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Sample records for athabasca basin saskatchewan

  1. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

    2011-12-01

    The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, δ13C and δ15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (< 100 ng/g for Σ 16 EPA Priority PAHs at each lake) and in general showed no substantial increases over the past 30 years. Retene, which is often associated with the combustion of coniferous wood, was generally the most abundant PAH amongst those reported, demonstrating the importance of forest fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes δ13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. δ15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values

  2. Quantitative comparisons of the Paleoproterozoic Thelon and Athabasca basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, C. W.; Davis, B. W.; Rainbird, R. H.; Ramaekers, P.; Bosman, S.; Chamberlain, K. R.

    2009-05-01

    Quantitative maximum grain size, conglomerate, clay intraclast, mudstone, siltstone and gamma ray data provide objective and graphically clear multiparameter plots on which to hang sedimentary attributes for basin analysis and sequence stratigraphy of siliciclastic basins. Coupled with paleocurrents, structure, and geochronology such plots provide a robust framework to define 3D geometry and interpret basin development. Quantitative graphical data are more readily absorbed and transferrable between researchers than qualitative pictorial logs, but do not end controversy over correlations - however they do facilitate open discussion and provide additional tools to resolve differences. For example, the Athabasca Group's eleven formations were recently formalized with type and representative sections characterized by 5 parameters (EXTECH IV Athabasca Basin Multidisciplinary Study), and these formations were grouped into four upward-fining siliciclastic sequences separated by three regional unconformities, with the third sequence (1644+/-13 Ma on igneous zircon in tuff) being roughly coeval with 1640-1620 Ma basin-wide fluorapatite cement. The uppermost sequence is capped by tuff-bearing oil shale dated at 1541+/-13 Ma (Re-Os) and stromatolitic carbonate. Questions between areas of dense data separated by sparse data are now being resolved by new quantitative logs of recent drill campaigns, leading to revised and clarified subdivisions of the Manitoba Falls Formation, and better constraints on the underlying Read and Smart formations. However these revisions also raise the possibility that the two middle sequences may be reorganized into one comprising geographically distinct deposystems that entered the basin from the east, northeast and south. In the northeastern Thelon Basin, previous workers had proposed three upward fining siliciclastic sequences based on qualitative sedimentology but were unable to create a geometrically viable 3-D model of either the present

  3. Paleotectonic controls on sedimentation in northern Williston basin area, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    The Williston basin lies within the so-called stable cratonic interior and would not be expected to have had the same intensity of tectonic activity as is generally considered to be characteristic of cratonic margin sedimentary basins. From time to time, however, other structural features appear to have been effective controls on sediment distribution patterns. In southern Saskatchewan, one of the most active of these was the Swift current platform. This feature appears to have been sufficiently positive during early Paleozoic time to have caused a distinct thinning of those sediments over it. The platform was mildly positive during other periods of sedimentation, as well as during periods of erosion. It was a site of widespread salt solution during Mesozoic time, which was also its time of major tectonic fluctuation, as well as being the period when it had the most significant influence on sedimentation. Southeastern Saskatchewan is the locale for some significant regional gravity and magnetic anomalies which appear related to exposed structural zones in the Precambrian Shield. A major gravity anomaly on the extreme eastern side of the province is on trend with the Nelson River zone of Manitoba and a magnetic anomaly (Camfield-Gough conductor zone) can be traced to the Wollaston trend in north-central Saskatchewan. The Camfield-Gough zone is particularly significant in that it lies along the axis of the Hummingbird trough, an area affected by basement-controlled early salt solution, and it extends southward into the United States, where it is flanked by a number of local multizone oil-producing structures in North Dakota and Montana.

  4. An approach for assessing cumulative effects in a model river, the Athabasca River basin.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison J; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G

    2010-01-01

    Novel approaches addressing aquatic cumulative effects over broad temporal and spatial scales are required to track changes and assist with sustainable watershed management. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) requires the assessment of changes due to multiple stressors both spatially and temporally. The province of Alberta, Canada, is currently experiencing significant economic growth as well as increasing awareness of water dependencies. There has been an increasing level of industrial, urban, and other land-use related development (pulp and paper mills, oil sands developments, agriculture, and urban development) within the Athabasca River basin. Much of the historical water quantity and quality data for this basin have not been integrated or analyzed from headwaters to mouth, which affects development of a holistic, watershed-scale CEA. The main objectives of this study were 1) to quantify spatial and temporal changes in water quantity and quality over the entire Athabasca River mainstem across historical (1966–1976) and current day (1996–2006) time periods and 2) to evaluate the significance of any changes relative to existing benchmarks (e.g., water quality guidelines). Data were collected from several federal, provincial, and nongovernment sources. A 14% to 30% decrease in discharge was observed during the low flow period in the second time period in the lower 3 river reaches with the greatest decrease occurring at the mouth of the river. Dissolved Na, sulfate, chloride, and total P concentrations in the second time period were greater than, and in some cases double, the 90th percentiles calculated from the first time period in the lower part of the river. Our results show that significant changes have occurred in both water quantity and quality between the historical and current day Athabasca River basin. It is known that, in addition to climatic changes, rivers which undergo increased agricultural, urban, and industrial development can experience

  5. Analysis of meteorological droughts for the Saskatchewan River Basin using univariate and bivariate approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-03-01

    This study is focused on the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) that spans southern parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the three Prairie Provinces of Canada, where most of the country's agricultural activities are concentrated. The SRB is confronted with immense water-related challenges and is now one of the ten GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Regional Hydroclimate Projects in the world. In the past, various multi-year droughts have been observed in this part of Canada that impacted agriculture, energy and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, proper understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of historical droughts is important for many water resources planning and management related activities across the basin. In the study, observed gridded data of daily precipitation and temperature and conventional univariate and copula-based bivariate frequency analyses are used to characterize drought events in terms of drought severity and duration on the basis of two drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Within the framework of univariate and bivariate analyses, drought risk indicators are developed and mapped across the SRB to delineate the most vulnerable parts of the basin. Based on the results obtained, southern parts of the SRB (i.e., western part of the South Saskatchewan River, Seven Persons Creek and Bigstick Lake watersheds) are associated with a higher drought risk, while moderate risk is noted for the North Saskatchewan River (except its eastern parts), Red Deer River, Oldman River, Bow River, Sounding Creek, Carrot River and Battle River watersheds. Lower drought risk is found for the areas surrounding the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border (particularly, the Saskatchewan River watershed). It is also found that the areas characterized with higher drought severity are also associated with higher drought duration. A comparison of SPI- and SPEI

  6. U redox fronts and kaolinisation in basement-hosted unconformity-related U ores of the Athabasca Basin (Canada): late U remobilisation by meteoric fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercadier, Julien; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel; Lacorde, Mathieu

    2011-02-01

    Proterozoic basement-hosted unconformity-related uranium deposits of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) were affected by significant uranium redistribution along oxidation-reduction redox fronts related to cold and late meteoric fluid infiltration. These redox fronts exhibit the same mineralogical and geochemical features as the well-studied uranium roll-front deposits in siliclastic rocks. The primary hydrothermal uranium mineralisation (1.6-1.3 Ga) of basement-hosted deposits is strongly reworked to new disseminated ores comprising three distinctly coloured zones: a white-green zone corresponding to the previous clay-rich alteration halo contemporaneous with hydrothermal ores, a uranium front corresponding to the uranium deposition zone of the redox front (brownish zone, rich in goethite) and a hematite-rich red zone marking the front progression. The three zones directly reflect the mineralogical zonation related to uranium oxides (pitchblende), sulphides, iron minerals (hematite and goethite) and alumino-phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals. The zoning can be explained by processes of dissolution-precipitation along a redox interface and was produced by the infiltration of cold (<50°C) meteoric fluids to the hydrothermally altered areas. U, Fe, Ca, Pb, S, REE, V, Y, W, Mo and Se were the main mobile elements in this process, and their distribution within the three zones was, for most of them, directly dependent on their redox potential. The elements concentrated in the redox fronts were sourced by the alteration of previously crystallised hydrothermal minerals, such as uranium oxides and light rare earth element (LREE)-rich APS. The uranium oxides from the redox front are characterised by LREE-enriched patterns, which differ from those of unconformity-related ores and clearly demonstrate their distinct conditions of formation. Uranium redox front formation is thought to be linked to fluid circulation episodes initiated during the 400-300 Ma period during

  7. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  8. The Saskatchewan River Basin - a large scale observatory for transdisciplinary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources are under pressure world-wide and face unprecedented challenges - from population growth, economic development, pollution and environmental change. Further, effective water management is becoming increasingly complex, requiring deep understanding of aquatic and terrestrial environments, their vulnerabilities to environmental change, and water management and protection challenges. Important science challenges arise in understanding and managing environmental change. However, with increasing pressures on the environment, it is necessary to recognise the effects of human interventions; flows in many major rivers are strongly affected by operational water management, and large-scale agricultural land management change can affect hydrology, land-atmosphere feedbacks, water quality and habitats. There is a need to represent effects on river flows and groundwater of management decisions, and more generally to understand impacts of policy, governance and societal values on water futures. This research agenda poses important challenges to the science community. Observational data are necessary, across multiple scales, to understand environmental change. This requires focussed research at intensively monitored sites and small watersheds to improve process understanding and fine-scale models. To understand large-scale effects on river flows and quality, land-atmosphere feedbacks, and regional climate, integrated monitoring, modelling and analysis is needed at large basin scale. And to support water management, new tools are needed for operational management and scenario-based planning that can be implemented across multiple scales and multiple jurisdictions. The 340,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) is being developed as a large scale observatory to support a new level of integration of interdisciplinary science. In one of the most extreme and variable climates in the world, we are developing state-of-the-art hydro-ecological experimental sites in the

  9. Towards a new paradigm of Socio-Hydrology; insights from the Saskatchewan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2011-12-01

    , such as when governance systems are incapable of dealing with climate-induced changes in water supply. Socio-hydrology also incorporates research into the processes by translating traditional scientific information into tools for water decision making. These processes are inherently social and value-based. They depend upon the way various water stakeholders (e.g. municipalities, farmers, mining companies, environmental groups, Aboriginal Peoples) define the problem of water security and the values they place on different aspects of it. Socio-hydrology is at the forefront of efforts to establish and study participatory processes for decision making in the water sector. We illustrate these issues by reference to the inter-provincial Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada. The University of Saskatchewan has established socio-hydrology as a priority research area. Our goal is to integrate hydro-ecological research with social science to study societal responses to water stresses like flooding, drought and nutrient pollution and investigate the potential of existing and new economic and other policy instruments to help communities make sound decisions under uncertainty.

  10. The Saskatchewan River Basin - a large scale observatory for water security research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 336,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Western Canada illustrates many of the issues of Water Security faced world-wide. It poses globally-important science challenges due to the diversity in its hydro-climate and ecological zones. With one of the world's more extreme climates, it embodies environments of global significance, including the Rocky Mountains (source of the major rivers in Western Canada), the Boreal Forest (representing 30% of Canada's land area) and the Prairies (home to 80% of Canada's agriculture). Management concerns include: provision of water resources to more than three million inhabitants, including indigenous communities; balancing competing needs for water between different uses, such as urban centres, industry, agriculture, hydropower and environmental flows; issues of water allocation between upstream and downstream users in the three prairie provinces; managing the risks of flood and droughts; and assessing water quality impacts of discharges from major cities and intensive agricultural production. Superimposed on these issues is the need to understand and manage uncertain water futures, including effects of economic growth and environmental change, in a highly fragmented water governance environment. Key science questions focus on understanding and predicting the effects of land and water management and environmental change on water quantity and quality. To address the science challenges, observational data are necessary across multiple scales. This requires focussed research at intensively monitored sites and small watersheds to improve process understanding and fine-scale models. To understand large-scale effects on river flows and quality, land-atmosphere feedbacks, and regional climate, integrated monitoring, modelling and analysis is needed at large basin scale. And to support water management, new tools are needed for operational management and scenario-based planning that can be implemented across multiple scales and

  11. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  12. Socio-hydrology and the science-policy interface: a case study of the Saskatchewan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-05-01

    While there is popular perception that Canada is a water-rich country, the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Western Canada exemplifies the multiple threats to water security seen worldwide. It is Canada's major food-producing region and home to globally-significant natural resource development. The SRB faces current water challenges stemming from: (1) a series of extreme events, including major flood and drought events, since the turn of the 21st century, (2) full allocation of existing water resources in parts of the Basin, (3) rapid population growth and economic development, (4) increasing pollution, and (5) fragmented governance that includes the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, various Federal and First Nations responsibilities, and international boundaries. The interplay of these factors has increased competition for increasingly scarce water resources across economic sectors and among provinces, between upstream and downstream users, between environmental flows and human needs, and among people who hold different values about the meaning, ownership, and use of water. These current challenges are set in a context of significant environmental and societal change, including widespread land modification, climate warming, and deep uncertainties about future water supplies. We outline the geographic setting of the SRB and its environmental history, and then discuss the major challenges to water security from: (1) environmental change, (2) rapid growth and economic development, and most importantly, (3) a governance model unsuited to managing complex and uncertain water systems. We conclude with a discussion of the emerging field of socio-hydrology and what it can contribute to knowledge translation, water management, policy, and governance in the SRB and worldwide.

  13. Socio-hydrology and the science-policy interface: a case study of the Saskatchewan River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    While there is a popular perception that Canada is a water-rich country, the Saskatchewan River basin (SRB) in Western Canada exemplifies the multiple threats to water security seen worldwide. It is Canada's major food-producing region and home to globally significant natural resource development. The SRB faces current water challenges stemming from (1) a series of extreme events, including major flood and drought events since the turn of the 21st century, (2) full allocation of existing water resources in parts of the basin, (3) rapid population growth and economic development, (4) increasing pollution, and (5) fragmented and overlapping governance that includes the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, various Federal and First Nations responsibilities, and international boundaries. The interplay of these factors has increased competition for water across economic sectors and among provinces, between upstream and downstream users, between environmental flows and human needs, and among people who hold different values about the meaning, ownership, and use of water. These current challenges are set in a context of significant environmental and societal change, including widespread land modification, rapid urbanization, resource exploitation, climate warming, and deep uncertainties about future water supplies. We use Sivapalan et al.'s (2012) framework of socio-hydrology to argue that the SRB's water security challenges are symptoms of dynamic and complex water systems approaching critical thresholds and tipping points. To Sivapalan et al.'s (2012) emphasis on water cycle dynamics, we add the need for governance mechanisms to manage emergent systems and translational science to link science and policy to the socio-hydrology agenda.

  14. Changing Cold Regions: Addressing Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Stewart, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    The cold interior region of Western Canada east of the Continental Divide from the US border to the Arctic Ocean has one of the world's most extreme and variable climates and is experiencing rapid environmental change. Climate warming and precipitation change have resulted in altered patterns of snowfall and snowmelt, conversion of snowfall to rainfall, loss of glaciated area and thawing of permafrost. Effects of these changes on terrestrial ecosystems include changing alpine and arctic treelines, extreme variability in Prairie wetland extent and storage of subsurface water in soil and groundwater, "browning" of the boreal forest and prairie aspen woodlands, forest conversion to wetlands in areas of permafrost loss, increased tundra shrub height and coverage, with associated impacts on snow accumulation and melt and ground thaw regimes. These atmospheric, cryospheric and ecological changes have produced changes to water storage and cycling with lower, earlier and more variable streamflow from the Western Cordillera, earlier and more variable Prairie streamflow, more variable agricultural soil moisture, substantially earlier and sometimes higher streamflows with greater winter baseflows in the North, and indications of changes in extreme precipitation events and resulting flooding and drought. The recently formed Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) will investigate the integrated response of mountain, boreal forest, prairie and sub-arctic biomes to climate change at the scales of the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins and the regional climate system. The multi-prong approach will first inventory and evaluate observable recent change in the Earth system state, fluxes and variability, and then explore the complex interrelationships of changing Earth system processes through the development of improved models and their application in diagnosis and prediction at multiple scales, from small headwater basins to large river basins, major biomes and the regional

  15. Winnipegosis case history: Tableland Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, N.E.; Martindale, W.

    1988-02-01

    The geology and history of exploration in the Tableland area of southeast Saskatchewan will be reviewed in relation to a major Middle Devonian Winnipegosis oil discovery made in 1986 by Home Oil. Southern Saskatchewan is underlain by the northern third of the Williston basin. Although rich oil deposits have been found in the Devonian of the basin on the American side, dry holes have been the rule in Saskatchewan except for the Hummingbird Upper Devonian Birdbear discovery in 1966. The long history of failures in the Winnipegosis Formation had led to a general reluctance in the industry to drill deep wells especially with today's lower crude prices. Based on geology, seismic data, and modeling, Home Oil drilled Tableland 08-22-002-09W2M in february 1986 and encountered an oil-bearing Winnipegosis reef. This well has the highest production rate of any well in Saskatchewan and is the first commercially significant Winnipegosis well in a basinal setting within the Williston basin. A state-of-the-art pseudo 3-D processing of all the existing 2-D seismic data was performed to aid in choosing development well locations. As a result of this discovery, deep exploration plays in southeast Saskatchewan are now being pursued aggressively by many companies.

  16. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  17. Interim report on studies of uranium, thorium, and lead migration at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead is being examined in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphased sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. However, the isotopic composition of lead missing from the ores is different from that found in the overlying sandstones. The two types of rocks do not appear to represent complements with respect to a source and a repository for lead.

  18. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  19. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  20. Athabasca Valles, Mars: A lava-draped channel system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Dundas, C.M.; Russell, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava - the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  1. Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W L; Keszthelyi, L P; McEwen, A S; Dundas, C M; Russell, P S

    2007-09-21

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava-the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  2. Hummingbird structure in southeastern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    Saskatchewan's first Devonian oil pool was discovered September 1966, at Hummingbird, 45 mi (72 km) southwest of Weyburn, Saskatchewan. The Hummingbird structure, located on the northwest flank of the Williston basin, is domal is nature and covers approximately 1 mi/sup 2/ (2.6 km/sup 2/). Oil production is from two zones. The Ratcliffe Member of the Mississippian Charles Formation produces from an algal and bioclastic limestone averaging 49 ft (15 m) thick. The Devonian Birdbear Formation produces from a finely crystalline vuggy dolomite averaging 56 ft (17 m) thick. The Hummingbird structure is a sedimentary structure resulting from multiple-stage salt solution and collapse. Recurring local solution of Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time resulted in collapse of overlying strata and deposition of compensating thicknesses of Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken sediments. Between Mississippian and Cretaceous time, solution of Prairie Evaporite in the surrounding area caused collapse of all super-Prairie evaporite beds. The extra Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken strata at Hummingbird created the structure. Vertical migration of formation waters along a high-angle fault is suggested as the cause of the local salt solution at Hummingbird.

  3. Athabasca Vallis Streamlined 'Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-322, 12 December 2002

    Tremendous floods carved these tear drop-shaped landforms in Athabasca Vallis in the Cerberus region, south of the Elysium volcanoes. The orientation of the streamlined forms indicate that the fluid flowed from the right/upper right toward the left/lower left (from the northeast to the southwest). Similar features occur in central and eastern Washington in the northwestern United States. The examples in Washington formed when massive amounts of water rushed across the landscape, scouring a 'channeled scabland' during the last Ice Age, roughly 12,000-13,000 years ago. The features on Mars are much older; while the absolute age cannot be determined, the small impact craters with rayed ejecta patterns on the flood surfaces indicate it must be much, much older than the flood landscape in Washington. This is a mosaic of six Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired in 1999 through 2002. Illumination is from the left. The mosaic covers an area 11.9 km (7.4 mi) by 13.0 km (8.1 mi). The full-size mosaic has a resolution of 4 meters (13 ft) per pixel.

  4. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2009-01-01

    We are approaching the end of the third year of mapping the Athabasca Valles region of Mars. The linework has been adjusted in response to new CTX images and we are on schedule to submit the 4 MTM quads (05202, 05207, 10202, 10207) and ac-companying paper by the end of this fiscal year.

  5. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  6. Saskatchewan and Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Surface brightness contrasts accentuated by a thin layer of snow enable a network of rivers, roads, and farmland boundaries to stand out clearly in these MISR images of southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. The lefthand image is a multi-spectral false-color view made from the near-infrared, red, and green bands of MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The righthand image is a multi-angle false-color view made from the red band data of the 60-degree aftward camera, the nadir camera, and the 60-degree forward camera. In each image, the selected channels are displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The data were acquired April 17, 2001 during Terra orbit 7083, and cover an area measuring about 285 kilometers x 400 kilometers. North is at the top.

    The junction of the Assiniboine and Qu'Apelle Rivers in the bottom part of the images is just east of the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border. During the growing season, the rich, fertile soils in this area support numerous fields of wheat, canola, barley, flaxseed, and rye. Beef cattle are raised in fenced pastures. To the north, the terrain becomes more rocky and forested. Many frozen lakes are visible as white patches in the top right. The narrow linear, north-south trending patterns about a third of the way down from the upper right corner are snow-filled depressions alternating with vegetated ridges, most probably carved by glacial flow.

    In the lefthand image, vegetation appears in shades of red, owing to its high near-infrared reflectivity. In the righthand image, several forested regions are clearly visible in green hues. Since this is a multi-angle composite, the green arises not from the color of the leaves but from the architecture of the surface cover. Progressing southeastward along the Manitoba Escarpment, the forested areas include the Pasquia Hills, the Porcupine Hills, Duck Mountain Provincial Park, and Riding Mountain National Park. The forests are brighter in the nadir than at the

  7. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2008-01-01

    Two factors drive us to map the Athabasca Valles area in unusual detail: (1) the extremely well-preserved and exposed surface morphologies and (2) the extensive high resolution imaging. In particular, the near-complete CTX coverage of Athabasca Valles proper and the extensive coverage of its surroundings have been invaluable. The mapping has been done exclusively in ArcGIS, using individual CTX, THEMIS VIS, and MOC frames overlying the THEMIS IR daytime basemap. MOLA shot points and gridded DTMs are also included. It was found that CTX images processed through ISIS are almost always within 300 m of the MOLA derived locations, and usually within tens of meters, with no adjustments to camera pointing. THEMIS VIS images appear to be systematically shifted to the southwest of their correct positions and MOC images are often kilometers off. The good SNR and minimal artifacts make the CTX images vastly more useful than the THEMIS VIS or MOC images. The bulk of the mapping was done at 1:50,000 scale on CTX images. In more complex areas, mapping at 1:24,000 proved necessary. The CTX images were usually simultaneously viewed on a second monitor using the ISIS3 qview program to display the full dynamic range of the CTX data. Where CTX data was not available, mapping was often done at 1:100,000 and most contacts are mapped as approximate.

  8. Libraries in Saskatchewan: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/saskatchewan.html Libraries in Saskatchewan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prince Albert PAPHR Library Library, Victoria Hospital 1200 - 24th Street West Prince ...

  9. Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    The Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey involved 16 literacy programs offered by the regional colleges, public libraries, and technical institutes throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The 2-month survey acquired information for an overview of the current state of older adults and literacy in Saskatchewan through mailed…

  10. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  11. Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

  12. Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E

    2013-07-01

    Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) (p < 0.05), whereas summer peak flows (May-July) were significantly lower than before the dam showing that regulation has significantly altered seasonal flow regimes. During spring freshet and summer high flows, the Peace River strongly influenced the quality of the Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months

  13. Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E

    2013-07-01

    Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) (p < 0.05), whereas summer peak flows (May-July) were significantly lower than before the dam showing that regulation has significantly altered seasonal flow regimes. During spring freshet and summer high flows, the Peace River strongly influenced the quality of the Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months

  14. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  15. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining.

    PubMed

    Sauchyn, David J; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H

    2015-10-13

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  16. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    PubMed Central

    Sauchyn, David J.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world’s third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  17. Athabasca University Fact Book 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnew, John

    Comprehensive information on Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada, is provided for 1981-1982. The univeristy collaborates with other institutions, notably the Universities of Alberta and Calgary, the Native Education Council, and North Island College in British Columbia. To promote understanding of the statistical data, a narrative description of…

  18. Ozonation of Canadian Athabasca asphaltene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Zhixiong

    Application of ozonation in the petrochemical industry for heavy hydrocarbon upgrading has not been sufficiently explored. Among heavy hydrocarbons, asphaltenes are the heaviest and the most difficult fractions for analysis and treatment. Therefore, ozonation of asphaltenes presents an interesting application in the petrochemical industry. Commercial application of ozonation in the petrochemical industry has three obstacles: availability of an ozone-resistant and environmentally friendly solvent, the precipitation of ozonation intermediates during reaction, and recovery of the solvent and separation of the ozonation products. Preliminary ozonation of Athabasca oil sands asphaltene in nonparticipating solvents encountered serious precipitation of the ozonation intermediates. The precipitated intermediates could be polymeric ozonides and intermolecular ozonides or polymeric peroxides. Because the inhomogeneous reaction medium caused low ozone efficiency, various participating solvents such as methanol and acetic acid were added to form more soluble hydroperoxides. The mass balance results showed that on average, one asphaltene molecule reacted with 12 ozone molecules through the electrophilic reaction and the subsequent decomposition of ozonation intermediates generated acetone extractable products. GC/MS analysis of these compounds indicated that the free radical reactions could be important for generation of volatile products. The extensively ozonated asphaltene in the presence of participating solvents were refluxed with methanol to generate more volatile products. GC/MS analysis of the methanol-esterified ozonation products indicated that most volatile products were aliphatic carboxylic acid esters generated through cleavage of substituents. Reaction kinetics study showed that asphaltene ozonation was initially a diffusion rate-controlled reaction and later developed to a chemical reaction rate-controlled reaction after depletion of the reactive aromatic sites

  19. Clustered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Evidence for sediment deposition during floodwater ponding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique clustering of layered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles is hypothesized to reflect a significant hydraulic event. The forms, interpreted as sedimentary, are attributed to extensive sediment deposition during ponding and then streamlining of this sediment behind flow obstacles during ponded water outflow. These streamlined forms are analogous to those found in depositional basins and other loci of ponding in terrestrial catastrophic flood landscapes. These terrestrial streamlined forms can provide the best opportunity for reconstructing the history of the terrestrial flooding. Likewise, the streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles may provide the best opportunity to reconstruct the recent geologic history of this young Martian outflow channel. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Saskatchewan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... contrasts accentuated by a thin layer of snow enable a network of rivers, roads, and farmland boundaries to stand out clearly in these ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  1. Saskatchewan Urban Training Needs Assessment Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    As part of its annual planning process, Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) conducts a number of formal and informal consultations with various stakeholders to research training needs that are not currently met by the SIAST. The main purpose of the SIAST Urban Training Needs Assessment (SUTNA) 2000 Report is two-fold:…

  2. Saskatchewan's Rural Communities in an Urbanizing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabler, Jack C.; Olfert, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Uses central place theory and a trade center hierarchy to examine changes in size and function of communities in Saskatchewan, 1961-90. Finds shift of population to larger centers and pronounced decline in hierarchical level of smaller trade centers, leading to questions of smaller communities' feasibility, Suggests possibility of coordination…

  3. Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peta

    2007-01-01

    Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

  4. Open Technologies at Athabasca University's Geospace Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories feature two auroral observation sites situated in the subauroral zone of western Canada, separated by approximately 25 km. These sites are both on high-speed internet and ideal for observing phenomena detectable from this latitude, which include noctilucent clouds, meteors, and magnetic and optical aspects of the aurora. General aspects of use of Linux in observatory management are described, with emphasis on recent imaging projects involving control of high resolution digital SLR cameras at low cadence, and inexpensive white light analog video cameras at 30 Hz. Linux shell scripts are extensively used, with image capture controlled by gphoto2, the ivtv-utils package, x264 video coding library, and ffmpeg. Imagemagick allows processing of images in an automated fashion. Image archives and movies are created and can be correlated with magnetic data. Much of the magnetic data stream also uses GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) within shell scripts for display. Additionally, SPASE metadata are generated for most of the magnetic data, thus allowing users of our AUTUMN magnetic data repository to perform SPASE queries on the dataset. Visualization products from our twin observatories will be presented.

  5. Regional trends in radiogenic heat generation in the Precambrian basement of the Western Canadian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. W.; Majorowicz, J. A.

    Radiogenic heat generation values for 381 basement samples from 229 sites in the western Canadian basin exhibit a lognormal frequency distribution. The mean value = 2.06 (S.D. = 1.22) µWm-3 is larger than the radiogenic heat generation values reported for the shield in the Superior (ca. 1.2 µWm-3, Jessop and Lewis, 1978) and Churchill (ca. 0.7 µWm-3, Drury, 1985) provinces. When equal Log A contour intervals are used to map the basement heat generation, three large zones of relatively high heat generation are found. One coincides with the Peace River Arch basement structure and one with the Athabasca axis (Darnley, 1981). There is no apparent indication of increased heat flow through the Paleozoic formations associated with these two zones. The third zone, in southwestern Saskatchewan, coincides with a high heat flow zone in the Swift Current area. The lack of correlation between heat flow and heat generation in Alberta may be due to the disturbance to the heat flow in the Paleozoic formations by water motion, or may indicate that the heat is from uranium, thorium and potassium isotope enrichment near the basement surface rather than enrichment throughout the entire upper crust.

  6. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Munyikwa, Ken; Bredeson, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology and astronomy courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on process in the Solar System on bodies other than Earth. This process-oriented course uses W. F. Hartmann's "Moons and Planets" as its textbook. It primarily approaches the subject from an astronomy and physics perspective. Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, is based on the same textbook, but explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the solar system is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the solar system as well as the age of earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the solar system, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols about 15-30 students annually. The courses are delivered online via Moodle and student evaluation is conducted through assignments and invigilated examinations.

  7. Magnetism of the lower crust: Observations from the Chipman Domain, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Webber, Jeffery; Williams, Michael; Regan, Sean; Seaman, Sheila

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic properties of lower crustal rocks produce anomalies seen in satellite, aeromagnetic, and ground studies, and are assumed to be responsible for observed long wave-length anomalies (LWA) of +/- 20 nT. The soon to be launched SWARM satellites will provide extensive data on the magnetization of the lower to middle crust. In anticipation of this event we are investigating magnetic properties in a superbly exposed section of lower crust in northern Saskatchewan. The Athabasca Granulite Terrain (AGT) is a complex region of felsic and mafic lower crustal rocks, part of the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across the Canadian Shield. The AGT is composed of a sequence of rocks identified as lower crustal in origin by their high pressure (> 1.0 GPa) and high temperature (~ 800 °C) metamorphism, dated at 2.6 Ga and 1.9 Ga, with uplift and exhumation at 1.85-1.80 Ga. The AGT is characterized by low (negative) aeromagnetic anomalies with distinct large positive anomalies in the southern and central regions. The Chipman Domain, on the east side, consists of tonalites, mafic granulites, and granite, intruded by the Chipman dike swarm at ~ 1.9 Ga, where anomalies cut across mapped lithologic boundaries. Susceptibility measurements from both field and lab readings range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 × 10- 5 to 3 × 10- 1 SI, with higher values related to both mafic granulite and some tonalite samples. Remanence values also show considerable variability, from 0.1 mA/m to 90 A/m, with the weakest magnetization found in the Chipman dikes and the Fehr granite. Forty samples out of 89 have Koenigsberger ratios greater than 1, but low initial remanence limits its influence on anomalies. Hysteresis and low temperature measurements identify magnetite as the predominant iron oxide. This section of lower crustal rocks has paramagnetic granites and dikes, with ferromagnetic mafic granulites and bimodal tonalites, defined by geographic location.

  8. Comparison of outcropping and buried reefs in Middle Devonian Winnipegosis Formation, Manitoba and Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.; McCabe, H.R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1986, Winnipegosis reefs became prime exploration targets in the Williston basin, following the discovery of producible oil in the Home Tableland 8-22-2-9W2 well in southeast Saskatchewan. An understanding of the facies distribution in these reefs is difficult to acquire since few of them have been penetrated by more than one well. However, the exposed reefs in the Manitoba outcrop belt may be useful to develop facies models applicable to subsurface reefs. Winnipegosis reefs grew in an elongated northwest-trending basin extending from North Dakota to northwest Alberta. The basin was flanked on the west and southeast by an exposed hinterland to which was accreted a carbonate wedge of shallow shelf sediments. The reefs developed on a platform of normal marine carbonates underlying the entire basin. Differentiation into shelf and basin settings occurred after deposition of the platform sediments. The shelf sediments are predominantly lime mudstones and skeletal wackestones with local packstone and grainstone accumulations. The components of these lithologies include brachiopods, crinoids, solitary corals, ostracods, bryozoans, amphiporids, green algae, and peloids. Locally, there are stromatoporoid-coral patch reefs. The basinal deposits include starved-basin sediment consisting of kerogenous lime mudstones with intercalated reef-derived biogenic material, overlain by varvitic couplets of lime mudstone and kerogenous sediment. These pass upward into, and are interbedded with, layered anhydrites that are rich in black organic material either as an admixture to the anhydrite or as thin laminae. These sediments are interrupted by local buildups of lime mudstone, skeletal wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The buildups range in height from 30 to 100 m above the starved-basin sediments. Those in southeast Saskatchewan are between approximately 30 and 60 m.

  9. Indian Education in Saskatchewan. A Report by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikand, Jack, Comp.

    The study was undertaken by the Educational Task Force established during the Saskatchewan Chiefs' Conference, March 1970. The Indians, representing 67 Bands, expressed their concern about the apathy of Indian children to school programs, dropouts, and the near absence of Indian students in universities. Another concern was the Canadian government…

  10. Indian Education in Saskatchewan. A Report by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikand, Jack, Comp.

    The study was undertaken by the Educational Task Force established by the Saskatchewan Chiefs' Conference, March 1970. The Indians, representing 67 Bands, expressed their concern about the apathy of Indian children to school programs, dropouts, and the near absence of Indian students in universities. Another concern was that of the Canadian…

  11. Indians of Saskatchewan. A Report by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikand, Jack, Comp.; And Others

    The study was undertaken by the Educational Task Force established by the Saskatchewan Chiefs' Conference, March 1970. The Indians, representing 67 bands, expressed their concern about the apathy of Indian children to school programs, dropouts, and the near absence of Indian students in universities. Another concern was that of the Canadian…

  12. Standards for Libraries Within Regional Library Systems in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Library Association, Regina.

    These quantitative standards for the delivery of library services to a dispersed population, which were developed by the Saskatchewan Library Association, are based on the decentralized delivery of library services backed up by the centralized provision of technical services, resource people, and special collections in Saskatchewan. The roles of…

  13. MDs remain sceptical as chelation therapy goes mainstream in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M

    1997-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan recently agreed to allow physicians to administer chelation therapy. Supporters, relying on anecdotal evidence, say it works wonders in overcoming heart disease, but many physicians remain profoundly sceptical. In Saskatchewan, the college decision has proved popular with patients but has drawn an angry reaction from doctors. PMID:9307563

  14. Progress in Saskatchewan toward Integration of Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanche, Robert P.; Dahl, Harry G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews (1) data documenting Saskatchewan's progress toward teaching disabled students in mainstream settings; (2) four studies showing the attitudes of preservice and regular classroom teachers toward integrating disabled students; and (3) correlates of special education placement in Saskatchewan. (Author/DB)

  15. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Bredeson, C.; Munyikwa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on the physics of the Solar System and allows the study of planetary astronomy in a deeper way than what is offered in a freshman course. With a mathematically based approach, it looks at the planets and smaller bodies such as meteoroids, asteroids and comets found in our own solar neighbourhood. It provides an understanding of the basic physics and equations needed for studies of planetary science and looks at the formation of the principal bodies in the Solar System. It investigates the interiors of planets and planetary surface phenomena such as cratering, volcanism and tectonics, and examines the atmospheres of planets, including how they originated and whether planets can keep an atmosphere. As a new course, it has grown rapidly.Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the Solar System is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the Solar System as well as the age of Earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the Solar System, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols

  16. Building Regional Capacity for Sustainable Development through an ESD Project Inventory in RCE Saskatchewan, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peta; Petry, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development in Saskatchewan (RCE Saskatchewan, Canada) is part of the United Nations University RCE Initiative in support of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-14). With funding from the Government of Saskatchewan's Go Green Fund, RCE Saskatchewan carried out…

  17. Tularaemia transmitted by ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J R; McLaughlin, B G; Nitiuthai, S

    1983-01-01

    Common wood ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) collected from Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park, Saskatchewan in the spring of 1982 transmitted a lethal tularaemia infection to four of six rabbits. Francisella tularensis organisms were isolated from tissues taken from the dead rabbits and identified from subcultures using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. One human associated with the animals developed symptoms of tularaemia and, after successful therapy, had a significant increase in titre of specific antibodies to F. tularensis. This is the first time tick-transmitted tularaemia has been reported in Saskatchewan in more than 25 years. PMID:6667429

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Saskatchewan Farmers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Michelle; Trask, Catherine; Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) problem is not well understood among Canadian farmers, and little too is known about their epidemiology. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) determine the prevalence of MSDs among farmers in one Canadian province; and (2) describe the types and severities of these disorders and patterns in their occurrence. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline survey data from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study. Reports of MSDs, demographic and health-related variables, reports of farm-related injuries, and economic conditions of individual farms were available for 2595 adult participants from 1212 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Relationships between MSDs and time spent doing farm work were investigated using tests of association. The participation rate was 48.8%. Most (85.6%) of participants reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by shoulders (44.0%), and neck (39.6%). More serious pain prevented 27.9% of respondents from performing regular work activities. MSD prevalence did not vary by sex, commodity type, or by total hours of farm work completed; prevalence was significantly (P < .05) related to time spent performing biomechanically demanding tasks such as heavy lifting and working with arms overhead. The most common MSD site in farmers was the low back, followed by the upper and then lower extremities. Although this study aimed to identify high-risk groups, lack of differences between demographic groups suggests that the majority of farmers are at risk for MSDs. PMID:26237719

  19. SERM Forest Fire Chronology of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naelapea, Ott; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) staff personnel worked with several Canadian agencies to obtain various GIS data for use in the research efforts. This data set is a series of ARC/INFO export files of the fire history of Saskatchewan by year from 1945 to 1996, with a few missing years. The data set was compiled and provided by the Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) Wildlife Branch.

