

    Induction and maintenance of a period of negative energy balance are required for overweight and obese subjects to lose weight. Meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, have now evolved as part of the "toolbox" used by researchers and clinicians to achieve negative energy balance. This overview traces the historical development of beverage meal replacements, reviews key studies supporting their clinical efficacy, and examines concerns related to their safe use. This collective information supports the view that meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, are now an effective and safe component for use in the clinical setting. Further studies are needed to identify those subjects most likely to benefit from use of meal replacements as part of their comprehensive weight control program.

  17. Analytical Applications of NMR: Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a symposium on analytical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), discussing pulse Fourier transformation technique, two-dimensional NMR, solid state NMR, and multinuclear NMR. Includes description of ORACLE, an NMR data processing system at Syracuse University using real-time color graphics, and algorithms for…

  18. Energy balance in motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubńiski, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper present the concept of testing energy balance. The test was conducted on the test bench equipped with the alternator, battery and standard mounted current receivers. The course of measurements consisted in recording the indications of three ammeters and a tachometer. On the basis of the recorded current values, it was possible to determine: energy received from the battery, consumed by the receivers and the energy drawn from the alternator.

  19. Balanced input-output assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  20. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws.

  1. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  2. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  3. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  4. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  5. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  6. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  7. [Striking the work-life balance].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Solutions for finding a satisfactory balance between home life and work lie in the organisation of work and the work environment. Line managers in particular have a key role to play in helping their staff maintain this balance. PMID:25619100

  8. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  9. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics, the analysis and representation of data about learners in order to improve learning, is a new lens through which teachers can understand education. It is rooted in the dramatic increase in the quantity of data about learners and linked to management approaches that focus on quantitative metrics, which are sometimes antithetical…

  10. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  11. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  12. Visual analytics of brain networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2012-05-15

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging.

  13. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  14. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  15. Analytical Methods for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical methods for facilitating comparison of multiple sets during online searching are illustrated by description of specific searching methods that eliminate duplicate citations and a factoring procedure based on syntactic relationships that establishes ranked sets. Searches executed in National Center for Mental Health database on…

  16. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  17. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-01-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve…

  18. Visual Analytics of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging. PMID:22414991

  19. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions. PMID:20398381

  20. Leadership and Work-Life Balance.

    PubMed

    Mattock, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, work-life balance is something that is both difficult to define and difficult to achieve. Leaders, throughout the continuum of trauma care, need to have a sound understanding of what work-life balance means and set an example of a healthy work-life balance for those they lead. This article offers strategies for enhancing work-life balance and challenges individuals to use self-reflection as a means to furthering their personal and professional growth. PMID:26574942

  1. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  6. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  7. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  8. 2 CFR 200.98 - Unobligated balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unobligated balance. 200.98 Section 200.98... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.98 Unobligated balance. Unobligated balance means the amount of funds under a Federal award that the non-Federal entity has not obligated....

  9. Controlling chaos in balanced neural circuits with input spike trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelken, Rainer; Wolf, Fred

    The cerebral cortex can be seen as a system of neural circuits driving each other with spike trains. Here we study how the statistics of these spike trains affects chaos in balanced target circuits.Earlier studies of chaos in balanced neural circuits either used a fixed input [van Vreeswijk, Sompolinsky 1996, Monteforte, Wolf 2010] or white noise [Lajoie et al. 2014]. We study dynamical stability of balanced networks driven by input spike trains with variable statistics. The analytically obtained Jacobian enables us to calculate the complete Lyapunov spectrum. We solved the dynamics in event-based simulations and calculated Lyapunov spectra, entropy production rate and attractor dimension. We vary correlations, irregularity, coupling strength and spike rate of the input and action potential onset rapidness of recurrent neurons.We generally find a suppression of chaos by input spike trains. This is strengthened by bursty and correlated input spike trains and increased action potential onset rapidness. We find a link between response reliability and the Lyapunov spectrum. Our study extends findings in chaotic rate models [Molgedey et al. 1992] to spiking neuron models and opens a novel avenue to study the role of projections in shaping the dynamics of large neural circuits.

  10. Canopy radiation transmission for an energy balance snowmelt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Vinod; Tarboton, David G.

    2012-01-01

    To better estimate the radiation energy within and beneath the forest canopy for energy balance snowmelt models, a two stream radiation transfer model that explicitly accounts for canopy scattering, absorption and reflection was developed. Upward and downward radiation streams represented by two differential equations using a single path assumption were solved analytically to approximate the radiation transmitted through or reflected by the canopy with multiple scattering. This approximation results in an exponential decrease of radiation intensity with canopy depth, similar to Beer's law for a deep canopy. The solution for a finite canopy is obtained by applying recursive superposition of this two stream single path deep canopy solution. This solution enhances capability for modeling energy balance processes of the snowpack in forested environments, which is important when quantifying the sensitivity of hydrologic response to input changes using physically based modeling. The radiation model was included in a distributed energy balance snowmelt model and results compared with observations made in three different vegetation classes (open, coniferous forest, deciduous forest) at a forest study area in the Rocky Mountains in Utah, USA. The model was able to capture the sensitivity of beneath canopy net radiation and snowmelt to vegetation class consistent with observations and achieve satisfactory predictions of snowmelt from forested areas from parsimonious practically available information. The model is simple enough to be applied in a spatially distributed way, but still relatively rigorously and explicitly represent variability in canopy properties in the simulation of snowmelt over a watershed.

  11. Effects of Calci Soya Balance and Vitagnus on Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Golian Tehrani, Shahnaz; Bazzazian, Shahin; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Ghobadzadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menopause is a period of women’s lives with changes and symptoms that affect their work, sleep and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to overcome these symptoms. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Calci soya balance and Vitagnus on menopausal symptoms. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded controlled trial study was performed in public health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2011-2012). Seventy postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms were randomly divided into two groups of treatments with Vitagnus and Calci soya balance. Data were collected using interviews, answering Cooperman’s index questionnaires before four and eight weeks after the treatment. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used for analyzing the data. Results: In both groups, Wilcoxon test showed a significant decrease in the mean of Cooperman’s menopausal index as well as after four and eight weeks of treatment (P = 0.000). Mann-Whitney test did not show any significant differences between the two groups, before and after four and eight weeks of treatment. Conclusions: The results showed that both Vitagnus and Calci soya balance were effective on reduction of menopausal symptoms to a similar extent and medical community can administer each of these two drugs based on patients’ conditions and costs. PMID:25763190

  12. Incorporating horizontal membrane stresses into calculations of balance velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R.; Hindmarsh, R. C.; Arthern, R.

    2010-12-01

    The prediction of ice-sheet behaviour is becoming increasingly important as observed changes in continental ice masses may be indicators of the operation of instability mechanisms which have the potential to have a significant impact on global sea levels. Predictive forward models require initialisation with existing data in order to best describe the current state of the ice-sheet. In particular, such models need to be calibrated with the viscosity and sliding conditions at the base of the ice-sheet, which in practice are largely unobservable. The balance velocity approach, in which depth-averaged velocities that conserve mass are calculated based on surface elevation and accumulation data, is a suitable method in many cases. Hitherto, balance velocities have been calculated using the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA), where flow is always parallel to the direction of the slope. The SIA approximation is usually applied to coarse resolutions and assumes that longitudinal stresses are averaged out over distances 10-20 times the ice thickness. However, this method does not capture any fine detail at which longitudinal stresses may be important and the assumption of downhill flow is not always appropriate. Moreover, it is ill-posed as results are severely dependent on grid size. Thus in this study horizontal longitudinal (or membrane) stresses are introduced into calculations for balance velocities. The numerical method is presented and the code is tested by comparing numerical results with various simplified analytical solutions for Newtonian rheology and linear sliding. These analytical and numerical solutions are then used to investigate the conditions under which membrane stresses become important and to explore differences between Newtonian and non-linear rheological cases.

  13. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  14. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  15. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  16. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  17. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  18. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In general—(1) Overview....

  19. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  20. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  1. Engine balance apparatus and accessory drive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A balancing mechanism for an engine that has a rotating crankshaft and reciprocating pistons such as those engines used in automobiles, aircrafts, boats, piston-driven compressors, piston-driven slider crank mechanisms, etc. The present balancing mechanism may comprise a first balance mass non-rotatably affixed to the crankshaft and a second balance mass rotatably supported on the crankshaft. A driver assembly is affixed to crankshaft to cause the second balance mass to rotate in a direction that is opposite to the direction in which the crank shaft is rotating. The driver assembly may include auxiliary gears configured to transport rotary power to auxiliary components.

  2. Rotary balances: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Sych, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography on rotary balances contains 102 entries. It is part of NASA's support of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 11 on Rotary Balances. This bibliography includes works that might be useful to anyone interested in building or using rotor balances. Emphasis is on the rotary balance rigs and testing techniques rather than the aerodynamic data. Also included are some publications of historical interest which relate to key events in the development and use of rotary balances. The arrangement is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports and by presentation in the case of papers.

  3. Field balancing in the real world

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  4. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers. PMID:26594957

  5. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  6. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  7. Multisensory integration in balance control.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, A M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance. Experiments with visual motion stimuli show that the visual system generates visually-evoked postural responses that, at least initially, can override vestibular and proprioceptive signals. This paradigm has been useful for the study of the syndrome of visual vertigo or vision-induced dizziness, which can appear after vestibular disease. These patients typically report dizziness when exposed to optokinetic stimuli or visually charged environments, such as supermarkets. The principles of the rehabilitation treatment of these patients, which use repeated exposure to visual motion, are presented. Finally, we offer a diagnostic algorithm in approaching the patient reporting oscillopsia - the illusion of oscillation of the visual environment, which should not be confused with the syndrome mentioned earlier of visual vertigo. PMID:27638062

  8. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  9. Differential force balances during levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  10. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-01

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology. PMID:23614661

  11. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)

  12. [Free thyroxine immunoassay: analytical review].

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; Ingrand, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones assays (T4 and T3) are limited to the free forms with hormonal activity, the only ones useful for the assessment of thyroid function. Free thyroxine assays are part of prescribed parameters by the physician once known plasma TSH concentration. A reference method exists, but immunoassays are the most commonly technics used in current practice. After a reminder of the iodothyronine biochemistry and physiology, the authors discuss preanalytical and analytical steps in detail, focusing on the possible pitfalls.

  13. Proteomics: analytical tools and techniques.

    PubMed

    MacCoss, M J; Yates, J R

    2001-09-01

    Scientists have long been interested in measuring the effects of different stimuli on protein expression and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed for the automated separation, identification, and quantitation of all of the proteins within the cell. Soon, investigators will be able to observe the effects of an experiment on every protein (as opposed to a selected few). This review presents a discussion of recent technological advances in proteomics in addition to exploring current methodological limitations.

  14. Analytical optical scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical optical model for scattering of light due to lightning by clouds of different geometry is being developed. The self-consistent approach and the equivalent medium concept of Twersky was used to treat the case corresponding to outside illumination. Thus, the resulting multiple scattering problem is transformed with the knowledge of the bulk parameters, into scattering by a single obstacle in isolation. Based on the size parameter of a typical water droplet as compared to the incident wave length, the problem for the single scatterer equivalent to the distribution of cloud particles can be solved either by Mie or Rayleigh scattering theory. The super computing code of Wiscombe can be used immediately to produce results that can be compared to the Monte Carlo computer simulation for outside incidence. A fairly reasonable inverse approach using the solution of the outside illumination case was proposed to model analytically the situation for point sources located inside the thick optical cloud. Its mathematical details are still being investigated. When finished, it will provide scientists an enhanced capability to study more realistic clouds. For testing purposes, the direct approach to the inside illumination of clouds by lightning is under consideration. Presently, an analytical solution for the cubic cloud will soon be obtained. For cylindrical or spherical clouds, preliminary results are needed for scattering by bounded obstacles above or below a penetrable surface interface.

  15. Networked analytical sample management system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, W.J.; Spencer, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has operated a computer-controlled analytical sample management system. The system, pogrammed in COBOL, runs on the site IBM 3081 mainframe computer. The system provides for the following subtasks: sample logging, analytical method assignment, worklist generation, cost accounting, and results reporting. Within these subtasks the system functions in a time-sharing mode. Communications between subtasks are done overnight in a batch mode. The system currently supports management of up to 3000 samples a month. Each sample requires, on average, three independent methods. Approximately 100 different analytical techniques are available for customized input of data. The laboratory has implemented extensive computer networking using Ethernet. Electronic mail, RS/1, and online literature searches are in place. Based on our experience with the existing sample management system, we have begun a project to develop a second generation system. The new system will utilize the panel designs developed for the present LIMS, incorporate more realtime features, and take advantage of the many commercial LIMS systems.

  16. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  17. Rapid analytical procedure for neomycin determination in ointments by CE with direct UV detection.

    PubMed

    Huidobro, A L; García, A; Barbas, C

    2009-07-12

    The purpose of this study was the development of an analytical methodology for the determination of neomycin in a complex pharmaceutical preparation. The simplified methodology consisted of a primary liquid-liquid extraction, employing a mixture of chloroform and water (1.25:1, v/v) and subsequent analysis by CE applying a capillary zone electrophoresis method with a 30 cm (effective length), 50 microm (internal diameter) polyacrylamide-coated silica capillary. The background electrolyte consisted of 35 mM phosphate and 15 mM acetate buffer set at pH 4.7, under normal polarity mode and direct UV detection at 200 nm. The separation of the target analyte from the complex matrix was accomplished in less than 3 min. The analytical method was successfully validated in order to verify its proper selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision for the goal intended and its further implementation for the quantification of the active compound in the pharmaceutical speciality for quality control.

  18. Eigenvalue analysis of an irreversible random walk with skew detailed balance conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuji; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-04-01

    An irreversible Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm with skew detailed balance conditions originally proposed by Turitsyn et al. is extended to general discrete systems on the basis of the Metropolis-Hastings scheme. To evaluate the efficiency of our proposed method, the relaxation dynamics of the slowest mode and the asymptotic variance are studied analytically in a random walk on one dimension. It is found that the performance in irreversible MCMC methods violating the detailed balance condition is improved by appropriately choosing parameters in the algorithm. PMID:27176439

  19. [Disorders in sodium-water balance].

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, Thierry

    2013-02-01

    Water balance control is aimed at normalizing cellular hydration, and sodium balance control at normalizing extracellular volume. Water balance control is based on the regulation of body fluid tonicity, while the control of sodium balance is based on the regulation of effective arterial volume. Disorders of water balance act on cellular hydration: primary disorders induce a proportional change in tonicity; secondary disorders are induced by a change in tonicity or effective arterial volume. Disorders of sodium balance act on extracellular volume: primary disorders of sodium balance induce a change in effective arterial volume; secondary disorders are induced by a change in effective arterial volume. Physical examination of the patient allows assessing the extracellular volume and the severity of the sodium balance disorder. Natremia - that generally reflects tonicity - allows to assess cellular hydration and to determine the type of water balance disorder. In the case of natremia disturbance, the assessment of both the tonicity and the extracellular volume allows the determination of the type of water and/or sodium balance disorder that is necessary for prescribing the adequate therapy. PMID:23177272

  20. Artificial balancer - supporting device for postural reflex.

    PubMed

    Wojtara, Tytus; Sasaki, Makoto; Konosu, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masashi; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady; Kimura, Hidenori

    2012-02-01

    The evolutionarily novel ability to keep ones body upright while standing or walking, the human balance, deteriorates in old age or can be compromised after accidents or brain surgeries. With the aged society, age related balance problems are on the rise. Persons with balance problems are more likely to fall during their everyday life routines. Especially in elderly, falls can lead to bone fractures making the patient bedridden, weakening the body and making it more prone to other diseases. Health care expenses for a fall patient are often very high. There is a great deal of research being done on exoskeletons and power assists. However, these technologies concentrate mainly on the amplifications of human muscle power while balance has to be provided by the human themself. Our research has been focused on supporting human balance in harmony with the human's own posture control mechanisms such as postural reflexes. This paper proposes an artificial balancer that supports human balance through acceleration of a flywheel attached to the body. Appropriate correcting torques are generated through our device based on the measurements of body deflections. We have carried out experiments with test persons standing on a platform subject to lateral perturbations and ambulatory experiments while walking on a balance beam. These experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of our device in supporting balance and the possibility of enhancing balance-keeping capability in human beings through the application of external torque. PMID:22169384

  1. Young tennis players and balance performance.

    PubMed

    Malliou, Vasiliki J; Beneka, Anastasia G; Gioftsidou, Asimenia F; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Kallistratos, Elias; Pafis, Giorgos K; Katsikas, Christos A; Douvis, Stavros

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a tennis training session on the balance performance of young tennis players. The study was conducted on 36 elite tennis players (age 14 +/- 2 years; body mass 55 +/- 6 kg; body height 165 +/- 6 cm; mean +/- SD) participating in the national young tennis championship. Balance performance was assessed before and immediately after a tennis training session (pre-training and post-training, respectively). The balance assessment was performed with 2 different balance boards and the Biodex Stability System. In addition, dynamometric measurements of peak isokinetic moment in the knee flexors and extensors were performed pre and post tennis training session, to quantify the degree of muscle fatigue induced by the tennis training session. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to test for differences in balance performance and in isokinetic performance between pre and post tennis training session. The data analysis revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in balance performance, whereas there were significant differences in knee joint moment production between pre and post tennis training measures. Although the tennis training session of the present study had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on any of the balance performance indicators examined, there was a decline in balance performance, which suggests that different level of fatigue for an extended period (games) will have greater effect on balance performance. It is suggested that a tennis-specific balance exercise program should be included in the tennis training session.