  20. Micrometer scale carbon isotopic study of bitumen associated with Athabasca uranium deposits: Constraints on the genetic relationship with petroleum source-rocks and the abiogenic origin hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangély, L.; Chaussidon, M.; Michels, R.; Brouand, M.; Cuney, M.; Huault, V.; Landais, P.

    2007-06-01

    In situ analytical techniques - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μFTIR) and ion microprobe - have been used to unravel the origin of solid bitumen associated with the uranium deposits of Athabasca (Saskatchewan, Canada). Both aliphaticity and carbon isotopic compositions within the samples are heterogeneous but spatially organized in concentric zonations at the micrometer scale. Finally, the δ13C values are positively correlated to the aliphatic contents over an extremely large isotopic range from ˜ - 49‰ to ˜ - 31‰. We infer that this positive correlation may be related to the carbon isotopic fractionations associated with the synthesis of bitumen through the catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2, rather than the result of pre-existing petroleum product precipitation and/or alteration (such as radiolysis). This explanation is consistent with (i) published results of abiogenic synthesis experiments, in which the differences in δ13C values between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons range from + 2 and + 19‰, in contrast to the differences systematically observed in conventional bitumen and petroleum ranging from 0‰ to - 4‰; (ii) the absence of a similar positive correlation between aliphatic contents and δ13C values in the other bitumen analyzed in the present study, for which a biogenic origin has been unequivocally established (samples from Oklo, Gabon, and Lodève, France, uranium deposits); (iii) the presence of CO 2 and H 2 in the gas-phase of fluid inclusions in the Athabasca uranium deposits, H 2 resulting from water radiolysis. The present results suggest that the δ13C vs. aliphaticity correlation could be used as a criterion to discriminate between abiogenic vs. biogenic origin of macromolecular organic matter.

  1. A Methodology for Calibrating a WATFLOOD Model of the Upper South Saskatchewan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, C. F.; Soulis, R. D.; Craig, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    The upper South Saskatchewan River consists of the Red Deer River, the Bow River, and the Old Man River. With a contributing area of 120,000 km2, these three watersheds flow through a diverse range of land types including mountains, foothills and prairies. Using WATFLOOD, a model has been developed to simulate stream flow in this basin and this model is used as the case study for a straightforward calibration approach. The input for this model is interpolated rainfall data from twenty-three rain gauges throughout the basin, and the model output (stream flow) will be compared to measured stream flow data from thirty stream gauges. The basin is divided into nine land classes and four river classes. Because of the diversity of land types in this basin, proper identification of the parameters for individual land classes and river classes contributes significantly to the accuracy of the model. Critical land class and river class parameters are initially calibrated manually in representative sub-basins (comprised of >90%) of a single land class to determine the effect each parameter has on the system and to determine a reasonable starting estimate of each parameter. Once manual calibration is complete, DDS (Dynamically Dimensioned Search Algorithm) is used to automatically calibrate the model one sub-basin at a time. During this process only the parameters found significant during the manual calibration are altered and focus is on the land classes and river classes that dominate that sub-basin. The process of automated calibration is repeated once more but is done with multiple sub-basins and uses a stream flow weighting method. This is the final step towards a model that is calibrated to represent the diversity of the entire basin. The technique described is intended to be a general method for calibrating a regional scale model with diverse land types. The method is straight forward and allows adjusted parameters to provide relative accuracy over the entire basin.

  2. Four precursors of Medicare in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C Stuart; Massie, Merle

    2009-01-01

    T. C. Douglas, on assuming power in June 1944 as the first social democratic premier in North America, began working in a step-like pattern as finances permitted, toward his goal of eventual province-wide Medicare. Douglas and his team were able to build on the success of bold initiatives already in place in the Depression-scarred rural municipalities of Pittville, Miry Creek, Webb, and Riverside. These municipalities developed medical and hospital plans that offered residents comprehensive coverage with freedom of choice of doctor. Built on idealism, prairie pragmatism and tenacity, these formative health plans served not only as models, but provided the leadership required during the creation and early years of Swift Current Health Region #1. Key figures such as Bill Burak, Carl Kjorven, Stewart Robertson, and Charles Haydon brought experience, depth, and ambition to the task at hand. Envisioned as simply a demonstration region by the Saskatchewan government, HR #1 achieved more: a seamless integration of preventative medicine with medical care, combined with a sense of local empowerment. PMID:20509545

  3. Seismic features of Winnipegosis mounds in Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Gendzwill, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The Winnipegosis Formation of southern Saskatchewan is characterized by reefs or reeflike mounds in its upper member. Several characteristic features of the mounds permit their identification from seismic-reflection data. These features include reflections from the flanks of the mound, a change in the reflection continuity in the middle and base of the mound, a velocity pullup under the mound, and subsidence of strata over the mound. Dissolution of the salt which surrounds the mounds sometimes occurs, resulting in a drape structure. Some or all of these features may be present at the correct seismic stratigraphic level for Winnipegosis mounds, depending on the local conditions. Subsidence of strata over the mounds indicates compaction and porosity loss from the original mound or possibly the degree of dolomitization or pressure dissolution. Salt-removal features over or adjacent to the mounds indicate fluid movements. Approximate ages can be estimated from stratigraphic thinning and thickening relationships above such features. Complications in identifying Winnipegosis mounds may arise from thin-bed effects if the mounds are not very thick compared to a seismic wavelength. Confusion may also arise from anhydrite, which may encase the mounds or which may form a thick horizontal layer at the tops of the mounds, causing an interfering signal.

  4. Four precursors of Medicare in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C Stuart; Massie, Merle

    2009-01-01

    T. C. Douglas, on assuming power in June 1944 as the first social democratic premier in North America, began working in a step-like pattern as finances permitted, toward his goal of eventual province-wide Medicare. Douglas and his team were able to build on the success of bold initiatives already in place in the Depression-scarred rural municipalities of Pittville, Miry Creek, Webb, and Riverside. These municipalities developed medical and hospital plans that offered residents comprehensive coverage with freedom of choice of doctor. Built on idealism, prairie pragmatism and tenacity, these formative health plans served not only as models, but provided the leadership required during the creation and early years of Swift Current Health Region #1. Key figures such as Bill Burak, Carl Kjorven, Stewart Robertson, and Charles Haydon brought experience, depth, and ambition to the task at hand. Envisioned as simply a demonstration region by the Saskatchewan government, HR #1 achieved more: a seamless integration of preventative medicine with medical care, combined with a sense of local empowerment.

  5. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Rates and environmental controls of aeolian dust accumulation, Athabasca River Valley, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Wolfe, Stephen A.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an abundance of sedimentary archives of mineral dust (i.e. loess) accumulations from cold, humid environments, the absence of contemporary process investigations limits paleoenvironmental interpretations in these settings. Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially-fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. High deposition rates, including a maximum of 27,632 kg ha -1 month -1, occur during river low-flow periods, but even the lowest deposition rates, occurring during bankfull periods, exceed other contemporary rates of deposition. High rates of dust deposition may be attributed to geomorphic and climatic controls affecting sediment supply, availability and transport, and biologic factors affecting accumulation. Localized confinement of the Jasper River by tributary river alluvial fans has caused channel expansion upstream, and formation of the shallow depositional basin known as Jasper Lake. This localized sedimentary basin, coupled with large seasonal water level fluctuations and suitably high wind speeds, favors seasonal dust production. In addition, a dense source-proximal coniferous forest stand encourages high dust accumulation, via increased aerodynamic roughness and airflow deceleration. The forest stand also appears to act as an efficient dust filter, with the interception and storage of dust by the forest canopy playing a significant role with regards to secondary fallout and sediment accumulation. Overall, these results provide new insights on the environmental controls of dust entrainment and accumulation in cold, humid settings, and help clarify controls on the formation of Holocene river-sourced loess deposits.

  7. Whose English Counts? Indigenous English in Saskatchewan schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterzuk, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the body of North American literature related to English dialect-speaking Indigenous students schooled in majority group classrooms, this commentary paper explores two aspects of institutional racism at work in Saskatchewan schools: (a) the disproportionate representation of First Nations and Metis students in remedial language and…

  8. Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

  9. Volunteerism and Residential Longevity in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allison M.; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Randall, James; Labonte, Ronald; Kitchen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines volunteerism across three neighbourhood types that are differentiated by socio-economic status (SES) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three neighbourhood types are defined as Low, Middle and High SES. The study used data collected from two telephone surveys (n = 968 in 2001, n = 997 in 2004) using random-digit dialling,…

  10. New Directions for Saskatchewan's Curriculum Guide for Division IV English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrich, Clint

    1984-01-01

    Discusses implications of Saskatchewan's nine-year-old Division IV English curriculum guide of the final report on the quality and future direction of education in the province, published in February 1984 by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Curriculum and Instruction Review. Suggests revision to bring English curricula into line with the new…

  11. Saskatchewan Court of Appeal: marriage commissioners cannot discriminate.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Cynthia; Davies, Christine

    2011-04-01

    The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal has ruled that proposed legislation allowing marriage commissioners to refuse to solemnize same-sex marriages based on religious objections would violate the equality rights of gays and lesbians under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter). The Court expressed its opinion in a Reference involving proposed amendments to the Marriage Act.

  12. Culturally Relevant Teacher Education: A Saskatchewan First Nations Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Linda

    This paper examines culturally relevant teacher education for First Nations undergraduate students, offered by the Department of Indian Education at the University of Regina-affiliated Saskatchewan Indian Federated College. As graduates may want to challenge dominant epistemologies of the schools in which they teach, the program responds to…

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Injury in a Cohort of Saskatchewan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…

  14. Saskatchewan Indian Heritage: The First Two Hundred Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohorecky, Zenon

    Saskatchewan's history of the first Canadians is presented in this 1970 document. Early contributions of these Indians are discussed in terms of food, medicine, democracy, fine arts, language, and culture. Sections of the document are devoted to (1) ancient pursuits during the Ice Age, Agassiz Age, Age of Transition, Age of Diversity, Christian…

  15. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  16. Tracking sandhill crane migration from Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjertaas, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johns, B.W.; Moon, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Four adult sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis rowani) were captured in east-central Saskatchewan, equipped with transmitters, and tracked by satellite to determine if their migration routes and wintering areas would allow their use as guide birds to establish a new migratory flock of whooping cranes (G. americana). Two birds captured near Yorkton died or their transmitters were lost before migration. Two adults from the Overflowing River moved to staging areas in southern Saskatchewan in September. By 29 September, Crane A left Saskatchewan and moved to North Dakota where it remained until late October. By 21 December, it arrived a few km inland from the Gulf Coast near McFaddin, Texas, 3,378 km from its capture location. It remained there until at least 9 March 1995. On 15 March, it was relocated near Grand Island, Nebraska and by 20 April, it had returned to the Overflowing River area. Crane B spent most of September and October near the Quill Lakes, Saskatchewan, then migrated with brief stops in South Dakota and Kansas, arriving 29 November at its winter area near the northwestern comer of the Laguna Madre in Tamaulipas, Mexico, 3,998 km from its summering area. It remained there until at least 25 December, whereafter no further transmissions were received. Because both cranes wintered or migrated near the current whooping crane winter area at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (Aransas), Texas, this population was judged unsuitable to provide guide birds for a new flock of whooping cranes.

  17. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  18. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi.

  19. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi. PMID:25868849

  20. Linking large scale landscape change to water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River, Canada: toward Cumulative Effects Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, N. E.; Westbrook, C. J.; Dubé, M.; Squires, A.

    2010-12-01

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. The accumulation of multiple landscape stressors that interact over space and time are defined as cumulative effects and are subject to Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA), the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. One of the shortcomings of CEA for river systems is determining appropriate indicators of ecosystem health. The Athabasca River is amongst the most stressed river systems in Canada. The lower reaches of the Athabasca River (88,000 km2) were chosen for study because they have been subject to development of a diverse range of land uses. Our objectives were to: i) evaluate land use change in the lower reaches of the Athabasca River Basin from 1976-2006 and ii) identify appropriate CEA indicators by evaluating whether any anthropogenic land use changes can be linked to observed changes in river water quality and quantity in the form of stressor- and- effect- based relationships. Landscape change was quantified with datasets describing forest harvest, forest fires, census of agriculture, census of population, and water consumption, and satellite imagery. River response was quantified with concentration data for six solutes, specific conductance and turbidity, and discharge and river stage data. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses and step-wise, multiple regression. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development (particularly expansion of oil sands mining) and forest cut-blocks, made evident from the satellite imagery and supporting ancillary datasets. Preliminary results suggest appropriate CEA indicators for discharge and water quality in this river may be water abstraction and forest harvest, respectively. The results highlight the

  1. Magnetism of the Lower Crust: Observations from the Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Williams, M. L.; Seaman, S. J.; Regan, S.; Webber, J.; Orlandini, O. F.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic properties of lower crustal rocks produce distinct anomalies observable in satellite, aeromagnetic, and ground studies. Since the time of early satellite studies (POGO and MAGSAT), scientists have known that the lower crust must be responsible for long wavelength anomalies of +/- 20 nT. The soon to be launched SWARM trio of satellites will provide even more detailed information on the magnetization of lower to middle crust. In anticipation of this vast new data set, we are investigating magnetic properties in a superbly exposed section of lower crust in northern Saskatchewan. The Athabasca Granulite Terrain (AGT) is a large and complex domain of both felsic and mafic lower crustal rocks, separating the Churchill province into the Hearne domain (mid-crustal rocks, lower metamorphic grade) from the Rae domain (lower crust rocks, higher metamorphic grade). The AGT is composed of a sequence of gneisses and schists, ranging from gabbro and mafic granulite to tonalite and granite, all identified as lower crustal by their high temperature (~800°C) and high pressure (~1.0 GPa) metamorphism, dated at 2.6 Ga and 1.9 Ga, and subjected to later uplift and exhumation to the surface. Aeromagnetic anomalies over this region vary by over 2000 nT, and distinctly differentiate the AGT from the neighboring Rae and Hearne domains. The AGT is predominantly characterized by low (negative) anomalies with distinct large positives in the southern and central regions. Although the anomalies commonly reflect lithologic boundaries, the central high cuts across mapped units, and characterizes only part of the extensive Chipman Tonalite. In the western parts of the tonalite, ground magnetic traverses reveal steep gradients near and within the Cora Lake shear zone; to the east the Chipman Tonalite becomes non-magnetic. Susceptibility measurements from both field and lab readings range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 x 10-5 to 3 x 10-1, with higher values related to mafic

  2. Climate change, flow regulation and land-use effects on the hydrology of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave System; findings from the Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative.

    PubMed

    Prowse, T D; Beltaos, S; Gardner, J T; Gibson, J J; Granger, R J; Leconte, R; Peters, D L; Pietroniro, A; Romolo, L A; Toth, B

    2006-02-01

    The Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative (NREI) was established in the late 1990s to address important science questions resulting from previous studies undertaken by the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS). This manuscript summarizes the results from a number of reports on hydrologic research conducted on the Peace-Athabasca-Slave river and lake systems. Specific concerns expressed by the NRBS and subsequent NREI focused on how these systems were being affected by climate change, flow regulation and land-use changes. Issues addressed in this report include: the fate of aquatic perched basins within the Peace-Athabasca Delta under historical and future climate trends; the sources of major floods that replenish these basins and how the frequency, magnitude and source areas of such events have changed over time; the synoptic weather patterns and atmospheric teleconnections that are responsible for the generation of major snowmelt runoff that drive major floods; the potential effect that climate and land-use changes might have on basin runoff and delta lake levels; the specific hydro-climatic conditions required to produce major ice-jam floods on the Peace River and how these may be altered by climate change; remote-sensing methods to document delta flooding and vegetation change; and the dual effect of climate and flow regulation on the water levels of Great Slave Lake and how these may affect other nearshore processes, particularly wind seiches, that influence flooding of the Slave River Delta. A review of the major findings and recommendations for future research concludes the report.

  3. Resolving Paragneiss Provenance at Grollier Lake in the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Western Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ply, Dustin

    U-Pb crystallization ages of metamorphic and detrital zircons from all three paragneiss samples fall into the range of ca. 1.85-2.59 Ga, excluding two much older grains. Evidence suggests that the paragneiss of Grollier Lake record deformation exclusively from the Taltson and Trans-Hudson orogenies. It is apparent from geochronological data that the Taltson orogeny played an exceedingly larger role in the deformation of these rocks than the Trans-Hudson. Deposition of the paragneiss protoliths most likely culminated between ca. 2037-1994 Ma with metamorphism ceasing by 1852.1 +/- 11.1 Ma. The oldest overgrowth considered to be concordant is 1994 +/- 12 Ma and interpreted to represent the first signature of burial facilitated by the Taltson orogeny. U-Pb crystallization ages ranging from ca. 1872-1900 Ma can be attributed to metamorphisms from both the late Taltson or early Trans-Hudson orogenies given that the transition between these events is hard to delineate. Zircons dated > ca. 2.04 Ga are detrital in origin with U-Pb crystallization ages for these grains possibly being discordant as supported by the concordia diagrams. However, these ages can still be explained by provenance from sources such as the ca. 2.17-2.13 Ga Rutledge River basin to the west of Grollier Lake, and the ca. 2.3 Ga Arrowsmith subduction-related plutons north of Lake Athabasca. Older zircons (2955.6 +/- 10.7 Ma and 3078 +/- 13.9 Ma) in the migmatitic paragneiss are inferred to be inherited from Neoarchean and early Paleoproterozoic crust below. It is possible that rocks of the lower structural levels will record deformation from the Arrowsmith orogeny.

  4. Reconstruction of multi-century flood histories from oxbow lake sediments, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Hall, Roland I.; Last, William M.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; English, Michael C.; Karst-Riddoch, Tammy L.; Paterson, Andrew; Palmini, Roger

    2006-12-01

    Floods caused by ice-jams on the Peace River are considered to be important for maintaining hydro-ecological conditions of perched basins in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada, a highly productive and internationally recognized northern boreal ecosystem. Concerns over the potential linkages between regulation of the Peace River in 1968 for hydroelectric production and low Peace River discharge between 1968 and 1971 during the filling of the hydroelectric reservoir, absence of a major ice-jam flood event between 1975 and 1995, and low water levels in perched basins during the 1980s and early 1990s have sparked numerous environmental studies largely aimed at restoring water levels in the PAD. Lack of sufficient long-term hydrological records, however, has limited the ability to objectively assess the importance of anthropogenic factors versus natural climatic forcing in regulating hydro-ecological conditions of the PAD. Here, we report results of a paleolimnological study on laminated sediments from two oxbow lakes in the PAD, which are located adjacent to major flood distributaries of the Peace River. Sediment core magnetic susceptibility measurements, supported by results from several other physical and geochemical analyses as well as stratigraphic correspondence with recorded high-water events on the Peace River, provide proxy records of flood history spanning the past 180 and 300 years in these two basins. Results indicate that inferred flood frequency has been highly variable over the past 300 years but in decline for many decades beginning as early as the late nineteenth century, well before Peace River regulation. Additionally, several multi-decadal intervals without a major flood have occurred during the past 300 years. While climate-related mechanisms responsible for this variability in flood frequency remain to be determined, as does quantifying the relative roles of river regulation and climate variability on hydro-ecological conditions in the PAD

  5. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  6. Radionuclide analyses of Saskatchewan caribou, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Lichens, the main winter forage for caribou, adsorb radionuclides from air more efficiently than other plants. Caribou, in turn, are the main dietary staple for northern Saskatchewan residents. Uranium mining in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan has prompted a need to assess environmental impacts on both human and non-human biota in the area. The presence of caribou in the Wollaston Lake area in early 1995 allowed measurement of uranium and its decay products in these animals while on winter range relatively close to uranium mines. This report presents results of analyses of radionuclide levels in a variety of tissues from 18 caribou collected from the area in March 1995. Data are used to describe food chain transfer from rumen contents to caribou, and are compared with previous data on caribou in the Northwest Territories. The radionuclides investigated included uranium, radium-226, polonium-210, lead-210, and gamma emitters.

  7. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits.

  8. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin N; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Short, Jeffrey W; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C

    2010-09-14

    We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE-cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc-in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

  9. Athabasca University Library Comes of Age--A Case Study of Planning for and Coping With Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appavoo, Patricia J.

    This paper examines the relocation of Athabasca University, an open-access, distance education institution, from Edmonton to Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, and the effect of that move on the library. Factors that helped make the move successful are discussed, including the 5-year institutional planning process; a government grant for the purchase of…

  10. Evaluation of transition year Canadian test sites. [Saskatchewan Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The spring small grain proportion accuracy in 15 Saskatchewan test sites was found to be comparable to that of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment Phase 3 and Transition Year results in the U.S. spring wheat states. Spring small grain labeling accuracy was 94%, and the direct wheat labeling accuracy was 89%, despite the low barley separation accuracy of 30%.

  11. PAH Measurements in Air in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Harner, Tom; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) measurements were conducted by Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) at four community ambient Air quality Monitoring Stations (AMS) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The 2012 and 2013 mean concentrations of a subset of the 22 PAH species were 9.5, 8.4, 8.8, and 32 ng m(-3) at AMS 1 (Fort McKay), AMS 6 (residential Fort McMurray), AMS 7 (downtown Fort McMurray), and AMS 14 (Anzac), respectively. The average PAH concentrations in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray were in the range of rural and semirural areas, but peak values reflect an industrial emission influence. At these stations, PAHs were generally associated with NO, NO2, PM2.5, and SO2, indicating the emissions were from the combustion sources such as industrial stacks, vehicles, residential heating, and forest fires, whereas the PAH concentrations at AMS 14 (∼35 km south of Fort McMurray) were more characteristic of urban areas with a unique pattern: eight of the lower molecular weight PAHs exhibited strong seasonality with higher levels during the warmer months. Enthalpies calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron plots for these eight PAHs suggest that atmospheric emissions were dominated by temperature-dependent processes such as volatilization at warm temperatures. These findings point to the potential importance of localized water-air and/or surface-air transfer on observed PAH concentrations in air.

  12. PAH Measurements in Air in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Harner, Tom; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) measurements were conducted by Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) at four community ambient Air quality Monitoring Stations (AMS) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The 2012 and 2013 mean concentrations of a subset of the 22 PAH species were 9.5, 8.4, 8.8, and 32 ng m(-3) at AMS 1 (Fort McKay), AMS 6 (residential Fort McMurray), AMS 7 (downtown Fort McMurray), and AMS 14 (Anzac), respectively. The average PAH concentrations in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray were in the range of rural and semirural areas, but peak values reflect an industrial emission influence. At these stations, PAHs were generally associated with NO, NO2, PM2.5, and SO2, indicating the emissions were from the combustion sources such as industrial stacks, vehicles, residential heating, and forest fires, whereas the PAH concentrations at AMS 14 (∼35 km south of Fort McMurray) were more characteristic of urban areas with a unique pattern: eight of the lower molecular weight PAHs exhibited strong seasonality with higher levels during the warmer months. Enthalpies calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron plots for these eight PAHs suggest that atmospheric emissions were dominated by temperature-dependent processes such as volatilization at warm temperatures. These findings point to the potential importance of localized water-air and/or surface-air transfer on observed PAH concentrations in air. PMID:25844542

  13. Magnetic Anomalies and Rock Magnetic Properties Related to Deep Crustal Rocks of the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Athabasca granulite terrane in northernmost Saskatchewan, Canada is an exceptional exposure of lower crustal rocks having experienced several high temperature events (ca 800C) during a prolonged period of deep-crustal residence (ca 1.0 GPa) followed by uplift and exhumation. With little alteration since 1.8 Ga these rocks allow us to study ancient lower crustal lithologies. Aeromagnetic anomalies over this region are distinct and complex, and along with other geophysical measurements, define the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across northwestern Canada, separating the Churchill province into the Hearne (mid-crustal rocks, amphibolite facies) from the Rae (lower crust rocks, granulite facies). Distinct magnetic highs and lows appear to relate roughly to specific rock units, and are cut by mapped shear zones. Over fifty samples from this region, collected from the major rock types, mafic granulites, felsic granulites, granites, and dike swarms, as well as from regions of both high and low magnetic anomalies, are being used to investigate magnetic properties. The intention is to investigate what is magnetic in the lower crust and how it produces the anomalies observed from satellite measurements. The samples studied reveal a wide range of magnetic properties with natural remanent magnetization ranging from an isolated high of 38 A/m to lows of 1 mA/m. Susceptibilities also range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 to 1 x10-4 SI. Magnetite is identified in nearly all samples using both low and high temperature measurements, but concentrations are generally very low. Hysteresis properties on 41 samples reveal nearly equal numbers of samples represented by PSD and MD grains, with a few samples (N=6) plotting in or close to the SD region. Low temperature measurements indicate that most samples contain magnetite, showing a marked Verway transition around 120K. Also identified in nearly half of the samples is pyrrhotite, noted by low temperature

  14. Basaltic Ring Structures as an Analog for Ring Features in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, W. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Baker, V. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Miyamoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Basaltic ring structures (BRSs) are enigmatic, quasi-circular landforms in eastern Washington State that were first recognized in 1965. They remained a subject of geologic scrutiny through the 1970 s and subsequently faded from the spotlight, but recent Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showing morphologically similar structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have sparked renewed interest in BRSs. The only known BRSs occur in the Channeled Scabland, a region where catastrophic Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula eroded into the Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The geologic setting of the martian ring structures (MRSs) is similar; Athabasca Valles is a young channel system that formed when catastrophic aqueous floods carved into a volcanic substrate. This study investigates the formation of terrestrial BRSs and examines the extent to which they are appropriate analogs for the MRSs in Athabasca Valles.

  15. Development and implementation of the Saskatchewan Leadership Program: Leading for healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Mutwiri, Betty; Witt, Christine; Denysek, Christina; Halferdahl, Susan; McLeod, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Leadership Program (SLP) was developed based on the LEADS framework and aligned with Lean management to build leadership renewal and sustainability conducive to transformational change in the Saskatchewan health system. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SLP, including experiences and lessons learned. PMID:26656387

  16. Development and implementation of the Saskatchewan Leadership Program: Leading for healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Mutwiri, Betty; Witt, Christine; Denysek, Christina; Halferdahl, Susan; McLeod, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Leadership Program (SLP) was developed based on the LEADS framework and aligned with Lean management to build leadership renewal and sustainability conducive to transformational change in the Saskatchewan health system. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SLP, including experiences and lessons learned.

  17. RCE Saskatchewan: The Canadian Prairies Create Synergy for Urban and Rural ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahms, Tanya; McMartin, Dena; Petry, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Saskatchewan, Canada, is a province with strong traditions of volunteerism and innovation. In 2001, 36 per cent of its 1 million population was rural, though this was significantly lower than in 1951 when it was 70 per cent (Statistics Canada 2005). Saskatchewan is experiencing higher population growth in urban than in rural regions. Many rural…

  18. Special Education Policy: A Retrospective and Future Prospective--A View from Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Harry; Sanche, Robert

    This paper reviews the history of special education in Saskatchewan (Canada) since the 1960s and proposes policy initiatives for future changes. Emphasis in the discussion is on trends and Canadian reports that led to Saskatchewan's 1971 passing of legislation mandating an "appropriate" free public education with procedural due process,…

  19. SERM Forest Cover Data of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Gruszka, Fern

    2000-01-01

    This data set was acquired as a general provincial scale vegetation cover map and an alternative to the very detailed vector forest cover data available for the BOREAS SSA. The data set was prepared by SERM-FBIU, and is a condensed forest cover type map of Saskatchewan at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The date of the maps from which this data set was generated is unknown; it is estimated that the forest cover maps were made in the mid-1980s.

  20. Avian cholera in waterfowl in Saskatchewan, spring 1977.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Hunter, D B; Wright, B; Nieman, D J; Isbister, R

    1979-01-01

    Avian cholera was diagnosed in lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens), Ross' geese (Anser rossii) and individuals of several other waterfowl species in a small area of south-western Saskatchewan over a 1 month period during the 1977 spring migration. Approximately 250 dead birds were found. This is apparently the first time avian cholera has been reported in migrating waterfowl in Canada. The site of the mortality was midway between the wintering and nesting areas of the two principal species, and the significance of the occurrence of the disease this far north is discussed. PMID:459043

  1. Aerobic bacterial flora of addled raptor eggs in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C S; Saunders, J R; Crawford, R D

    1997-04-01

    In south-central Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1986, 1987 and 1989, the aerobic bacterial flora was evaluated from 75 unhatched raptor eggs of three species: 42 of the Swainson's hawk (Buteo Swainsoni), 21 of the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and 12 of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). In addled Swainson's hawk eggs, the most common bacterial genera were Enterobacter (18 eggs), Escherichia (12), and Streptococcus (10). Seven great horned owl eggs and six ferruginous hawk eggs also contained Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. were not isolated. These bacteria were interpreted as secondary contaminants and not the primary cause of reproductive failure. PMID:9131569

  2. "The Open Library at AU" (Athabasca University): Supporting Open Access and Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin; Fabbro, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To address challenges that learners, course creators, librarians and academics involved with OER and MOOCs are facing when looking for scholarly materials, Athabasca University Library has initiated the development of "the Open Library at AU." This open library is a full library website that provides easy access to open and free…

  3. Method for Extraction and Multielement Analysis of Hypogymnia Physodes Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microwave-assisted digestion technique followed by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analysis was used to measure concentrations of 43 elements in Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canad...

  4. Choosing MOODLE: An Evaluation of Learning Management Systems at Athabasca University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Brian; Briton, Derek; Gismondi, Mike; Heller, Bob; Kennepohl, Dietmar; McGreal, Rory; Nelson, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Athabasca University--Canada's Open University evaluated learning management systems (LMS) for use by the university. Evaluative criteria were developed in order to ensure that different platforms were tested against weighted criteria representing the needs of the university. Three LMSs (WebCt, LotusNotes, and Moodle) were selected for the…

  5. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River: Insights into sources of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, S. J.; Moncur, M. C.; Gibson, J. J.; YI, Y.; Fennell, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Northern Alberta represents an important oil reserve for Canada and the world. Identifying impacts of oil sands development to water quality requires indicators of anthropogenic impacts that can be clearly separated from natural background variability. Identifying suitable water quality parameters is complicated in this region because the Athabasca River and its tributaries are incised directly into bitumen saturated sands of the McMurray Formation, as well as other saline Cretaceous and Devonian Formations. Previous work has suggested that the natural input of saline groundwater from these formations may be the the cause for the large increases in chloride observed between Fort McMurray and Old Fort, but more detailed understanding the background inorganic and organic inputs from the different geological units along this stretch of the river will improve our understanding of the natural hydrogeochemical setting of the region and our ability to identify anthropogenic inputs. Here we compile and compare new isotope data collected from various seep sampling campaigns with regional groundwater and river water datasets to better understand the potential sources of dissolved solutes entering the Athabasca River from natural groundwater discharge. Geophysical surveys conducted along the Athabasca River were used to identify areas with elevated terrain conductivity where high salinity groundwater could be discharging to the river. Samples of porewater from the in the hyporheic zone in these areas were obtained using drive point piezometers installed between 1- 3m below the sediment interface. The porewater, groundwater and river water isotope data provide information about the sources of the water (δ18O and δ2H), and solutes (δ34S-SO4, 87Sr/86Sr, δ37Cl, δ11B, δ13C-DIC, δ13C-DOC) as well as information on groundwater ages (3H, 14C). The porewater in the alluvial sediment showed variable degrees of mixing with the overlying

  6. Noble Gas Signatures in Athabasca Glacier - Tracing Glacial Meltwater Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Hall, C. M.; Castro, M. C.; Aciego, S.; Arendt, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a noble gas study in glacial meltwater (GMW) from the Athabasca Glacier (AG) in the Columbia Icefield, Canada. It constrains the relative contributions of GMW sources, water residence times, and spatial locations where the GMW originates in the alpine glacier. This is possible due to the conservative nature of noble gases and temperature dependency of their concentrations in water in equilibrium with the atmosphere (ASW) which allows for estimation of the altitude at which GMW originated. In addition, crustal He accumulates in water over time, allowing for estimation of water residence times. Water samples were collected in the morning on selected dates in May and July 2011 at two locations about 200 m apart near the terminus area at altitudes between 2000 m and 2100 m. Eight samples were collected in six different days. Results show that the major source of subglacial meltwater is ASW rather than old, compressed glacial ice, which has a distinct noble gas signature not seen in our samples. Given that, GMW samples from the AG do deviate to a certain extent from the ASW values corresponding to measured water temperature and altitude at collection points. Two patterns are observed in the concentrations of the AG samples. The first one presents a relative Ar enrichment with respect to Ne, Kr, and Xe, first observed in high-altitude springs in the Galápagos Islands (Warrier et al., 2012). The second one displays a mass-dependent pattern, first observed in Michigan rainwater (Warrier et al., 2013). A preliminary Xe analysis indicates equilibration altitudes between 2500 m and 3400 m, values compatible with local topography. Samples present He excess of 4% to 91%, and suggest an average residence time of ~400 yrs. References:Warrier, R. B., Castro, M. C., and Hall, C. M. (2012), Recharge and source-water insights from the Galapagos Islands using noble gases and stable isotopes, Water Resour. Res., 48, W03508, doi:10.1029/2011WR010954. Warrier, R. B., Castro

  7. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  8. Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood dynamics but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved topography, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived topography. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated

  9. Characterization of organic composition in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y; Birks, S J; Cho, S; Gibson, J J

    2015-06-15

    This study was conducted to characterize the composition of dissolved organic compounds present in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) with the goal of identifying whether atmospherically-derived organic compounds present in snow are a significant contributor to the compounds detected in surface waters (i.e., rivers and lakes). We used electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) to characterize the dissolved organic compound compositions of snow and surface water samples. The organic profiles obtained for the snow samples show compositional differences between samples from near-field sites (<5 km from oil sands activities) and those from more distant locations (i.e., far-field sites). There are also significant compositional differences between samples collected in near-field sites and surface water samples in the AOSR. The composition of dissolved organic compounds at the upstream Athabasca River site (i.e., Athabasca River at Athabasca) is found to be different from samples obtained from downstream sites in the vicinity of oil sands operations (i.e., Athabasca River at Fort McMurray and Athabasca River at Firebag confluence). The upstream Athabasca River sites tended to share some compositional similarities with far-field snow deposition, while the downstream Athabasca River sites are more similar to local lakes and tributaries. This contrast likely indicates the relative role of regional snowmelt contributions to the Athabasca River vs inputs from local catchments in the reach downstream of Fort McMurray.