  2. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  3. Electron energy distribution in a dusty plasma: analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, I B; Kersten, H; Azarenkov, N A

    2015-09-01

    Analytical expressions describing the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a dusty plasma are obtained from the homogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons. The expressions are derived neglecting electron-electron collisions, as well as transformation of high-energy electrons into low-energy electrons at inelastic electron-atom collisions. At large electron energies, the quasiclassical approach for calculation of the EEDF is applied. For the moderate energies, we account for inelastic electron-atom collisions in the dust-free case and both inelastic electron-atom and electron-dust collisions in the dusty plasma case. Using these analytical expressions and the balance equation for dust charging, the electron energy distribution function, the effective electron temperature, the dust charge, and the dust surface potential are obtained for different dust radii and densities, as well as for different electron densities and radio-frequency (rf) field amplitudes and frequencies. The dusty plasma parameters are compared with those calculated numerically by a finite-difference method taking into account electron-electron collisions and the transformation of high-energy electrons at inelastic electron-neutral collisions. It is shown that the analytical expressions can be used for calculation of the EEDF and dusty plasma parameters at typical experimental conditions, in particular, in the positive column of a direct-current glow discharge and in the case of an rf plasma maintained by an electric field with frequency f=13.56MHz.

  4. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, K. J.; Laughlin, R. B.; Liang, S.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg(2+) binding.

  5. Selenium: finding the delicate balance

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.

    1987-01-01

    A deficiency of selenium can lead to the degeneration of heart muscle in children. Yet, an excess of selenium can produce a garlicky breath, and extreme levels can cause a loss of nails and hair. People get adequate selenium in their diets in North America, but there are areas around the world where the people exist on foods containing little or no selenium. A person is said to be in balance when the daily intake of selenium equals the amount excreted. However, the need for the mineral varies depending on the population, as well as the sex, studied. For example, Chinese men living in a selenium-deficient area need only 10 micrograms a day to maintain their body stores of selenium, whereas US men need 80 micrograms. In addition, there is a difference in how the body treats different forms and sources of selenium. The body absorbs the mineral better from plant sources than from animal sources, in many instances.

  6. Improve SSME power balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Effort was dedicated to development and testing of a formal strategy for reconciling uncertain test data with physically limited computational prediction. Specific weaknesses in the logical structure of the current Power Balance Model (PBM) version are described with emphasis given to the main routing subroutines BAL and DATRED. Selected results from a variational analysis of PBM predictions are compared to Technology Test Bed (TTB) variational study results to assess PBM predictive capability. The motivation for systematic integration of uncertain test data with computational predictions based on limited physical models is provided. The theoretical foundation for the reconciliation strategy developed in this effort is presented, and results of a reconciliation analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel side turbopump subsystem are examined.

  7. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  8. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  9. Balancing people, plants, and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    Two of the biggest challenges facing the US power industry today are retaining an experienced, capable workforce and operating and maintaining a reliable, diversified fleet of generating plants. Success in the marketplace requires a proper balancing of staff and new technology, something few gencos do well. Following this introductory paper in this issue are several technical articles representing a small sample of the steps that gencos nationwide are taking to prolong plant life. Unlike the false promise of Ponce de Leon's fountain of youth in Florida, the promise of longer life for aging plants is real wherever experienced engineers and technicians are on the job. The article looks at problems across America, from the East Coast to the West Coast. It is supported by diagrams projecting US new capacity and plant type additions up to 2014. 5 figs.

  10. Device for balancing parallel strings

    DOEpatents

    Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  11. [Nutrition, energy balance, and obesity].

    PubMed

    Frühbeck, G; Sopena, M; Martínez, J A; Salvador, J

    1997-01-01

    Energy supply from foods and drinks depends upon carbohydrate, protein, lipid and alcohol content. Cells obtain the energy through a complex and integrated system of physico-chemical processes. The energy value of foods is applied for ATP formation, but also for nutrient utilization and turnover. Net energy from foods is expended for basal metabolism, thermic effect of food and physical activity. Total energy expenditure for human beings is displayed in different lists developed by national and international organisms and institutions. Energy balance and body weight are narrowly interrelated as well as body composition, which depends also of age, sex, exercise and neuroendocrine status. Obesity, is known as an excessive deposition of fat for height, and it is associated with cancer, dislipemias, endocrine abnormalities, diabetes, etc. Recent advances suggest that genetic and neuroendocrine factors are more involved in obesity rather than gluttony or sloth as previously reported. PMID:10420925

  12. Construction of approximate analytical solutions to a new class of non-linear oscillator equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Oyedeji, K.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of harmonic balance is invoked in the development of an approximate analytic model for a class of nonlinear oscillators typified by a mass attached to a stretched wire. By assuming that harmonic balance will hold, solutions are devised for a steady state limit cycle and/or limit point motion. A method of slowly varying amplitudes then allows derivation of approximate solutions by determining the form of the exact solutions and substituting into them the lowest order terms of their respective Fourier expansions. The latter technique is actually a generalization of the method proposed by Kryloff and Bogoliuboff (1943).

  13. VA²: A Visual Analytics Approach for // Evaluating Visual Analytics Applications.

    PubMed

    Blascheck, Tanja; John, Markus; Kurzhals, Kuno; Koch, Steffen; Ertl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation has become a fundamental part of visualization research and researchers have employed many approaches from the field of human-computer interaction like measures of task performance, thinking aloud protocols, and analysis of interaction logs. Recently, eye tracking has also become popular to analyze visual strategies of users in this context. This has added another modality and more data, which requires special visualization techniques to analyze this data. However, only few approaches exist that aim at an integrated analysis of multiple concurrent evaluation procedures. The variety, complexity, and sheer amount of such coupled multi-source data streams require a visual analytics approach. Our approach provides a highly interactive visualization environment to display and analyze thinking aloud, interaction, and eye movement data in close relation. Automatic pattern finding algorithms allow an efficient exploratory search and support the reasoning process to derive common eye-interaction-thinking patterns between participants. In addition, our tool equips researchers with mechanisms for searching and verifying expected usage patterns. We apply our approach to a user study involving a visual analytics application and we discuss insights gained from this joint analysis. We anticipate our approach to be applicable to other combinations of evaluation techniques and a broad class of visualization applications.

  14. Analytic three-loop static potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined, and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  15. BAS: balanced acceptance sampling of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Robertson, B L; Brown, J A; McDonald, T; Jaksons, P

    2013-09-01

    To design an efficient survey or monitoring program for a natural resource it is important to consider the spatial distribution of the resource. Generally, sample designs that are spatially balanced are more efficient than designs which are not. A spatially balanced design selects a sample that is evenly distributed over the extent of the resource. In this article we present a new spatially balanced design that can be used to select a sample from discrete and continuous populations in multi-dimensional space. The design, which we call balanced acceptance sampling, utilizes the Halton sequence to assure spatial diversity of selected locations. Targeted inclusion probabilities are achieved by acceptance sampling. The BAS design is conceptually simpler than competing spatially balanced designs, executes faster, and achieves better spatial balance as measured by a number of quantities. The algorithm has been programed in an R package freely available for download.

  16. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  17. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    PubMed

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  18. Spectrofluorometric analytical applications of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Dsugi, Nuha Fathi Ali; Mohmed, Tamador Omer Mohamoud; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides composed of α-(1,4)-linked glucopyranose subunits. The most important feature of CDs is their ability to form inclusion complexes (host-guest complexes) with a very wide range of solid, liquid and gaseous compounds by a molecular complexation. During the last decade, a considerable number of research papers has been focused on the use of CDs to enhance fluorescence intensity of different analytes and to develop CD-induced spectrofluorimetric method. In this review, the various spectrofluorimetric methods based on host-inclusion complex are presented.

  19. Technical, analytical and computer support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a rigorous mathematical model for the design and performance analysis of cylindrical silicon-germanium thermoelectric generators is reported that consists of two parts, a steady-state (static) and a transient (dynamic) part. The material study task involves the definition and implementation of a material study that aims to experimentally characterize the long term behavior of the thermoelectric properties of silicon-germanium alloys as a function of temperature. Analytical and experimental efforts are aimed at the determination of the sublimation characteristics of silicon germanium alloys and the study of sublimation effects on RTG performance. Studies are also performed on a variety of specific topics on thermoelectric energy conversion.

  20. Analytic signals and harmonic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Tao

    2006-02-01

    We prove that a sufficient and necessary condition for Hei[Theta](s)=-iei[Theta](s), where H is Hilbert transformation, [Theta] is a continuous and strictly increasing function with [Theta](R)=2[pi], is that d[Theta](s) is a harmonic measure on the line. The counterpart result for the periodic case is also established. The study is motivated by, and has significant impact to time-frequency analysis, especially to aspects of analytic signals inducing instantaneous amplitude and frequency. As a by-product we introduce the theory of Hardy-space-preserving weighted trigonometric series and Fourier transformations induced by harmonic measures in the respective contexts.

  1. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  2. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  3. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.

  4. AN INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE BTRACKS BALANCE PLATE AND SPORTS BALANCE SOFTWARE FOR CONCUSSION DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Manyak, Kristin A.; Abdenour, Thomas E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Baweja, Harsimran S.

    2016-01-01

    Background As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (<2 min) perform concussion balance testing with gold standard accuracy. Purpose The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Results Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. Conclusions The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the

  5. Competing values in healthcare: balancing the (un)balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; St Clair, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    Facing a complex environment driven by two decades of dramatic change, healthcare organizations are adopting new strategic frameworks such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate performance (Kaplan and Norton 1992). The BSC was not originally developed as a performance management tool, however. Rather, it was designed as a tool to communicate strategy and, as such, provides little guidance when actual outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. In addition, although the BSC is an improvement over exclusively financial measures, it has three conceptual limitations that are especially problematic for evaluating healthcare organizations: (1) it underemphasizes the employee perspective, (2) it is founded on a control-based management philosophy, and (3) it emphasizes making trade-offs. To address these limitations, we propose using the Competing Values Framework (CVF), a theoretically grounded, comprehensive approach to understanding and improving organizational and managerial performance by focusing on four action imperatives: competing, controlling, collaborating, and creating. The CVF pays particular attention to the employee perspective, is consistent with a commitment-based management philosophy, and emphasizes transcending apparent paradoxes to identify win-win solutions. Rather than focusing on customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction, the CVF looks for ways to satisfy customers and employees while still addressing financial constraints and growth opportunities. The CVF also can be used to assess both the culture of the organization and the competencies of individual managers, thereby providing a clear link between strategy and implementation.

  6. Competing values in healthcare: balancing the (un)balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; St Clair, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    Facing a complex environment driven by two decades of dramatic change, healthcare organizations are adopting new strategic frameworks such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate performance (Kaplan and Norton 1992). The BSC was not originally developed as a performance management tool, however. Rather, it was designed as a tool to communicate strategy and, as such, provides little guidance when actual outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. In addition, although the BSC is an improvement over exclusively financial measures, it has three conceptual limitations that are especially problematic for evaluating healthcare organizations: (1) it underemphasizes the employee perspective, (2) it is founded on a control-based management philosophy, and (3) it emphasizes making trade-offs. To address these limitations, we propose using the Competing Values Framework (CVF), a theoretically grounded, comprehensive approach to understanding and improving organizational and managerial performance by focusing on four action imperatives: competing, controlling, collaborating, and creating. The CVF pays particular attention to the employee perspective, is consistent with a commitment-based management philosophy, and emphasizes transcending apparent paradoxes to identify win-win solutions. Rather than focusing on customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction, the CVF looks for ways to satisfy customers and employees while still addressing financial constraints and growth opportunities. The CVF also can be used to assess both the culture of the organization and the competencies of individual managers, thereby providing a clear link between strategy and implementation. PMID:17933187

  7. Automatic balancing system with laser unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A balancing plant for miniature rotor gyroscopes was developed, using a pulsed laser for material removal in order to perform the necessary measurements and balancing processes in one single operation. The plant, consisting of five units, is depicted and illustrated by graphs and photographs. The tests were intended to check the machine, to get experimental data, and to investigate the possibilities of this technology. As compared to conventional procedures, this automatic balancing process with laser compensation is rationalized, is faster, is cheaper, and provides a higher balancing quality. The test results confirm the system reliability as well as the process advantages.

  8. Let's bring balance to health care.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Melissa A

    2002-03-01

    Consider implementing the balanced scorecard--a performance management method that allows you to view your work from four perspectives: customer, internal business, learning and growth, and financial.

  9. Improving Mass Balance Modeling of Benchmark Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; March, R. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS monitors long-term glacier mass balance at three benchmark glaciers in different climate regimes. The coastal and continental glaciers are represented by Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, respectively. Field measurements began in 1966 and continue. We have reanalyzed the published balance time series with more modern methods and recomputed reference surface and conventional balances. Addition of the most recent data shows a continuing trend of mass loss. We compare the updated balances to the previously accepted balances and discuss differences. Not all balance quantities can be determined from the field measurements. For surface processes, we model missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernize the traditional degree-day model as well as derive new degree-day factors in an effort to closer match the balance time series and thus better predict the future state of the benchmark glaciers. For subsurface processes, we model the refreezing of meltwater for internal accumulation. We examine the sensitivity of the balance time series to the subsurface process of internal accumulation, with the goal of determining the best way to include internal accumulation into balance estimates.

  10. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical methods... latest edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North...

  11. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for...

  12. Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-08-31

    We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.

  13. Analytics: What We're Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few months, EDUCAUSE has been focusing on analytics. As people hear from experts, meet with association members, and watch the marketplace evolve, a number of common themes are emerging. Conversations have shifted from "What is analytics?" to "How do we get started, and how do we use analytics well?" What people are hearing from…

  14. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical methods... latest edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North...

  15. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for...

  16. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...-2417. (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as approved by the AMS...

  17. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...-2417. (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as approved by the AMS...

  18. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...-2417. (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as approved by the AMS...

  19. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...-2417. (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as approved by the AMS...

  20. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...-2417. (b) Other analytical methods for citrus products may be used as approved by the AMS...

  1. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  2. Analytic theories of allometric scaling.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-04-01

    During the 13 years since it was first advanced, the fractal network theory (FNT), an analytic theory of allometric scaling, has been subjected to a wide range of methodological, mathematical and empirical criticisms, not all of which have been answered satisfactorily. FNT presumes a two-variable power-law relationship between metabolic rate and body mass. This assumption has been widely accepted in the past, but a growing body of evidence during the past quarter century has raised questions about its general validity. There is now a need for alternative theories of metabolic scaling that are consistent with empirical observations over a broad range of biological applications. In this article, we briefly review the limitations of FNT, examine the evidence that the two-variable power-law assumption is invalid, and outline alternative perspectives. In particular, we discuss quantum metabolism (QM), an analytic theory based on molecular-cellular processes. QM predicts the large variations in scaling exponent that are found empirically and also predicts the temperature dependence of the proportionality constant, issues that have eluded models such as FNT that are based on macroscopic and network properties of organisms.

  3. The mysteries of nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Waterlow, J C

    1999-06-01

    The first part of this review is concerned with the balance between N input and output as urinary urea. I start with some observations on classical biochemical studies of the operation of the urea cycle. According to Krebs, the cycle is instantaneous and automatic, as a result of the irreversibility of the first enzyme, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (EC 6.3.5.5; CPS-I), and it should be able to handle many times the normal input to the cycle. It is now generally agreed that acetyl glutamate is a necessary co-factor for CPS-1, but not a regulator. There is abundant evidence that changes in dietary protein supply induce coordinated changes in the amounts of all five urea-cycle enzymes. How this coordination is achieved, and why it should be necessary in view of the properties of the cycle mentioned above, is unknown. At the physiological level it is not clear how a change in protein intake is translated into a change of urea cycle activity. It is very unlikely that the signal is an alteration in the plasma concentration either of total amino-N or of any single amino acid. The immediate substrates of the urea cycle are NH3 and aspartate, but there have been no measurements of their concentration in the liver in relation to urea production. Measurements of urea kinetics have shown that in many cases urea production exceeds N intake, and it is only through transfer of some of the urea produced to the colon, where it is hydrolysed to NH3, that it is possible to achieve N balance. It is beginning to look as if this process is regulated, possibly through the operation of recently discovered urea transporters in the kidney and colon. The second part of the review deals with the synthesis and breakdown of protein. The evidence on whole-body protein turnover under a variety of conditions strongly suggests that the components of turnover, including amino acid oxidation, are influenced and perhaps regulated by amino acid supply or amino acid concentration, with insulin

  4. National parks and protected areas: Appoaches for balancing social, economic, and ecological values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    National Parks and Protected Areas: Approaches for Balancing Social, Economic and Ecological Values is peerless in its unified treatment of the issues surrounding this subject. From decision-making for planning and management to the principles of ecology and economics, this text examines the analytical methods, information technologies, and planning and management problems associated with protected area planning and management. Protected area managers and students in undergraduate and graduate courses in natural resource management will appreciate this highly readable book.

  5. Rotative balance of the I.M.F. Lille and associated experimental techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbrugge, R.

    1981-01-01

    The study of aerodynamic effects at high incidence associated with motions of wide amplitude incorporating continuous rotations requires the consideration of coupled effects, which are generally nonlinear, in a formulation of equations of motion. A rotative balance designed to simulate such maneuvers in a windtunnel was created to form a test medium for analytical studies. A general description of the assembly is provided by considering two main ranges of application. The capacities and performance of the assembly are discussed.