  10. Proterozoic collisional tectonism in the Trans-Hudson orogen, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, M.E.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.; Van Schmus, W.R. ); Collerson, K.D. ); Lewry, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Isotopic and structural data from the juvenile Reindeer zone of the Trans-Hudson orogen, northern Saskatchewan, indicate a pre-1.85 Ga thermotectonic event, possibly reflecting arc-continent collision, followed by a more extensive, nappe-forming, ca. 1.83-1.80 Ga thermotectonism during terminal continent-continent collision. Preliminary data from the adjacent, ensialic Cree Lake zone suggest high-grade reworking of Archean crust by the pre-1.85 Ga event. In the Rae province to the west, high-grade metamorphism and reworking of Archean crust occurred about 2.0 Ga and may be related to the formation of the coeval Taltson magmatic zone.

  11. Excessive daytime sleepiness among rural residents in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Gjevre, John A; Pahwa, Punam; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Hagel, Louise; Rennie, Donna C; Lawson, Josh; Dyck, Roland; Dosman, James A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common diagnosis in clinical practice. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be a warning for possible OSA. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in a rural community population; potential risk factors for OSA were also assessed. METHODS: In 2010, a baseline respiratory health questionnaire within the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study was mailed to 11,982 households in Saskatchewan. A total of 7597 adults within the 4624 (42%) respondent households completed the ESS questionnaire. Participants were categorized according to normal or high (>10) ESS scores. Data obtained included respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed sleep apnea, snoring, hypertension, smoking and demographics. Body mass index was calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined associations between high ESS scores and possible risk factors. Generalized estimating equations accounted for the two-tiered sampling procedure of the study design. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 55.0 years and 49.2% were male. The prevalence of ESS>10 and ‘doctor diagnosed’ OSA were 15.9% and 6.0%, respectively. Approximately 23% of respondents reported loud snoring and 30% had a body mass index >30 kg/m2. Of those with ‘doctor-diagnosed’ OSA, 37.7% reported ESS>10 (P<0.0001) and 47.7% reported loud snoring (P<0.0001). Risk of having an ESS>10 score increased with age, male sex, obesity, lower socioeconomic status, marriage, loud snoring and doctor-diagnosed sinus trouble. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of excessive daytime sleepiness in this particular rural population are common and men >55 years of age are at highest risk. Examination of reasons for residual sleepiness and snoring in persons with and without sleep apnea is warranted. PMID:24791255

  12. Tularemia in Canada with a focus on Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tom; Holmes, Ian H.; Wobeser, Gary A.; Anthony, Rene F.; Greefkes, Ineke

    1982-01-01

    Although rare among humans in Canada, tularemia is often endemic in wildlife. The inhabitants of rural areas are especially likely to be exposed to the causative bacterium, Francisella tularensis, through trapping or through the bites of arthropods. Muskrats have replaced rabbits as the principal source of infection, as illustrated by a familial outbreak of oropharyngeal tularemia in Saskatchewan. In humans the disease has six distinct forms and can be asymptomatic, but it generally comes to medical attention as fever, persistent ulcers and enlarged lymph nodes. Serologic tests will confirm the diagnosis. Bien que la tularémie soit rare chez l'homme au Canada, elle existe souvent à l'état endémique parmi les animaux sauvages. Les habitants des régions rurales sont particuliérement susceptibles d'être exposés à l'agent étiologique, Francisella tularensis, lors du trappage ou par les morsures d'arthropodes. Le rat musqué a maintenant remplacé le lapin comme principale source d'infection, tel que l'illustre une poussée de tularémie oropharyngienne chez une famille de Saskatchewan. Chez l'humain la maladie prend six formes distinctes, et elle peut être asymptomatique, mais elle se présente généralement à l'attention du médecin comme une fièvre accompagnée d'ulcères persistants et d'une tuméfaction ganglionnaire. Les épreuves sérologiques confirment le diagnostic. PMID:7046896

  13. Limited role for thermal erosion by turbulent lava in proximal Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cataldo, Vincenzo; Williams, David A.; Dundas, Colin M.; Kestay, Laszlo P.

    2015-01-01

    The Athabasca Valles flood lava is among the most recent (<50 Ma) and best preserved effusive lava flows on Mars and was probably emplaced turbulently. The Williams et al. (2005) model of thermal erosion by lava has been applied to what we term “proximal Athabasca,” the 75 km long upstream portion of Athabasca Valles. For emplacement volumes of 5000 and 7500 km3and average flow thicknesses of 20 and 30 m, the duration of the eruption varies between ~11 and ~37 days. The erosion of the lava flow substrate is investigated for three eruption temperatures (1270°C, 1260°C, and 1250°C), and volatile contents equivalent to 0–65 vol % bubbles. The largest erosion depths of ~3.8–7.5 m are at the lava source, for 20 m thick and bubble-free flows that erupted at their liquidus temperature (1270°C). A substrate containing 25 vol % ice leads to maximum erosion. A lava temperature 20°C below liquidus reduces erosion depths by a factor of ~2.2. If flow viscosity increases with increasing bubble content in the lava, the presence of 30–50 vol % bubbles leads to erosion depths lower than those relative to bubble-free lava by a factor of ~2.4. The presence of 25 vol % ice in the substrate increases erosion depths by a factor of 1.3. Nevertheless, modeled erosion depths, consistent with the emplacement volume and flow duration constraints, are far less than the depth of the channel (~35–100 m). We conclude that thermal erosion does not appear to have had a major role in excavating Athabasca Valles.

  14. Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 μg/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 μg/L in winter and to 0.202 μg/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly <0.025 μg/L in winter and 0.030 μg/L in summer, except near oil sands upgrading facilities and tailings ponds in winter (0.031–0.083 μg/L) and downstream of new development in summer (0.063–0.135 μg/L). In the Athabasca and its tributaries, development within the past 2 years was related to elevated dissolved PAC concentrations that were likely toxic to fish embryos. In melted snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 μg/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

  15. Isotopic Evidence for Oil Sands Petroleum Coke in the Peace-Athabasca Delta.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Smirnoff, Anna; Barst, Benjamin D; Savard, Martine M

    2015-10-20

    The continued growth of mining and upgrading activities in Canada's Athabasca oil sands (AOS) region has led to concerns about emissions of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whereas a recent increase in PAH emissions has been demonstrated within around 50 km of the main center of surface mining and upgrading operations, the exact nature of the predominant source(s) and the geographical extent of the deposition are still under debate. Here, we report a century-long source apportionment of PAHs using dual (δ(2)H, δ(13)C) compound-specific isotope analysis on phenanthrene deposited in a lake from the Athabasca sector of the Peace-Athabasca Delta situated ∼150 km downstream (north) of the main center of mining operations. The isotopic signatures in the core were compared to those of the main potential sources in this region (i.e., unprocessed AOS bitumen, upgrader residual coke, forest fires, coal, gasoline and diesel soot). A significant concurrent increase (∼55.0‰) in δ(2)H and decrease (∼1.5‰) in δ(13)C of phenanthrene over the last three decades pointed to an increasingly greater component of petcoke-derived PAHs. This study is the first to quantify long-range (i.e., >100 km) transport of a previously under-considered anthropogenic PAH source in the AOS region. PMID:26404505

  16. Isotopic Evidence for Oil Sands Petroleum Coke in the Peace-Athabasca Delta.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Smirnoff, Anna; Barst, Benjamin D; Savard, Martine M

    2015-10-20

    The continued growth of mining and upgrading activities in Canada's Athabasca oil sands (AOS) region has led to concerns about emissions of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whereas a recent increase in PAH emissions has been demonstrated within around 50 km of the main center of surface mining and upgrading operations, the exact nature of the predominant source(s) and the geographical extent of the deposition are still under debate. Here, we report a century-long source apportionment of PAHs using dual (δ(2)H, δ(13)C) compound-specific isotope analysis on phenanthrene deposited in a lake from the Athabasca sector of the Peace-Athabasca Delta situated ∼150 km downstream (north) of the main center of mining operations. The isotopic signatures in the core were compared to those of the main potential sources in this region (i.e., unprocessed AOS bitumen, upgrader residual coke, forest fires, coal, gasoline and diesel soot). A significant concurrent increase (∼55.0‰) in δ(2)H and decrease (∼1.5‰) in δ(13)C of phenanthrene over the last three decades pointed to an increasingly greater component of petcoke-derived PAHs. This study is the first to quantify long-range (i.e., >100 km) transport of a previously under-considered anthropogenic PAH source in the AOS region.

  17. The Vulnerability of Saskatchewan Water Resource System to Multi-Year Hydrologic Droughts at North and South Saskatchewan Rivers: Fusing Paleo Tree Ring Data with Stochastic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, A.; Brunet, N.; Oegema, B.

    2015-12-01

    Despite having a semi-arid cold region, the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada is home to major agricultural activities. This is due to a reliable water supply in North and South Saskatchewan rivers (hereafter NSR and SSR), initiated from the Rocky Mountain headwaters in south western Alberta. The incoming interprovincial streamflow to Saskatchewan, however, is subject to significant annual variations due to natural climate variability, climate change as well as human use and regulation. Most importantly, severe multi-year hydrologic droughts in NSR and SSR have been observed within historical and paleo records. Such long-term low flow conditions can cause vulnerability in the water supply systems, particularly if combined with an increased irrigation demand, due to global warming, crop change, meteorological drought and/or irrigation expansion. This study aims at providing a novel use of long-term annual paleo streamflow records for monthly, multi-sector drought impact assessment. By considering tree ring-based reconstructed annual streamflow records, 10-year drought sequences with 100-year return periods were obtained at NSR and SSR. The annual sequences were converted to monthly flow hydrographs using a stochastic reconstruction scheme. The water resource system was then conditioned to multiple realizations of the monthly drought sequence and simulated under various scenarios for reservoir operation and increment in irrigation demand. Simulation results show that Saskatchewan can still maintain the Saskatchewan/Manitoba apportionment requirement, even under a 10-year drought and 10 folds increment in irrigation demand. Such severe drought sequence, nonetheless, cause significant decline in Saskatchewan's hydropower production, which is currently the most profitable water sector in the province. Changes in reservoir operation, however, can considerably mitigate the adverse effects of drought and increased irrigation demand on hydropower industry

  18. Has Alberta Oil Sands Development Altered Delivery of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds to the Peace-Athabasca Delta?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roland I.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Wiklund, Johan A.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Farwell, Andrea J.; Dixon, D. George

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which Alberta oil sands mining and upgrading operations have enhanced delivery of bitumen-derived contaminants via the Athabasca River and atmosphere to the Peace-Athabasca Delta (200 km to the north) is a pivotal question that has generated national and international concern. Accounts of rare health disorders in residents of Fort Chipewyan and deformed fish in downstream ecosystems provided impetus for several recent expert-panel assessments regarding the societal and environmental consequences of this multi-billion-dollar industry. Deciphering relative contributions of natural versus industrial processes on downstream supply of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been identified as a critical knowledge gap. But, this remains a formidable scientific challenge because loading from natural processes remains unknown. And, industrial activity occurs in the same locations as the natural bitumen deposits, which potentially confounds contemporary upstream-downstream comparisons of contaminant levels. Methods/Principal Findings Based on analyses of lake sediment cores, we provide evidence that the Athabasca Delta has been a natural repository of PACs carried by the Athabasca River for at least the past two centuries. We detect no measureable increase in the concentration and proportion of river-transported bitumen-associated indicator PACs in sediments deposited in a flood-prone lake since onset of oil sands development. Results also reveal no evidence that industrial activity has contributed measurably to sedimentary concentration of PACs supplied by atmospheric transport. Conclusions/Significance Findings suggest that natural erosion of exposed bitumen in banks of the Athabasca River and its tributaries is a major process delivering PACs to the Athabasca Delta, and the spring freshet is a key period for contaminant mobilization and transport. This baseline environmental information is essential for informed management of natural resources

  19. Modern and late Holocene dolomite formation: Manito Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Fawn M.; Last, William M.; Halden, Norman M.

    2012-12-01

    Major advances have occurred in our understanding of modern dolomite formation and penecontemporaneous dolomitization over the past several decades. Manito Lake, located in west-central Saskatchewan, Canada, is a large (65 km2), deep (zmax: 22 m) perennial saline (~ 45 ppt TDS) lake in which modern and late Holocene dolomite coexists with other endogenic and authigenic carbonate precipitates, including aragonite, monohydrocalcite, calcite, and Mg-calcite. Like many other lacustrine dolomites, Manito Lake dolomite is microcrystalline (less than 1 μm to 5 μm), Ca-rich and poor to moderately ordered. It occurs as relatively pure hardgrounds and as a component of nearshore microbialites. It also forms isopachous cements in consolidated siliciclastic shoreline sediments. Manito Lake dolomite is most likely forming by mainly biomediated precipitation at or near the sediment-water interface (i) in pore spaces of coarse siliciclastic sediments (i.e., beachrock), (ii) as fine laminae associated with microbialites, and (iii) as a major component of mudstone hardgrounds and pavements.

  20. Latino Farmworkers in Saskatchewan: Language Barriers and Health and Safety.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Gertler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As part of a study focused on the experiences of Latino migrant farmworkers in Saskatchewan, Canada, we have attempted to understand how language barriers (LBs) broadly understood may affect farmworkers and their employers, workplace communications, and occupational health and safety (OHS). Drawing on critical ethnography and intercultural communication theory, qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 Latino migrant farmworkers, 11 farmer-employers, two OHS civil servants, and two former Canadian farmworkers. Our findings suggest that LBs interfere with the establishment of effective communications between Latino farmworkers, other farm enterprise personnel, civil servants, and health services providers. LBs impede establishment of the kinds of sustained two-way communications needed for maintaining safe and healthy working environments. All of the stakeholders involved were found to contribute in some manner to the propagation of LBs. The risks for the physical and psychological well-being of migrant farmworkers are substantial, but despite the fact that LBs are generally recognized as a challenge and as a source of risk, they are not widely seen as warranting any systematic response. It is critical that Latino migrant workers learn more English and that their Canadian employers and supervisors learn more Spanish. Beyond that, there is an urgent need for a multistakeholder coalition that moves to address LBs by training certified interpreters and liaison personnel who can facilitate better communications between migrant workers, their employers, and other stakeholders. PMID:26237725

  1. Mapping the Physiotherapy Profession in Saskatchewan: Examining Rural versus Urban Practice Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gabrush, Jeffery; Fritzler, Rachel; Dickson, Nathan; Bisaro, Derek; Bryan, Kyla; Shah, Tayyab I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: People living in rural and remote regions need support to overcome difficulties in accessing health care. The objectives of the study were (1) to compare demographic characteristics, professional engagement indicators, and clinical characteristics between physiotherapists practising in rural settings and those practising in urban settings and (2) to map the distribution of physiotherapists in Saskatchewan. Method: This cross-sectional study used de-identified data collected from the 2013 Saskatchewan College of Physical Therapists membership renewal (n=643), linked with the Saskatchewan Physiotherapy Association's (SPA) 2012 membership list and a list of physiotherapists who had served as clinical instructors. Employment location (rural vs. urban) was determined by postal code. Results: Only 11.2% of Saskatchewan physiotherapists listed a rural primary employment location, and a higher density of physiotherapists per 10,000 people work in health regions with large urban centres. Compared with urban physiotherapists, rural physiotherapists are more likely to provide direct patient care, to provide care to people of all ages, and to have a mixed client level, and they are less likely to be SPA members. Conclusions: Rural and urban physiotherapists in Saskatchewan have different practice and professional characteristics. This information may have implications for health human resource recruitment and retention policies as well as advocacy for equitable access to physiotherapy care in rural and remote regions. PMID:26839448

  2. Northwest outlet channels of Lake Agassiz, isostatic tilting and a migrating continental drainage divide, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Souch, Catherine

    1998-10-01

    Lake cores obtained from the northwest outlet of glacial Lake Agassiz in northwest Saskatchewan, Canada, provide a minimum date for the cessation of the flood from the northwest outlet, and a chronology for abandonment of mid-Holocene channels that presently straddle the Mackenzie and Churchill drainage divide. The stratigraphy of a vibracore taken from Long Lake consists of a lower pebble gravel fining to massive sand, silty-clay and then fibrous peat. Wood fragments from the base of the clay yielded an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) date of 9120 BP. Because the lake is scour in origin and is in the head of the spillway, the date is considered to be a minimum estimate for cessation of the flood from the northwest outlet at the beginning of the Emerson Phase. A vibracore taken at Haas Lake in an abandoned channel surrounded by muskeg with no influent streams, consists of 0.8 m of stratified, pebble gravel containing abundant shell and wood fragments, overlain by 1.62 m of gyttja with a sharp, conformable lower contact. AMS dates range from 5590 BP from the topmost gravel to 3080 BP within the gyttja. The gravel is interpreted as fluvial, recording a river draining Wasekamio Lake north into the Clearwater River across the present-day drainage divide. Today, a drop of 2 m occurs from Wasekamio Lake southeast to Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse, along 150 km of lake basins parallel to the Cree Lake Moraine. The dates from Haas Lake suggest that before 5200 BP, the drainage divide was about 100 km further southeast, implying that during the Emerson Phase, lake level was controlled by a sill near Flatstone Lake at about 430 m instead of between Wasekamio Lake and the Clearwater River, as was previously proposed. Holocene differential isostatic uplift caused the flow reversal in the upper Churchill basin. Anastomosed channels at the mouth of rivers flowing north into lakes indicate that uplift is still active in the area today.

  3. What Doesn?t Kill You Makes You Stronger: Determinants of Stress Resiliency in Rural People of Saskatchewan, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Nikki; Kulig, Judith; Nowatzki, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses a research study that explored how rural people in Saskatchewan, Canada, respond to stressful events and adversity, without outside interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 individuals who were living or had lived on a farm in Saskatchewan. The participants? definitions of resiliency, their…

  4. A Prevention Education Project on the Abuse and Mistreatment of Older Adults in Northern Saskatchewan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    A project was designed to begin an Elder Abuse Prevention Education initiative specific to northern and Aboriginal needs in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key principle in every dimension of the project was getting to know one another and talking with Aboriginal older adults and those who work with them. In early 1993, LaRonge, Saskatchewan,…

  5. Young (late Amazonian), near-surface, ground ice features near the equator, Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Emery, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of four feature types in a ???20 km2 area near 10?? N, 204?? W in Athabasca Valles is interpreted to have resulted from near-surface ground ice. These features include mounds, conical forms with rimmed summit depressions, flatter irregularly-shaped forms with raised rims, and polygonal terrain. Based on morphology, size, and analogy to terrestrial ground ice forms, these Athabascan features are interpreted as pingos, collapsing pingos, pingo scars, and thermal contraction polygons, respectively. Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (THEMIS) data and geological features in the area are consistent with a sedimentary substrate underlying these features. These observations lead us to favor a ground ice interpretation, although we do not rule out volcanic and especially glaciofluvial hypotheses. The hypothesized ground ice that formed the mounds and rimmed features may have been emplaced via the deposition of saturated sediment during flooding; an alternative scenario invokes magmatically cycled groundwater. The ground ice implicit in the hypothesized thermal contraction polygons may have derived either from this flooding/ground water, or from atmospheric water vapor. The lack of obvious flood modification of the mounds and rimmed features indicates that they formed after the most recent flood inundated the area. Analogy with terrestrial pingos suggests that ground ice may be still extant within the positive relief mounds. As the water that flooded down Athabasca Valles emerged via a volcanotectonic fissure from a deep aquifer, any extant pingo ice may contain evidence of a deep subsurface biosphere. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Physically and Chemically Separated Athabasca Asphaltenes Using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Amundaraín Hurtado, Jesús Leonardo; Chodakowski, Martin; Long, Bingwen; Shaw, John M.

    2012-02-07

    Athabasca asphaltenes were characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Two methods were used to separate asphaltenes from the Athabasca bitumen: namely, chemical separation by precipitation with n-pentane and physical separation by nanofiltration using a zirconia membrane with a 20 nm average pore size. The permeate and chemically separated samples were diluted in 1-methylnaphtalene and n-dodecane prior to SAXS measurements. The temperature and asphaltene concentration ranges were 50-310 C and 1-10.4 wt %, respectively. Model-independent analysis of SAXS data provided the radius of gyration and the scattering coefficients. Model-dependent fits provided size distributions for asphaltenes assuming that they are dense and spherical. Model-independent analysis for physically and chemically separated asphaltenes showed significant differences in nominal size and structure, and the temperature dependence of structural properties. The results challenge the merits of using chemically separated asphaltene properties as a basis for asphaltene property prediction in hydrocarbon resources. While the residuals for model-dependent fits are small, the results are inconsistent with the structural parameters obtained from model-independent analysis.

  7. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts. PMID:27017080

  8. Mapping Fugitive Gas Emission Sources and Severity Across Southeastern Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, J.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada contains a 10,000 km2 region heavily developed by oil and gas activity that has been struggling with air quality issues, arising from hundreds or thousands of oil and gas leak points. The region is also very diverse in terms of oilfield operators, who use extraction techniques including conventional, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and fracking. As regulators and operators need more knowledge about emission patterns locally, we undertook comprehensive mapping and characterization of leak sources at the regional scale using vehicle-based data collection, together with computational techniques. We measured the presence and source of fugitive emissions from infrastructure and oilfield activities in eight 100 km2 survey domains. These included two controls with no oil and gas activity, and otherwise the domains were selected to capture the diversity of development; targeting primarily conventional and EOR activities in the Weyburn-Midale beds, and unconventional activities in the Bakken play. A total of 25 unique operators fell within the survey domains. Each domain was surveyed multiple times for CO2, CH4, and H2S, allowing us to identify persistent leaks and to screen out one-time events. The multiple gas targets also provided opportunities for discriminating one type of fugitive emission from another (i.e. flares from storage tanks) using ratios of excess (above ambient) concentrations, after correcting for natural background variability with a signal-processing routine. Fugitive emissions were commonly observed in all study domains. Most emissions were associated with oil and gas infrastructure, as opposed to drilling and other short-term activities. There were obvious emissions at many well pads, storage tanks, and flares. We also observed high geochemical variability around flares, with some being very effective in combusting toxic gases, and others less so. Almost all observed concentrations fell below regulatory limits, but have a

  9. Exploring the SoTL Landscape at the University of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan; Greer, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a quantitative study that comprehensively assessed the level and extent to which the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) was being conducted amongst faculty and staff at the University of Saskatchewan, and identifies the barriers and challenges faced by SoTL practitioners.

  10. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C R

    2013-08-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections.

  11. Examining the Utility of the Saskatchewan Mood Inventory for Individuals with Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Catherine; Crossley, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Mood Inventory (SMI) is a caregiver-focused assessment and research tool that was designed to enhance understanding of the emotional experiences of individuals with dementia and to identify relationships between level of cognitive impairment and family member ratings of pleasant and unpleasant emotional responses during daily…

  12. Changes in Quality of Life Perceptions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Comparing Survey Results from 2001 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allison; Kitchen, Peter; Randall, James; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in quality of life (QoL) as an integrated approach to addressing key social, environmental and economic determinants of health. The University of Saskatchewan's Community-University Institute for Social Research (CUISR) has examined the process and results of a multi-stakeholder approach to the ongoing sustainability of…

  13. Myxobolus neurophilus: a common myxosporidian parasite infecting yellow perch Perca flavacens (Mitchell) in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to identify a myxosporidian parasite infecting the central nervous system of yellow perch Perca flavacens (Mitchell) observed while investigating a fish kill in Saskatchewan, Canada. Fish were collected from seven different lakes, from 2 distinct watersheds. Sixty-four p...

  14. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L.; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections. PMID:24155473

  15. Giving Voice to the Trans Community on GID Reform in the "DSM-5": A Saskatchewan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jai T.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of the diagnosis of gender identity disorder (GID) within the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is a contentious issue. A summary of the arguments for retention, removal, or reform of the diagnosis in the "DSM-5" is presented. A qualitative study with 7 individuals from Saskatchewan, Canada, was…

  16. Representing New Math: Genre Chains and Controversy in the Saskatchewan Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The media's response to the release of "Math Instruction that Makes Sense" (2011), a research report by the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (FCPP), helped spark a public controversy and spur the Saskatchewan government to reexamine the Ministry of Education's math curriculum. The purpose of this article is to examine the CBC's depiction of the…

  17. K-12 Education and the Internet: A Technical Report Prepared for Saskatchewan Education, Training and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, L. F.; Allen, A. J.

    This report examines the context and impact on the classroom of teacher and student access to the Internet in K-12 education in Saskatchewan (Canada) public schools. It begins with a description of the Internet, including funding and connectivity concerns. The following four basic services of the Internet are introduced with examples of K-12…

  18. Saskatchewan's (Canada) Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahms, Tanya; McMartin, Dena; Petry, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique collaborative process initiated at the University of Regina in Saskatchewan, Canada, to develop a Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) through the United Nations University-Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS). Design/methodology/approach:…

  19. The People: A Historical Guide to the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Donald

    This book focuses on the history and culture of the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada). An introductory chapter briefly overviews the history of the First Nations, based on evidence found at archaeological sites in the plains and subarctic areas within the three provinces. Although there were many notable differences…

  20. Climate change and biofuel wheat: A case study of Southern Saskatchewan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed potential impacts of climate change on wheat production as a biofuel crop in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer-Cropping System Model (DSSAT-CSM) was used to simulate biomass and grain yield under three climate change scenarios ...

  1. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C R

    2013-08-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections. PMID:24155473

  2. The Thatcher Government in Saskatchewan and the Revival of Metis Nationalism, 1964-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitsula, James M.

    1997-01-01

    From 1964 to 1971, Saskatchewan's Thatcher government pursued a policy of providing Metis and Indian job placements, supported by job training and housing in urban relocation centers. Based on economic integration of individuals into mainstream society, the government's plan appeared insufferably paternalistic as increasingly militant Metis…

  3. Landscapes: A Guide to the Landforms and Ecology of Southern Saskatchewan. Reference Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, J. Stan

    A landscape entails more than just a landform. It includes the associated local climates and plant communities. Outlined in a brochure is a resource kit designed to provide information and audiovisual materials to teachers interested in conducting studies in the landscape ecology of Southern Saskatchewan. Two of the items described in the brochure…

  4. The Intersection of Modernity, Globalization, Indigeneity, and Postcolonialism: Theorizing Contemporary Saskatchewan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Michael; Preston, Jane P.; Pearce, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Viewing education as a contested site in the intersection of modernity, indigeneity, globalization, and postcolonialism, we explore relations between Aboriginal peoples and public schools in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Posing a profound challenge to provincial policy underpinned by global educational culture, indigeneity constitutes a…

  5. Geographic Distribution of Applicants to the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGartland, Gertrude; Stallard, Claire

    The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Planning, Research and Development Division conducted three studies of the geographic origins of applicants to the Institute. The analyses of the places of origin provided SIAST with solid information to assist in planning program delivery in the province. The studies used the…

  6. Information Systems in the University of Saskatchewan Libraries: A Vision for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. Libraries.

    This report describes the vision of the Information Systems Advisory Committee (ISAC) of an Information Systems Model for the 1990s. It includes an evaluation of the present automation environment at the university, a vision of library automation at the University of Saskatchewan between 1994 and 1999, and specific recommendations on such issues…

  7. A School Council's Experience with School Improvement: A Saskatchewan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a qualitative case study conducted within one Saskatchewan (Canada) rural community, the purpose of this article is to describe the challenges a school council faced when supporting a school improvement plan. The primary data for the study were 35 semi-structured individual interviews conducted with school council members, teachers, and…

  8. Receptor Modeling of Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and SpatialDistribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of inorganic air pollutant emissions to atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada was investigated in the surrounding boreal forests, using a common epiphytic lichen bio-indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes) and applyi...

  9. Assessing the Impacts of Reservoir Regulations and Climate Variability on the Peace River Runoff and Peace-Athabasca-Delta Using a Distributed Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javid, H.; Davison, B.; Princz, D. G.; Rokaya, P.; Sapriza, G.; Wheater, H. S.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cold region river catchments functioning is permanently altered locally by the anthropogenic changes and at large scale by the climate changes. Anthropogenic changes are represented particularly by reservoirs that affect the hydrology, and thus the ecology and geomorphology of the river catchments. The Peace River Basin and Peace-Athabasca-Delta (PAD), in western Canada have been experiencing similar kind of anthropogenic changes and shifts in the hydrological regime due to the regulation of Peace River in 1960's. Since then, ice jam floods have reduced in the region, which are a very important source for replenishment of the PAD perched basins. The previous studies have regarded regulation and climate change to have equal contribution on the drying of PAD. In this study, a physically based and distributed model, MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire), that couples the Canadian Land Surface Scheme model (CLASS) and hydrological routing model (WATFLOOD), has been used to generate the runoff of Peace River under the natural flow scenario from 1970 to 2010. The reduced ice jam flooding of the PAD is mainly due to the higher freeze up stage in the lower reaches of the Peace River and declining peak flows in the spring. The former is caused by the release of water in the winter for hydropower generation and the latter is due to the filling of reservoir in the spring. Although climate variability has caused decline in summer streamflows for most of the Peace River and the PAD tributaries, as identified by the observed runoff data analysis, it is shown that the spring flows and its occurrence time would still be good enough to cause mechanical breakup of ice and overbank flooding of the PAD, if the Peace River flow was not regulated. Our results are based on the long term observed runoff analysis and the unregulated streamflows simulated by a state of the art physically based model developed by the Environment Canada.

  10. Initial insights from 2.5D hydraulic modeling of floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Burr, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first application of a 2.5D hydraulic model to catastrophic floods on Mars. This model simulates flow over complex topography and incorporates flood dynamics that could not be modeled in the earlier 1D models. We apply this model to Athabasca Valles, the youngest outflow channel on Mars, investigating previous bank-full discharge estimates and utilizing the interpolated Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation map as input. We confirm that the bank-full assumption does not fit the observed landforms. Instead, the channel appears more deeply incised near the source. Flow modeling also identifies several areas of special interest, including a dry cataract that coincides with a region of predicted high erosion. However, artifacts in the elevation data strongly impacted estimated stages and velocities in other areas. More extensive connection between the flood hydraulics and observed landforms awaits improved topographic data.

  11. Snowpack deposition of trace elements in the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, C; Cuss, C W; Cho, S

    2016-06-01

    The total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of 29 metals and metalloids were analyzed in snowpack collected at 91 sites in the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada in winter 2011. Based on deposition pattern from geographical centre, three groups were found: Type-1 metals (i.e. dissolved and total recoverable V; Mo) showed a significant exponential decrease with distance, suggesting oil sands development sources; Type-2 elements (e.g. Al, Sb, As, Ba, Fe, Ni, Tl, and Ti and Zn) showed exponentially decline patterns but with some local point sources; Type-3 elements (e.g. Cd, Cl, Cr, Mn, Sr and Th) deposition pattern represented local sources. A self-organizing map showed that sites with the highest elemental concentrations (Cluster I) were mainly located in the vicinity of upgrading facilities and along the north-south transects. The lowest elemental concentration sites (Cluster III) were the most distal sites or located in the western region of the study area.

  12. Tree-ring-based estimates of long-term seasonal precipitation in the Souris River Region of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Skip V.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Historically unprecedented flooding occurred in the Souris River Basin of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba in 2011, during a longer term period of wet conditions in the basin. In order to develop a model of future flows, there is a need to evaluate effects of past multidecadal climate variability and/or possible climate change on precipitation. In this study, tree-ring chronologies and historical precipitation data in a four-degree buffer around the Souris River Basin were analyzed to develop regression models that can be used for predicting long-term variations of precipitation. To focus on longer term variability, 12-year moving average precipitation was modeled in five subregions (determined through cluster analysis of measures of precipitation) of the study area over three seasons (November–February, March–June and July–October). The models used multiresolution decomposition (an additive decomposition based on powers of two using a discrete wavelet transform) of tree-ring chronologies from Canada and the US and seasonal 12-year moving average precipitation based on Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data and US Historical Climatology Network data. Results show that precipitation varies on long-term (multidecadal) time scales of 16, 32 and 64 years. Past extended pluvial and drought events, which can vary greatly with season and subregion, were highlighted by the models. Results suggest that the recent wet period may be a part of natural variability on a very long time scale.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of mercury and methylmercury to landscapes and waterbodies of the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Gleason, Amber; Wang, Xiaowa; Lawson, Greg; Frank, Richard A; Lehnherr, Igor; Wrona, Fred

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition of metals originating from a variety of sources, including bitumen upgrading facilities and blowing dusts from landscape disturbances, is of concern in the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest as methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin which bioaccumulates through foodwebs, can reach levels in fish and wildlife that may pose health risks to human consumers. We used spring-time sampling of the accumulated snowpack at sites located varying distances from the major developments to estimate winter 2012 Hg loadings to a ∼20 000 km(2) area of the Athabasca oil sands region. Total Hg (THg; all forms of Hg in a sample) loads were predominantly particulate-bound (79 ± 12%) and increased with proximity to major developments, reaching up to 1000 ng m(-2). MeHg loads increased in a similar fashion, reaching up to 19 ng m(-2) and suggesting that oil sands developments are a direct source of MeHg to local landscapes and water bodies. Deposition maps, created by interpolation of measured Hg loads using geostatistical software, demonstrated that deposition resembled a bullseye pattern on the landscape, with areas of maximum THg and MeHg loadings located primarily between the Muskeg and Steepbank rivers. Snowpack concentrations of THg and MeHg were significantly correlated (r = 0.45-0.88, p < 0.01) with numerous parameters, including total suspended solids (TSS), metals known to be emitted in high quantities from the upgraders (vanadium, nickel, and zinc), and crustal elements (aluminum, iron, and lanthanum), which were also elevated in this region. Our results suggest that at snowmelt, a complex mixture of chemicals enters aquatic ecosystems that could impact biological communities of the oil sands region.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of mercury and methylmercury to landscapes and waterbodies of the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Gleason, Amber; Wang, Xiaowa; Lawson, Greg; Frank, Richard A; Lehnherr, Igor; Wrona, Fred

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition of metals originating from a variety of sources, including bitumen upgrading facilities and blowing dusts from landscape disturbances, is of concern in the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest as methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin which bioaccumulates through foodwebs, can reach levels in fish and wildlife that may pose health risks to human consumers. We used spring-time sampling of the accumulated snowpack at sites located varying distances from the major developments to estimate winter 2012 Hg loadings to a ∼20 000 km(2) area of the Athabasca oil sands region. Total Hg (THg; all forms of Hg in a sample) loads were predominantly particulate-bound (79 ± 12%) and increased with proximity to major developments, reaching up to 1000 ng m(-2). MeHg loads increased in a similar fashion, reaching up to 19 ng m(-2) and suggesting that oil sands developments are a direct source of MeHg to local landscapes and water bodies. Deposition maps, created by interpolation of measured Hg loads using geostatistical software, demonstrated that deposition resembled a bullseye pattern on the landscape, with areas of maximum THg and MeHg loadings located primarily between the Muskeg and Steepbank rivers. Snowpack concentrations of THg and MeHg were significantly correlated (r = 0.45-0.88, p < 0.01) with numerous parameters, including total suspended solids (TSS), metals known to be emitted in high quantities from the upgraders (vanadium, nickel, and zinc), and crustal elements (aluminum, iron, and lanthanum), which were also elevated in this region. Our results suggest that at snowmelt, a complex mixture of chemicals enters aquatic ecosystems that could impact biological communities of the oil sands region. PMID:24873895

  15. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  16. Mapping the Physiotherapy Profession in Saskatchewan: Examining Rural versus Urban Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bath, Brenna; Gabrush, Jeffery; Fritzler, Rachel; Dickson, Nathan; Bisaro, Derek; Bryan, Kyla; Shah, Tayyab I

    2015-08-01

    Objet : Les personnes qui vivent dans des régions rurales et éloignées ont besoin de soutien pour surmonter les difficultés liées à l'accès aux soins de santé. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient: 1) de comparer les caractéristiques démographiques, les indicateurs d'engagement professionnel et les caractéristiques cliniques entre les physiothérapeutes qui pratiquent dans des milieux ruraux et ceux qui travaillent dans des milieux urbains; 2) d'établir la répartition des physiothérapeutes en Saskatchewan. Méthode : Cette étude transversale a utilisé les données dépersonnalisées tirées du renouvellement des adhésions pour 2013 de l'Ordre des physiothérapeutes de la Saskatchewan (n=643), de la liste des membres de 2012 de l'Association de physiothérapie de la Saskatchewan et d'une liste des physiothérapeutes qui ont agi à titre d'enseignants cliniques. Le lieu de travail (rural ou urbain) était déterminé à l'aide des codes postaux. Résultats : Seulement 11,2 % des physiothérapeutes de la Saskatchewan avaient inscrit comme lieu de travail principal un milieu rural, et une plus forte densité de physiothérapeutes par 10 000 personnes travaille dans des régions sociosanitaires où il y a de grands centres urbains. Comparativement aux physiothérapeutes en milieu urbain, les physiothérapeutes en milieu rural sont plus susceptibles de prodiguer des soins directement aux patients, de s'occuper des personnes de tous les âges et de posséder une clientèle variée, mais ils sont moins susceptibles d'être membres de l'Association de physiothérapie de la Saskatchewan. Conclusions : Les physiothérapeutes en milieu rural et urbain en Saskatchewan ont des pratiques et des caractéristiques professionnelles qui diffèrent. Ces renseignements peuvent influer sur les politiques de recrutement et de rétention des ressources humaines en santé, ainsi que sur la promotion de l'accès équitable aux soins de physiothérapie dans les r

  17. Geologic, logistic, and economic controls on current shallow gas production in southwestern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Gilboy, C.F.; Potter, D.E.G.

    1988-07-01

    Biogenic shallow gas is commercially produced from three Upper Cretaceous lithostratigraphic units in southwestern Saskatchewan: the second white-speckled shale, the Medicine Hat Sandstone, and the Milk River Formation. Major geologic characteristics of each of these units in the study area compare laterally with equivalent gas-producing strata in southeast Alberta (southeast Alberta Gas System) and north-central Montana (East Keith, Tiger Ridge-Bowes-Bull Hook, and Bowdoin fields). Exploration for and, more particularly, development of shallow gas pools in southwestern Saskatchewan have greatly increased since 1982 (average number of gas wells per annum from 1960 to 1982 inclusive was 47, and from 1983 to 1987 inclusive was 460), despite a sharp decline in 1986. Logistic and economic factors influencing this pattern include current project-development methods and costs in this highly active gas play.

  18. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  19. Smoke from Saskatchewan fires (Canada) and phytoplankton bloom off Northern Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke (grayish swath in western half of image) from the wildfires in Saskatchewan, Canada, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived over the shores of Norway on July 12, 2002. Although fires were also burning in Quibec, Canada, around the same time (which would seem to be the more likely source of the plume because it is closer) visual inspection of additional MODIS imagery over a span of several days shows that the plume most likely originated with the fires in Saskatchewan. The brighter, turquoise swirls in the otherwise dark waters of the Barents Sea indicate the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. These microscopic marine plants contain chlorophyll and other pigments that are very reflective, and produce colorful patterns in the water. This true-color scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA.s Terra satellite.

  20. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-01

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs. PMID:26115178

  1. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-01

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs.

  2. Demodicosis in a mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Proctor, Heather; Wobeser, Gary

    2007-10-01

    Infestation of deer with Demodex spp. mites has been described in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and in Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in North America, as well as in four species of deer in Europe. We describe Demodex sp. infestation in an adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) with skin lesions found dead near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This is believed to be the first report of demodicosis in mule deer.

  3. Magnetic Characteristics of the Lower Crust: Examples from the Chipman Tonalite, Chipman Dikes, and Fehr Granite, Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Koteas, C.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Athabasca granulite terrane (AGT) in northernmost Saskatchewan, Canada is an outstanding exposure of lower crustal rocks having experienced high temperature (~800°C) and high pressure (>1.0 GPa) conditions followed by uplift and exhumation to the surface. With little alteration since 1.9 Ga these rocks allow us to study ancient lower crustal lithologies. Aeromagnetic anomalies over this region are distinct and complex, and along with other geophysical measurements, define the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across the Canadian Shield and separating the Churchill province into the Hearne domain (mid-crustal rocks, lower metamorphism) from the Rae domain (lower crust rocks, higher metamorphism). The eastern part of the AGT is dominated by the Chipman tonalite batholith (3.3 Ga), and on the far east the Fehr Granite (2.4 Ga). Both units were intruded by the extensive mafic Chipman dike swarm at ~1.9 Ga. On-going magnetic studies of these three units are aimed at characterizing the rock magnetism and remanence of each group as well as relating magnetic properties to the observed aeromagnetic signatures. The Fehr granite is weakly magnetic, with susceptibilities ranging from 9.4 x 10-6 to 2.1 x 10-4 with an average of 9 x 10-5 SI. The remanence held by many Fehr granite samples is weak, but stronger than expected at ~1 mA/m. The bland aeromagnetic signature over the Fehr granite reflects low susceptibility and low remanence. Chipman tonalite samples show a wide range of magnetic properties including distinct oxide zones with susceptibilities of 0.3 SI and remanence values greater than 10 A/m to relatively non-magnetic areas with susceptibilities of 1x 10-4 SI and magnetization of .01 A/m. Hysteresis properties indicate a range of behavior from single-domain to multi-domain magnetite with a majority of samples indicating pseudo-single-domain behavior (average Mr/Ms = 0.13, Hcr/Hc = 3.3). Low temperature experiments confirm the presence of magnetite, and

  4. A house divided: deinstitutionalization, medicare and the Canadian Mental Health Association in Saskatchewan, 1944-1964.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Defined as a set of distinct processes that included the declining use of large psychiatric institutions and the increasing use of outpatient services and general hospitals, deinstitutionalization occurred earlier in Saskatchewan than other provinces in Canada. It was led by a CCF government dedicated to major change across a number of sectors including mental health, assisted by one of the most influential and well-organized social movement organizations of the 1950s, the Saskatchewan Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association (SCMHA). However, by the late 1950s and early 1960s, the SCMHA opposed the CCF government's policy priority on medicare which it felt came at the expense of mental health care, in particular the implementation of a regional psychiatric hospital system called the Saskatchewan Plan. As a consequence, the SCMHA, once such a powerful ally of the CCF government in health reform, formed a strategic and temporary coalition with the anti-medicare forces in the province. Given the fact that a number of medical staff within the government's department of public health were prominent members of the SCMHA, the CCF government found that it occupied an increasingly divided house at the very time it was struggling to introduce medicare in the midst of civil unrest and a doctors' strike.

  5. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for the Souris River, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Manitoba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2000-01-01

    The Souris River Basin is a 24,600-square-mile basin located in southeast Saskatchewan, north-central North Dakota, and southwest Manitoba. The Souris River Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group, formed in 1989 by the governments of Canada and the United States, is responsible for documenting trends in water quality in the Souris River and making recommendations for monitoring future water-quality conditions. This report presents results of a study conducted for the Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historic trends in water quality in the Souris River and to determine efficient sampling designs for monitoring future trends. U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada water-quality data collected during 1977-96 from four sites near the boundary crossings between Canada and the United States were included in the trend analysis.A parametric time-series model was developed for detecting trends in historic constituent concentration data. The model can be applied to constituents that have at least 90 percent of observations above detection limits of the analyses, which, for the Souris River, includes most major ions and nutrients and many trace elements. The model can detect complex nonmonotonic trends in concentration in the presence of complex interannual and seasonal variability in daily discharge. A key feature of the model is its ability to handle highly irregular sampling intervals. For example, the intervals between concentration measurements may be be as short as 10 days to as long as several months, and the number of samples in any given year can range from zero to 36.Results from the trend analysis for the Souris River indicated numerous trends in constituent concentration. The most significant trends at the two sites located near the upstream boundary crossing between Saskatchewan and North Dakota consisted of increases in concentrations of most

  6. Tracing Shifts in Subglacial Hydrochemistry Due to Changes in Drainage Configuration: Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, M.; Arendt, C. A.; Clinger, A. E.; Stevenson, E. I.; Aciego, S.

    2015-12-01

    Differences in the hydrological and chemical composition of glacial outflow are controlled by seasonality, subglacial bedrock mineralogy, physical/chemical weathering processes, and water-rock interaction time. While the chemical progression from onset of melt to peak melt has been well studied at various glaciers, few studies exist that examine the hydrological and associated chemical changes as the subglacial drainage network evolves from peak flow back to winter basal flow conditions. Here we use traditional hydrological and chemical techniques to examine the changes in subglacial drainage network configuration with the onset of winter at the Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada. This glacier is one of eight alpine glaciers draining the Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rockies. The Athabasca Glacier is situated atop Middle Cambrian limestone and carbonate shale generating predominately a carbonate weathering regime, but exhibits some evidence of silicate weathering. Analysis of major and trace element ratios, stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic systems, and in-field chemical measurements (pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity), combined with discharge over a three-month period provides high-resolution insight into the change of subglacial hydrochemistry in this system. O-H isotopes over the course of the study show seasonal excursions, possibly indicating a change in meltwater source. Preliminary data reveal three possible shifts in subglacial dynamics suggesting shifts between carbonate and silicate weathering as expressed by relative cation contributions. These shifts may be reflective of different subglacial drainage configurations: higher silicate weathering rates, revealed by increased potassium concentrations in the end of season, could be generated by a shift to a more distributed drainage network and a longer water-rock interaction time. Our results clearly indicate changes in elemental concentrations correlated with decreases in

  7. Molecular Characterization of Cryoconite Organic Matter from the Athabasca Glacier, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Simpson, M. J.; Eyles, N.; Simpson, A.; Baer, A. J.

    2009-05-01

    Cryoconite is a dark-colored, dust-like material found on the surfaces of glaciers. Cryoconite holes, which are produced by accelerated ice melt due to more solar radiation absorption by cryoconite than bare ice, act as habitats for microbial life and biologically mediated chemical reactions on otherwise relatively inert glacier surfaces. Cryoconite holes may behave as bacterial shelters during "Snowball Earth" events postulated for the Neoproterozoic Earth. In this study organic matter (OM) biomarkers and a host of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to characterize cryoconite organic matter (COM) collected from the Athabasca Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Solvent extracts contain large quantities of fatty acids, n-alkanols, n- alkanes, wax esters and sterols. A large contribution of C23 and C25 relative to C29 and C31 n-alkanes ([C23/(C23+C29)] = 0.51) suggests that allochthonous COM is derived mainly from lower order plants such as mosses and lichens. This is confirmed by the absence of lignin-derived phenols, a biomarker of terrestrial vascular plants, after copper (II) oxidation in extracts and NMR analyses of COM. Solution-state 1H NMR reveals prominent peptide/protein structures which are characteristic of microbial inputs, while solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analysis shows a very high alkyl/O-alkyl ratio (2.16), suggesting that COM is unique compared to organic matter found in nearby soils which have alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of ~0.39. Our NMR results suggest that COM is dominated by microbial-derived compounds, which is also confirmed by phospholipid fatty acid results (6,950µg/gOC) which show significant microbial contributions to COM primarily from bacteria and minor microeukaryotes. Both biomarker and NMR data suggest that COM likely supports active microbial communities on the Athabasca Glacier. Given that such material is incorporated within the glacier in the accumulation zone or flushed by meltwaters into subglacial environments

  8. Early performance of native shrubs and trees planted on amended Athabasca oil sand tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Fedkenheuer, A.W.; Heacock, H.M.; Lewis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The present accepted end land uses for land disturbed by surface mining in the Athabasca oil sands deposit are forestry, wildlife and recreation, in that order of priority. Consistent with government requirements, the main objective of the reclamation program is the establishment of a system at least equal to the predisturbed state in terms of ecological productivity. This system should be consistent with the regional surface hydrology, the natural vegetation and the land use for forestry, wildlife and recreation. In addition, the plant communities in these systems will be permanent, self-supporting and maintenance free. The lack of available information regarding the procedures necessary to permanently reclaim the tailings sand left after extraction of the oil prompted Syncrude to initiate this study in 1977. Four replicated soil amendment treatments were established on a one meter deep experimental area of tailings sand located on the lease area. The plots were subsequently seeded with a grass-legume mix in July 1977. Trees and shrubs were planted in August 1977 and June 1978. Results to date indicate over-winter survival was very satisfactory with most plant species. A dry spell during the 1978 growing season had a pronounced effect on the survival of some of the tree and shrub seedlings. Those species which had the highest survival rates over the range of treatments were Amelanchier alnifolia, Pinus banksiana, Pinus contorta, Potentilla fruticosa, Shepherdia canadensis and Symphoricarpos albus. Performance of the other trees and shrubs was fair to poor, depending on the species and the treatment.

  9. Snowpack deposition of trace elements in the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, C; Cuss, C W; Cho, S

    2016-06-01

    The total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of 29 metals and metalloids were analyzed in snowpack collected at 91 sites in the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada in winter 2011. Based on deposition pattern from geographical centre, three groups were found: Type-1 metals (i.e. dissolved and total recoverable V; Mo) showed a significant exponential decrease with distance, suggesting oil sands development sources; Type-2 elements (e.g. Al, Sb, As, Ba, Fe, Ni, Tl, and Ti and Zn) showed exponentially decline patterns but with some local point sources; Type-3 elements (e.g. Cd, Cl, Cr, Mn, Sr and Th) deposition pattern represented local sources. A self-organizing map showed that sites with the highest elemental concentrations (Cluster I) were mainly located in the vicinity of upgrading facilities and along the north-south transects. The lowest elemental concentration sites (Cluster III) were the most distal sites or located in the western region of the study area. PMID:27031808

  10. Modeling soil acidification in the Athabasca Oil Sands region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Colin J; Aherne, Julian; Watmough, Shaun A

    2009-08-01

    Industrial activities have proliferated across Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands Region in recent years, stimulating concerns over the impact of atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions on acid-sensitive terrain. Upland jack pine forests have been identified as possibly the most sensitive ecosystem in the region but despite high emissions of SO2, sulfur (S) deposition is relatively low across much of the region. The response of forest soils at 11 locations that exhibit low estimated weathering rates (< 10 mmol(c) x m(-2) x yr(-1)) was simulated for the period 1900-2100 using a dynamic hydrogeochemical model assuming no change or doubling of S deposition. The model predicted minimal impact on soil base saturation (BS), but a decline in soil solution base cation (BC) to aluminum (Al) ratio (BC:Al). The regional effects-based emissions management framework uses modeled changes in these two parameters relative to site-specific chemical thresholds to trigger actions to reduce S emissions. Modeled changes in BS are insufficient to invoke a response. Under base case conditions, modeled BC:Al reaches the chemical threshold at two and three sites within 15 and 30 years, respectively. Under conditions of double S deposition, seven sites are simulated to reach the threshold within 30 years. Nonetheless, the chemical thresholds are stringent relative to critical chemical criteria used elsewhere and the impacts of acidic deposition in the region are anticipated to be limited.

  11. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  12. Regional groundwater flow pattern in the Northern Great Plains area and their effect on CO2 sequestration at Weyburn, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, K.

    2012-12-01

    Hubbert's (1940) force potential and the derived gravitational, deep-seated regional groundwater flow systems have slowly been gaining prominence in groundwater dynamic applications and research. The deep groundwater body is now increasingly seen as a moving fluid (albeit often slow) and as an effective agent of transport and of geologic and chemical change. The force fields at depth are created by the boundary condition of the groundwater table. These force fields propel, at the surface and at greater depth, all other fluids such as hydrocarbons, salt water, brine, and natural as well as sequestered CO2. Nevertheless, there still exist a number of legacy concepts with respect to subsurface fluid flow. One of them is the concept of aquifers outcropping at the surface in hills (Figure 1A), while the actual groundwater dynamic flow paths are shown in Figure 1B, which is based on early mathematical groundwater flow modelling by Freeze and Witherspoon (1967). Figure 1B shows the importance of aquitards (caprocks) in securing minimized energy use within force and flow fields by transmitting the flow downwards into the higher permeable aquifer under the recharge area and transmitting the flow upwards back to the surface under the discharge area where artesian (flowing) wells occur. Downey (1986) adhered to the legacy concept of Figure 1A when dealing with groundwater flow in the Mississippian aquifers of the Northern Great Plains and the Williston Basin. He assumed that recharge into aquifers under aquitards could only occur in the highland recharge areas of these aquifers (as for example the Bighorn Mountains, Beartooth Mountains and others) and groundwater discharge at the outlets of these aquifers (in South and North Dakota, Manitoba and Saskatchewan). Similar assumptions have been adopted by Khan and Rostron (2004) in establishing groundwater flow systems at the Weyburn test site for CO2 sequestration located within the Williston basin in Saskatchewan. As a

  13. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors. PMID:24872670

  14. Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

  15. Saskatchewan: improving patient, nursing and organizational outcomes utilizing formal nurse-patient ratios.

    PubMed

    Rozdilsky, Janlyn; Alecxe, Amber

    2012-03-01

    The issue of nurse-to-patient ratios has been of significant interest to nurses in Saskatchewan. A commitment to a nurse-to-patient pilot project was articulated in a letter of understanding in the 2005 to 2008 contract between the Saskatchewan Union of Nurses (SUN) and the Saskatchewan Association of Health Organizations. The SUN, the Saskatoon Health Region and the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health formed a partnership to engage in the pilot project, which lasted from November 2008 to March 2011. The project involved the creation of a flexible, dynamic and real-time staffing tool to inform day-to-day nurse staffing decisions on a hospital unit and was based on an adaptation of Curley's Synergy Model. A medical unit at St. Paul's Hospital in Saskatoon was selected for implementation, and all front-line nursing staff as well as unit nursing leaders were involved. A project working group adapted the Synergy-based Patient Scoring Tool (PST), which had been utilized for a recent project in British Columbia, to its own patient population. In April 2010, nurses began assessing each patient on every shift with the goal of determining the most suitable care provider. Patient assignment became based on the holistic assessment of patient needs according to the PST results rather than "geography" (for example, one nurse assigned to a multi-bed unit regardless of the acuity/capability of patients in the unit). Whenever possible, staffing on the unit was increased according to tool calculations.Positive impacts in patient outcomes began to be noted during the final data collection period for the project – nosocomial infection rates showed improvement, and the number of falls per patient-days decreased. As well, patient needs were made more visible through use of the PST, which created non-threatening opportunities for dialogue related to legislated scopes of practice. While longer timelines and larger sample size are needed to measure impacts on retention and recruitment of

  16. AmeriFlux CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.. Site Description - Regenerated jack pine (Pinus banksiana) following fire in 1977; canopy height 6 m and LAI = 2.8. Some black spruce understory developing. Trees tend to be clumpy, with some clear spaces that can be easily walked thorugh, and other areas are thick. Fire killed coarse woody debris on the ground, that is soft and decomposing. Very few perched trunks. Understory are short shrubs such as Vaccinium and Arctostaphylus uva-ursi.

  17. Progress, public health, and power: Foucault and the Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    McLean, Scott; Rollwagen, Heather

    2008-08-01

    From 1911 to 1979, the Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan mobilized and monitored extensive study and action in the field of public health. This article explores how these clubs exhorted women to strive for progress, and encouraged women to internalize such striving as fundamental to their own identities. The techniques used included encouraging commitment to shared goals, making such goals personal, structuring action, requiring women to report their thoughts and actions, rewarding certain behaviors, and linking those behaviors with emotionally compelling causes. Rooted in a Foucauldian conceptual framework, this article contributes to the sociological understanding of subject formation and governance.

  18. Streamflow statistics for selected streams in North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for the periods of record through water year 2009 for selected active and discontinued U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan were compiled. The summaries for each streamflow-gaging station include a brief station description, a graph of the annual peak and annual mean discharge for the period of record, statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, monthly and annual flow durations, probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  19. A Survey of Disease Conditions in Adult and Feeder Sheep in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Moteane, M.; Middleton, D. M.; Polley, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify disease conditions occurring in adult and feeder sheep in Saskatchewan. Necropsies were performed on 50 adult sheep submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine during the period July 1976 to June 1977 and data were assembled from necropsy records of sheep submitted between January 1975 to December 1976. The diseases encountered were briefly described. Conditions of the respiratory and digestive systems were the most significant as causes of mortality. Burdens of helminth endoparasites were generally low. In the flocks included in the necropsy survey, annual mortality among adult and feeder sheep was estimated to be three percent. PMID:761154

  20. Evaluating microbial carbon sources in Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance stable and radiocarbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Pakdel, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural abundance stable (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate the carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. The absence of algal-specific PLFAs at three of the four sites investigated, in conjunction with δ13C signatures for PLFAs that were generally within ~3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (~ -30‰), indicated that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. The Δ14C values of PLFAs ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to a significant uptake of fossil carbon (up to ~90% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum), particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively higher levels of 14C in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population (~50-80% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum). Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially 'radiocarbon dead' (i.e., no detectable 14C), the principal source for this modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential uptake of the minor amount of young and presumably more biodegradable material present in systems otherwise dominated by recalcitrant petroleum constituents has important implications for remediation strategies. On the one hand, it implies that mining-related organic contaminants could persist in the environment long after tailings pond reclamation has begun. Alternatively, it may be that the young, labile organic matter provided by the Athabasca River plays an important role in stimulating or supporting the microbial utilization of petroleum carbon in oil sands tailings ponds via co-metabolism or priming processes

  1. Consensus statement: the 16th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; September 5–6, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Bathe, O.; Berry, S.; Buie, D.; Davies, J.; Doll, C.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Jones, E.; Kennecke, H.; Koski, S.; Krahn, M.; Le, D.; Lim, H.; Lund, C.; Luo, Y.; Mcffadden, A.; Mcghie, J.; Mulder, K.; Park, J.; Rashidi, F.; Sami, A.; Tan, K.T.; Wong, R.

    2015-01-01

    The 16th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, September 4–5, 2014. The Consensus Conference is an interactive, multidisciplinary event attended by health care professionals from across western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) involved in the care of gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of colorectal cancer. PMID:25908916

  2. Radiogenic and Radioactive Isotopic Evidence for a Dynamic Residence Time of the Athabasca Glacier Subglacial Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, C. A.; Aciego, S.; Sims, K. W.; Aarons, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the time it takes precipitation, input of water from reservoirs, surface melt, and basal melt to migrate to the base of a glacier and discharge. Previous work on the residence time of subglacial water has proven to be either inconclusive or inconsistent. Our research will address the primary subglacial water questions; the flux of subglacial water correlates directly to the mass balance of a glacier but what role does subglacial water storage play in that mass balance? Can we determine residence time of subglacial water? And, how variable is residence time seasonally and on longer time scales? The regional focus of our research is the Athabasca Glacier, part of the Columbia Icefield located in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Uranium-series (U-series) dating methods based on the ingrowth of daughter isotopes from parents (234U, 230Th and 222Rn from the primary parent 238U) have been used to study the residence time of aquifer systems. Here we show the feasibility of applying these techniques to subglacial water. Samples were collected over two 25-day field periods to account for hydrological and chemical fluctuations between the onset of melt and peak melt. Daily physical observations, 222Rn concentrations (from a Durridge RAD7), conductivity, total alkalinity, pH, maximum velocity, and discharge measurements were taken. Fifty daily 10-40L subglacial water and filtered sediment samples were collected and filtered at our collection site in the main channel at the toe of the Athabasca Glacier. The 238U /234U and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions and U, Th, and Sr concentrations of the filtrate and captured sediments is pending. We will extrapolate the residence time of the water based on the accumulation of 234U and 230Th in our samples from alpha decay, which can be coupled to a radiometric timescale. Given that the 238U /234U and 234U/230Th isotopic composition of subglacial water is dependent on recoil and sediment dissolution processes

  3. Inducing ovulation in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) during the anovulatory season.

    PubMed

    Palomino, J Manuel; Cervantes, Miriam P; Adams, Gregg P

    2015-12-01

    As part of the development of a germplasm biobank to preserve the genetic diversity of threatened wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), a 2 × 2 factorial study was designed to determine the effects of ovulation induction agent and follicle maturity on the ovulatory response in wood bison during the anovulatory season. Bison (n=32) were assigned randomly to four groups (n=8/group) and treated with either pLH or hCG when a growing dominant follicle was either 8-9 mm or ≥10 mm. The ovaries were examined daily by ultrasonography to determine the timing of ovulation, and 7 days post-treatment to assess CL development. The proportion of bison that ovulated was greater in bison treated with hCG than pLH ([15/16] 94% vs. [8/16] 50%; P<0.05), and when the dominant follicle was ≥10 mm vs. 8-9 mm at the time of treatment (88% vs. 56%; P<0.05). The interval from treatment to ovulation was 37.0 ± 1.3h and was not affected by induction agent or follicle size. However, synchrony of ovulation tended to be greater (P=0.10) in the ≥10 mm group vs. the 8-9 mm group, and the ensuing corpus luteum was larger (15.3 ± 0.43 mm vs. 13.4 ± 0.36; P<0.05). In conclusion, both ovulation inducing agent and follicle size influenced the ovulatory response in bison during the anovulatory season. Treatment with hCG was more effective than pLH for inducing ovulation in wood bison, and the effect was greater when treatment was given when the growing dominant follicle was ≥10 mm. PMID:26490189

  4. Inducing ovulation in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) during the anovulatory season.

    PubMed

    Palomino, J Manuel; Cervantes, Miriam P; Adams, Gregg P

    2015-12-01

    As part of the development of a germplasm biobank to preserve the genetic diversity of threatened wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), a 2 × 2 factorial study was designed to determine the effects of ovulation induction agent and follicle maturity on the ovulatory response in wood bison during the anovulatory season. Bison (n=32) were assigned randomly to four groups (n=8/group) and treated with either pLH or hCG when a growing dominant follicle was either 8-9 mm or ≥10 mm. The ovaries were examined daily by ultrasonography to determine the timing of ovulation, and 7 days post-treatment to assess CL development. The proportion of bison that ovulated was greater in bison treated with hCG than pLH ([15/16] 94% vs. [8/16] 50%; P<0.05), and when the dominant follicle was ≥10 mm vs. 8-9 mm at the time of treatment (88% vs. 56%; P<0.05). The interval from treatment to ovulation was 37.0 ± 1.3h and was not affected by induction agent or follicle size. However, synchrony of ovulation tended to be greater (P=0.10) in the ≥10 mm group vs. the 8-9 mm group, and the ensuing corpus luteum was larger (15.3 ± 0.43 mm vs. 13.4 ± 0.36; P<0.05). In conclusion, both ovulation inducing agent and follicle size influenced the ovulatory response in bison during the anovulatory season. Treatment with hCG was more effective than pLH for inducing ovulation in wood bison, and the effect was greater when treatment was given when the growing dominant follicle was ≥10 mm.

  5. Sperm characteristics in plains (Bison bison bison) versus wood (Bison bison athabascae) bison.

    PubMed

    Pegge, Raymond B G; Krishnakumar, Sulochana; Whiteside, Douglas; Elkin, Brett; Parlevliet, Joyce M; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to compare sperm characteristics between the two subspecies of North American bison, plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae). Frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from age-matched plains (n = 3) and wood (n = 2) bison were evaluated for morphometry, motility, viability, protein profile, and in vitro fertilization characteristics. Sperm morphometry and motility were assessed with computer-based systems, viability was assessed with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide, and fertilizing ability was determined using a heterologous in vitro fertilization system (using bovine oocytes). For plains versus wood bison, there were significant differences for head width (4.76 ± 0.22 vs 4.71 ± 0.19 μm; mean ± SD), head area (35.64 ± 1.91 vs 34.72 ± 2.64 μm(2)), head perimeter (23.61 ± 0.68 vs 23.31 ± 0.98 μm), midpiece length (14.58 ± 0.4 vs 14.36 ± 0.51 μm), midpiece width (0.81 ± 0.06 vs 0.79 ± 0.07 μm), and tail length (46.61 ± 2.15 vs 45.98 ± 2.08 μm). However, there was no significant difference in head length (overall, 9.04 ± 0.37 μm), progressive motility (41.16 ± 8.39%), or viability (41.58 ± 5.58%). Based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 93 out of 113 protein spots were similar in their expression patterns. Furthermore, we inferred that differences in sperm biometry between these subspecies did not affect in vitro fertilization percentage (overall, 82.62 ± 12.13%). Based on these findings, we concluded that plains bison were an appropriate research model for developing reproductive technologies for wood bison.

  6. Legacy of a half century of Athabasca oil sands development recorded by lake ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wang, Xiaowa; Evans, Marlene S.; Smol, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-executed environmental monitoring in the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has necessitated the use of indirect approaches to determine background conditions of freshwater ecosystems before development of one of the Earth’s largest energy deposits. Here, we use highly resolved lake sediment records to provide ecological context to ∼50 y of oil sands development and other environmental changes affecting lake ecosystems in the region. We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within lake sediments, particularly C1-C4–alkylated PAHs, increased significantly after development of the bitumen resource began, followed by significant increases in dibenzothiophenes. Total PAH fluxes in the modern sediments of our six study lakes, including one site ∼90 km northwest of the major development area, are now ∼2.5–23 times greater than ∼1960 levels. PAH ratios indicate temporal shifts from primarily wood combustion to petrogenic sources that coincide with greater oil sands development. Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines for PAHs have been exceeded since the mid-1980s at the most impacted site. A paleoecological assessment of Daphnia shows that this sentinel zooplankter has not yet been negatively impacted by decades of high atmospheric PAH deposition. Rather, coincident with increases in PAHs, climate-induced shifts in aquatic primary production related to warmer and drier conditions are the primary environmental drivers producing marked daphniid shifts after ∼1960 to 1970. Because of the striking increase in PAHs, elevated primary production, and zooplankton changes, these oil sands lake ecosystems have entered new ecological states completely distinct from those of previous centuries. PMID:23297215

  7. Legacy of a half century of Athabasca oil sands development recorded by lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Wang, Xiaowa; Evans, Marlene S; Smol, John P

    2013-01-29

    The absence of well-executed environmental monitoring in the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has necessitated the use of indirect approaches to determine background conditions of freshwater ecosystems before development of one of the Earth's largest energy deposits. Here, we use highly resolved lake sediment records to provide ecological context to ∼50 y of oil sands development and other environmental changes affecting lake ecosystems in the region. We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within lake sediments, particularly C1-C4-alkylated PAHs, increased significantly after development of the bitumen resource began, followed by significant increases in dibenzothiophenes. Total PAH fluxes in the modern sediments of our six study lakes, including one site ∼90 km northwest of the major development area, are now ∼2.5-23 times greater than ∼1960 levels. PAH ratios indicate temporal shifts from primarily wood combustion to petrogenic sources that coincide with greater oil sands development. Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines for PAHs have been exceeded since the mid-1980s at the most impacted site. A paleoecological assessment of Daphnia shows that this sentinel zooplankter has not yet been negatively impacted by decades of high atmospheric PAH deposition. Rather, coincident with increases in PAHs, climate-induced shifts in aquatic primary production related to warmer and drier conditions are the primary environmental drivers producing marked daphniid shifts after ∼1960 to 1970. Because of the striking increase in PAHs, elevated primary production, and zooplankton changes, these oil sands lake ecosystems have entered new ecological states completely distinct from those of previous centuries. PMID:23297215

  8. AmeriFlux CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.. Site Description - Amiro_et_al_2006, AFM/136:...The 1989 burn site (F89) was northeast of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, with the humancaused fire covering 13,500 ha. Parts of the area had been logged prior to the fire, and slash residues would have been burned in some locations. Parts of the area were aerially seeded with jack pine seeds in the winter of 1990. The present tree canopy was composed of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), jack pine, trembling aspen, and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and prior to the fire, the stand consisted of these same species aswell asblack spruce.Deadsnags of black spruce and jack pinewere still standing, althoughmost had fallen over and formed a leaningmix of dry, dead tree boles. The understory vegetation consisted mostly of black spruce saplings, saplings of the tree overstory species, bearberry, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), and reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.).

  9. The unfunded costs incurred by patients accessing plastic surgical care in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Jessica L; Clapson, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian health care system was designed to ensure that all Canadian citizens would receive equal access to health care. However, in rural areas of Canada, patients are required to travel long distances and pay significant out-of-pocket expenses to access health care. The present study attempted to quantify the added out-of-pocket costs that rural Saskatchewan residents must pay to receive plastic surgical specialist care compared with urban residents of Saskatoon. A cost analysis was performed to generate a numerical value that would represent a minimum cost for patients travelling from three different locations within the province. The cost analysis performed in the present study approximated that the unfunded costs for common plastic surgical procedures are, at a minimum, 30 times greater for rural patients in La Ronge compared with their urban counterparts in Saskatoon. The fundamental principle of the Canadian health care system is equal access to necessary health care for all Canadians. Despite this, inequalities persist. The present cost-analysis study demonstrated that the unfunded (out-of-pocket) expenses for rural Saskatchewan patients seeking plastic surgical treatment is significantly higher than for their urban counterparts. These unfunded costs represent a significant barrier to health care access in Canada and serve to propagate inequalities in the nation’s heath care system. PMID:25114619

  10. Efficacy of Control Measures for European Buckthorn ( Rhamnus cathartica L.) in Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delanoy, Luc; Archibold, O. W.

    2007-10-01

    Introduced to Saskatchewan in the 1930s as a potential shelterbelt species, European buckthorn is now a prominent understory shrub in riparian woodland and shrub communities around Saskatoon. Locally, the Meewasin Valley Authority (MVA) is actively controlling buckthorn as part of its mandate to conserve natural heritage resources of the South Saskatchewan River Valley, with the goal of restoring the natural biodiversity of remnant patches of native vegetation. European buckthorn is normally dioecious, and MVA has chosen to treat only fruiting stems in an attempt to limit seed production. Two control techniques have been used. In one treatment, glyphosate was applied to stems after cutting; alternatively Garlon 4 Dow AgroSciences herbicide (active ingredient triclopyr) was applied as a chemical girdle directly to the stems using a streamline basal bark spray method. To date, more than 347,000 fruiting stems of buckthorn have been treated. Results indicate good initial progress in limiting seed production in dense buckthorn sites, but at a high cost. Although seed eradication is not a practical short-term goal for the Saskatoon buckthorn population, chemical girdling can substantially and strategically reduce seed and effectively limit spread. Field-tested strategies to reduce costs and improve efficiencies are discussed.

  11. Disease risks associated with free-ranging wild boar in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Glenna F; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Godson, Dale L; Wilkins, Wendy; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the disease status of Saskatchewan's feral wild boar population. Whole carcasses, tissue samples, and/or serum from 81 hunter-killed boars from Saskatchewan were submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) between 2009 and 2014. Serological tests were negative for PRRS, H1N1, and H3N2 swine influenza, PCV-2, and TGE/PRCV in 22/22 boars and for Toxoplasma gondii and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in 20/20 boars. Of 20 boars whose sera were tested 20 were positive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, with 7 positive for, among other strains, serotype 14; 16 were positive for Lawsonia intracellularis, 1 was positive and 6 were suspicious for Salmonella spp. Polymerase chain reaction tests were negative for PRRS and PCV2 in 58/58 boars and positive for Torque teno virus in 1/8 boars. Digestion assays were negative for Trichinella spp. in 22/22 boars. The high seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 is noteworthy as this serotype has not been previously reported in North America.

  12. Labor policy and social democracy: the case of Saskatchewan, 1971-1982.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    1994-01-01

    This article analyzes labor policy, especially that of occupational health and safety, initiated by the Saskatchewan New Democratic Party (NDP) from 1971 to 1982. The NDP was perceived by Canadian provincial labor federations and the Canadian Labour Congress as the government most approximating a European labor party. The provincial labor legislation was seen as exemplary, and the occupational health and safety legislation as a "beacon" for the rest of Canada. This article suggests that the advances in occupational health and safety statute and regulations were a direct response to the government's policy to develop uranium mining. In order to pursue a vigorous renewable and nonrenewable resource policy, the government maintained that uranium could be mined "safely." This resulted in "progressive" health and safety legislation and the reinforcement of the colonial status of people of Indian ancestry. This policy of growth and development also resulted in joint venture relationships with multinational corporations and increasing investments in the north for nonrenewable resource development. Prior to the landslide defeat of the NDP in 1982 by the Conservative Party, the richest 5 percent of Saskatchewan people earned as much, in total, as the poorest 50 percent. Meanwhile, ordinary workers experienced declining real wages and increased employment insecurity.