  6. The mass balance of earthquakes and earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, O.; Hovius, N.; Meunier, P.

    2016-04-01

    Large, compressional earthquakes cause surface uplift as well as widespread mass wasting. Knowledge of their trade-off is fragmentary. Combining a seismologically consistent model of earthquake-triggered landsliding and an analytical solution of coseismic surface displacement, we assess how the mass balance of single earthquakes and earthquake sequences depends on fault size and other geophysical parameters. We find that intermediate size earthquakes (Mw 6-7.3) may cause more erosion than uplift, controlled primarily by seismic source depth and landscape steepness, and less so by fault dip and rake. Such earthquakes can limit topographic growth, but our model indicates that both smaller and larger earthquakes (Mw < 6, Mw > 7.3) systematically cause mountain building. Earthquake sequences with a Gutenberg-Richter distribution have a greater tendency to lead to predominant erosion, than repeating earthquakes of the same magnitude, unless a fault can produce earthquakes with Mw > 8 or more.

  7. Broken Detailed Balance of Filament Dynamics in Active Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladrow, J.; Fakhri, N.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Schmidt, C. F.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Myosin motor proteins drive vigorous steady-state fluctuations in the actin cytoskeleton of cells. Endogenous embedded semiflexible filaments such as microtubules, or added filaments such as single-walled carbon nanotubes are used as novel tools to noninvasively track equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations in such biopolymer networks. Here, we analytically calculate shape fluctuations of semiflexible probe filaments in a viscoelastic environment, driven out of equilibrium by motor activity. Transverse bending fluctuations of the probe filaments can be decomposed into dynamic normal modes. We find that these modes no longer evolve independently under nonequilibrium driving. This effective mode coupling results in nonzero circulatory currents in a conformational phase space, reflecting a violation of detailed balance. We present predictions for the characteristic frequencies associated with these currents and investigate how the temporal signatures of motor activity determine mode correlations, which we find to be consistent with recent experiments on microtubules embedded in cytoskeletal networks.

  8. Geospatial and Contextual Approaches to Energy Balance and Health

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hurvitz, Philip M.; James, Peter; Jankowska, Marta M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Laden, Francine; Leonard, Tammy; McKinnon, Robin A.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Zenk, Shannon N.

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 years, a major research enterprise has emerged that is aimed at understanding associations between geographic and contextual features of the environment (especially the built environment) and elements of human energy balance, including diet, weight, and physical activity. Here we highlight aspects of this research area with a particular focus on research and opportunities in the United States as an example. We address four main areas: 1) The importance of valid and comparable data concerning behavior across geographies, 2) The ongoing need to identify and explore new environmental variables, 3) The challenge of identifying the causally relevant context, and 4) The pressing need for stronger study designs and analytical methods. Additionally, we discuss existing sources of geo-referenced health data which might be exploited by interdisciplinary research teams, personnel challenges and some aspects of funding for geospatial research by the US National Institutes of Health in the past decade, including funding for international collaboration and training opportunities. PMID:27076868

  9. Imaging metals in biology: balancing sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J; de Jonge, Martin D; McColl, Gawain

    2015-10-01

    Metal biochemistry drives a diverse range of cellular processes associated with development, health and disease. Determining metal distribution, concentration and flux defines our understanding of these fundamental processes. A comprehensive analysis of biological systems requires a balance of analytical techniques that inform on metal quantity (sensitivity), chemical state (selectivity) and location (spatial resolution) with a high degree of certainty. A number of approaches are available for imaging metals from whole tissues down to subcellular organelles, as well as mapping metal turnover, protein association and redox state within these structures. Technological advances in micro- and nano-scale imaging are striving to achieve multi-dimensional and in vivo measures of metals while maintaining the native biochemical environment and physiological state. This Tutorial Review discusses state-of-the-art imaging technology as a guide to obtaining novel insight into the biology of metals, with sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution in focus. PMID:26505053

  10. Automation and quality in analytical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Valcarcel, M.; Rios, A.

    1994-05-01

    After a brief introduction to the generic aspects of automation in analytical laboratories, the different approaches to quality in analytical chemistry are presented and discussed to establish the following different facets emerging from the combination of quality and automation: automated analytical control of quality of products and systems; quality control of automated chemical analysis; and improvement of capital (accuracy and representativeness), basic (sensitivity, precision, and selectivity), and complementary (rapidity, cost, and personnel factors) analytical features. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of this marriage of convenience in present and future analytical chemistry. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Effects of Bimolecular Recombination on Impedance Spectra in Organic Semiconductors: Analytical Approach.

    PubMed

    Takata, Masashi; Takagi, Kenichiro; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    An analytical expression for impedance spectra in the case of double injection (both electrons and holes are injected into an organic semiconductor thin film) has been derived from the basic transport equations (the current density equation, the continuity equation and the Possion's equation). Capacitance-frequency characteristics calculated from the analytical expression have been examined at different recombination constants and different values of mobility balance defined by a ratio of electron mobility to hole mobility. Negative capacitance appears when the recombination constant is lower than the Langevin recombination constant and when the value of the mobility balance approaches unity. These results are consistent with the numerical results obtained by a device simulator (Atlas, Silvaco). PMID:27451625

  12. The Copper Balance of Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  13. Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage.

    PubMed

    Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-08-01

    Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. PMID:27484645

  14. Evolving Sensitivity Balances Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jamie X.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of Boolean Networks (BNs) to mutations. We are interested in Boolean Networks as a model of Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). We adopt Ribeiro and Kauffman’s Ergodic Set and use it to study the long term dynamics of a BN. We define the sensitivity of a BN to be the mean change in its Ergodic Set structure under all possible loss of interaction mutations. Insilico experiments were used to selectively evolve BNs for sensitivity to losing interactions. We find that maximum sensitivity was often achievable and resulted in the BNs becoming topologically balanced, i.e. they evolve towards network structures in which they have a similar number of inhibitory and excitatory interactions. In terms of the dynamics, the dominant sensitivity strategy that evolved was to build BNs with Ergodic Sets dominated by a single long limit cycle which is easily destabilised by mutations. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Stem Cell Differentiation and propose a relationship between pluripotent stem cells and our evolved sensitive networks. PMID:22586459

  15. Spheromak Power and Helicity Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    2000-05-18

    This note addresses the division of gun power and helicity between the open line volume and the closed flux surface volume in a steady state flux core spheromak. Our assumptions are that fine scale turbulence maintains each region close to a Taylor state, {mu}{sub o}J = {lambda}B. The gun region that feeds these two volumes surrounded by a flux conserver is shown topologically below. (The actual geometry is toroidal). Flux and current from the magnetized gun flow on open lines around the entire closed surface containing the spheromak. The gun current flows down the potential gradient, the potential difference between the two ends of each line being the gun voltage. Here, the gun voltage excludes the sheath drops at each end. When these volumes have different values of {lambda} (ratio of {mu}{sub o}B{sup -2}j {center_dot} B in each region) in the open line volume V{sub 1} and the closed spheromak volume V{sub 2} the efficiency of transferring the gun power to the spheromak to sustain the ohmic loss is the {lambda}-ratio of these regions, in the limit V{sub 1} << V{sub 2}. This result follows immediately from helicity balance in that limit. Here we give an accounting of all the gun power, and do not assume a small edge (open line) region.

  16. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  17. Analytical model for ramp compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Quanxi; Jiang, Shaoen; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Feng; Hu, Yun; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    An analytical ramp compression model for condensed matter, which can provide explicit solutions for isentropic compression flow fields, is reported. A ramp compression experiment can be easily designed according to the capability of the loading source using this model. Specifically, important parameters, such as the maximum isentropic region width, material properties, profile of the pressure pulse, and the pressure pulse duration can be reasonably allocated or chosen. To demonstrate and study this model, laser-direct-driven ramp compression experiments and code simulation are performed successively, and the factors influencing the accuracy of the model are studied. The application and simulation show that this model can be used as guidance in the design of a ramp compression experiment. However, it is verified that further optimization work is required for a precise experimental design.

  18. Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

    2013-06-01

    Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

  19. Serious Gaming for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Danielson, Gary R.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Butner, R. Scott; Miller, Sarah M.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-03-24

    We describe a methodology and architecture to support the development of games in a predictive analytics context. These games serve as part of an overall family of systems designed to gather input knowledge, calculate results of complex predictive technical and social models, and explore those results in an engaging fashion. The games provide an environment shaped and driven in part by the outputs of the models, allowing users to exert influence over a limited set of parameters, and displaying the results when those actions cause changes in the underlying model. We have crafted a prototype system in which we are implementing test versions of games driven by models in such a fashion, using a flexible architecture to allow for future continuation and expansion of this work.