  13. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  14. Plasma proteome profiles of White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Athabasca River within the oil sands deposit.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina B D; Sherry, James P

    2016-09-01

    There are questions about the potential for oil sands related chemicals to enter the Athabasca River, whether from tailing ponds, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, or transport of mining dust, at concentrations sufficient to negatively impact the health of biota. We applied shotgun proteomics to generate protein profiles of mature male and female White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) that were collected from various sites along the main stem of the Athabasca River in 2011 and 2012. On average, 399±131 (standard deviation) proteins were identified in fish plasma from each location in both years. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to determine the proteins' core functions and to compare the datasets by location, year, and sex. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine if variation in the number of proteins related to a core function among all male and female individuals from both sampling years was affected by location. The core biological functions of plasma proteins that were common to both sampling years for males and females from each location were also estimated separately (based on Ingenuity's Knowledge Base). PCA revealed site-specific differences in the functional characteristics of the plasma proteome from white sucker sampled from downstream of oil sands extraction facilities compared with fish from upstream. Plasma proteins that were unique to fish downstream of oil sands extraction were related to lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, vitamin and mineral metabolism, endocrine system disorders, skeletal and muscular development and function, neoplasia, carcinomas, and gastrointestinal disease. PMID:27013027

  15. The characterization and distribution of inorganic chemicals in tributary waters of the lower Athabasca river, Oilsands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Headley, J V; Crosley, B; Conly, F M; Quagraine, E K

    2005-01-01

    At present, there are two large industrial plants recovering oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area and there are plans for several more mines in the area. There are environmental concerns for aquatic life in areas downstream of current and future oil sands activities. To assess and predict potential impacts of industrial activities, it is important to separate impacts from those produced by naturally occurring oil sands deposit. Studies were therefore conducted to determine whether the water quality of tributaries to the Athabasca River, which have not been impacted by anthropogenic activities, is affected by inorganic constituents resulting from flowing through reaches with natural oilsands deposit. Three tributaries, Steepbank River, Mackay River, and Ells River at upstream and downstream locations on each stream were investigated during four surveys from 1998 to 2000. In addition to some physical parameters such as pH, conductance and hardness and the major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and silicates), seventeen trace metals were investigated. Some of these metals, especially iron and manganese, were of high concentrations and in some instances, particularly in a survey conducted during the spring freshets in April 1999, exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The observed concentrations of metals seem to be of natural origin and can be used as base-line data for future assessment of anthropogenic activities in the oil sand region.

  16. In vitro microbial degradation of bituminous hydrocarbons and in situ colonization of bitumen surfaces within the athabasca oil sands deposit.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, R C; Costerton, J W

    1981-03-01

    Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of north-eastern Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross sections. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacterial polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx were also found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. A solvent precipitation and column chromatographic fractionation of the bitumen was followed by cross-tests for growth on the fractions by various isolated sediment microorganisms, as determined by epifluorescence count. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least two of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. PMID:16345738

  17. The characterization and distribution of inorganic chemicals in tributary waters of the lower Athabasca river, Oilsands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Headley, J V; Crosley, B; Conly, F M; Quagraine, E K

    2005-01-01

    At present, there are two large industrial plants recovering oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area and there are plans for several more mines in the area. There are environmental concerns for aquatic life in areas downstream of current and future oil sands activities. To assess and predict potential impacts of industrial activities, it is important to separate impacts from those produced by naturally occurring oil sands deposit. Studies were therefore conducted to determine whether the water quality of tributaries to the Athabasca River, which have not been impacted by anthropogenic activities, is affected by inorganic constituents resulting from flowing through reaches with natural oilsands deposit. Three tributaries, Steepbank River, Mackay River, and Ells River at upstream and downstream locations on each stream were investigated during four surveys from 1998 to 2000. In addition to some physical parameters such as pH, conductance and hardness and the major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and silicates), seventeen trace metals were investigated. Some of these metals, especially iron and manganese, were of high concentrations and in some instances, particularly in a survey conducted during the spring freshets in April 1999, exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The observed concentrations of metals seem to be of natural origin and can be used as base-line data for future assessment of anthropogenic activities in the oil sand region. PMID:15663297

  18. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR. PMID:27376919

  19. Vibrations across a Continent: The 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act and the Politicization of First Nations Leaders in Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    The 1983 Review of the Family Services Act (1973) and the Advisory Council meetings in Saskatchewan should be viewed against the backdrop of political changes taking place in North American society. Beginning with decolonization movements in both Canada and the United States, control over the provision of child and family services to indigenous…

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. KL1, Isolated from a Freshwater Lake in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Brady R W; Perry, Benjamin J; Yost, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. KL1 was isolated from an algal bloom in Katepwa Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. The isolate shares genetic and physiological similarities with Rheinheimera tangshanensis. The genome is estimated to be 4,295,060 bp in length with a GC content of 46.37%. Sequence analysis suggests the strain carries a previously uncharacterized prophage. PMID:26450742

  1. In the Face of Anti-LGBQ Behaviour: Saskatchewan High School Students' Perceptions of School Climate and Consequential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Melanie A.; Jewell, Lisa; McCutcheon, Jessica; Cochrane, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there is a dearth of research on school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students. Using social networking, 60 students from high schools in Saskatchewan participated in a climate survey. Results indicated that anti-LGBQ speech was widespread, as were other forms of harassment. The more victimization that was…

  2. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Saskatchewan: Case Study of the Rural Municipality of Rudy No. 284

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jeremy; Wittrock, Virginia; Kulshreshtha, Surendra; Wheaton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    With the likelihood of future changes in climate and climate variability, it is important to understand how human systems may be vulnerable. Rural communities in Saskatchewan having agricultural-based economies are particularly dependent on climate and could be among the most vulnerable human systems in Canada. Future changes in climate are likely…

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. KL1, Isolated from a Freshwater Lake in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Brady R. W.; Perry, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. KL1 was isolated from an algal bloom in Katepwa Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. The isolate shares genetic and physiological similarities with Rheinheimera tangshanensis. The genome is estimated to be 4,295,060 bp in length with a GC content of 46.37%. Sequence analysis suggests the strain carries a previously uncharacterized prophage. PMID:26450742

  4. Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at Four Sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, 2006-2007.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of adult double-crested cormorants from breeding colonies on four very different lakes spanning a major ecotone from prairie to boreal forest in Saskatchewan, Canada. Our objectives were to document regional parasite fauna, and identify potential diff...

  5. Atmospheric dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fenn, Mark E; Percy, Kevin E

    2016-10-15

    Due to the potential ecological effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, this study was implemented to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs. Passive samplers were used to measure ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid/nitrous acid (HNO3/HONO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the AOSR. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in winter were higher than those in summer, while seasonal differences of NH3 and HNO3/HONO showed an opposite trend, with higher values in summer. Concentrations of NH3, NO2 and SO2 were high close to the emission sources (oil sands operations and urban areas). NH3 concentrations were also elevated in the southern portion of the domain indicating possible agricultural and urban emission sources to the southwest. HNO3, an oxidation endpoint, showed wider ranges of concentrations and a larger spatial extent. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3/HONO and SO2 from passive measurements and their monthly deposition velocities calculated by a multi-layer inference model (MLM) were used to calculate dry deposition of N and S. NH3 contributed the largest fraction of deposited N across the network, ranging between 0.70-1.25kgNha(-1)yr(-1), HNO3/HONO deposition ranged between 0.30-0.90kgNha(-1)yr(-1), and NO2 deposition between 0.03-0.70kgNha(-1)yr(-1). During the modeled period, average dry deposition of the inorganic gaseous N species ranged between 1.03 and 2.85kgNha(-1)yr(-1) and SO4-S deposition ranged between 0.26 and 2.04kgha(-1)yr(-1). Comparisons with co-measured ion exchange resin throughfall data (8.51kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) indicate that modeled dry deposition combined with measured wet deposition (1.37kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) underestimated S deposition. Gas phase NH3 (71%) and HNO3 plus NO2 (79%) dry deposition fluxes dominated the total deposition of NH4-N and NO3-N, respectively.

  6. Flood-formed dunes in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Morphology, modeling, and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Carling, P.A.; Beyer, R.A.; Lancaster, N.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of discharge for martian outflow channels have spanned orders of magnitude due in part to uncertainties in floodwater height. A methodology of estimating discharge based on bedforms would reduce some of this uncertainty. Such a methodology based on the morphology and granulometry of flood-formed ('diluvial') dunes has been developed by Carling (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) and applied to Pleistocene flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Transverse periodic dune-like bedforms in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have previously been classified both as flood-formed dunes and as antidunes. Either interpretation is important, as they both imply substantial quantities of water, but each has different hydraulic implications. We undertook photoclinometric measurements of these forms, and compared them with data from flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Our analysis of those data shows their morphology to be more consistent with dunes than antidunes, thus providing the first documentation of flood-formed dunes on Mars. Other reasoning based on context and likely hydraulics also supports the bedforms' classification as dunes. Evidence does not support the dunes being aeolian, although a conclusive determination cannot be made with present data. Given the preponderance of evidence that the features are flood-formed instead of aeolian, we applied Carling's (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) dune-flow model to derive the peak discharge of the flood flow that formed them. The resultant estimate is approximately 2??106 m3/s, similar to previous estimates. The size of the Athabascan dunes' in comparison with that of terrestrial dunes suggests that these martian dunes took at least 1

  7. Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and δ15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. δ15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest δ15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. δ15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated δ15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background δ15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to

  8. Model development for prediction and mitigation of dissolved oxygen sags in the Athabasca River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nancy; McEachern, Preston; Yu, Tong; Zhu, David Z

    2013-01-15

    Northern rivers exposed to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loads are prone to dissolved oxygen (DO) sags in winter due to re-aeration occurring within limited open water leads. Additionally, photosynthesis is reduced by decreased daylight hours, inability of solar radiation to pass through ice, and slower algal growth in winter. The low volumetric flow decreases point-source dilution while their travel time increases. The Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada, has experienced these sags which may affect the aquatic ecosystem. A water quality model for an 800 km reach of this river was customized, calibrated, and validated specifically for DO and the factors that determine its concentration. After validation, the model was used to assess the assimilative capacity of the river and mitigation measures that could be deployed. The model reproduced the surface elevation and water temperature for the seven years simulated with mean absolute errors of <15 cm and <0.9 °C respectively. The ice cover was adequately predicted for all seven winters, and the simulation of nutrients and phytoplankton primary productivity were satisfactory. The DO concentration was very sensitive to the sediment oxygen demand (SOD), which represented about 50% of the DO sink in winter. The DO calibration was improved by implementing an annual SOD based on the BOD load. The model was used to estimate the capacity of the river to assimilate BOD loads in order to maintain a DO concentration of 7 mg/L, which represents the chronic provincial guideline plus a buffer of 0.5 mg/L. The results revealed the maximum assimilative BOD load of 8.9 ton/day at average flow conditions, which is lower than the maximum permitted load. In addition, the model predicted a minimum assimilative flow of about 52 m(3)/s at average BOD load. Climate change scenarios could increase the frequency of this low flow. A three-level warning-system is proposed to manage the BOD load proactively at different river discharges

  9. Atmospheric dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fenn, Mark E; Percy, Kevin E

    2016-10-15

    Due to the potential ecological effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, this study was implemented to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs. Passive samplers were used to measure ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid/nitrous acid (HNO3/HONO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the AOSR. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in winter were higher than those in summer, while seasonal differences of NH3 and HNO3/HONO showed an opposite trend, with higher values in summer. Concentrations of NH3, NO2 and SO2 were high close to the emission sources (oil sands operations and urban areas). NH3 concentrations were also elevated in the southern portion of the domain indicating possible agricultural and urban emission sources to the southwest. HNO3, an oxidation endpoint, showed wider ranges of concentrations and a larger spatial extent. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3/HONO and SO2 from passive measurements and their monthly deposition velocities calculated by a multi-layer inference model (MLM) were used to calculate dry deposition of N and S. NH3 contributed the largest fraction of deposited N across the network, ranging between 0.70-1.25kgNha(-1)yr(-1), HNO3/HONO deposition ranged between 0.30-0.90kgNha(-1)yr(-1), and NO2 deposition between 0.03-0.70kgNha(-1)yr(-1). During the modeled period, average dry deposition of the inorganic gaseous N species ranged between 1.03 and 2.85kgNha(-1)yr(-1) and SO4-S deposition ranged between 0.26 and 2.04kgha(-1)yr(-1). Comparisons with co-measured ion exchange resin throughfall data (8.51kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) indicate that modeled dry deposition combined with measured wet deposition (1.37kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) underestimated S deposition. Gas phase NH3 (71%) and HNO3 plus NO2 (79%) dry deposition fluxes dominated the total deposition of NH4-N and NO3-N, respectively. PMID:27295600

  10. Cerberus Fossae and Athabasca Valles: Dike Formation, Cryosphere Cracking and Aqueous Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L.; Head, J. W.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Recently Burr et al. (Recent aqueous floods from the Cerberus Fossae, Mars. GRL 29, 13-1 to 13-4, 2002, @ 0094-8276, 2001GL013345) described the Athabasca Valles channel system as being produced by a water flood and identified the source as segments of the Cerberus Fossae system, graben-like fractures trending ~SE-NW in Elysium. We have examined the source areas in detail and also investigated the large-scale structure of the Cerberus Fossae. We infer that the fossae are produced by lateral injection of ~200 m wide dikes radiating from Elysium. Stresses due to dike injection fractured the overlying cryosphere and water escaped from an underlying pressurized aquifer by travelling up the resulting fracture. Topography in the source area suggests that water was mainly released from a pair of fractures roughly aligned along strike and totalling ~20 km in length. We estimate that the water formed a ~100 m high linear fountain over its fissure vent, causing it to flow uphill for ~6 km against a ~0.1 degree regional slope before spreading sideways and back downhill around the ends of the active fractures, eroding a ~50 m deep, ~10-20 km wide, ~30 km long depression in the process. Analysis of the dynamics suggests that the total water volume flux estimated by Burr et al., ~1-2 million cubic meters per second, could be consistent with the eroded zone if the fracture releasing the water was ~3 m wide with water flowing up it at ~30 m/s. Feeding this water release, however, even invoking the most favorable aquifer geometry and a pressure gradient driven by a topographic water head involving the ~800-km distant Elysium Mons edifice, requires the aquifer to be remarkably permeable. In any case, it seems likely that some of the presently observed post-flood depth of the fossae is due to collapse and water erosion aided by melting of cryosphere ice by magmatic heat, in some places revealing the top of the underlying dike.

  11. Babesia odocoilei infection in a Saskatchewan elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) herd.

    PubMed

    Pattullo, Kimberly M; Wobeser, Gary; Lockerbie, Betty P; Burgess, Hilary J

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old female elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) cow, presented for chronic severe weight loss and unthriftiness, was diagnosed with Babesia odocoilei infection based on blood smear evaluation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Subsequently, velvet antler from a male that died acutely on the same farm was also PCR positive for Babesia spp. Both animals originated from a game ranch of Saskatchewan-bred and -raised animals with no known history of tick exposure, but with a history of numerous sudden deaths of unknown etiology. The presence of B. odocoilei in Canada might be a result of a recent introduction that could have deleterious effects on local wild ungulates or may represent discovery of a previously unrecognized endemic disease in local wildlife.

  12. Proteocephalus ambloplitis and Contracaecum sp. from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) stocked into Boundary Reservoir, Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Szalai, A J; Dick, T A

    1990-08-01

    Nonresident (introduced) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Boundary Reservoir, Saskatchewan were examined for helminths. Four species of parasites were found (Diplostomum sp., Proteocephalus ambloplitis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli, and Contracaecum sp.). Contracaecum sp. larvae were absent in age-0 and age-1 bass, but prevalence and mean intensity increased with age for bass age-2 or older. Similarly, the prevalence and mean intensity of P. ambloplitis plerocercoids in bass were low until age-2; older bass harbored significantly more plerocercoids. Analysis of stomach contents indicates that this pattern of recruitment for Contracaecum sp. and P. ambloplitis is probably due to increased feeding by largemouth bass on aquatic insects and cannibalism after age-2, respectively. Although Contracaecum sp. may have been established in the reservoir prior to the introduction of bass, we are certain that P. ambloplitis was introduced via stocking with infected fingerlings.

  13. Chemical Form of Selenium in Naturally Selenium-Rich Lentils (Lens Culinaris L.) From Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Thavarajah, D.; Vandenberg, A.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86--95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5--14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  14. Environment, respiratory disease, and performance of pigs in three Saskatchewan grower-finisher barns

    PubMed Central

    Bauck, Stewart W.; Rhodes, Charles S.; Barber, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer-based environmental monitoring system was used to monitor temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate continuously in three commercial grower-finisher swine barns in Saskatchewan. During the monitoring period, a group of pigs in each barn was examined for growth rate, amount of lung affected with pneumonia, and degree of atrophic rhinitis. In addition, the total bacterial colony forming particle count within the airspace of each barn was measured once each week. Significant differences existed among barns for daily maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, ventilation rate, and average bacterial colony forming particle counts. There was no difference among farms in the average percentage of lung affected with pneumonia, average snout atrophy score, or growth rate of the test animals. On one farm, there was a significant positive correlation between snout score and percentage of lung affected with pneumonia. On another farm, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage of lung affected with pneumonia and growth rate. PMID:17423628

  15. Trend analysis of nutrient loadings in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Chun, K. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient loadings in river catchments have increased in the past years as a consequence of rapid expansion of agricultural areas, new urban developments and industries, and population growth. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies has intensified eutrophication conditions that degrade water quality and ecosystem health. In large-scale catchments, the assessment of temporal and spatial variability of nutrient loads imply challenges due to climate, land use and geology heterogeneity, and to anthropogenic changes. In this study we carried out a trend analysis of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads in the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) catchment. This catchment is located in the Canadian Prairie Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The eastern and central areas of the catchment consist mostly of croplands, pasture lands and livestock farms, whereas the western parts are located on the Rocky Mountains that are the source of most of the catchment's streamflows. The trend analysis was performed applying a novel approach to analyse nutrient time series recorded at long-term water quality stations along the main stems of the SSR river network. Since water quality is taken infrequently, in the proposed approach the time series were complemented using regression analysis methods based on streamflow data recorded at the nearest gauge stations. The time series were subsequently pre-whitened in order to remove the autocorrelation, and then subjected to non-parametric statistical test to detect trends. Seasonal analysis of trends at each of the water quality stations were performed in order to determine the relationships between annual flow regimes and nutrient loads in the catchment, in particular, the influence of the high spring runoff on nutrient export. Decadal analysis was also performed to determine the long-tern relationships of nutrients with anthropogenic changes in the catchment. In particular, the capacity of reservoirs to trap nutrients and the effects of the

  16. Wind assessment and power prediction from a wind farm in southern Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Mukundhan

    Mesoscale and Microscale Modeling are two methods used to estimate wind energy resources. The main parameters of wind resource estimation are the mean wind speed and the mean wind power density. Mesoscale Modeling was applied to three different regions, Regina, Saskatoon, and Gull Lake, located in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. The areas were selected as centers of a domain for a grid with a horizontal resolution of 3 kilometers. Mesoscale Modeling was performed using the software tool, Anemoscope. Wind resources for the regions and the areas surrounding them have been generated for three elevations (30, 50, and 80 meters). As it is a site for a large wind turbine farm, the region in and around Swift Current in southern Saskatchewan (approximately 36 km x 36 km in area) was the site of choice for this study in Microscale Modeling. A widely popular software, WAsP, was chosen to perform the study. Statistical wind data was obtained from a Swift Current meteorological station over a period of ten years (2000-2009). A wind resource grid has been set up for the area at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters, and wind resource maps have been generated for heights of 50, 65, and 80 meters above ground level as the heights are the potential wind turbine hub heights. In order to simulate the SaskPower Centennial Wind Power Station, a wind farm was set up with 83 wind turbines in the Coulee Municipality region near Swift Current. The annual energy production for the entire farm, along with those of the individual turbines, has been calculated. Both total and individual wind turbine productions were accurately modeled.

  17. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.

    PubMed

    Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

    2011-02-01

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (≤ 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age.

  18. Scavenging ratio of polycyclic aromatic compounds in rain and snow at the Athabasca oil sands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Cheng, I.; Muir, D.; Charland, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    Athabasca oil sands industry in northern Alberta, Canada is a possible source of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Monitored PACs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, and dibenzothiophenes, in precipitation and in air at three near-source sites in the Fort MacKay and Fort McMurray area during May 2011 to August 2012 were analyzed to generate a database of scavenging (or washout) ratios (Wt) for PACs scavenged by both snow and rain. Median precipitation and air concentrations of parent PAHs over the May 2011 to August 2012 period ranged from 0.3-184.9 (chrysene) ng L-1 and 0.01-3.9 (naphthalene) ng m-3, respectively, which were comparable to literature values. Higher concentrations in precipitation and air were observed for alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes. The median precipitation and air concentrations were 11.3-646.7 (C3-fluoranthene/pyrene) ng L-1 and 0.21-16.9 (C3-naphthalene) ng m-3, respectively, for alkylated PAHs, and 8.5-530.5 (C4-dibenzothiophene) ng L-1 and 0.13-6.6 (C2-dibenzothiophene) ng m-3 for dibenzothiophenes and their alkylated derivatives. Median Wt over the measurement period were 6100-1.1 × 106 from snow scavenging and 350-2.3 × 105 from rain scavenging depending on the PAC species. Median Wt for parent PAHs were within the range of those observed at other urban and suburban locations. But Wt for acenaphthylene in snow samples was 2-7 times higher. Some individual snow and rain samples exceeded literature values by a factor of 10. Wt for benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in snow samples had reached 107, which is the maximum for PAH snow scavenging ratios reported in literature. From the analysis of data subsets, Wt for particulate-phase dominant PACs were 14-20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in snow samples and 7-20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in rain samples. Wt from snow scavenging was ∼9 times greater than rain scavenging for particulate

  19. Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

    2008-12-01

    A vast amount of oil sands exists in the Athabasca area, Alberta, Canada. These oil sands consist of bitumen (extra-heavy oil) and unconsolidated sand distributed from surface to a depth of 750 meters. Including conventional crude oil, the total number of proved remaining oil reserves in Canada ranks second place in the world after Saudi Arabia. For the production of bitumen from the reservoir 200 to 500 meters in depth, the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) method (Steam Injection EOR) has been adopted as bitumen is not movable at original temperatures. It is essential to understand the detailed reservoir distribution and steam chamber development extent for optimizing the field development. Oil sands reservoir characterization is conducted using 3D seismic data acquired in February 2002. Conducting acoustic impedance inversion to improve resolution and subsequent multi-attribute analysis integrating seismic data with well data facilitates an understanding of the detailed reservoir distribution. These analyses enable the basement shale to be imaged, and enables identification to a certain degree of thin shale within the reservoir. Top and bottom depths of the reservoir are estimated in the range of 2.0 meters near the existing wells even in such a complex channel sands environment characterized by abrupt lateral sedimentary facies changes. In March 2006, monitoring 3D seismic data was acquired to delineate steam-affected areas. The 2002 baseline data is used as a reference data and the 2006 monitoring data is calibrated to the 2002 seismic data. Apparent differences in the two 3D seismic data sets with the exception of production related response changes are removed during the calibration process. P-wave and S-wave velocities of oil sands core samples are also measured with various pressures and temperatures, and the laboratory measurement results are then combined to construct a rock physics model used to predict velocity changes induced by steam

  20. Scavenging ratios of polycyclic aromatic compounds in rain and snow in the Athabasca oil sands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Cheng, I.; Muir, D.; Charland, J.-P.

    2015-02-01

    The Athabasca oil sands industry in northern Alberta, Canada, is a possible source of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Monitored PACs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in precipitation and in air at three near-source sites in the Fort MacKay and Fort McMurray area during January 2011 to May 2012, were used to generate a database of scavenging ratios (Wt) for PACs scavenged by both snow and rain. Higher concentrations in precipitation and air were observed for alkylated PAHs and DBTs compared to the other PACs. The sums of the median precipitation concentrations over the period of data analyzed were 0.48 μ g L-1 for the 18 PAHs, 3.38 μ g L-1 for the 20 alkylated PAHs, and 0.94 μ g L-1 for the 5 DBTs. The sums of the median air concentrations for parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, and DBTs were 8.37, 67.26, and 11.83 ng m-3, respectively. Median Wt over the measurement period were 6100 - 1.1 × 106 from snow scavenging and 350 - 2.3 × 105 from rain scavenging depending on the PAC species. Median Wt for parent PAHs were within the range of those observed at other urban and suburban locations, but Wt for acenaphthylene in snow samples were 2-7 times higher compared to other urban and suburban locations. Wt for some individual snow and rain samples exceeded literature values by a factor of 10. Wt for benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in snow samples had reached 107, which is the maximum for PAH snow scavenging ratios reported in the literature. From the analysis of data subsets, Wt for particulate-phase dominant PACs were 14-20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in snow samples and 7-20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in rain samples. Wt from snow scavenging were ~ 9 times greater than from rain scavenging for particulate-phase dominant PACs and 4-9.6 times greater than from rain scavenging for gas-phase dominant PACs. Gas-particle fractions of each PAC

  1. In vitro microbial degradation of bituminous hydrocarbons and in-situ colonization of bitumen surfaces within the Athabasca oil sands deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Wyndham, R.C.; Costerton, J.W.

    1981-03-01

    Bituminous hydrocarbons extracted from the Athabasca oil sands of N.E. Alberta were adsorbed onto filter supports and placed at sites in the Athabasca River and its tributaries where these rivers come in contact with the oil sands formation. Colonization of the hydrocarbon surfaces at summer and winter ambient temperatures was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by epifluorescence microscopy of acridine orange-stained cross section. Ruthenium red and alkaline bismuth stains visualized an association of bacteria with the hydrocarbon surface which was mediated by bacteria polysaccharides. Bacteria apparently lacking a glycocalyx also were found closely associated with the surface of the hydrophobic substrate and in channels within the substrate. All fractions except the asphaltenes supported the growth of at least 2 of the isolates, although fractionation of degraded bitumen revealed that the saturate, aromatic, and first polar fractions were preferentially degraded. 20 references.

  2. From evaporated seawater to uranium-mineralizing brines: Isotopic and trace element study of quartz-dolomite veins in the Athabasca system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Boulvais, Philippe; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Cuney, Michel; France-Lanord, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Stable isotope (O, H, C), radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd) and trace element analyses have been applied to quartz-dolomite veins and their uranium(U)-bearing fluid inclusions associated with Proterozoic unconformity-related UO2 (uraninite) ores in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) in order to trace the evolution of pristine evaporated seawater towards U-mineralizing brines during their migration through sediments and basement rocks. Fluid inclusion data show that quartz and dolomite have precipitated from brines of comparable chemistry (excepted for relatively small amounts of CO2 found in dolomite-hosted fluid inclusions). However, δ18O values of quartz veins (δ18O = 11‰ to 18‰) and dolomite veins (δ18O = 13‰ to 24‰) clearly indicate isotopic disequilibrium between quartz and dolomite. Hence, it is inferred that this isotopic disequilibrium primarily reflects a decrease in temperature between the quartz stage (˜180 °C) and the dolomite stage (˜120 °C). The δ13C values of CO2 dissolved in dolomite-hosted fluid inclusions (δ13C = -30‰ to -4‰) and the δ13C values of dolomite (δ13C = -23.5‰ to -3.5‰) indicate that the CO2 dissolved in the mineralizing brines originated from brine-graphite interactions in the basement. The resulting slight increase in the fluid partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) may have triggered dolomite precipitation instead of quartz. δ18O values of quartz veins and previously published δ18O values of the main alteration minerals around the U-ores (illite, chlorite and tourmaline) show that quartz and alteration minerals were isotopically equilibrated with the same fluid at ˜180 °C. The REE concentrations in dolomite produce PAAS-normalized patterns that show some similarities with that of UO2 and are clearly distinct from that of the other main REE-bearing minerals in these environments (monazite, zircon and aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals). The radiogenic isotope compositions of dolomite (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7053 to 0

  3. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance.

  4. PCR-based study of conserved and variable DNA sequences of Tritrichomonas foetus isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, D E; Wagner, B; Polley, L; Krieger, J N

    1995-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes infertility and spontaneous abortion in cattle. In Saskatchewan, Canada, the culture prevalence of trichomonads was 65 of 1,048 (6%) among 1,048 bulls tested within a 1-year period ending in April 1994. Saskatchewan was previously thought to be free of the parasite. To confirm the culture results, possible T. foetus DNA presence was determined by the PCR. All of the 16 culture-positive isolates tested were PCR positive by a single-band test, but one PCR product was weak. DNA fingerprinting by both T17 PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR revealed genetic variation or polymorphism among the T. foetus isolates. T17 PCR also revealed conserved loci that distinguished these T. foetus isolates from Trichomonas vaginalis, from a variety of other protozoa, and from prokaryotes. TCO-1 PCR, a PCR test designed to sample DNA sequence homologous to the 5' flank of a highly conserved cell division control gene, detected genetic polymorphism at low stringency and a conserved, single locus at higher stringency. These findings suggested that T. foetus isolates exhibit both conserved genetic loci and polymorphic loci detectable by independent PCR methods. Both conserved and polymorphic genetic loci may prove useful for improved clinical diagnosis of T. foetus. The polymorphic loci detected by PCR suggested either a long history of infection or multiple lines of T. foetus infection in Saskatchewan. Polymorphic loci detected by PCR may provide data for epidemiologic studies of T. foetus. PMID:7615746

  5. Examining the potential role of a supervised injection facility in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to avert HIV among people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Jozaghi, Ehsan; Jackson, Asheka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research predicting the public health and fiscal impact of Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs), across different cities in Canada, has reported positive results on the reduction of HIV cases among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). Most of the existing studies have focused on the outcomes of Insite, located in the Vancouver Downtown Eastside (DTES). Previous attention has not been afforded to other affected areas of Canada. The current study seeks to address this deficiency by assessing the cost-effectiveness of opening a SIF in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Methods: We used two different mathematical models commonly used in the literature, including sensitivity analyses, to estimate the number of HIV infections averted due to the establishment of a SIF in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Results: Based on cumulative cost-effectiveness results, SIF establishment is cost-effective. The benefit to cost ratio was conservatively estimated to be 1.35 for the first two potential facilities. The study relied on 34% and 14% needle sharing rates for sensitivity analyses. The result for both sensitivity analyses and the base line estimates indicated positive prospects for the establishment of a SIF in Saskatoon. Conclusion: The opening of a SIF in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is financially prudent in the reduction of tax payers’ expenses and averting HIV infection rates among PWID PMID:26029896

  6. Basin center - fractured source rock plays within tectonically segmented foreland (back-arc) basins: Targets for future exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    Production from fractured reservoirs has long been an industry target, but interest in this type play has increased recently because of new concepts and technology, especially horizontal drilling. Early petroleum exploration programs searched for fractured reservoirs from shale, tight sandstones, carbonates, or basement in anticlinal or fault traps, without particular attention to source rocks. Foreland basins are some of the best oil-generating basins in the world because of their rich source rocks. Examples are the Persian Gulf basin, the Alberta basin and Athabasca tar sands, and the eastern Venezuela basin and Orinoco tar sands. Examples of Cretaceous producers are the wrench-faulted La Paz-Mara anticlinal fields, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela; the active Austin Chalk play in an extensional area on the north flank of the Gulf of Mexico continental margin basin; and the Niobrara Chalk and Pierre Shale plays of the central Rocky Mountains, United States. These latter plays are characteristic of a foreland basin fragmented into intermontane basins by the Laramide orogeny. The Florence field, Colorado, discovered in 1862, and the Silo field, Wyoming, discovered in 1980, are used as models for current prospecting and will be described in detail. The technologies applied to fracture-source rock plays are refined surface and subsurface mapping from new log suites, including resistivity mapping; 3D-3C seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic mapping; borehole path seismic mapping associated with horizontal drilling; fracture mapping with the Formation MicroScanner and other logging tools; measurements while drilling and other drilling and completion techniques; surface geochemistry to locate microseeps; and local and regional lineament discrimination.

  7. Risk factors associated with the choice to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-30

    A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001). Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001), while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001). A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  8. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Huang, Z.; Xu, M.; Mi, N.; Yu, D.; Li, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  10. Availability and Primary Health Care Orientation of Dementia-Related Services in Rural Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Stewart, Norma J.; O’Connell, Megan E.; Kirk, Andrew; Crossley, Margaret; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Forbes, Dorothy; Innes, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    Community-based services are important for improving outcomes for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. This study examined: (a) availability of rural dementia-related services in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, and (b) orientation of services toward six key attributes of primary health care (i.e., information/education, accessibility, population orientation, coordinated care, comprehensiveness, quality of care). Data were collected from 71 rural Home Care Assessors via cross-sectional survey. Basic health services were available in most communities (e.g., pharmacists, family physicians, palliative care, adult day programs, home care, long-term care facilities). Dementia-specific services typically were unavailable (e.g., health promotion, counseling, caregiver support groups, transportation, week-end/night respite). Mean scores on the primary health care orientation scales were low (range 12.4 to 17.5/25). Specific services to address needs of rural individuals with dementia and their caregivers are limited in availability and fit with primary health care attributes. PMID:26496646

  11. Introduced and Native Haplotypes of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wildlife in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    Recent detection of a European-type haplotype of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly enzootic region in British Columbia prompted efforts to determine if this haplotype was present elsewhere in wildlife in western Canada. In coyote (Canis latrans) definitive hosts in an urban region in central Saskatchewan (SK), we found a single haplotype of E. multilocularis that was most similar to a haplotype currently established in the core of this parasite's distribution in Europe and to the European-type haplotype found in coyotes and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in British Columbia. We found six haplotypes of E. multilocularis from deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) intermediate hosts in southwestern SK that were closely related to, and one haplotype indistinguishable from, a haplotype previously reported in the adjacent north-central US. This is a higher level of diversity than has previously been recognized for this parasite, which suggests that the population native to central North America is well established, rather than a recent introduction from the Arctic. These findings, in combination with recent cases of alveolar hydatid cysts in dogs in Canada, raise concerns that European haplotypes of E. multilocularis may be increasing in distribution within wildlife in Canada. European haplotypes may pose greater risks to veterinary and human health than native haplotypes long established in central North America.

  12. Survey of Saskatchewan beef cattle producers regarding management practices and veterinary service usage

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Campbell, John; Hendrick, Steven; Waldner, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Saskatchewan cow-calf producers (n = 2000) were surveyed to determine what factors were associated with their uptake of veterinary services; how and where they access nutritional information and animal health advice; and whether they were comfortable with having non-veterinarians perform veterinary procedures. The survey response rate was 18.1%. Veterinarians were seen as a primary source of nutritional information and animal health advice. Over the past decade producers have shifted their veterinary service usage from individual animal events to herd-level procedures. Producers who pregnancy check were more likely to be large producers (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.1; P = 0.007), to semen test their bulls (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.0 to 5.8: P < 0.001), analyze their forages (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.0; P = 0.006), and to farm in the brown versus the gray or dark brown soil zones (P = 0.004). Most (94.0%) respondents had adequate veterinary services within an hour’s drive of the farm and 90.4% were satisfied with their veterinary service provider. Approximately 25% of respondents would be comfortable with having a non-veterinarian pregnancy check and attend to prolapses. PMID:25565718

  13. Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Aleksija S; Hill, Janet E; Jardine, Claire M; Bollinger, Trent K

    2009-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a sporadic disease of artiodactyls caused by several viruses in the Gammaherpesvirinae. We report two cases of MCF in free-living moose (Alces alces) from Saskatchewan. One was a thin, dehydrated, adult male found recumbent in 2006. At necropsy, ulcers were found in the intestine, bladder, and corneas. Microscopically, there was lymphocytic vasculitis and perivasculitis in many organs with infrequent fibrinoid necrosis. Ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) was identified by polymerase chain reaction. A segment of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene was 99% identical to published OHV-2 sequences. During a retrospective search of earlier cases, a female moose with lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis examined in 2003 was identified and OHV-2 was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissues from this animal. We believe this to be the first description of MCF in free-ranging moose in North America. Infection requires contact with infected sheep or goats, and MCF in moose may become more prevalent as moose distribution continues to expand into agricultural prairie.

  14. Survey of Saskatchewan beef cattle producers regarding management practices and veterinary service usage.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray; Campbell, John; Hendrick, Steven; Waldner, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Saskatchewan cow-calf producers (n = 2000) were surveyed to determine what factors were associated with their uptake of veterinary services; how and where they access nutritional information and animal health advice; and whether they were comfortable with having non-veterinarians perform veterinary procedures. The survey response rate was 18.1%. Veterinarians were seen as a primary source of nutritional information and animal health advice. Over the past decade producers have shifted their veterinary service usage from individual animal events to herd-level procedures. Producers who pregnancy check were more likely to be large producers (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.1; P = 0.007), to semen test their bulls (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.0 to 5.8: P < 0.001), analyze their forages (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.0; P = 0.006), and to farm in the brown versus the gray or dark brown soil zones (P = 0.004). Most (94.0%) respondents had adequate veterinary services within an hour's drive of the farm and 90.4% were satisfied with their veterinary service provider. Approximately 25% of respondents would be comfortable with having a non-veterinarian pregnancy check and attend to prolapses.

  15. Chemical and physical properties of some saline lakes in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Jeff S; Sachs, Julian P

    2008-01-01

    Background The Northern Great Plains of Canada are home to numerous permanent and ephemeral athalassohaline lakes. These lakes display a wide range of ion compositions, salinities, stratification patterns, and ecosystems. Many of these lakes are ecologically and economically significant to the Great Plains Region. A survey of the physical characteristics and chemistry of 19 lakes was carried out to assess their suitability for testing new tools for determining past salinity from the sediment record. Results Data on total dissolved solids (TDS), specific conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were measured in June, 2007. A comparison of these data with past measurements indicates that salinity is declining at Little Manitou and Big Quill Lakes in the province of Saskatchewan. However salinity is rising at other lakes in the region, including Redberry and Manito Lakes. Conclusion The wide range of salinities found across a small geographic area makes the Canadian saline lakes region ideal for testing salinity proxies. A nonlinear increase in salinity at Redberry Lake is likely influenced by its morphometry. This acceleration has ecological implications for the migratory bird species found within the Redberry Important Bird Area. PMID:18430240

  16. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Hancock, Dale; Rogan, Dragan; Potter, Andrew A

    2005-08-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 microg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying significantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no significant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter.

  17. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Mulira, Gershon L.; Saunders, J. Robert; Barth, Albert D.

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses. Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis. PMID:17423929

  18. Pathology, isolation, and preliminary molecular characterization of a novel iridovirus from tiger salamanders in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, T K; Mao, J; Schock, D; Brigham, R M; Chinchar, V G

    1999-07-01

    All iridovirus was confirmed to be the cause of an epizootic in larval and adult tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli) from four separate ponds in southern Saskatchewan (Canada) during the summer of 1997. This organism also is suspected, based on electron microscopic findings, to be the cause of mortality of larval tiger salamanders in a pond over 200 km to the north during the same year. Salamanders developed a generalized viremia which resulted in various lesions including: necrotizing, vesicular and ulcerative dermatitis; gastrointestinal ulceration; and necrosis of hepatic, splenic, renal, lymphoid, and hematopoietic tissues. In cells associated with these lesions, large lightly basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and vacuolated nuclei with marginated chromatin were consistently found. Virus was isolated from tissue homogenates of infected salamanders following inoculation of epithelioma papilloma cyprini (EPC) cells. The virus, provisionally designated Regina ranavirus (RRV), was initially identified as an iridovirus by electron microscopy. Subsequent molecular characterization, including partial sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, confirmed this assignment and established that RRV was a ranavirus distinct from frog virus 3 (FV3) and other members of the genus Ranavirus. Intraperitoneal inoculation of 5 x 10(6.23) TCID50 of the field isolate caused mortality in inoculated salamanders at 13 days post infection. Field, clinical, and molecular studies jointly suggest that the etiological agent of recent salamander mortalities is a highly infectious novel ranavirus. PMID:10479075

  19. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants. PMID:23802943

  20. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  1. Effectiveness of voluntary habitat stewardship in conserving grassland: case of operation burrowing owl in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Robert G; Skeel, Margaret A

    2004-03-01

    There have been no published performance evaluations of nongovernmental, voluntary habitat stewardship programs. The Operation Burrowing Owl (OBO) stewardship program, initiated in 1987, was evaluated for its effectiveness in conservation of grassland habitat during 1986-1993. The 108 OBO sites from 1987 to 88 and 98 randomly selected non-OBO sites that were grassland in 1986 in the Regina-Weyburn, Saskatchewan study area were classified by size and agricultural soil suitability. By 1993, 41 (38%) of the 108 OBO sites had been withdrawn from the program. The 1986 area of grassland was compared with grassland area calculated from digitized 1993 LANDSAT imagery. A correction for satellite inaccuracies was determined. Grassland retention in 1993 was significantly higher at OBO sites (66%) than at random sites (49%), demonstrating that the OBO voluntary program effectively conserved habitat. Also, grassland retention was significantly lower on sites with better agricultural soils, and for sites <12 ha in size. Site type (OBO or random), size and their interaction, followed by agricultural soil suitability, had the greatest effects on grassland retention. During an era of accelerated grassland loss, OBO strongly and positively (statistically significant) affected conservation of grassland sites most at risk: sites <12 ha in size and with good to excellent agricultural soils. This suggests that grassland conservation efforts focus on vulnerable sites (small size and/or good agricultural soils) to provide nesting habitat for burrowing owls. Our study demonstrates that a voluntary stewardship program can significantly increase conservation of habitat. PMID:15037954

  2. New seismic images of the crust in the central Trans-Hudson Orogen of Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, B. I.; Hajnal, Z.; Stauffer, M. R.; Lewry, J.; Ashton, K. E.

    1998-05-01

    A reprocessing program to enhance the correlation between the surface geology and the seismic data has been completed for seismic line 9 (eastern 100 km) and line 10 in the central region of the Trans-Hudson Orogen of Saskatchewan, Canada. The new seismic images through lateral continuity of reflectivity provide sufficient detail to resolve the discrepancy between the low-dipping, layer-parallel and dextral-reverse nature of the Sturgeon-Weir shear zone (line 9) observed in the field and its steeply dipping (apparent) normal displacement character interpreted on the basis of the initial processing. Furthermore, the new interpretation provides a strong confirmation of the role of Pelican Thrust as a major detachment zone — the main `sole thrust' — along which juvenile allochthons have been carried across the Archaean microcontinental block. The images are also refined enough to suggest: (a) a boundary within the Pelican Thrust between its internal and external suites; (b) a possible boundary separating a lower (older?) Archaean basement from its upper (younger?) counterpart; and (c) sub-Moho events (M2) which reveal possible involvement of the upper mantle in the collisional tectonic process in addition to the well defined Moho (M1) which probably represents the youngest of the post-collisional detachments.

  3. Introduced and Native Haplotypes of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wildlife in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    Recent detection of a European-type haplotype of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly enzootic region in British Columbia prompted efforts to determine if this haplotype was present elsewhere in wildlife in western Canada. In coyote (Canis latrans) definitive hosts in an urban region in central Saskatchewan (SK), we found a single haplotype of E. multilocularis that was most similar to a haplotype currently established in the core of this parasite's distribution in Europe and to the European-type haplotype found in coyotes and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in British Columbia. We found six haplotypes of E. multilocularis from deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) intermediate hosts in southwestern SK that were closely related to, and one haplotype indistinguishable from, a haplotype previously reported in the adjacent north-central US. This is a higher level of diversity than has previously been recognized for this parasite, which suggests that the population native to central North America is well established, rather than a recent introduction from the Arctic. These findings, in combination with recent cases of alveolar hydatid cysts in dogs in Canada, raise concerns that European haplotypes of E. multilocularis may be increasing in distribution within wildlife in Canada. European haplotypes may pose greater risks to veterinary and human health than native haplotypes long established in central North America. PMID:26020284

  4. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks.

  5. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks. PMID:26771587

  6. Understanding ozone formation and the radical budget during oil sands plume transport in the Athabasca region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Li, S. M.; Wang, D. K.; O'brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Liu, P.; Liggio, J.

    2015-12-01

    The sources of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the Alberta oil sands (OS) region have not previously been well characterized. In the summer of 2013, airborne measurements of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2+NO) and ozone were made in the Athabasca OS region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and whole air samples were used to measure VOCs. A box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.3), was constrained by measured chemical species and meteorological parameters and used to simulate the evolution of an OS plume. In doing so, an improved understanding of the chemical factors controlling the radical budget and the evolution of ozone in oil sands plumes is achieved. Our results indicate that approximately 20% of the in-plume generated OH radicals are derived from primary sources (HCHO, O3 and HONO photolysis). The remaining OH is derived from the recycling of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2). The HO2 and alkyl peroxyl radical (RO2) chemistry leads to 35% of the ozone formation in the plume, while the main sink for ozone in the plume was via reactions with alkenes (anthropogenic and biogenic). The results of this work will help to characterize ozone formation and the factors influencing its atmospheric fate in the oil sands region.

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of detected anthrax outbreaks in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in northern Canada, 1962-2008.

    PubMed

    Salb, Amanda; Stephen, Craig; Ribble, Carl; Elkin, Brett

    2014-07-01

    We inventoried and assessed historical anthrax outbreak data from 1962-2008 in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, Canada. We compared these results with a 2010 outbreak in the SRL. Anthrax outbreaks have occurred in 12 of the years between 1962 and 2008 in wild wood bison with 1,515 anthrax deaths detected. The average number of carcasses found each outbreak year was 126 (range 1-363), though local averages varied. The numbers of animals found dead per outbreak declined over the past four decades. Outbreaks varied in duration from 16-44 days (average length 25.5 days). The length of an outbreak was not a determinant of the number of dead bison found, but outbreaks starting in July had more deaths than those staring in June. Males were more likely to be detected in an outbreak, outbreaks were likely not random events, and there was no relationship between outbreak size or length and location. Future surveillance activities may benefit from targeting bulls and planning surveillance activities for more than 3 wk after outbreak detection. Coordinating data collecting and recording efforts between jurisdictions may overcome historical challenges in inconsistent record keeping.

  8. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  9. Products of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fishes of the Athabasca/Slave river system, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Hill, Allison; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of products of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PBPAH) were measured in bile of five fishes of nutritional, cultural and ecological relevance from the Athabasca/Slave river system. Samples were collected in Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada, during three seasons. As a measure of concentrations of PBPAHs to which fishes are exposed and to gain information on the nature and extent of potential exposures of people or piscivorous wildlife, concentrations of biotransformation products of two- and three-ringed, four-ringed and five-ringed PAHs were measured using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Spatial and seasonal differences were observed with greater concentrations of PBPAHs in samples of bile of fish collected from Fort McKay as well as greater concentrations of PBPAHs in bile of fish collected during summer compared to those collected in other seasons. Overall, PBPAHs were greater in fishes of lower trophic levels and fishes more closely associated with sediments. In particular, goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), consistently contained greater concentrations of all the PBPAHs studied.

  10. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  11. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 hasmore » been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data

  12. A regional approach for mineral soil weathering estimation and critical load assessment in boreal Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Colin J; Watmough, Shaun A

    2012-10-15

    In boreal regions of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, there is concern over emerging acid precursor emission sources associated with the oil sands industry. Base cation weathering rates (BC(w)) and steady-state critical loads of sulfur (CL(S)) were identified for upland forest soil plots (n=107) in 45 ecodistricts according to a new method for approximation of BC(w) in the region. This method was developed by regression of simple soil and site properties with BC(w) calculated through application of a soil chemical model (PROFILE). PROFILE was parameterized using detailed physicochemical data for a subset (n=35) of the sites. Sand content, soil moisture and latitude emerged as important predictive variables in this empirical regression approximation. Base cation weathering varied widely (0.1-8000 mmol(c) m(-3) yr(-1)) across the study sites, consistent with their contrasting soil properties. Several sites had lower rates than observed in other acid-sensitive regions of Canada owing to quartz dominated mineralogy and coarse-textured soils with very low surface area. Weathering was variable within ecodistricts, although rates were consistently low among ecodistricts located in the northwest of the province. Overall, half of the forest plots demonstrated CL(S) less than 45 mmol(c) m(-2) yr(-1). Historically, the acidification risk in this region has been considered low and monitoring has been limited. Given the very low CL(S) in many northern ecodistricts and the potential for increased acid deposition as oil sands activities expand, soil acidification in these regions warrants further study.

  13. Herbicide and nutrient transport from an irrigation district into the South Saskatchewan River.

    PubMed

    Cessna, A J; Elliott, J A; Tollefson, L; Nicholaichuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and nutrients can be transported from treated agricultural land in irrigation runoff and thus can affect the quality of receiving waters. A 3-yr study was carried out to assess possible detrimental effects on the downstream water quality of the South Saskatchewan River due to herbicide and plant nutrient inputs via drainage water from an irrigation district. Automated water samplers and flow monitors were used to intensively sample the drainage water and to monitor daily flows in two major drainage ditches, which drained approximately 40% of the flood-irrigated land within the irrigation district. Over three years, there were no detectable inputs of ethalfluralin into the river and those of trifluralin were less than 0.002% of the amount applied to flood-irrigated fields. Inputs of MCPA, bromoxynil, dicamba and mecoprop were 0.06% or less of the amounts applied, whereas that for clopyralid was 0.31%. The relatively higher input (1.4%) of 2,4-D to the river was probably due its presence in the irrigation water. Corresponding inputs of P (as total P) and N (as nitrate plus ammonia) were 2.2 and 1.9% of applied fertilizer, respectively. Due to dilution of the drainage water in the river, maximum daily herbicide (with the exception of 2,4-D) and nutrient loadings to the river would not have resulted in significant concentration increases in the river water. There was no consistent remedial effect on herbicides entering the river due to passage of the drainage water through a natural wetland. In contrast, a considerable portion of the nutrients entering the river originated from the wetland.

  14. Diagnosis and high incidence of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome in northern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Sokoro, AbdulRazaq A H; Lepage, Joyce; Antonishyn, Nick; McDonald, Ryan; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Irvine, James; Lehotay, Denis C

    2010-12-01

    Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene, encoding the human inner mitochondrial membrane ornithine transporter, are thought to be responsible for hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition. HHH syndrome has been detected in several small, isolated communities in northern Saskatchewan (SK). To determine the incidence of HHH syndrome in these communities, a PCR method was set up to detect F188Δ, the common French-Canadian mutation. Neonatal blood spots collected from all newborns from the high risk area were genotyped for the F188Δ mutation for seven consecutive years. Using DNA analysis, we estimated that the heterozygote frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome to be about 1 in 19 individuals, predicting one affected child with HHH syndrome for approximately every 1,500 individuals (1 in 1,550 live births; 1 child every 12 years) in this isolated population. The frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome in this isolated community is probably the highest in the world for this rare disorder. We determined that ornithine levels, by tandem mass spectrometry, were not abnormal in newborns with F188Δ mutation, carriers and normals. Ornithine rises to abnormally high levels at some time after birth well past the time that the newborn screening blood spot is collected. The timing or the reasons for the delayed rise of ornithine in affected children with HHH syndrome have not been determined. Newborn screening for HHH Syndrome in this high risk population is only possible by detection of the mutant allele using DNA analysis. PMID:20574716

  15. Impact of excessive daytime sleepiness on the safety and health of farmers in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    King, Nathan; Pickett, William; Hagel, Louise; Lawson, Josh; Trask, Catherine; Dosman, James A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders may negatively impact the health and well-being of affected individuals. The resulting sleepiness and impaired cognitive functioning may also increase the risks for injury. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score >10, and self-reported sleep apnea, as potential determinants of farming-related injury and self-perceived physical health. METHODS: Phase 2 of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study (2013) involved a baseline survey that included 2849 individuals from 1216 farms. A mail-based questionnaire was administered to obtain self-reports regarding sleep, demographics, farm injuries and general physical health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify relationships between excessive daytime sleepiness and health. RESULTS: The prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness was 15.1%; the prevalence of diagnosed sleep apnea was 4.0%. Sleepiness was highest in the 60 to 79 (18.7%) and ≥80 (23.6%) years of age groups, and was higher in men (19.0%) than in women (9.3%). Injuries were reported by 8.4% of individuals, and fair or poor health was reported by 6.2%. Adjusting for confounding, individuals with excessive daytime sleepiness appeared more likely to experience a farming-related injury (OR 1.34 [95% CI 0.92 to 1.96]) and were more likely to report poorer physical health (OR 2.19 [95% CI 1.45 to 3.30]) than individuals with normal daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSION: Excessive daytime sleepiness, a potentially treatable condition, appeared to be common in farmers and to negatively affect their health. Sleep disorder diagnosis and treatment programs did not appear to be used to their full potential in this population. PMID:25299365

  16. Nitrogen controls on ecosystem carbon sequestration: A model implementation and application to Saskatchewan, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Price, D.T.; Chen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A plant-soil nitrogen (N) cycling model was developed and incorporated into the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) of Foley et al. [Foley, J.A., Prentice, I.C., Ramankutty, N., Levis, S., Pollard, D., Sitch, S., Haxeltine, A., 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface process, terrestrial carbon balance and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 603-628]. In the N-model, soil mineral N regulates ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes and ecosystem C:N ratios. Net primary productivity (NPP) is controlled by feedbacks from both leaf C:N and soil mineral N. Leaf C:N determines the foliar and canopy photosynthesis rates, while soil mineral N determines the N availability for plant growth and the efficiency of biomass construction. Nitrogen controls on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) are implemented through N immobilization and mineralization separately. The model allows greater SOM mineralization at lower mineral N, and conversely, allows greater N immobilization at higher mineral N. The model's seasonal and inter-annual behaviours are demonstrated. A regional simulation for Saskatchewan, Canada, was performed for the period 1851-2000 at a 10 km x 10 km resolution. Simulated NPP was compared with high-resolution (1 km x 1 km) NPP estimated from remote sensing data using the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) [Liu, J., Chen, J.M., Cihlar, J., Park, W.M., 1997. A process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator using remote sensing inputs. Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 81-87]. The agreement between IBIS and BEPS, particularly in NPP spatial variation, was considerably improved when the N controls were introduced into IBIS. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Houseworth, J.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Mazzoldi, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2011-05-01

    A CO{sub 2} sequestration project is being considered to (1) capture CO{sub 2} emissions from the Consumers Cooperative Refineries Limited at Regina, Saskatchewan and (2) geologically sequester the captured CO{sub 2} locally in a deep saline aquifer. This project is a collaboration of several industrial and governmental organizations, including the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), SaskEnvironment Go Green Fund, SaskPower, CCRL, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Enbridge. The project objective is to sequester 600 tonnes CO{sub 2}/day. Injection is planned to start in 2012 or 2013 for a period of 25 years for a total storage of approximately 5.5 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. This report presents an assessment of the leakage risk of the proposed project using a methodology known as the Certification Framework (CF). The CF is used for evaluating CO{sub 2} leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), as well as brine leakage risk owing to displacement and pressurization of brine by the injected CO{sub 2}. We follow the CF methodology by defining the entities (so-called Compartments) that could be impacted by CO{sub 2} leakage, the CO{sub 2} storage region, the potential for leakage along well and fault pathways, and the consequences of such leakage. An understanding of the likelihood and consequences of leakage forms the basis for understanding CO{sub 2} leakage risk, and forms the basis for recommendations of additional data collection and analysis to increase confidence in the risk assessment.

  18. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  19. A survey to detect Toxocara vitulorum and other gastrointestinal parasites in bison (Bison bison) herds from Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, Murray R; Wagner, Brent; Ben-Ezra, Elad; Douma, Dale; Wilkins, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    An egg count survey using environmental fecal samples obtained in spring or early summer was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum in unweaned bison calves and of other intestinal parasites in adult bison on 98 farms in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Calf samples were pooled (maximum 5 samples per pool) by farm and positive pools were examined to determine individual T. vitulorum counts. Toxocara vitulorum eggs were found on 4 farms in Manitoba and none in Saskatchewan. Apparent herd-level prevalence estimates were 12% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.4% to 28.2%] and 0% (95% CI: 0% to 5.7%) respectively. Samples from adult bison contained eggs/oocysts from trichostrongyle species, Eimeria sp., Monieza sp., Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. in 100%, 95%, 72%, 13%, 13%, and 5% of herds, respectively. Strongyloides sp. were not found in any herd. Further studies are needed to assess parasite distribution patterns in bison and to evaluate the risk that T. vitulorum may pose to bison, cattle, and wildlife.

  20. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  1. Salting-out effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids from Athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Headley, John V; Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Derrick, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the mass spectrometric characterization of oil sands acids present in natural waters and contaminated soils. This interest stems from efforts to isolate the principal toxic components of oil sands acid extractable organics in aquatic environment. Salting-out effects are demonstrated for nanospray ionization mass spectra of Athabasca oil sands acid extractable organics (naphthenic acids), using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The differences in spectra obtained for the sodium naphthenates in dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvents compared to spectra obtained in the absence of saturated sodium chloride salts, are used here as a surrogate to indicate the more bioavailable or toxic components in natural waters. Whereas, monocarboxylic compounds (C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) were prevalent in the Z =-4, -6, and -12 (2, 3 and 6-ring naphthenic acids respectively) family in the carbon number range of 13 to 19 in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent systems, salting-out effects resulted in a general enhancement of Z =-4 species, relative to others. Likewise, the shift in relative intensities of species containing O(1), O(3), O(4), O(2)S and O(3)S was dramatic for systems with and without saturated salts present. The O(4) and O(3)S species for example, were prevalent in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent but were non-detected in the presence of saturated salts. Interactions of oil sands acids with salts are expected to occur in oil sands processed waters and natural saline waters. As evident by the distribution of species observed, salting-out effects will play a major role in limiting the bioavailability of oil sands acids in aquatic systems.

  2. Dissolved organic carbon in a constructed and natural fens in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Bhupesh; Munir, Tariq M; Strack, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, peatlands are disturbed extensively in order to recover bitumen below the surface. Hence, following oil sands mining, landscape reclamation is a part of the mine closure process in order to return functioning ecosystems, including peatlands, to the region. This study was conducted at a pilot fen reclamation project and three other diverse natural (poor, rich and saline) fens in the oil sands region during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014, the first and second year post-construction. Ecosystem functioning of the constructed fen (CF) was evaluated with reference to natural fens based on pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chemistry. Significant variation of DOC concentration among the reference fens was observed, varying from an average of 42.0mg/L at the rich fen (RF) to 70.8mg/L at the saline fen (SF). Dissolved organic carbon concentration at CF was significantly lower than at all reference fens, but increased significantly over the first two years. Seasonal variation of DOC concentration was also observed in each site with concentration increasing over the growing season. At CF, DOC was comprised of larger, more humic and complex aromatic compounds than reference fens in the first year post-construction based on its spectrophotometric properties; however, these differences were reduced in the second year. Initial DOC concentration and chemistry at CF was indicative of the source being largely the peat placed during fen construction. Changes in chemistry and increasing concentration of DOC in the second growing season likely resulted from increasing inputs from plants established on site. These results suggest that DOC concentration is likely to increase in future at CF as vascular plant productivity increases and in response to salinity sourced from tailing sand used to construct the catchment.

  3. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model

    PubMed Central

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  4. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon in a constructed and natural fens in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Bhupesh; Munir, Tariq M; Strack, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, peatlands are disturbed extensively in order to recover bitumen below the surface. Hence, following oil sands mining, landscape reclamation is a part of the mine closure process in order to return functioning ecosystems, including peatlands, to the region. This study was conducted at a pilot fen reclamation project and three other diverse natural (poor, rich and saline) fens in the oil sands region during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014, the first and second year post-construction. Ecosystem functioning of the constructed fen (CF) was evaluated with reference to natural fens based on pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chemistry. Significant variation of DOC concentration among the reference fens was observed, varying from an average of 42.0mg/L at the rich fen (RF) to 70.8mg/L at the saline fen (SF). Dissolved organic carbon concentration at CF was significantly lower than at all reference fens, but increased significantly over the first two years. Seasonal variation of DOC concentration was also observed in each site with concentration increasing over the growing season. At CF, DOC was comprised of larger, more humic and complex aromatic compounds than reference fens in the first year post-construction based on its spectrophotometric properties; however, these differences were reduced in the second year. Initial DOC concentration and chemistry at CF was indicative of the source being largely the peat placed during fen construction. Changes in chemistry and increasing concentration of DOC in the second growing season likely resulted from increasing inputs from plants established on site. These results suggest that DOC concentration is likely to increase in future at CF as vascular plant productivity increases and in response to salinity sourced from tailing sand used to construct the catchment. PMID:27037879

  6. Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, Abha; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Emissions of organic substances with potential toxicity to humans and the environment are a major concern surrounding the rapid industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Although concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some environmental samples have been reported, a comprehensive picture of organic contaminant sources, pathways, and sinks within the AOSR has yet to be elucidated. We sought to use a dynamic multimedia environmental fate model to reconcile the emissions and residue levels reported for three representative PAHs in the AOSR. Data describing emissions to air compiled from two official sources result in simulated concentrations in air, soil, water, and foliage that tend to fall close to or below the minimum measured concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Accounting for evaporative emissions (e.g., from tailings pond disposal) provides a more realistic representation of PAH distribution in the AOSR. Such indirect emissions to air were found to be a greater contributor of PAHs to the AOSR atmosphere relative to reported direct emissions to air. The indirect pathway transporting uncontrolled releases of PAHs to aquatic systems via the atmosphere may be as significant a contributor of PAHs to aquatic systems as other supply pathways. Emission density estimates for the three PAHs that account for tailings pond disposal are much closer to estimated global averages than estimates based on the available emissions datasets, which fall close to the global minima. Our results highlight the need for improved accounting of PAH emissions from oil sands operations, especially in light of continued expansion of these operations. PMID:24596429

  7. Total and methyl mercury concentrations in sediment and water of a constructed wetland in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Claire J; Carey, Sean K

    2016-06-01

    In the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada, oil sands operators are testing the feasibility of peatland construction on the post-mining landscape. In 2009, Syncrude Canada Ltd. began construction of the 52 ha Sandhill Fen pilot watershed, including a 15 ha, hydrologically managed fen peatland built on sand-capped soft oil sands tailings. An integral component of fen reclamation is post-construction monitoring of water quality, including salinity, fluvial carbon, and priority pollutant elements. In this study, the effects of fen reclamation and elevated sulfate levels on mercury (Hg) fate and transport in the constructed system were assessed. Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the fen sediment were lower than in two nearby natural fens, which may be due to the higher mineral content of the Sandhill Fen peat mix and/or a loss of Hg through evasion during the peat harvesting, stockpiling and placement processes. Porewater MeHg concentrations in the Sandhill Fen typically did not exceed 1.0 ng L(-1). The low MeHg concentrations may be a result of elevated porewater sulfate concentrations (mean 346 mg L(-1)) and an increase in sulphide concentrations with depth in the peat, which are known to suppress MeHg production. Total Hg and MeHg concentrations increased during a controlled mid-summer flooding event where the water table rose above the ground surface in most of the fen. The Hg dynamics during this event showed that hydrologic fluctuations in this system exacerbate the release of THg and MeHg downstream. In addition, the elevated SO4(2-) concentrations in the peat porewaters may become a problem with respect to downstream MeHg production once the fen is hydrologically connected to a larger wetland network that is currently being constructed. PMID:27017139

  8. Temporal variation in the deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snow in the Athabasca Oil Sands area of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Carlos A; Muir, Derek; Kirk, Jane; Teixeira, Camilla; Siu, May; Wang, Xiaowa; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Schindler, David; Kelly, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) via and onto snow, and their releasing during spring snowmelt has been a concern in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta. This study was designed to evaluate the concentrations, loadings, and distribution of PACs in springtime snowpack and how they have changed since the first study in 2008. Snowpack samples were collected in late winters 2011-2014 at varying distances from the main developments. PAC concentration and deposition declined exponentially with distance, with pyrenes, chrysenes, and dibenzothiophenes dominating the distribution within the first 50 km. The distribution of PACs was different between sites located close to upgraders and others located close to mining facilities. Overall, PAC loadings were correlated with priority pollutant elements and water chemistry parameters, while wind direction and speed were not strong contributors to the variability observed. Total PAC mass deposition during winter months and within the first 50 km was initially estimated by integrating the exponential decay function fitted through the data using a limited number of sites from 2011 to 2014: 1236 kg (2011), 1800 kg (2012), 814 kg (2013), and 1367 (2014). Total loadings were estimated to have a twofold increase between 2008 and 2014, although the increase observed was not constant. Finally, kriging interpolation is presented as an alternative and more robust approach to estimate PAC mass deposition in the area. After a more intensive sampling campaign in 2014, the PAC mass deposition was estimated to be 1968 kg. PMID:27581009

  9. Residues of 2, 4-D in air samples from Saskatchewan: 1966-1975.

    PubMed

    Grover, R; Kerr, L A; Wallace, K; Yoshida, K; Maybank, J

    1976-01-01

    Residues of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in air samples from several sampling sites in central and southern Saskatchewan during the spraying seasons in the 1966-68 and 1970-75 periods were determined by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques. Initially, individual esters of 2,4-D were characterized by retention times and confirmed further by co-injection and dual column procedures. Since 1973, however, only total 2,4-D acid levels in air samples have been determined after esterification to the methyl ester and confirmed by gc/ms techniques whenever possible. Up to 50% of the daily samples collected during the spraying season at any of the locations and during any given year contained 2,4-D, with butyl esters being found most frequently. The daily 24-hr mean atmospheric concentrations of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 1.22 mug/m3, 0.01 to 13.50 mug/m3, and 0.05 to 0.59 mug/m3 for the iso-propyl, mixed butyl and iso-octyl esters, respectively. Even when the samples were analysed for the total 2,4-D content, i.e. from 1973 onwards, the maximum level of the total acid reached only 23.14 mug/m3. In any given year and at any of the sampling sites, about 30% of the samples contained less than 0.01 mug/m3 of 2,4-D. In another 40% of the samples, the levels of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 0.099 mug/m3. Only about 30% of the samples contained 2,4-D concentrations higher than 0.1 mug/m3, with only 10% or less exceeding 1 mug/m3. None of the samples, obtained with the high volume particulate sampler, showed any detectable levels of 2,4-D, indicating little or no transport of 2,4-D adsorbed on dust particles or as crystals of amine salts. PMID:1002953

  10. The Geology and Geochemistry of Base Metal Sulfide Mineralization in the Foster River Area, Northern Saskatchewan: A SEDEX Deposit With Broken Hill-Type Affinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, J. A.; Spry, P. G.

    2009-05-01

    The Foster River area, northern Saskatchewan, is one of several Pb-Zn and Zn deposits (e.g. George Lake: 7.8 Mt @ 3.9% Zn and 0.5% Pb) along the SE margin of the highly deformed and metamorphosed Wollaston Domain. Sulfide mineralization in the Foster River area (2.00-1.85 Ga) occurs near the middle of the Wollaston Supergroup in quartzites within a unit of psammites and pelites that were metamorphosed to the upper amphibolite facies and subjected to at least four episodes of deformation. Drilling indicates that the Sito Lake East prospect contains 50,000 t of 4.5% Zn, with one intercept containing 11m of 4.2% Zn and 0.6% Pb. A boulder from a boulder train contains up to 13.2% Zn, 4.0% Pb, and 11 g/t Ag. Sulfides are spatially associated with a package of rocks similar to that spatially associated with Broken Hill-type (BHT) deposits (quartzite, gahnite-rich rocks, iron formation, and quartz garnetite). A nodular sillimanite rock that occurs in the vicinity of the Sito Lake East prospect is likely to be part of a stratabound hydrothermal alteration zone. Hydrothermal mineralization consists of pyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, magnetite, and graphite whereas gangue minerals include garnet, gahnite, tourmaline, calcite, and augite. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of silicate-facies iron formation (garnet-pyroxene-amphibole-magnetite rock) and quartz-garnetite show light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion with moderate to large negative Eu anomalies. Such anomalies are consistent with meta-exhalites that have a high detrital component (>30%) in the source rock. The compositions of garnet (spessartine-almandine) and gahnite at Foster River are similar to those spatially associated with BHT deposits. Sulfur isotope compositions of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite from the Foster River area range from 26.2-38.1 per mil (n=20) and are consistent with sulfur being sourced from Proterozoic seawater that was modified by microbial sulfate reduction

  11. "I'm On Home Ground Now. I'm Safe" Saskatchewan Aboriginal Veterans in the Immediate Postwar Years, 1945-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Robert Alexander

    2004-01-01

    In 1945 the Saskatchewan Aboriginal veterans from World War II returned to a rapidly changing world. The economy was improving dramatically as expanding industries encouraged unprecedented consumerism. In addition, new social values reflected an optimism for the elimination of the social inequality epitomized by Nazi Germany. The new social…

  12. Distribution of naphthenic acids in tissues of laboratory-exposed fish and in wild fishes from near the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Young, Rozlyn F; Michel, Lorelei Martínez; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2011-05-01

    Naphthenic acids, which have a variety of commercial applications, occur naturally in conventional crude oil and in highly biodegraded petroleum such as that found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands extraction is done using a caustic aqueous extraction process. The alkaline pH releases the naphthenic acids from the oil sands and dissolves them into water as their soluble naphthenate forms, which are anionic surfactants. These aqueous extracts contain concentrations of naphthenates that are acutely lethal to fishes and other aquatic organisms. Previous research has shown that naphthenic acids can be taken up by fish, but the distribution of these acids in various tissues of the fish has not been determined. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to commercial (Merichem) naphthenic acids in the laboratory. After a 10-d exposure to approximately 3mg naphthenic acids/L, the fish were dissected and samples of gills, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and eggs were extracted and analyzed for free (unconjugated) naphthenic acids by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Each of the tissues contained naphthenic acids and non-parametric statistical analyses showed that gills and livers contained higher concentrations than the muscles and that the livers had higher concentrations than the hearts. Four different species of fish (two fish of each species) were collected from the Athabasca River near two oil sands mining and extraction operations. No free naphthenic acids were detected in the muscle or liver of these fish.

  13. Dam-induced and natural channel changes in the Saskatchewan River below the E.B. Campbell Dam, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.

    2016-09-01

    The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion ~ 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal

  14. How Early Can the Seeding Dates of Spring Wheat Be under Current and Future Climate in Saskatchewan, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Wang, Hong; Qian, Budong; McConkey, Brian; DePauw, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Background Shorter growing season and water stress near wheat maturity are the main factors that presumably limit the yield potential of spring wheat due to late seeding in Saskatchewan, Canada. Advancing seeding dates can be a strategy to help producers mitigate the impact of climate change on spring wheat. It is unknown, however, how early farmers can seed while minimizing the risk of spring frost damage and the soil and machinery constraints. Methodology/principal findings This paper explores early seeding dates of spring wheat on the Canadian Prairies under current and projected future climate. To achieve this, (i) weather records from 1961 to 1990 were gathered at three sites with different soil and climate conditions in Saskatchewan, Canada; (ii) four climate databases that included a baseline (treated as historic weather climate during the period of 1961–1990) and three climate change scenarios (2040–2069) developed by the Canadian global climate model (GCM) with the forcing of three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1); (iii) seeding dates of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under baseline and projected future climate were predicted. Compared with the historical record of seeding dates, the predicted seeding dates were advanced under baseline climate for all sites using our seeding date model. Driven by the predicted temperature increase of the scenarios compared with baseline climate, all climate change scenarios projected significantly earlier seeding dates than those currently used. Compared to the baseline conditions, there is no reduction in grain yield because precipitation increases during sensitive growth stages of wheat, suggesting that there is potential to shift seeding to an earlier date. The average advancement of seeding dates varied among sites and chosen scenarios. The Swift Current (south-west) site has the highest potential for earlier seeding (7 to 11 days) whereas such advancement was small in the Melfort

  15. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil

  16. An observational study of mortality on bison farms in Saskatchewan with special emphasis on malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011, the Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Task Force in Saskatchewan recommended that research be conducted on the relationship between the proximity of bison and sheep under typical commercial production settings and bison deaths due to MCF. The objective of this study was to evaluate all causes of death in bison herds and compare the incidence of MCF in herds at varying distances of exposure from sheep operations. Necropsies were completed on 76 of 133 bison reported to have died during the 18-month study period. A total of 7 MCF deaths was reported from 2 large herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations. Although there was a greater risk of MCF deaths in bison herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations than in herds more than 1.0 km away, the overall incidence of MCF deaths within the study period was very low. Most deaths were attributed to non-infectious causes, including copper deficiency.