  20. Quality analytics of Internet pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baert, B; De Spiegeleer, B

    2010-09-01

    Trading pharmaceutical products through the Internet poses several challenges related to legal responsibilities, good distribution practices, information content and patient use, financial implications, but also regarding product quality. One of the major concerns is the well-known phenomenon of counterfeited and/or substandard drugs commercialized through rogue Internet sites. Therefore, controlling and assuring the quality of those products has become an important and challenging task for the authorities. This review gives an overview of the different quality attributes that can be evaluated to have a complete understanding of the quality of the finished pharmaceutical product traded through the Internet, as well as the current analytical techniques that serve this objective. Aspects considered are labelling and packaging, physicochemical quality attributes, identification and assay of active substances and/or excipients, impurity profiling, biopharmaceutical testing and data interpretation.

  1. Advanced epidemiologic and analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Albanese, E

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies are indispensable for etiologic research, and are key to test life-course hypotheses and improve our understanding of neurologic diseases that have long induction and latency periods. In recent years a plethora of advanced design and analytic techniques have been developed to strengthen the robustness and ultimately the validity of the results of observational studies, and to address their inherent proneness to bias. It is the responsibility of clinicians and researchers to critically appraise and appropriately contextualize the findings of the exponentially expanding scientific literature. This critical appraisal should be rooted in a thorough understanding of advanced epidemiologic methods and techniques commonly used to formulate and test relevant hypotheses and to keep bias at bay. PMID:27637951

  2. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  3. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  4. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  5. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  6. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  7. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  8. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  9. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  10. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  11. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  12. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  13. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  14. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  15. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  16. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  17. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  18. Student Life Balance: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doble, Niharika; Supriya, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Student life stress, student family conflict and student life balance are issues that are scarcely researched. This paper aims to develop a scale for assessing the concept of student life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study evaluated a 54-item scale for assessing the construct. The data are obtained from 612 Indian students.…

  19. BALANCE TRAINING FOR THE OLDER ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phil; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    As the older adult population increases in size, the number of older adults participating in sport activities will also likely increase proportionally with a concomitant increase in musculoskeletal injuries. Age-associated functional declines in muscle strength and the sensory systems, in addition to several other issues, contribute to reductions in balance that may increase fall risk There are a variety of ways to evaluate balance and fall-risk, and each older adult should be regularly screened in order to evaluate any changes in the ability to maintain postural stability. Balance training is a useful intervention in rehabilitation of postural stability impairments as well as in training programs for performance enhancement. One scientifically-based approach is Sensorimotor Training (SMT) which can be characterized as a progressive balance training program using labile surfaces to provide adequate and safe challenges to the older athlete's balance. SMT addresses both static and dynamic components of balance as well as the multitude of systems that control balance in order to train effective strategies and elicit automatic postural responses in order to enhance postural stability. The authors believe that SMT should become part of the regular training regimen for the aging athlete. For the sport and orthopedic healthcare professional, an understanding of the physiologic changes that occur with age, the means by which balance can be assessed, and how SMT programs can be developed and implemented is crucial in addressing the growing number of older athletes that they will see. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175135

  20. Microprocessor-Controlled Laser Balancing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Material removed by laser action as part tested for balance. Directed by microprocessor, laser fires appropriate amount of pulses in correct locations to remove necessary amount of material. Operator and microprocessor software interact through video screen and keypad; no programing skills or unprompted system-control decisions required. System provides complete and accurate balancing in single load-and-spinup cycle.

  1. Balancing a Teaching/Learning Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses five books that offer suggestions and strategies to help teachers balance their teaching, in a variety of ways: (1) "Balanced Literacy Instruction: A Teacher's Resource Book"; (2) "Educators Supporting Educators"; (3) "The Reading Connection: Bringing Parents, Teachers, and Librarians Together"; (4) "The Girl With the Brown Crayon"; and…

  2. Driving Improvement with a Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a school district's use of a transparent tool coalesced support for systemic improvement. The author was looking for a way to push improvement in his 4,000-student school system when he discovered the balanced scorecard, a strategic tool for performance management. The author details how the balanced scorecard helped him…

  3. Dimensions of Balance in an Administrator's Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a new model for viewing and implementing balance in the lives of higher education administrators derived from a review of the educational, psychological, and management literature. Rejecting the traditional, two dimensional model for balancing work with the rest of life, the new model envisions four concentric circles of…

  4. How Should Equation Balancing Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Spencer K.

    1985-01-01

    Matrix methods and oxidation-number methods are currently advocated and used for balancing equations. This article shows how balancing equations can be introduced by a third method which is related to a fundamental principle, is easy to learn, and is powerful in its application. (JN)

  5. Managing Service Quality with the Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Roswitha

    In order to evaluate and utilize library data for the management process, a German project, sponsored by the German Research Council, uses the Balanced Scorecard as the concept for integrated quality management. Performance indicators across the following four perspectives are combined to produce a balanced evaluation of the library: (1) users,…

  6. Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…

  7. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  8. Course Budgeting: Balancing Rewards and Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    Continuing education programmers must be risk takers; however, they should not be gamblers. The most successful of them are able to estimate a balance between potential rewards and risks, taking chances when the odds are favorable. Although it is essential that course planners balance potential financial rewards and risks, it is important to bear…

  9. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  10. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  11. Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

  12. Engine balance apparatus and accessory drive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egleston, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A balancing mechanism for an engine that has a rotating crankshaft and reciprocating pistons. The balancing mechanism comprises a primary balance mass assembly non-rotatably and removably affixed to the crankshaft. The primary mass assembly comprises a primary mass affixed to a primary hub portion and a primary cap portion removably affixed to the primary hub portion to clamp a portion of the crankshaft therebetween. A secondary balance mass assembly may be rotatably and removably supported on the crankshaft. A driver assembly is affixed to the crankshaft to cause the secondary balance mass to rotate in a direction that is opposite to the direction in which the crank shaft is rotating. The driver assembly may include auxiliary gears configured to transport rotary power to auxiliary components. The gears are readily detachable from the apparatus to facilitate inspection and repair operations.

  13. Input spike trains suppress chaos in balanced neural circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelken, Rainer; Monteforte, Michael; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    A longstanding hypothesis claims that structured input in neural circuits enhances reliability of spiking responses. While studies in single neurons well support this hypothesis [Mainen, Sejnowski 1995] the impact of input structure on the dynamics of recurrent networks is not well understood. Earlier studies of the dynamic stability of the balanced state used a constant external input [van Vreeswijk, Sompolinsky 1996, Monteforte, Wolf 2010] or white noise [Lajoie et al. 2014]. We generalize the analysis of dynamical stability for balanced networks driven by input spike trains. An analytical expression for the Jacobian enables us to calculate the full Lyapunov spectrum. We solved the dynamics in numerically exact event-based simulations and calculated Lyapunov spectra, entropy production rate and attractor dimension. We examined the transition from constant to stochastic input in various scenarios. We find a suppression of chaos by input spike trains. We also find that both independent bursty input spike trains and common input more strongly reduces chaos in spiking networks. Our study extends studies of chaotic rate models [Molgedey et al. 1992] to spiking neuron models and opens a novel avenue to study the role of sensory streams in shaping the dynamics of large networks.

  14. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  15. Geodetic Glacier Mass Balance of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, L. M.; Elvehøy, H.; Kjøllmoen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in mainland Norway cover 2692 km2and span a large range from south to north. Glacier surface mass balance is monitored by the direct (also called glaciological, traditional or conventional) method and indirectly assessed by the geodetic (or cartographic) method. The current glacier monitoring programme includes direct surface mass-balance investigations on 14 glaciers. Since measurements started at Storbreen in 1949, mass balance has been measured on a total of 43 glaciers. The accuracy of the direct measurements depends on both the accuracy of the point observations and inter- and extrapolation of point values to spatially distributed values. Long series of measurements can be inhomogeneous because of changes in personnel, methods, and glacier topography. Reanalysing glacier mass balance series is recommended as standard procedure for every mass balance monitoring programme with increasing importance for long time series. Repeated, detailed glacier mapping by aerial photography and photogrammetric methods, and recently by laser scanning (LIDAR), have been performed to calculate geodetic mass balance. The geodetic results are used as an independent check of the direct method as well as to monitor volume, area and mass changes of glaciers that lack direct measurements. Since 2007, LIDAR campaigns have been conducted on a 1/3 of the glacier area in Norway including all current mass balance glaciers. The objectives of the surveys are to produce high quality digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos to document the present state of the glaciers and assess glacier changes since previous surveys. Furthermore, the DEMs and orthophotos provide an accurate baseline for future repeated mapping and glacier change detection. Here we present geodetic mass balance results for Norway over the last 50 years and compare the results with the direct in-situ measurements where available. We also show examples of how glacier mass balance data are being reanalyzed