  17. The impact of methoxychlor treatment of the saskatchewan river system on artificial substrate populations of aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Lehmkuhl, D M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of methoxychlor exposure on aquatic insects inhabiting artificial substrates was monitored at three downstream sites relative to an upstream untreated site of the North Saskatchewan River. Treatment impact was studied for selected species of Simuliidae (Diptera), Perlodidae (Plecoptera), Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Baetidae and Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera). At sites subjected to methoxychlor exposure which were 21, 38, and 107 km from injection, population changes varied depending on species and distance from the injection point. Although populations of some species were not significantly affected by treatment at any downstream site (P > 0.05), others were significantly reduced at one or more of the sites (P < 0.05- P < 0.01). Nymphs of Stenonema terminatum (Walsh) and Baetis tricaudatus Dodds (Ephemeroptera) apparently recolonized after dislodgement due to methoxychlor exposure. Species are categorized on the basis of their responses to methoxychlor treatment. Factors which probably caused different treatment impacts among species are discussed.

  18. From closed ranks to open doors: Elaine and John Cummings' mental health education experiment in 1950s Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    During late 1951 and early 1952, married couple, social biologist Elaine Cumming and psychiatrist John Cumming, led a mental health education experiment in Indian Head, Saskatchewan. The study, which was intended to inform strategies toward deinstitutionalization, sought to determine if attitudes regarding mental illness could be changed through commonly used educational practices. It was shaped by the shared interests of powerful philanthropic, charitable, psychiatric, academic and governmental bodies to create healthier citizens and a stronger democratic nation through expert knowledge. However, in addition to the disappointing findings indicating that attitudes remained unchanged, the town appeared to close ranks against the research team. Nonetheless, the Cummings' later association with sociologists at Harvard University enabled them to interpret the results in a way that lent the study credibility and themselves legitimacy, thus opening the door to their careers as very successful researchers and policy-makers. PMID:22514867

  19. From closed ranks to open doors: Elaine and John Cummings' mental health education experiment in 1950s Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    During late 1951 and early 1952, married couple, social biologist Elaine Cumming and psychiatrist John Cumming, led a mental health education experiment in Indian Head, Saskatchewan. The study, which was intended to inform strategies toward deinstitutionalization, sought to determine if attitudes regarding mental illness could be changed through commonly used educational practices. It was shaped by the shared interests of powerful philanthropic, charitable, psychiatric, academic and governmental bodies to create healthier citizens and a stronger democratic nation through expert knowledge. However, in addition to the disappointing findings indicating that attitudes remained unchanged, the town appeared to close ranks against the research team. Nonetheless, the Cummings' later association with sociologists at Harvard University enabled them to interpret the results in a way that lent the study credibility and themselves legitimacy, thus opening the door to their careers as very successful researchers and policy-makers.

  20. Geological parameters in Winnipegosis pinnacle reef exploration, North Dakota and Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Kissling, D.L.; Ehrets, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Winnipegosis pinnacle reefs range between 150 and 300 ft in height and up to 3 mi across, and their density distribution is several per township. They had accumulated as codiacean algae and peloid calcarenite mounds, capped by massive stromatolite boundstone, and fringed by stromatoporoid coral assemblages and detrital flanks during accelerating basin subsidence that had accompanied Winnipegosis platform-basin decoupling. Pinnacle reefs were terminated by increasing hypersalinity and toxicity during late Winnipegosis evaporative drawdown of the shelf sea. Postdepositional processes most responsible for preservation, enhancement, or loss of porosity and permeability in specific reef facies include prolonged vadose-zone leaching, early cementation or compaction, shallow-burial dolomitization, seepage reflux dolomitization and cementation, overdolomitization, and deep-burial brine invasion. Pinnacle reef exploration and exploitation must consider a hierarchy of riddles. These are (1) to locate relatively small structures within the vast basin regime, (2) to distinguish porous, oil-charged reefs from nonporous, wet, or salt-plugged reefs, and (3) to locate favorable reservoir bodies within heterogeneous reef structures. The initial task of finding reefs integrates geological and geophysical data, but remains a shotgun approach without a reef distribution model that comprehends epeirogenic, paleotectonic, and paleohydrographic factors. Selecting the right reef might be attempted through understanding Winnipegosis-Prairie diagenesis, or by formulating techniques for recognizing remote signpost of overdolomitization, salt plugging, and oil emplacement.

  1. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to evaluate the contribution of Peace River floodings to the PAH background in the Peace-Athabasca Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jautzy, J. J.; Ahad, J. M.; Hall, R. I.; Wiklund, J. A.; Gobeil, C.; Savard, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The oil sands of Northern Alberta, Canada are one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the world. The rapid growth of the bitumen exploitation in this region involves large scale mining infrastructure, raising questions about the environmental impact of these operations. One of the main issues is the emission of hazardous organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which are found naturally in petroleum, are also produced through incomplete combustion and diagenesis of organic matter. The complex nature of the surrounding geology (natural levels of bitumen) requires tools able to discriminate sources of pollutants. The establishment of the PAH background is crucial in order to investigate the impacts of oil sands mining in the Athabasca region. Here we present a new approach to discriminate the sources of alkylated PAHs (fossil or modern biomass) and their relative contributions. Using a dated sediment sequence from a lake situated in the Peace-Athabasca Delta periodically flooded by the Peace River, 6 different groups of parent and alkylated PAHs were extracted and collected by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) for natural abundance radiocarbon (14C) measurement. Three grouped layers each comprising approximately 10 years of sedimentation and spanning the period of mining operations (i.e., the past 40 years) were analyzed. We report here the first use of 14C measurements on alkylated PAHs extracted from lake sediments. Our results showed low radiocarbon content for all alkylated and parent PAHs analyzed in the three sediment layers. However, a slight trend toward a more modern PAH input can be seen up-core. PAH isomers ratios pointed to a major influence of petroleum input in the entire lake sequence, supporting the predominance of a fossil carbon source as indicated by the low radiocarbon contents. As the Peace River cuts through the Peace oil sands formation, our results can be explained by the main contribution of

  2. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, F.J. Paul; Abonyi, Sylvia; Dyck, Roland F.

    2016-01-01

    Background First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI), height for age (HA) and weight for age (WA) of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls) were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8%) than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%), but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0%) and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. <2.0%). There was an overall trend of diminishing levels of underweight and increasing levels of overweight/obesity over time. Although 6.6% of boys and 7.9% of girls had HA Z-scores >−2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First

  3. Impacts of climate and land use changes on regional nutrient export in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate and land use changes modify the physical functioning of river catchments and, in particular, influence the transport of nutrients from land to water. In large-scale catchments, where a variety of climates, topographies, soil types and land uses co-exist to form a highly heterogeneous environment, a more complex nutrient dynamic is imposed by climate and land use changes. This is the case of the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) that, along with the North Saskatchewan River, forms the largest river system in western Canada. In the past years changes in the land use and new industrial developments in the SSR area have heightened serious concerns about the future of water quality in the catchment and downstream waters. Agricultural activities have increased the supply of manure and fertilizer for cropping. Oil and gas exploitation has also increased the risk of surface water and groundwater contamination. The rapid population growth not only leads to increments in water consumption and wastewater, but in the construction of roads, railways and the expansion of new urban developments that impose hydraulic controls on the catchment hydrology and therefore the sediment and nutrient transport. Consequences of the actual anthropogenic changes have been notorious in reservoirs where algal blooms and signs of eutrophication have become common during certain times of the year. Although environmental agencies are constantly improving the mechanisms to reduce nutrient export into the river and ensure safe water quality standards, further research is needed in order to identify major nutrient sources and quantify nutrient export and also, to assess how nutrients are going to vary as a result of future climate and land use change scenarios. The SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed (SPARROW) model is therefore implemented to assess water quality regionally, in order to describe spatial and temporal patterns to identify those factors and processes that affect water

  4. Western Canada basin conventional gas resource estimated at 232 tcf

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J.; Barclay, J.E.; Bird, T.D.; Osadetz, K.G. )

    1993-10-25

    An estimate of 232 tcf of conventional undiscovered gas resources for the entire Western Canada Sedimentary basin indicates that more than half of the total gas resource remains to be discovered. This preliminary figure results from the main resource potential study, Conventional Gas Resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, being conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada. The study is the most comprehensive project of its kind undertaken by GSC because of the enormity of the pool database, the number of plays, and the geological complexities of those plays. The basin encompasses practically all of Alberta, Northeast British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba. Hence it was necessary to divide the overall assessment into play groups using geological criteria, primarily major stratigraphic time/rock units, and structural/tectonic provinces. Although the Cretaceous--Tertiary play groups have not yet been subjected to the same Petrimes methodological assessment as the other play groups, it is believed that the overall assessment of 232 tcf presented here is reasonable, perhaps even somewhat conservative.

  5. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis as an aid in exploration within mature basins: Examples from Sawtooth and Sunburst Reservoirs, northwestern Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.; Moore, S. ); Ward, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Linking hydrodynamics to detailed stratigraphic and structural analyses is a powerful tool in hydrocarbon exploration in mature basins, In southernmost Canada straddling the Alberta-Saskatchewan border, significant petroleum reserves are encountered within Mesozoic units which are largely controlled by subsurface flow cells. The Jurassic Sawtooth Formation is characterized by an eastward shift from lower shoreface quartzarenites to basinal coquinas. The Sawtooth is a blanket deposit and crops out along the flanks of several Tertiary uplifts in northern Montana. In the subsurface the Sawtooth is draped over several relatively young structures. Potentiometric mapping illustrates a northerly flow orientation within the Sawtooth, and oil pools under artesian conditions are located where flow paths cross steeply flanked structures. The Lower Cretaceous Sunburst Formation is a series of valley-fill sandstones with mainly southwesterly paleoflow orientations. Hydrocarbon pools (e.g., Manyberries field) are located within a regional potentiometric low formed by three converging cells which recharge in the south, northwest, and east. This potentiometric low is characterized by systematic changes in oil and water compositions, with progressively lighter oils and NaCl-rich waters found toward the low's center. Stratigraphic variability controls pooling within the low, with hydrocarbons located on the updip flanks of valley fills which border nonreservoir rocks. In the northwestern Williston basin regional hydrodynamic analysis, combined with standard subsurface approaches, allows operators to discern large new hydrocarbon-bearing trends within and between densely drilled areas characterized by complex structure and stratigraphy.

  7. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were

  8. Relationship between water quality parameters and bacterial indicators in a large prairie reservoir: Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    North, R L; Khan, N H; Ahsan, M; Prestie, C; Korber, D R; Lawrence, J R; Hudson, J J

    2014-04-01

    Lake Diefenbaker (LD) is a large reservoir on the South Saskatchewan River used for agricultural irrigation, drinking water, and recreation. Our objectives were to determine the distribution and abundance of bacterial indicators in embayments and the main channel of LD and to relate these to environmental factors. Total coliforms (TCs), fecal coliforms (FCs), and fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli) were measured concurrently with water quality parameters. Although TCs, FCs, and E. coli were present in LD, they rarely exceeded the TC and FC Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality standards for agricultural use (1000 colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and 100 CFU per 100 mL, respectively). The correlation between the bacterial indicators in the sediments and the water column indicates that higher embayment abundances may be related to sediment loading and (or) resuspension events in these frequently mixed embayments. With higher water temperatures and water levels, as well as higher microbial activity, CCME bacterial limits may be exceeded. The greatest contributor to bacterial indicator abundance was water temperature. We predict that water quality standards will be exceeded more frequently with climate warming.

  9. An observational study of mortality on bison farms in Saskatchewan with special emphasis on malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011, the Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Task Force in Saskatchewan recommended that research be conducted on the relationship between the proximity of bison and sheep under typical commercial production settings and bison deaths due to MCF. The objective of this study was to evaluate all causes of death in bison herds and compare the incidence of MCF in herds at varying distances of exposure from sheep operations. Necropsies were completed on 76 of 133 bison reported to have died during the 18-month study period. A total of 7 MCF deaths was reported from 2 large herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations. Although there was a greater risk of MCF deaths in bison herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations than in herds more than 1.0 km away, the overall incidence of MCF deaths within the study period was very low. Most deaths were attributed to non-infectious causes, including copper deficiency. PMID:26740696

  10. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were

  11. Changes in the pelagic crustacean zooplankton of high-boreal Island Lake, Saskatchewan, associated with uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Melville, G E

    1995-01-01

    Island Lake, Saskatchewan, has become eutrophic, subsaline (salinity between 0.5 and 3.0 g I(-1)) and contaminated with several metals over the last decade. In this study, the crustacean zooplankton community in the lake in early summer 1989 is compared to the community during the early summers of the baseline years 1978 and 1979, based on archived environmental impact assessment samples. Community composition has changed, probably because of salinization and perhaps, to a lesser extent, eutrophication. Calanoid copepods have disappeared, while the numbers of species of cyclopoid copepods and cladocerans have increased. Ceriodaphnia reticulata, present in 1988 only, was more numerous than any other species during all three years. Densities of all other species were very low in 1989, which has led to lower diversity (Simpsons Index). Predation by Chaoborus probably contributed to the low abundances in 1989. The characteristics of the zooplankton community in 1989 were very similar to those of zooplankton in culturally acidified lakes, and indicate that Island Lake is in poor health. The success of Ceriodaphnia, a standard toxicity bioassay genus, is noteworthy under such contaminated conditions. While the taxonomic changes are obvious, the zooplankton data are limited; therefore causes can only be inferred. The study demonstrates the need for more and better ecosystem-specific biological information in order to do environmental impact assessments, in this case for mining in the north. PMID:24201907

  12. Ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: Key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide uptake within the terrestrial ecosystem at uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan. The study site was the Key Lake mine, chosen because it has been an operational mine, mill, and surface tailings area for 15 years and will continue to be an active ore-milling and tailings disposal area for the next 40 years. The focus of the study was on the small mammal food chains in black spruce bogs nearest to the Key Lake facilities, since bog habitats tend to absorb and accumulate radionuclides. Three study sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to sources of radioactive dust and the presence of bog habitats. Interconnected terrestrial ecosystem components were sampled at the same time at each site. Samples of needles, twigs, ground cover, litter, soils, small mammals, and birds were analyzed for the four radionuclides of greatest concern in the uranium decay series. Radiation doses were calculated to small mammals and birds, food chain transfer parameters were determined to enable future modelling of environmental pathways, and a variety of atmospheric dust collectors were pilot tested to examine the rates of radionuclide deposition from facility emissions to local environments. Four sets of conclusions are discussed regarding: radionuclide distribution within habitats and among sites; the radionuclides responsible for animal doses; the relative bioavailability of radionuclides among sites; and the measurement of atmospheric deposition rates.

  13. Dynamic water quality modelling and uncertainty analysis of phytoplankton and nutrient cycles for the upper South Saskatchewan River.

    PubMed

    Akomeah, Eric; Chun, Kwok Pan; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2015-11-01

    The surface water quality of the upper South Saskatchewan River was modelled using Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) 7.52. Model calibration and validation were based on samples taken from four long-term water quality stations during the period 2007-2009. Parametric sensitivities in winter and summer were examined using root mean square error (RMSE) and relative entropy. The calibration and validation results show good agreement between model prediction and observed data. The two sensitivity methods confirmed pronounced parametric sensitivity to model state variables in summer compared to winter. Of the 24 parameters examined, dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia (NH3-N) are the most influenced variables in summer. Instream kinetic processes including nitrification, nutrient uptake by algae and algae respiration induce a higher sensitivity on DO in summer than in winter. Moreover, in summer, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and chlorophyll-a (Chla) variables are more sensitive to algal processes (nutrient uptake and algae death). In winter however, there exists some degree of sensitivity of algal processes (algae respiration and nutrient uptake) to DO and NH3-N. Results of this study provide information on the state of the river water quality which impacts Lake Diefenbaker and the need for additional continuous monitoring in the river. The results of the sensitivity analysis also provide guidance on most sensitive parameters and kinetic processes that affect eutrophication for preliminary surface water quality modelling studies in cold regions.

  14. Westhazel General Petroleums Pool: Case history of a salt-dissolution trap in west-central Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.L. . Kansas Geological Survey); Cederwall, D.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The Westhazel General Petroleums (GP) Pool of west-central Saskatchewan, Canada, produces from the GP member of the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group. This reservoir is structurally closed across the updip, eastern dissolutional edge of the underlying Middle Devonian rock salt of the Leofnard Member, Prairie Formation. The leaching of these salts occurred in post-mannville time in the Westhazel area and caused the regional southwest dip of the General Petroleums member to be locally reversed. The Westhazel GP Pool, from a geophysical perspective, is characteristic of many of the shallow Lower Cretaceous pools situated along the dissolutional edge of the Prairie salt. The thin, 10 m reservoir facies at Westhazel does not exhibit a diagnostic signature on either seismic or gravity data. Rather, it is the updip edge of the salt across which the reservoir is closed that can be mapped using geophysical techniques. On seismic data, the dissolutional edge of the Prairie salt is characterized by: (1) a subtle decrease in the amplitude and lateral coherency of the underlying Winnipegosis event; (2) a gradual thinning of key encompassing Paleozoic intervals; (3) dip reversal along the Beaverhill Lake (Late Devonian) event; (4) dip reversal along the Mannville (Lower Cretaceous) event; and (5) time-structural push down'' of Lower Cretaceous and underlying reflections in areas of recent salt dissolution. On the gravity of profile, the edge of the salt is manifested as a 1.5 mGal anomaly. The interpretation of both geophysical data sets is consistent with available geologic control.

  15. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  16. An observational study of mortality on bison farms in Saskatchewan with special emphasis on malignant catarrhal fever

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011, the Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Task Force in Saskatchewan recommended that research be conducted on the relationship between the proximity of bison and sheep under typical commercial production settings and bison deaths due to MCF. The objective of this study was to evaluate all causes of death in bison herds and compare the incidence of MCF in herds at varying distances of exposure from sheep operations. Necropsies were completed on 76 of 133 bison reported to have died during the 18-month study period. A total of 7 MCF deaths was reported from 2 large herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations. Although there was a greater risk of MCF deaths in bison herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations than in herds more than 1.0 km away, the overall incidence of MCF deaths within the study period was very low. Most deaths were attributed to non-infectious causes, including copper deficiency. PMID:26740696

  17. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  18. Dynamic water quality modelling and uncertainty analysis of phytoplankton and nutrient cycles for the upper South Saskatchewan River.

    PubMed

    Akomeah, Eric; Chun, Kwok Pan; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2015-11-01

    The surface water quality of the upper South Saskatchewan River was modelled using Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) 7.52. Model calibration and validation were based on samples taken from four long-term water quality stations during the period 2007-2009. Parametric sensitivities in winter and summer were examined using root mean square error (RMSE) and relative entropy. The calibration and validation results show good agreement between model prediction and observed data. The two sensitivity methods confirmed pronounced parametric sensitivity to model state variables in summer compared to winter. Of the 24 parameters examined, dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia (NH3-N) are the most influenced variables in summer. Instream kinetic processes including nitrification, nutrient uptake by algae and algae respiration induce a higher sensitivity on DO in summer than in winter. Moreover, in summer, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and chlorophyll-a (Chla) variables are more sensitive to algal processes (nutrient uptake and algae death). In winter however, there exists some degree of sensitivity of algal processes (algae respiration and nutrient uptake) to DO and NH3-N. Results of this study provide information on the state of the river water quality which impacts Lake Diefenbaker and the need for additional continuous monitoring in the river. The results of the sensitivity analysis also provide guidance on most sensitive parameters and kinetic processes that affect eutrophication for preliminary surface water quality modelling studies in cold regions. PMID:26199003

  19. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  1. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 has been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November

  2. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sarah J.; Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.; Norman, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Root biomass, net primary production and turnover were studied in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in two contrasting climates. The climate of the Southern Study Area (SSA) near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is warmer and drier in the summer and milder in the winter than the Northern Study Area (NSA) near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Ingrowth soil cores and minirhizotrons were used to quantify fine root net primary production (NPPFR). Average daily fine root growth (m m(-2) day(-1)) was positively correlated with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (r(2) = 0.83-0.93) for all three species, with black spruce showing the strongest temperature effect. At both study areas, fine root biomass (measured from soil cores) and fine root length (measured from minirhizotrons) were less for jack pine than for the other two species. Except for the aspen stands, estimates of NPPFR from minirhizotrons were significantly greater than estimates from ingrowth cores. The core method underestimated NPPFR because it does not account for simultaneous fine root growth and mortality. Minirhizotron NPPFR estimates ranged from 59 g m(-2) year(-1) for aspen stands at SSA to 235 g m(-2) year(-1) for black spruce at NSA. The ratio of NPPFR to total detritus production (aboveground litterfall + NPPFR) was greater for evergreen forests than for deciduous forests, suggesting that carbon allocation patterns differ between boreal evergreen and deciduous forests. In all stands, NPPFR consistently exceeded annual fine root turnover and the differences were larger for stands in the NSA than for stands in the SSA, whereas the difference between study areas was only significant for black spruce. The imbalance between NPPFR and fine root turnover is sufficient to explain the net accumulation of carbon in boreal forest soils. PMID:14759831

  3. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  4. Seismic monitoring results from the first 6 months of CO2 injection at the Aquistore geological storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; White, D. J.; Stork, A.; Schmitt, D. R.; Worth, K.; Harris, K.; Roberts, B.; Samson, C.; Kendal, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located in SE Saskatchewan, Canada, is a demonstration project for CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from a nearby coal-fired power plant is being injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at 3100-3300 m depth. CO2 injection commenced in April, 2015, at initial rates of up to 250 tonnes per day. Seismic monitoring methods have been employed to track the subsurface CO2 plume and to record any injection-induced microseismicity. Active seismic methods utilized include 4D surface seismics using a sparse permanent array, 4D vertical seismic profiles (VSP) with both downhole geophones and a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Pre-injection baseline seismic surveys have established very good repeatability with NRMS values as low as 0.07. 3D finite-difference seismic modelling of fluid flow simulations is used with the repeatability estimates to determine the appropriate timing for the first CO2 monitor surveys. Time-lapse logging is being conducted on a regular basis to provide in situ measurement of the change in seismic velocity associated with changes in CO2 saturation. Continuous passive seismic recording has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. Passive monitoring is being conducted using two, 2.5 km long, orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.with 3-component short-period geophones, 3 broadband surface seismometers, and an array of 3-component short-period geophones in an observation well. No significant injection-related seismicity (Mw > -1) has been detected at the surface during the first 4 months of CO2 injection. On-going analysis of the downhole passive data will provide further information as to the occurrence of lower magnitude microseismicity (Mw of -1 to -3).

  5. Evaluation of DFIR and Bush Gauge Snowfall Measurements at Boreal Forest Sites in Saskatchewan/Canada and Valdai/Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Snowfall is important to cold region climate and hydrology including Canada. Large uncertainties and biases exist in gauge-measured precipitation datasets and products. These uncertainties affect important decision-making, water resources assessments, climate change analyses, and calibrations of remote sensing algorithms and land surface models. Efforts have been made at both the national and international levels to quantity the errors/biases in precipitation measurements, such as the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE). Both the DFIR (double fence intercomparison reference) and the bush shielded gauge have been used in the past as a reference measurement for solid precipitation and they both have been selected as the references for the current SPICE project. Previous analyses of the DFIR vs. the bush (manual Tretyakov) gauge data collected at the Valdai station in Russia suggest DFIR undercatch of snowfall by up to 10% for high wind conditions. A regression relationship between the 2 systems was derived and used for the last WMO gauge intercomparison. Given the importance of the DFIR as the reference for the WMO SPICE project, it is necessary to re-examine and update the DFIR and bush gauge relationship. As part of Canada's contribution to the WMO SPICE project, a test site has been set up by EC/ASTD/WSDT in the southern Canadian Boreal forest to compare the DFIR and bush gauges. This site, called the Caribou Creek, has been installed within a modified young Jack Pine forest stand - north of Prince Albert in Saskatchewan. This study compiles and analyzes recent DFIR and bush gauge data from both the Valdai and Caribou Creek sites. This presentation summarizes the results of data analyses, and evaluates the performance of both references for snowfall observations in the northern regions. The methods and results of this research will directly support the WMO SPICE project and contribute to cold region hydrology and climate change research.

  6. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-07-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.

  7. HIV disease progression to CD4 count <200 cells/μL and death in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Stephanie; Skinner, Stuart; Kazadi, Germain Bukassa; Gartner, Kali; Lim, Hyun June

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize and identify determinants of HIV disease progression among a predominantly injection drug use (IDU) HIV population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. METHODS: The present retrospective study was based on 343 HIV patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 from two clinics in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Disease progression was defined as the time from diagnosis to immunological AIDS (CD4 count <200 cells/μL) and death. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. RESULTS: Of the 343 patients, 79% had a history of IDU, 77% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 67% were of Aboriginal descent. The one-year and three-year immunological AIDS-free probabilities were 78% and 53%, respectively. The one-year and three-year survival probabilities were 97% and 88%, respectively. Multicollinearity among IDU, HCV and ethnicity was observed and, thus, separate models were built. HCV coinfection (HR 2.9 [95% CI 1.2 to 6.9]) was a significant predictor of progression to immunological AIDS when controlling for baseline CD4 counts, treatment, age at diagnosis and year of diagnosis. For survival, only treatment use was a significant predictor (HR 0.34 [95% CI 0.1 to 0.8]). HCV coinfection was marginally significant (P=0.067). CONCLUSION: Baseline CD4 count, HCV coinfection, year of diagnosis and treatment use were significant predictors of disease progression. This highlights the importance of early treatment and the need for targeted interventions for these particularly vulnerable populations to slow disease progression. PMID:24421810

  8. Identifying factors associated with changes in CD4+ count in HIV-infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelsey; Mondal, Prosanta; Konrad, Stephanie; Skinner, Stuart; Gartner, Kali; Lim, Hyun J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of clinical and social factors unique to HIV-infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, regarding the rate of CD4+ count change, and to identify factors associated with a risk of CD4+ count decline. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study from medical chart reviews at two clinics was conducted in Saskatoon. Univariate and multivariate linear mixed effects models were used to assess the impact of selected factors on CD4+ count change. RESULTS: Four hundred eleven HIV-infected patients were identified from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2011. Two hundred eighteen (53%) were male, mean (± SD) age was 35.6 ±10.1 years, 257 (70.8%) were First Nations or Métis, 312 (80.2%) were hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 300 (73.3%) had a history of injection drug use (IDU). In univariate models, age, ethnicity, HCV, IDU, antiretroviral therapy and social assistance were significant. Using ethnicity, HCV and IDU, three multivariate models (models 1, 2, 3) were built due to high correlation. First Nations or Métis ethnicity, HCV coinfection and a history of IDU were associated with significantly lower CD4+ counts in multivariate models. Older age and social assistance were associated with significantly lower CD4+ counts in models 1 and 3. Age was marginally significant in model 2 (P=0.055). Not prescribed antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significantly negative CD4+ count slope in all multivariate models. CONCLUSION: The unique epidemiology of this HIV-infected population may be contributing to CD4+ count change. Increased attention and resources focused on this high-risk population are needed to prevent disease progression and to improve overall health and quality of life. PMID:26361489

  9. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sarah J.; Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.; Norman, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Root biomass, net primary production and turnover were studied in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in two contrasting climates. The climate of the Southern Study Area (SSA) near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is warmer and drier in the summer and milder in the winter than the Northern Study Area (NSA) near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Ingrowth soil cores and minirhizotrons were used to quantify fine root net primary production (NPPFR). Average daily fine root growth (m m(-2) day(-1)) was positively correlated with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (r(2) = 0.83-0.93) for all three species, with black spruce showing the strongest temperature effect. At both study areas, fine root biomass (measured from soil cores) and fine root length (measured from minirhizotrons) were less for jack pine than for the other two species. Except for the aspen stands, estimates of NPPFR from minirhizotrons were significantly greater than estimates from ingrowth cores. The core method underestimated NPPFR because it does not account for simultaneous fine root growth and mortality. Minirhizotron NPPFR estimates ranged from 59 g m(-2) year(-1) for aspen stands at SSA to 235 g m(-2) year(-1) for black spruce at NSA. The ratio of NPPFR to total detritus production (aboveground litterfall + NPPFR) was greater for evergreen forests than for deciduous forests, suggesting that carbon allocation patterns differ between boreal evergreen and deciduous forests. In all stands, NPPFR consistently exceeded annual fine root turnover and the differences were larger for stands in the NSA than for stands in the SSA, whereas the difference between study areas was only significant for black spruce. The imbalance between NPPFR and fine root turnover is sufficient to explain the net accumulation of carbon in boreal forest soils.

  10. Evaluation of sediment quality guidelines derived using the screening-level concentration approach for application at uranium operations in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) can be derived using different approaches and are commonly used in environmental management, reclamation, and risk assessment. The screening-level concentration (SLC) approach has been used in Ontario, Canada, to derive lowest effect levels (LELs) and severe effect levels for use as SQGs. This approach was adopted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to set guidelines for metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, U, and V) and radionuclides (Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210) in sediment at northern Saskatchewan uranium mining and milling operations. The SLC approach is based on total metal and radionuclide concentrations in sediment, and corresponding benthic community composition data for a specific sampling site. In this study, sediment chemistry (total metals and radionuclides) and benthic community data from northern Saskatchewan uranium operations were compiled and examined. Results indicate that the CNSC-derived SQGs had limited relationships to observed effects, or lack thereof, on benthic invertebrate communities near uranium operations in Saskatchewan. The LELs were found to correctly align with effects at 95% of the sites that had effects, on a general basis, but on an element-specific basis many of the elements had concentrations at effect sites below their LELs. Furthermore, concentrations of the evaluated elements exceeded at least one LEL at 60% of the no-effect sites. The high number of exceedences of LELs at reference and no-effect sites (false-positives) calls to question the appropriateness of the CNSC-derived SQGs. It is suggested that alternatives to the SLC approach be explored.

  11. TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS IN WOOD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN NORTHERN CANADA: A RENEWED NEED TO DEVELOP OPTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Shury, Todd K; Nishi, John S; Elkin, Brett T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Effective, long-term strategies to manage the threat of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis spillback from northern, diseased bison to the Canadian cattle herd and adjacent disease-free wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) herds have eluded policy makers in recent decades. A controversial plan to depopulate infected herds and repopulate them with disease-free wood bison was rejected in 1990 because of significant public concern. Since then, technical advances in vaccine technology, genetic salvage, selective culling, and diagnostic test development have occurred. Containment strategies to reduce further spread of these diseases are a necessary first step; recent progress has been made in this area, but challenges remain. This progress has produced more options for management of these herds in northern Canada, and it is time to consider wood bison conservation and long-term disease eradication as equally important goals that must satisfy concerns of conservation groups, agriculture sectors, aboriginal groups, and the general public. Management of wildlife disease reservoirs in other areas, including Yellowstone and Riding Mountain national parks, has demonstrated that effective disease management is possible. Although combinations of different strategies, including vaccination, genetic salvage techniques, and selective culling, that use sensitive and specific diagnostic tests may offer alternatives to depopulation/repopulation, they also have logistic constraints and cost implications that will need consideration in a multistakeholder, collaborative-management framework. We feel the time is right for this discussion, so a long-term solution to this problem can be applied. PMID:25973624

  12. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  13. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Mary M; Dvonch, J Timothy; Barres, James A; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010-2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10(-5) - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10(-4) - 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130-2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems.

  14. TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS IN WOOD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN NORTHERN CANADA: A RENEWED NEED TO DEVELOP OPTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Shury, Todd K; Nishi, John S; Elkin, Brett T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Effective, long-term strategies to manage the threat of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis spillback from northern, diseased bison to the Canadian cattle herd and adjacent disease-free wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) herds have eluded policy makers in recent decades. A controversial plan to depopulate infected herds and repopulate them with disease-free wood bison was rejected in 1990 because of significant public concern. Since then, technical advances in vaccine technology, genetic salvage, selective culling, and diagnostic test development have occurred. Containment strategies to reduce further spread of these diseases are a necessary first step; recent progress has been made in this area, but challenges remain. This progress has produced more options for management of these herds in northern Canada, and it is time to consider wood bison conservation and long-term disease eradication as equally important goals that must satisfy concerns of conservation groups, agriculture sectors, aboriginal groups, and the general public. Management of wildlife disease reservoirs in other areas, including Yellowstone and Riding Mountain national parks, has demonstrated that effective disease management is possible. Although combinations of different strategies, including vaccination, genetic salvage techniques, and selective culling, that use sensitive and specific diagnostic tests may offer alternatives to depopulation/repopulation, they also have logistic constraints and cost implications that will need consideration in a multistakeholder, collaborative-management framework. We feel the time is right for this discussion, so a long-term solution to this problem can be applied.

  15. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands. PMID:26115966

  16. Century-long source apportionment of PAHs in Athabasca oil sands region lakes using diagnostic ratios and compound-specific carbon isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2013-06-18

    Evaluating the impact that airborne contamination associated with Athabasca oil sands (AOS) mining operations has on the surrounding boreal forest ecosystem requires a rigorous approach to source discrimination. This study presents a century-long historical record of source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dated sediments from two headwater lakes located approximately 40 and 55 km east from the main area of open pit mining activities. Concentrations of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority PAHs in addition to retene, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and six alkylated groups were measured, and both PAH molecular diagnostic ratios and carbon isotopic signatures (δ(13)C) of individual PAHs were used to differentiate natural from anthropogenic inputs. Although concentrations of PAHs in these lakes were low and below the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guidelines, diagnostic ratios pointed to an increasingly larger input of petroleum-derived (i.e., petrogenic) PAHs over the past 30 years concomitant with δ(13)C values progressively shifting to the value of unprocessed AOS bitumen. This petrogenic source is attributed to the deposition of bitumen in dust particles associated with wind erosion from open pit mines.

  17. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  18. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV.