  16. Analytical insights into optimality and resonance in fish swimming

    PubMed Central

    Kohannim, Saba; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides analytical insights into the hypothesis that fish exploit resonance to reduce the mechanical cost of swimming. A simple body–fluid fish model, representing carangiform locomotion, is developed. Steady swimming at various speeds is analysed using optimal gait theory by minimizing bending moment over tail movements and stiffness, and the results are shown to match with data from observed swimming. Our analysis indicates the following: thrust–drag balance leads to the Strouhal number being predetermined based on the drag coefficient and the ratio of wetted body area to cross-sectional area of accelerated fluid. Muscle tension is reduced when undulation frequency matches resonance frequency, which maximizes the ratio of tail-tip velocity to bending moment. Finally, hydrodynamic resonance determines tail-beat frequency, whereas muscle stiffness is actively adjusted, so that overall body–fluid resonance is exploited. PMID:24430125

  17. An analytical method for regional dental manpower training.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, P J; Foley, W J; Schneider, D P

    1978-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for dental manpower planning for use by Health Systems Agencies. The planning methods discard geopolitical boundaries in favor of Dental Service Areas (DSA). A method for defining DSAs by aggregating Minor Civil Divisions based on current population mobility and current distribution of dentists is presented. The Dental Manpower Balance Model (DMBM) is presented to calculate shortages (or surpluses) of dentists. This model uses sociodemographic data to calculate the demand for dental services and age adjusted productivity measures to calculate the effective supply of dentists. A case study for the HSA region in Northeastern New York is presented. The case study demonstrates that, although the planning methods are quite simple, they are more flexible and produce more sensitive results than the normative ratio method of manpower planning. PMID:10308627

  18. An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.

  19. An analytic approach to optimize tidal turbine fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, P.; Metzler, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by global warming due to CO2-emission various technologies for harvesting of energy from renewable sources are developed. Hydrokinetic turbines get applied to surface watercourse or tidal flow to gain electrical energy. Since the available power for hydrokinetic turbines is proportional to the projected cross section area, fields of turbines are installed to scale shaft power. Each hydrokinetic turbine of a field can be considered as a disk actuator. In [1], the first author derives the optimal operation point for hydropower in an open-channel. The present paper concerns about a 0-dimensional model of a disk-actuator in an open-channel flow with bypass, as a special case of [1]. Based on the energy equation, the continuity equation and the momentum balance an analytical approach is made to calculate the coefficient of performance for hydrokinetic turbines with bypass flow as function of the turbine head and the ratio of turbine width to channel width.

  20. Runoff, precipitation, mass balance, and ice velocity measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1993 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Wash., to determine the winter and net balance for the 1993 balance year. The 1993 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.98 meters, and the net balance was -1.23 meters. This negative valance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature, barometric pressure, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. Surface ice velocity was measured over an annual period. This report makes all these data available to users throughout the glaciological and climato1ogical community.

  1. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} Weight transfer functions for Monte Carlo simulation of coagulation. {yields} Efficient support for single-particle growth processes. {yields} Comparisons to analytic solutions and soot formation problems. {yields} Better numerical accuracy for less common particles. - Abstract: A class of coagulation weight transfer functions is constructed, each member of which leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. These algorithms are based on systems of weighted computational particles and the weight transfer functions are constructed such that the number of computational particles does not change during coagulation events. The algorithms also facilitate the simulation of physical processes that change single particles, such as growth, or other surface reactions. Four members of the algorithm family have been numerically validated by comparison to analytic solutions to simple problems. Numerical experiments have been performed for complex laminar premixed flame systems in which members of the class of stochastic weighted particle methods were compared to each other and to a direct simulation algorithm. Two of the weighted algorithms have been shown to offer performance advantages over the direct simulation algorithm in situations where interest is focused on the larger particles in a system. The extent of this advantage depends on the particular system and on the quantities of interest.

  2. Analytics for massive heat maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah; Nakamura, Grant; Love, Douglass

    2009-01-01

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow near real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  3. Analytics for Massive Heat Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.; Nakamura, Grant C.; Love, Douglas V.

    2009-01-19

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  4. Using Analytical Techniques to Interpret Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes techniques for interpreting the balance sheet and the statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes-in-fund-balance sections of the comprehensive annual financial report required of all school districts. Uses three tables to show intricacies involved and focuses on analyzing favorable and unfavorable budget variances. (MLH)

  5. Static balancing of planar articulated robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, Giuseppe; Yin, Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Static balancing for a manipulator's weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.

  6. The human balance system and gender.

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Grażyna; Tomaszewski, Marek; Olejarz, Piotr; Warchoł, Jan; Różańska-Boczula, Monika; Maciejewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The human body balance system is a complex system of organs and mechanisms, which generate postural reactions to counter the displacement from the equilibrium position of the body centre of gravity, and which control eye movement in order to maintain a stable image of the environment. Computerised Dynamic Posturography (CDP) allows for a quantitative and objective assessment of the sen- sory and motor components of the body balance control system as well as of the integration and adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine the differences, when maintaining body balance, based on the gender of young, healthy people using CDP. The study was carried out on a group of 43 healthy subjects by comparing the effectiveness of the balance system in 22 women and 21 men aged between 20 and 26 years, between 171 and 177 cm in height, and without any clinical symptoms of balance disorders. The men and women were selected such that they did not differ significantly in height and BMI. Using the Equitest posturograph manufactured by NeuroCom International Inc. the following tests were performed: Sensory Organisation Test (SOT), Motor Control Test (MCT) and the Adaptation Test (ADT). The gender of young healthy individuals without any clinical symptoms of balance disorders also does not affect the effectiveness of the sensory system and the use of this signal in maintaining body balance. PMID:25952976

  7. Balanced Identity in the Minimal Groups Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Yarrow

    2013-01-01

    Balanced Identity Theory [1] formalizes a set of relationships between group attitude, group identification, and self-esteem. While these relationships have been demonstrated for familiar and highly salient social categories, questions remain regarding the generality of the balance phenomenon and its causal versus descriptive status. Supporting the generality and rapidity of cognitive balance, four studies demonstrate that the central predictions of balance are supported even for previously unfamiliar “minimal” social groups to which participants have just been randomly assigned. Further, supporting a causal as opposed to merely descriptive interpretation, manipulating any one component of the balance model (group attitude, group identification, or self-esteem) affects at least one of the related components. Interestingly, the broader pattern of cognitive balance was preserved across such manipulations only when the manipulation strengthens as opposes to weakens the manipulated construct. Taken together, these findings indicate that Balanced Identity Theory has promise as a general theory of intergroup attitudes, and that it may be able to shed light on prior inconsistencies concerning the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup bias. PMID:24391912

  8. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine. The in-line engine is indicated in the patent as having a crankshaft having crank arms configured at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to a piston assembly within each of the cylinders. This crankshaft and assembly, which serves as a balancer structure as one of its applications, is further characterized in the patent as consisting of a number of component parts. The first component described is a single countershaft adjacent and parallel to the crankshaft. It is specified in the patent that this countershaft must rotate at the same speed as the crankshaft but in an opposite direction in order to fulfill its role in the balancer structure. The patent also details an element of the balancer structure which consists of a means utilizing counterweights mounted on the crankshaft at the first and third cylinder positions. These weights are indicated as partially balancing the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the entire inertia forces of rotating masses present in the described engine. The required position of these counterweights is indicated as being a location more than 90/sup 0/ from the crank arm for the corresponding cylinder and perpendicular to the second cylinder crank arm. The last component described consists of two balancers mounted on both ends of the countershaft which balance the remainder of the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the inertia of the crankshaft about axes perpendicular to itself.

  9. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  10. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  11. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  12. Graph signatures for visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan; Chin, George; Mackey, Patrick; Perrine, Ken

    2006-01-01

    We present a visual analytics technique to explore graphs using the concept of a data signature. A data signature, in our context, is a multidimensional vector that captures the local topology information surrounding each graph node. Signature vectors extracted from a graph are projected onto a low-dimensional scatterplot through the use of scaling. The resultant scatterplot, which reflects the similarities of the vectors, allows analysts to examine the graph structures and their corresponding real-life interpretations through repeated use of brushing and linking between the two visualizations. The interpretation of the graph structures is based on the outcomes of multiple participatory analysis sessions with intelligence analysts conducted by the authors at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The paper first uses three public domain data sets with either well-known or obvious features to explain the rationale of our design and illustrate its results. More advanced examples are then used in a customized usability study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. The study results reveal not only the limitations and weaknesses of the traditional approach based solely on graph visualization, but also the advantages and strengths of our signature-guided approach presented in the paper.

  13. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  14. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  15. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-08-02

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  16. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-11-15

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  17. Method of identity analyte-binding peptides

    DOEpatents

    Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for affinity chromatography or adsorption of a designated analyte utilizes a paralog as the affinity partner. The immobilized paralog can be used in purification or analysis of the analyte; the paralog can also be used as a substitute for antibody in an immunoassay. The paralog is identified by screening candidate peptide sequences of 4-20 amino acids for specific affinity to the analyte.

  18. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    SciTech Connect

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z.; Varani, L.

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  19. Method of identity analyte-binding peptides

    DOEpatents

    Kauvar, L.M.

    1990-10-16

    A method for affinity chromatography or adsorption of a designated analyte utilizes a paralog as the affinity partner. The immobilized paralog can be used in purification or analysis of the analyte; the paralog can also be used as a substitute for antibody in an immunoassay. The paralog is identified by screening candidate peptide sequences of 4--20 amino acids for specific affinity to the analyte. 5 figs.

  20. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Geuze, Reint H

    2003-11-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance problems (DCD-BP) and 24 matched control children in the age range of 6-12 years participated in a detailed study of balance control. Additional groups of children (6-7 years, N=25; 10-11 years, n=16; with M-ABC scores >15th percentile) were selected randomly to study developmental changes in balance control in the age range of interest. Three experiments were conducted to examine developmental and clinical differences in the control of static balance. In the first, we measured the excursion of the centre of pressure (force-plate) in conditions with and without vision while standing still on one or two legs for 20 s. In the second experiment, EMGs were measured while standing on one leg. In the third experiment, in which only a subgroup of the DCD-BP and matched control children participated, a short unexpected force in the back lightly perturbed normal standing and EMG and force-plate responses were measured during balance recovery. In conditions of one-leg stance, children were not always able to maintain balance. Only epochs of stable postural control (7.5-20 s) were analysed. The results showed improvement of static balance with age, but only subtle differences between the DCD and control groups. Centre of pressure measures differed in the more difficult conditions. DCD-BP children had more difficulty standing on one leg with eyes closed. While standing on the non-preferred leg the EMGs of the DCD-BP children showed slightly more co-activation of the muscles of lower and upper leg. Perturbation of standing resulted in longer duration of recovery in the first trial in this group. Apparently DCD children learn to compensate for the perturbation within a few trials as well as

  1. Towards an Understanding of Atmospheric Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    During a 35 year period I published 30+ pear-reviewed papers and technical reports concerning, in part or whole, the topic of atmospheric balance. Most used normal modes, either implicitly or explicitly, as the appropriate diagnostic tool. This included examination of nonlinear balance in several different global and regional models using a variety of novel metrics as well as development of nonlinear normal mode initialization schemes for particular global and regional models. Recent studies also included the use of adjoint models and OSSEs to answer some questions regarding balance. lwill summarize what I learned through those many works, but also present what l see as remaining issues to be considered or investigated.

  2. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  3. Evaluating the global energy balance of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    To understand the weather and climate on Earth as well as on other planets and their moons, scientists need to know the global energy balance, the balance between energy coming in from solar radiation and thermal energy radiated back out of the planet. The energy balance can provide interesting information about a planet. For instance, Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune emit more energy than they absorb, implying that these planets have an internal heat source. Earth, on the other hand, is in near equilibrium, with energy coming in approximately equaling energy going out, though a small energy imbalance can lead to global climate change.

  4. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  5. Strain gage balances and buffet gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    One-piece strain gage force balances were developed for use in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This was accomplished by studying the effects of the cryogenic environment on materials, strain gages, cements, solders, and moisture proofing agents, and selecting those that minimized strain gage output changes due to temperature. In addition, because of the higher loads that may be imposed by the NTF, these balances are designed to carry a larger load for a given diameter than conventional balances. Full cryogenic calibrations were accomplished, and wind tunnel results that were obtained from the Langley 0-3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to verify laboratory test results.

  6. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-07-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  7. Tissue Damage and Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance

    PubMed Central

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O. Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-01-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress. PMID:25610248

  8. Unbalance Response Analysis and Experimental Validation of an Ultra High Speed Motor-Generator for Microturbine Generators Considering Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Chan-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to deal with the rotordynamics of the rotor of an ultra-high speed PM type synchronous motor-generator for a 500 W rated micro gas turbine generator. This paper introduces dynamic analysis, and experiments on the motor-generator. The focus is placed on an analytical approach considering the mechanical dynamic problems. It is essential to deal with dynamic stability at ultra-high speeds. Unbalance response analysis is performed by calculating the unbalance with and without balancing using a balancing machine. Critical speed analysis is performed to determine the operating speed with sufficient separation margin. The unbalance response analysis is compared with the experimental results considering the balancing grade (ISO 1940-1) and predicted vibration displacement with and without balancing. Based on these results, a high-speed motor-generator was successfully developed. PMID:25177804

  9. Unbalance response analysis and experimental validation of an ultra high speed motor-generator for microturbine generators considering balancing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Chan-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to deal with the rotordynamics of the rotor of an ultra-high speed PM type synchronous motor-generator for a 500 W rated micro gas turbine generator. This paper introduces dynamic analysis, and experiments on the motor-generator. The focus is placed on an analytical approach considering the mechanical dynamic problems. It is essential to deal with dynamic stability at ultra-high speeds. Unbalance response analysis is performed by calculating the unbalance with and without balancing using a balancing machine. Critical speed analysis is performed to determine the operating speed with sufficient separation margin. The unbalance response analysis is compared with the experimental results considering the balancing grade (ISO 1940-1) and predicted vibration displacement with and without balancing. Based on these results, a high-speed motor-generator was successfully developed. PMID:25177804

  10. Unbalance response analysis and experimental validation of an ultra high speed motor-generator for microturbine generators considering balancing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Chan-Woo

    2014-08-29

    The objective of the present study was to deal with the rotordynamics of the rotor of an ultra-high speed PM type synchronous motor-generator for a 500 W rated micro gas turbine generator. This paper introduces dynamic analysis, and experiments on the motor-generator. The focus is placed on an analytical approach considering the mechanical dynamic problems. It is essential to deal with dynamic stability at ultra-high speeds. Unbalance response analysis is performed by calculating the unbalance with and without balancing using a balancing machine. Critical speed analysis is performed to determine the operating speed with sufficient separation margin. The unbalance response analysis is compared with the experimental results considering the balancing grade (ISO 1940-1) and predicted vibration displacement with and without balancing. Based on these results, a high-speed motor-generator was successfully developed.

  11. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MEALS, READY-TO-EAT (MRE's), MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS MRE's, Meats, and Related Meat Food Products § 98.... Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test...

  12. Teaching Analytical Chemistry with Automatic Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using automated analytical procedures in providing rapid, inexpensive alternatives to traditional methods and in teaching skills used in many professions and industry. (CP)

  13. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei

    2005-04-12

    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  14. A generalized dynamic balancing procedure for the AH-64 tail rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Newkirk, Mark C.

    2009-09-01

    The tail rotors on the AH-64A Apache and AH-64D Longbow Apache incorporate a unique design, which includes two, two-bladed teetering rotors that have an azimuth spacing of 55°, instead of the more usual 90°. Maintainers have observed that some Apache tail rotors can be extraordinarily difficult to balance dynamically. This investigation uses RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) numerical simulations of tail rotor response when mass is added to the tips of single and adjacent blades to investigate possible causes for this balancing difficulty. The simulations show that the 1/rev, vertical, vibratory force response due to added tip mass varies as a function of the mass distribution between two adjacent blades, and the azimuth spacing between the two blades. As a result, the tail rotor balance sensitivity coefficients, if used as for a single blade, will be inaccurate; and may be a prime contributor to the problems observed while balancing tail rotors. An analytical model of the AH-64D tail rotor, with characteristics similar to the RCAS model, and which incorporates the influence of structural impedance through the balance sensitivity coefficients and phase angles, is used to develop a method for accurately determining the amount of tip mass required to reduce the 1/rev vibrations to acceptable levels.

  15. Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Stears

    2010-07-01

    Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a

  16. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  17. Dynamics of social balance under temporal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Real social contacts are often intermittent such that a link between a pair of nodes in a social network is only temporarily used. The effects of such temporal networks on social dynamics have been investigated for several phenomenological models such as epidemic spreading, linear diffusion processes, and nonlinear oscillations. Here, we numerically investigate nonlinear social balance dynamics in such a situation. Social balance is a classical psychological theory, which dictates that a triad is balanced if the three agents are mutual friends or if the two of them are the friends of each other and hostile to the other agent. We show that the social balance dynamics is slowed down on the temporal complete graph as compared to the corresponding static complete graph.

  18. Principle of Detailed Balance in Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the detailed balance on chemical kinetics on the chemical monomolecular triangle reactions are illustrated. A simple experiment that illustrates oscillations, limit cycles, bifurcations and noise are illustrated along with the oscillating reactions.

  19. A Multipurpose Experiment with an Electronic Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    This short article describes some useful and quick applications of a cooking electronic balance. Newton's third law, Archimedes buoyancy and an estimate of relative density are accomplished in a very simple way. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    DOEpatents

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.