  19. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  20. Emergence of Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus Adult Invasive Disease in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, Is Driven by Clonal Sequence Type 459 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Van Caeseele, Paul; Horsman, Greg; Alexander, David C.; Melano, Roberto G.; Li, Aimin; Flores, Anthony R.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; McGeer, Allison; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) is emerging in Canada and the United States with rates as high as 5% of the total burden of adult invasive GBS disease. To understand this emergence, we studied the population structure and assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of serotype IV isolates causing adult invasive infection in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2010 and 2014. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine multilocus sequence typing information and identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in 85 invasive serotype IV GBS strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard methods. Strain divergence was assessed using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Serotype IV strains were responsible for 16.9% of adult invasive GBS infections in Manitoba and Saskatchewan during the period. The majority of serotype IV isolates (89%) were clonally related, tetracycline-, erythromycin-, and clindamycin-resistant sequence type 459 (ST459) strains that possessed genes tetM and ermTR. Genome comparisons between ST459 and serotype V ST1 GBS identified several areas of recombination in an overall similar genomic background. Serotype IV ST459 GBS strains are expanding and causing a substantial percentage of adult invasive GBS disease. This emergence may be linked to the acquisition of resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, and lincosamides. PMID:26135871

  1. Using a novel Mg isotope tracer to investigate the dolomitization of the Red River Formation in the Williston Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmig, S. R.; Holmden, C. E.; Qing, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Williston Basin is a sub-circular intracratonic basin spanning central North America with its center in NW North Dakota. The Late Ordovician Red River Formation is an economically viable unit in the Williston Basin containing large hydrocarbon reserves in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Manitoba, and Montana. Red River dolomitization contributed to the reservoir-quality porosity and permeability observed today with three types of dolomite (burrow, matrix, and saddle) possibly representing three events. Dolomitization is widely believed to have resulted from downward percolating brines, due to the stratigraphically close association between dolomite deposits and overlying basin-scale evaporites. However, in contrast, Sr isotope evidence suggests an upward fluid migration in the basin. Spatial variation of Mg isotopes (δ26Mg) may serve as a direct tracer of dolomitizing fluid flow. Dolomite sequesters light isotopes of Mg from dolomitizing fluids, therefore, the fluid will evolve with time and distance to heavier δ26Mg values. Accordingly, the δ26Mg values of the Red River dolomite should increase in the direction of fluid flow. We test this hypothesis on Red River burrow dolomite from the Williston Basin; the first event most often attributed to downward infiltration of brines. Burrow δ26Mg values range between -1.89‰ and -1.31‰. Using contouring software, the data are shown to form a pattern of increasing δ26Mg values out from the center of the Williston Basin, indicating an up-dip migration of dolomitizing fluids through the burrow network, rather than down-dip as suggested by the brine reflux model. We conclude that dolomitization of the Red River carbonate is not tied to the spatial and temporal history of evaporite deposition in the Williston Basin, but rather to the thermal history of the basin, suggesting dolomitization likely occurred during a late Paleozoic heating event that drove Mg-rich connate waters ponded in the center of the basin upwards

  2. Valued ecosystem components for watershed cumulative effects: an analysis of environmental impact assessments in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Murray A; Noble, Bram F; Dubé, Monique G

    2013-07-01

    The accumulating effects of human development are threatening water quality and availability. In recognition of the constraints to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) under traditional environmental impact assessment (EIA), there is an emerging body of research dedicated to watershed-based cumulative effects assessment (WCEA). To advance the science of WCEA, however, a standard set of ecosystem components and indicators is required that can be used at the watershed scale, to inform effects-based understanding of cumulative change, and at the project scale, to inform regulatory-based project based impact assessment and mitigation. A major challenge, however, is that it is not clear how such ecosystem components and indicators for WCEA can or should be developed. This study examined the use of aquatic ecosystem components and indicators in EIA practice in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada, to determine whether current practice at the project scale could be "scaled up" to support ecosystem component and indicator development for WCEA. The hierarchy of assessment components and indicators used in a sample of 35 environmental impact assessments was examined and the factors affecting aquatic ecosystem component selection and indicator use were identified. Results showed that public environmental impact statements are not necessarily publically accessible, thus limiting opportunities for data and information sharing from the project to the watershed scale. We also found no consistent terminology across the sample of impact statements, thus making comparison of assessment processes and results difficult. Regulatory compliance was found to be the dominant factor influencing the selection of ecosystem components and indicators for use in project assessment, rather than scientific reasoning, followed by the mandate of the responsible government agency for the assessment, public input to the assessment process, and preexisting water licensing arrangements external

  3. Character, Location, and Implications of Volatiles in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in the 2.6 Fehr Granite, Northern Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.; Koteas, C.; Tague, T., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Water in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) has been shown by many workers to facilitate deformation of minerals, and hence to be a controlling factor in the strength and rheological character of rocks. In addition, water that escapes from structural sites in minerals may act as a flux, lowering the temperature at which partial melt can be derived from otherwise anhydrous rocks. These attributes might be particularly important in the deep crust, where hydrous minerals are scarce and where strength may be an important function of available water. Micro-FTIR analysis of volatile concentrations in feldspar in the K-feldspar megacrystic 2.6 Ga Fehr granite of northern Saskatchewan shows that water occurs essentially entirely as free water, in the form of water clusters or fluid inclusions. Microscopically visible fluid inclusions occur in planar arrays, possibly on healed fractures within minerals, as well as isolated within minerals. FTIR images of water concentration show that essentially all water is concentrated in these fluid inclusion arrays, as well as along grain boundaries. Water concentrations in feldspar and quartz crystals range from 250-1000 ppm. Very low concentrations of carbon dioxide (to approximately 10 ppm) are present, probably in fluid inclusions, and a persistent peak at approximately 2136 cm-1 wavenumber has been tentatively identified as carbon monoxide, which is commonly present along with carbon dioxide in magmatic volatiles. The lack of structural water in NAMs is somewhat surprising. We interpret this to reflect: (1) deformation whereby water was swept from structural sites, into dislocations and then into fluid inclusions or grain boundaries, (2) dissolution of water in partial melts, and (3) possible water loss during exhumation. The ubiquity of water associated with deformational features in the Fehr granite suggests that it may have contributed to deformation of the granite, i.e. through hydrolytic weakening, and that deformation may be

  4. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  5. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison. PMID:25973619

  6. Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, Is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jamie C; Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Wang, Xiaowa; Wiklund, Johan A; Cooke, Colin A; Evans, Marlene S; Smol, John P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from local industry or from recent climatic changes? Here, we use downcore, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a (VRS-chla) profiles (including diagenetic products) from 23 limnologically-diverse lakes with undisturbed catchments to characterize the pattern of primary production increases in the AOSR. Our aim is to better understand the relative roles of the local oil sands industry versus climate change in driving aquatic primary production trends. Nutrient deposition maps, generated using geostatistical interpolations of spring-time snowpack measurements from a grid pattern across the AOSR, demonstrate patterns of elevated total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and bioavailable nitrogen deposition around the main area of industrial activity. However, this pattern is not observed for bioavailable phosphorus. Our paleolimnological findings demonstrate consistently greater VRS-chla concentrations compared to pre-oil sands development levels, regardless of morphological and limnological characteristics, landscape position, bioavailable nutrient deposition, and dibenzothiophene (DBT)-inferred industrial impacts. Furthermore, breakpoint analyses on VRS-chla concentrations across a gradient of DBT-inferred industrial impact show limited evidence of a contemporaneous change among lakes. Despite the contribution of bioavailable nitrogen to the landscape from industrial activities, we find no consistency in the spatial pattern and timing of VRS-chla shifts with an industrial fertilizing signal. Instead

  7. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison.

  8. Modeling and mapping the effects of heat and pressure outside a SAGD steam chamber using time-lapse multicomponent seismic data, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Loren Michelle

    The field of study is a bitumen producing reservoir within the McMurray Formation. The deposit is a part of the Athabasca oil sands trend in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. This field contains 16 well pads that are, combined, producing more than 41,000 BOPD. Bitumen reservoirs are unique as a result of their high viscosity, low API gravity oil. This oil in this field has been produced by means of a method called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), since 2007. In this method, two vertically stacked, horizontal wells are drilled. The upper well injects high temperature, high pressure steam and as the viscosity of the bitumen decreases it will begin to flow, via gravity, down to the lower producing well. Reservoir monitoring in this field is very important for multiple reasons, including the shallow depth and the large velocity changes that result from SAGD production. In order to map these changes, time-lapse multicomponent data were incorporated with rock physics modeling in order to map and interpret changes in Vp/Vs with production. When fluid substitution results and pressure estimations are combined, the resulting velocities are consistent with the core sample modeling done by Kato et al. (2008). These results were then compared with the seismic data in order to identify areas affected by steam, heat, and pressure within the reservoir through time-lapse Vp/Vs. PP time-lapse results show the location of the steam chamber within the reservoir, however these data do not give any information about the effects of pressure or heat. Converted-wave (PS) data can be used to image pressure and viscosity changes in the reservoir. When these data are combined into a Vp/Vs volume, the effects of steam, heat and pressure can be identified. Vp/Vs areas of little to no difference indicate steamed zones while the surrounding areas with large differences indicate heated and pressured zones.

  9. In situ bioremediation of naphthenic acids contaminated tailing pond waters in the athabasca oil sands region--demonstrated field studies and plausible options: a review.

    PubMed

    Quagraine, E K; Peterson, H G; Headley, J V

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there are three industrial plants that recover oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area, and there are plans in the future for several additional mines. The extraction procedures produce large volumes of slurry wastes contaminated with naphthenic acids (NAs). Because of a "zero discharge" policy the oil sands companies do not release any extraction wastes from their leases. The process-affected waters and fluid tailings contaminated with NAs are contained on-site primarily in large settling ponds. These fluid wastes from the tailing ponds can be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms, and NAs have been associated with this toxicity. The huge tailings containment area must ultimately be reclaimed, and this is of major concern to the oil sands industry. Some reclamation options have been investigated by both pioneering industries (Syncrude Energy Inc. and Suncor Inc.) with mixed results. The bioremediation techniques have limited success to date in biodegrading NAs to levels below 19 mg/L. Some tailing pond waters have been stored for more than 10 years, and it appears that the remaining high molecular weight NAs are refractory to the natural biodegradation process in the ponds. Some plausible options to further degrade the NAs in the tailings pond water include: bioaugmentation with bacteria selected to degrade the more refractory classes of NAs; the use of attachment materials such as clays to concentrate both the NA and the NA-degrading bacteria in their surfaces and/or pores; synergistic association between algae and bacteria consortia to promote efficient aerobic degradation; and biostimulation with nutrients to promote the growth and activity of the microorganisms. PMID:15756978

  10. Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, Is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jamie C.; Kurek, Joshua; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wang, Xiaowa; Wiklund, Johan A.; Cooke, Colin A.; Evans, Marlene S.; Smol, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from local industry or from recent climatic changes? Here, we use downcore, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a (VRS-chla) profiles (including diagenetic products) from 23 limnologically-diverse lakes with undisturbed catchments to characterize the pattern of primary production increases in the AOSR. Our aim is to better understand the relative roles of the local oil sands industry versus climate change in driving aquatic primary production trends. Nutrient deposition maps, generated using geostatistical interpolations of spring-time snowpack measurements from a grid pattern across the AOSR, demonstrate patterns of elevated total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and bioavailable nitrogen deposition around the main area of industrial activity. However, this pattern is not observed for bioavailable phosphorus. Our paleolimnological findings demonstrate consistently greater VRS-chla concentrations compared to pre-oil sands development levels, regardless of morphological and limnological characteristics, landscape position, bioavailable nutrient deposition, and dibenzothiophene (DBT)-inferred industrial impacts. Furthermore, breakpoint analyses on VRS-chla concentrations across a gradient of DBT-inferred industrial impact show limited evidence of a contemporaneous change among lakes. Despite the contribution of bioavailable nitrogen to the landscape from industrial activities, we find no consistency in the spatial pattern and timing of VRS-chla shifts with an industrial fertilizing signal. Instead

  11. Solute movement through unsaturated fen peat: Lab and greenhouse experiments for transport study of contaminants from Athabasca oil sands tailing pond water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Rezanezhad, F.; Graf, M.; Rochefort, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region, wetlands specially peatland dominate the landscape. Processing oil sands produces large volumes of wet material called oil sands tailing water. Discharge of organic liquid contaminants such as Naphthenic Acids (NA) and Sodium (Na) from tailing waters have a toxic effect on plants in this region. One of the greatest barriers to peatland creation will be the elevated amount of toxins (naphthenic acid, metals and salinity) present in the post-mined landscapes. Variability in solute transport properties in the unsaturated zone is of growing concern due to environmental hazards and there are no many scientific challenges in the field of organic liquid contaminants transport through the unsaturated peat soils. The attenuation, degradation and transport of NA and Na in peat are essentially unknown. The ionizable nature of NA and Na along with the complex structure of peat soils poses challenges to characterizing the transport properties of NA and Na in the filed and laboratory. In this experimental research project, we examine the plant responses in 64 greenhouse tubs filled with peat and process-water; and study the transport and attenuation processes of NA and Na through peat in a series of laboratory column experiments. We developed an analytical method for evaluating the transport and adsorption characteristics of NA and Na to derive a clear understanding of the transport, sorption mechanisms and desorption behaviour of NA and Na with temporal evolution of the solute concentration distribution from groundwater to fen plants. The goal of this research project is to investigate how oil sands process-affected waters will affect peatland vegetation, specifically fen vegetation. In particular, we would like to know how contaminants present in oil sand process affected water will be transported through peat and how typical fen vegetation will react to a realistic contamination scenario in a controlled macrocosm environment? Research that

  12. Derivation of Lake Areas and Elevations for the Mackenzie Basin Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birkett, Charon; Kite, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Modelling hydrological processes in large watersheds flowing to the Arctic ocean is one step towards larger-scale modelling of the global water and energy cycles. Models of the Mackenzie River Basin (Northern Canada) are currently available but omit explicit routing of river flows through the three main lakes - Athabasca, Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake (Kite et al, 1994). These lakes occupy an area of 65,000 sq km but little gauge information is available. The levels of the lakes are only measured at a few points on the circumferences and river flows are only measured downstream. The hydraulic relationships between level/discharge and level/area/volume are uncertain. It has been previously shown that satellite remote sensing can be utilised in providing measurements of both lake surface area using imaging techniques and lake level using radar altimetry (Birkett, 1994). Here, we explore the application of these techniques to derive the lake levels and areas for the Mackenzie Basin lakes.

  13. Incidence and carrier frequency of Sandhoff disease in Saskatchewan determined using a novel substrate with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Braden; Hall, Patricia; Antonishyn, Nick; Desikan, Rajagopal; Gelb, Michael; Lehotay, Denis

    2014-03-01

    Sandhoff disease is a rare progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder with a high incidence among certain isolated communities and ethnic groups around the world. Previous reports have shown a high occurrence of Sandhoff disease in northern Saskatchewan. Newborn screening cards from northern Saskatchewan were retrospectively screened in order to investigate the incidence and determine the carrier frequency of Sandhoff disease in these communities. PCR-based screening was conducted for the c.115delG (p.(Val39fs)) variant in the HEXB gene that was previously found in 4 Sandhoff disease patients from this area. The carrier frequency for this allele was estimated to be ~1:27. MS/MS-based screening of hexosaminidase activity along with genetic sequencing allowed for the identification of additional variants based on low total hexosaminidase activity and high % hexosaminidase A activity relative to c.115delG carriers. In total 4 pathogenic variants were discovered in the population (c.115delG, c.619A>G, c.1601G>T, and c.1652G>A) of which two are previously unreported (c.1601G>T and c.1652G>A). The combined carrier frequency of these alleles in the study area was estimated at ~1:15. Based on the number of cases of Sandhoff disease from this area we estimate the incidence to be ~1:390 corresponding to a child being born with the disease every 1-2 years on average. The results from our study were then compared with variants in the HEXB gene from the genomes available from the 1000 Genomes project. A total of 19 HEXB variants were found in the 1092 genomes of which 5 are suspected of having a deleterious effect on hexosaminidase activity. The estimated carrier frequency of Sandhoff disease in Saskatchewan at 1:15 is more than 3 times higher than the carrier frequency in the global sample provided by the 1000 Genomes project at 1:57. PMID:24461908

  14. Impact of Liquid-Vapor to Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Transitions on Asphaltene-Rich Nanoaggregate Behavior in Athabasca Vacuum Residue + Pentane Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Bingwen; Chodakowski, Martin; Shaw, John M.

    2013-06-05

    The bulk phase behavior of heavy oil + alkane mixtures and the behavior of the asphaltenes that they contain are topics of importance for the design and optimization of processes for petroleum production, transport, and refining and for performing routine saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) analyses. In prior studies, partial phase diagrams and phase behavior models for Athabasca vacuum residue (AVR) comprising 32 wt % pentane asphaltenes + n-alkanes were reported. For mixtures with pentane, observed phase behaviors included single-phase liquid as well as liquid–liquid, liquid–liquid–vapor, and liquid–liquid–liquid–vapor regions. Dispersed solids were detected under some conditions as well but not quantified. In this work, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to study nanostructured materials in liquid phases present in AVR + n-pentane mixtures from 50 to 170 °C at mixture bubble pressure. The investigation focuses on the impact of the transition from a single AVR-rich liquid to co-existing pentane-rich and AVR-rich liquids on the nanostructure and the nanostructures most resistant to aggregation as the pentane composition axis is approached. Background scattering subtraction was performed using global mixture composition. The robustness of this assumption with respect to values obtained for coefficients appearing in a two level Beaucage unified equation fit is demonstrated. The nanostructured material is shown to arise at two length scales from 1 to 100 wt % AVR. Smaller nanostructures possess mean radii less than 50 Å, while the larger nanostructures possess mean radii greater than 250 Å. The addition of pentane to the AVR causes an increasingly large fraction of the large and small nanostructures to grow in size. Only nanostructures resistant to aggregation remain in the pentane-rich phase as the 0 wt % AVR axis is approached. Step changes in aggregation identified from changes in average radius of gyration, scattering

  15. Distribution of Total Dissolved Solids in McMurray Formation Water in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada: Implications for Oil Sands Mining and In Situ Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B.; Mayer, B.

    2013-12-01

    Saline water management is a significant environmental challenge for mining and in-situ resource development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada. In the AOSR, the Cretaceous aged McMurray formation that bears the majority of the oil sands resources is underlain by saline Devonian formations containing saline water. Vertical connectivity between Devonian and Cretaceous aquifer systems has been uncovered by mining operations in the AOSR over the past several years, inducing occasional and local saline water flow into mining areas. The observed upward flow of groundwater from Devonian to Cretaceous systems necessitates detailed characterization of the spatial extent of high salinity formation waters to improve water management decisions in the AOSR. This study used published data from recent government reports and Environmental Impact Assessments to map total dissolved solids (TDS) of 355 McMurray formation water samples across the Athabasca oil sands region (54 to 58° N and 110 to 114° W). McMurray formation waters varied from non-saline (TDS < 4 000 mg/L) to brine (TDS > 100 000 mg/L) with a locally high salinity formation waters trending parallel to the dissolution edge of the Devonian-aged Prairie evaporite formation across the AOSR. The simplest hydrogeological explanation for the observed formation water salinity data is that Devonian aquifers are locally connected to the McMurray formation via conduits in the sub-Cretaceous karst system in the region overlying the partial dissolution edge of the Prairie evaporite formation. The driving force for upward formation water flow was provided by the Pleistocene glaciation events that reversed the regional flow system in the Devonian strata over the past 2 Ma. This study demonstrates that a detailed approach to hydrogeological assessment is required to elucidate total dissolved solids concentrations in McMurray formation waters at an individual lease-area scale, and to manage potential impacts

  16. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  17. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  18. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  19. Heterogeneity within a deep crustal strike-slip shear zone with implications for lower crustal flow, Athabasca granulite terrane, western Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, S. R.; Mahan, K. H.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Deep crustal strike-slip shear zones play a fundamental role in lower crustal flow. Although commonly modeled in two-dimensions, regional considerations suggest that large-scale crustal flow is a heterogeneous, three-dimensional process. The Athabasca granulite terrane, western Canadian Shield, exposes a large region of high-pressure tectonite (>20,000 km2) that provides a natural example of ancient lower crustal flow and an analog for similar processes active today in other regions. Regional heterogeneous deformation permits preservation of Neoarchean deformation fabrics and metamorphic textures. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) is a NW-dipping km-scale mylonite to ultramylonite zone that forms a discrete tectonic discontinuity between two rheologically distinct Neoarchean lower-crustal domains. Northwest of the CLsz, the domain is primarily underlain by ~2.6 Ga felsic to mafic metaplutonic gneisses and interlayered ~2.55 Ga felsic granulite. Lithologies here preserve Neoarchean granulite-facies metamorphism coupled with partial melting and synkinematic melt-enhanced ESE-directed subhorizontal flow at ~0.9 GPa (~30 km paleodepths). Southeast of the CLsz, the Chipman domain is underlain by ~3.2 Ga metatonalite gneiss, an extensive ~1.9 Ga mafic dike swarm, and generally minor ~2.55 Ga mafic and felsic granulite. In contrast to the northwest, lithologies of the western Chipman domain document higher pressures at ~1.3 GPa (~40 km paleodepths) synchronous with development of a gently dipping Neoarchean gneissic fabric. Strong, anhydrous Chipman domain lithologies and melt-weakened lithologies to the northwest are juxtaposed by sinistral to sinistral-normal oblique shear along the CLsz, consistent with higher pressures (deeper paleodepths) documented in the footwall Chipman domain. A notable and pervasive feature along strike of the CLsz in the western Chipman domain is the marked increase in abundance of m-scale layers of mafic and felsic granulite westward with

  20. Examination of mercury and organic carbon dynamics from a constructed fen in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada using in situ and laboratory fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, C.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region, mined landscapes must be reclaimed to a functioning natural ecosystem as part of the mine closure process. To test wetland construction techniques on oil sands tailings, 55 ha of mined landscape on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. property is being reclaimed to a watershed containing a graminoid fen. The 18 ha constructed fen consists of an approximately 50 cm thick peat-mineral soil layer separated from underlying tailings sand by a thin layer of clay till. The water table in the fen is maintained by pumping water into the fen from a nearby lake and controlling outflow with under-drains. The objective of this study was to assess total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentration dynamics in water exported from the fen in relation to organic carbon quantity and composition. Water quality data from summer 2012 when the fen pumps were first turned on show that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are on average twice as high in water flowing through the underlying tailings sand aquifer (median: 42.0 mg/L) compared to DOC concentrations in water flowing through the fen peat package (median: 20.3 mg/L). Given these DOC concentrations, filtered THg concentrations are very low (median values are 0.81 ng/L and 0.17 ng/L for water flowing through the fen peat and sand tailings, respectively) compared to concentrations reported for other boreal wetlands. Although a relationship was identified between filtered THg and DOC (r2=0.60), its slope (0.06 ng Hg/mg C) is an order-of-magnitude smaller than the typical range of slopes found at other wetland sites potentially suggesting a small pool of mercury in the peat and/or limited partitioning of mercury into solution. Filtered MeHg concentrations in all water samples are near the limit of detection and suggest that biogeochemical conditions conducive to methylation did not exist in the fen peat or tailings sand at the time of sampling. In addition to these baseline THg and Me

  1. Factors associated with serum immunoglobulin levels in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and association between passive transfer and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate consumption of colostrum can negatively affect calf health and survival. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations of 935 beef calves from 152 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan have been described, using radial immunodiffusion. The determinants and health effects of serum IgG concentrations were studied in 601 calves sampled between 2 and 8 days of age. Of these calves, 6% had failure of passive transfer and an additional 10% had marginal passive transfer. Serum IgG concentrations were lower in calves born to a heifer, as a twin, or experiencing dystocia. The odds of both calf death and treatment were increased in calves with serum IgG concentrations below 24 g/L; a threshold notably higher than the 16 g/L usually considered as providing adequate passive transfer. The finding of 1/3 of calves with serum IgG concentrations less than 24 g/L suggests that calfhood treatments and mortality could be decreased by ensuring that high risk calves consume colostrum. PMID:19436479

  2. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  3. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  4. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  5. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport on an inland parabolic dune, Bigstick Sand Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, C. H.; Wolfe, S. A.; Walker, I. J.; Moorman, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Topographic changes from erosion pins and on-site meteorological data document the spatial and temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport at monthly to annual timescales across an active parabolic dune within a vegetation-stabilized inland, prairie dune field. Over two years, the sediment budget, calculated from digital elevation models, shows that the total volume of erosion (9890 m 3) is greater than the amount of deposition (6990 m 3), indicating a net loss of 2900 m 3 of sediment (or ˜ 29% of eroded sediment) from the dune. Sediment erosion occurred mainly on the stoss slope (3600 m 3; ˜ 36% of eroded sediment), but also on the south (2100 m 3; ˜ 21%) and north sides of the dune head (1700 m 3; ˜ 17%), the blowouts along the arms (1740 m 3, ˜ 18%) and the crest (650 m 3; ˜ 7%). Erosion from the deflation basin is limited by surface roughness and armoring effects of a gravel lag deposit (100 m 3; ˜ 1%). Thus, the blowouts currently contribute to maintaining dune mobility because no other sediment input occurs from upwind. Sediment deposition onto the dune occurred primarily beyond the brink on the south and southeast lee slopes (5500 m 3; ˜ 80%), coinciding with the southeasterly resultant transport direction for November 2004-05. The net loss of about 2900 m 3 (˜ 29%) may be attributed to sediment carried in suspension over and beyond the dune. Correlation analysis between sediment transport and meteorological variables suggests that monthly to seasonal changes of surface conditions (e.g., vegetation cover, ground freezing, moisture) buffer the relative importance of temperature and precipitation on rates of sediment transport. Conversely, wind correlates well on a monthly to seasonal basis because it is a driver of transport under all types of surface conditions. Seasonal effects produce a complex interaction between wind, climate and surface conditions. This leads to a dynamic range of threshold velocities, which in turn causes spatial and

  7. Changing Flows, Chaning Livelihoods: Long-Term Changes in Hydro-Ecology and Socio-Economy in the Saskatchewan River Delta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickert, G. E.; Jardine, T.; Patrick, B.; Abu, R.; Andrews, E. J.; Reed, M.; Steelman, T.; Massie, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Delta is North America's largest inland delta, covering 10,000 km2 at the interface of the Great Plains and Boreal forest. Historically, it was the most productive fish and wildlife habitat in the region [BP1] and as such, traditional livelihoods in the local Cree and Métis community were supported by a flourishing fur trade, dense moose populations, and commercial and subsistence fisheries. But water resource development upstream has truncated flood peaks and introduced hydro-peaking with adverse consequences for biological production and these livelihoods. Local science and traditional knowledge, combined with a growing wealth of western science measurements are painting a picture of long-term ecological change. Remote sensing techniques coupled with hydrometric data show strong correlations between surface water coverage area and in-channel flow, thus enabling backcasting and forecasting of inundation patterns. The implications of losses of hydrological connectivity are evaluated using environmental DNA and stable isotope markers of fish movement and avian origins, with a focus on species that are most important for the economy and culture of the delta's people. The work aims to contribute to the setting of environmental flows and the re-licensing of major dams in 2015, as well as to support the development of a community-led water stewardship planning process that is now underway, with a goal of identifying threats to the delta and to make recommendations on threat mitigation. This presentation will describe how this community-informed, interdisciplinary approach aims to understand linkages between water, wildlife and people in this vital ecosystem. [BP1]In what region? This is a redundant statement if talking about the River Delta region. Maybe just take out first half of sentence.

  8. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  9. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  10. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    PubMed

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  11. Application of Response Surface based Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis methods for Regional Hydrogeological Modelling in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Palombi, D.; Huff, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    A regional scale study of groundwater flow dynamics was undertaken in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), comprising parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. The objective of the study is to investigate basin-scale hydrogeology in WCSB and to establish boundary conditions for future local-scale groundwater management models. Earlier work in the Alberta basin has acknowledged the fact that in addition to topography controlled conditions, a substantial part of the basin exhibits sub-hydrostatic regimes. The basin-scale model (approx. 420,000 km2) includes Upper Cretaceous aquifers to Recent age sediments which collectively attain maximum thicknesses of >2600 m. Regional aquifer units considered for the numerical model are Quaternary sediments, and the sedimentary rocks of the Paskapoo, Scollard, Horseshoe Canyon formations and the Belly River Group. Regional aquitards delineated include the Battle and Bear Paw formations. The study area is bound to the west by the Brazeau-Waptiti thrust belt and to the south by the Canada-USA international border. The boundary to the north and east is delineated by the maximum extent of the Wapiti and Belly River groups and Judith River Formation. USGS MODFLOW was implemented for numerical simulation. The steady state numerical model was calibrated using a Response Surface based (Radial Basis Functions) optimization method. The calibration targets (~2000) were comprised of drill stem tests for deeper units and static water levels for shallower units. Petrophysical analyses of cores averaged K values from analyses of aquifer test results,and literature values were used to provide initial values and calibration ranges for hydraulic properties. Results indicate predominance of topography driven, local- to intermediate-scale flow systems in all hydrostratigraphic units with recharge of these units occurring in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The Battle aquitard, where present, acts to retard regional flow

  12. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  13. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  14. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  15. 1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation

  19. Nd, Sr, Pb, Ar, and O isotopic systematics of Sturgeon Lake kimberlite, Saskatchewan, Canada: constraints on emplacement age, alteration, and source composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegner, E.; Roddick, J. C.; Fortier, S. M.; Hulbert, L.

    1995-06-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic dating of phlogopite megacryst samples separated from Sturgeon Lake kimberlite, Saskatchewan, yields a crystallization age of 98±1 Ma (2 σ, MSWD=1.2; 87Sr/86Sr( t)=0.7059). The 40Ar/39Ar analyses of a phlogopite megacryst sample indicate the presence of large amounts of excess 40Ar and yield an excessively old age of ˜410 Ma. Assessment of the Ar data using isotope correlation plots indicates clustering of the data points about a mixing line between the radiogenic 40Ar component at 98 Ma and a trapped component with uniform 36Ar/40Ar and Cl/40Ar. Values of δ 18O as high as +20‰ (VSMOW) for calcite from the groundmass and a whole-rock sample indicate pervasive low-temperature alteration. The δ 13C of matrix carbonate is -11.3‰ (PDB), slightly lighter than typical values from the literature. The δ 18O values of about +5‰ (VSMOW) for brown phlogopite megacrysts may be primary, green phlogopites are interpreted to be an alteration product of the brown variety and are 2‰ heavier. Initial Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic ratios for a whole-rock sample ( ɛ Nd=+0.8; 87Sr/86Sr=0.7063, 206Pb/204Pb=18.67, 207Pb/204Pb=15.54, 208Pb/204Pb=38.97) suggest an affinity with group I kimberlites. Initial ɛ Nd values of +1.7 and +0.5 (87Sr/86Sr( t)=0.7053 and 0.7050) for eclogitic and lherzolitic garnet megacryst samples, and values of 0.0 for two phlogopite megacryst samples reflect an origin from an isotopically evolving melt due to assimilation of heterogeneous mantle. Lilac high-Cr lherzolitic garnet megacrysts give an unusually high ɛ Nd(98. Ma) of +28.6 (87Sr/86Sr=0.7046) indicating a xenocrystic origin probably from the lithospheric mantle. The very radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the kimberlite are consistent with melting of EM II (enriched) mantle components.

  20. Macrofossils of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Results of this study of the macrofossils of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota have reinforced the suggestion, based on previous paleontological work in Saskatchewan, that the Bakken is of both Devonian and Mississippian age, rather than being entirely of Lower Mississippian age as originally considered. Increased drilling and coring activity in the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin has provided the opportunity for acquiring a larger fauna that was previously available. Based on lithologic character, the Bakken has been divided into three informal members. These consist of a calcareous siltstone unit between two lithologically similar units of carbonaceous shale. These black shales contain similar faunas distinct from that of the middle member. The black shales contain inarticulate brachiopods, conchostracans, and rare cephalopods and fish remains as well as more abundant conodonts, ostracods, and palynomorphs. The middle siltstone unit contains a more abundant and diverse fauna consisting of inarticulate and articulate brachiopods together with corals, gastropods, cephalopods, ostracods, echinoderm remains, and trace fossils. This is the first report of cephalopods, conchostracans, ostracods, corals, trace fossils, and some of the brachiopods in the Bakken, although all, except the gastropods, have been reported from stratigraphic equivalents (Exshaw Formation of south-central Montana, the Leatham Formation of northeastern Utah, and the middle member of the Pilot Shale in western Utah and eastern Nevada).

  1. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  2. Possible pingo fields in the Utopia basin, Mars: Geological and climatical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Komatsu, Goro

    2009-01-01

    The presence of pingos on Mars has been hypothesized since the period of the Viking mission. In fact, a diverse range of pingo-like features has been found at various martian sites including Elysium, Chryse and Utopia Planitiae in the northern lowlands. Due to the morphology and the geological setting, some of those features were interpreted in different ways, creating some controversies, as happened in Athabasca Valles. This reflects the complexity of interpreting these features by remote sensing and multiple plausible interpretations of the same feature. With the objective of identifying new possible pingos or rootless cones on Mars, we selected a study area in Utopia Planitia (10-55° N, 210-260° W) where the presence of both features is possible due to its geological history (volcanic and hydrological). We analyzed more than 2100 Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)-narrow angle images in addition to Viking, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, together with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with a Geographic Information System (GIS). We found in 94 MOC-narrow angle images dome, cone, and ring-shaped features. We analyzed them from morphological and morphometrical points of view in order to compare them with relevant features on Mars and Earth. We tested different possible origins for those features following the approach of multiple working hypotheses. We conclude that the dome, cone, and ring-shaped features could be pingos, which is in agreement with their geological settings. Regarding the driving heat source for the formation of the purported pingos, we propose the existence of a heat source, possibly a magma chamber, underneath the surface of the Utopia basin. Together with possible climatic shifts, the past activities of the heat source may have caused melting of ground ice. The pingo growth due to freezing of the water would have occurred during the following cold

  3. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  4. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  5. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  6. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  7. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  8. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  9. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  10. Oklo natural fission reactor program. Progress report, April 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.

    1980-12-01

    An interim report has been published on the redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphosed sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. Samples from Oklo reactor zone 9 and nearby host rocks have been prepared for isotopic analyses of ruthenium, molybdenum, uranium and lead.

  11. Sedimentary basins and crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Davy, P.; Gapais, D.; Rossello, E. A.; Sadybakasov, E.; Thomas, J. C.; Tondji Biyo, J. J.; de Urreiztieta, M.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the development of sedimentary basins in a tectonic context dominated by horizontal shortening and vertical thickening of the crust. Well-known examples are foreland basins; others are ramp basins and buckle basins. We have reproduced various styles of compressional basins in experiments, properly scaled for gravity. A multilayered model lithosphere, with brittle and ductile layers, floats on a model asthenosphere. A computer-driven piston provides shortening and thickening, synchronous with erosion and sedimentation. After a first stage of lithospheric buckling, thrust faults appear, mainly at inflection points. Slip on an isolated reverse fault is accompanied by flexure. Footwall flexure results in a foreland basin and becomes accentuated by sedimentation. Hangingwall flexure is less marked, but may become accentuated by erosion. Motion on a fault leads to hangingwall collapse at the surface. Either footwall sedimentation or hangingwall erosion tends to prolong the active life of a reverse fault. Slip on any pair of closely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a ramp basin. Simultaneous slip produces a symmetric ramp basin, whereas alternating slip results in a butterfly-shaped basin, with superposed foredeeps. Some well-developed ramp basins become pushed down, until bounding faults meet at the surface and the basin disappears from view. At this stage, the basin depth is equivalent to 15 km or more. Slip on any pair of widely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a pronounced central anticline, between two distinct foredeeps. In Central Asia and in Western Europe, Cenozoic crustal thickening is due to continental collision. For Central Asia (Western China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), we have compiled a regional structure-contour map on the base of the Tertiary, as well as 4 regional sections. Foreland basins and ramp basins are numerous and associated with Cenozoic thrusts. Large basins (Tarim, Junggar

  12. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  13. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  14. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  15. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  16. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  17. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  18. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  19. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  20. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  1. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  2. Relationships among oil density, gross composition, and thermal maturity indicators in northeastern Williston basin oils and their significance for expulsion thresholds and migration pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Osadetz, K.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Brooks, P.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Oil density ({degree}API), gross composition, and biological market thermal maturity variations in northeastern Williston basin have stratigraphic and geographic significance controlled by migration pathways and source rock composition as it affects hydrocarbon generation and expulsion characteristics. When the depth and density of oil pools is compared to relationships predicted using the correlation between source rock thermal maturity and oil density, several different migration pathways can be inferred. Winnipegosis source oils indicate four paths. Most small pinnacle reef pools are sourced locally, but larger coalesced reefs contain oils migrated long distances through the Lower Member Winnipegosis Formation. Among oils that have migrated past Prairie salts, both locally sourced oils, like those on the flank of the Hummingbird Trough, and more mature, longer migrated oils in Saskatchewan Group reservoirs can be identified. Bakken oils have the longest migration pathways, controlled primarily by a lowstand shoreline sandstone on the eastern side of the basin. Lodgepole-sourced oils dominate Madison Group plays. Northwest of Steelman field, oil density increases primarily due to thermal maturity differences but also because of increasing biodegradation and water-washing that affect the western edge of the play trend. Along the margin of the Hummingbird Trough are a number of deep, medium-gravity pools whose oil compositions are entirely attributable to low thermal maturity and local migration pathways.

  3. Stochastic model for simulating Souris River Basin precipitation, evapotranspiration, and natural streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolars, Kelsey A.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Ryberg, Karen R.

    2016-02-24

    The Souris River Basin is a 61,000-square-kilometer basin in the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the State of North Dakota. In May and June of 2011, record-setting rains were seen in the headwater areas of the basin. Emergency spillways of major reservoirs were discharging at full or nearly full capacity, and extensive flooding was seen in numerous downstream communities. To determine the probability of future extreme floods and droughts, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission, developed a stochastic model for simulating Souris River Basin precipitation, evapotranspiration, and natural (unregulated) streamflow. Simulations from the model can be used in future studies to simulate regulated streamflow, design levees, and other structures; and to complete economic cost/benefit analyses.Long-term climatic variability was analyzed using tree-ring chronologies to hindcast precipitation to the early 1700s and compare recent wet and dry conditions to earlier extreme conditions. The extended precipitation record was consistent with findings from the Devils Lake and Red River of the North Basins (southeast of the Souris River Basin), supporting the idea that regional climatic patterns for many centuries have consisted of alternating wet and dry climate states.A stochastic climate simulation model for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration for the Souris River Basin was developed using recorded meteorological data and extended precipitation records provided through tree-ring analysis. A significant climate transition was seen around1970, with 1912–69 representing a dry climate state and 1970–2011 representing a wet climate state. Although there were some distinct subpatterns within the basin, the predominant differences between the two states were higher spring through early fall precipitation and higher spring potential evapotranspiration for the wet compared to the dry state.A water

  4. Geohistorical analysis of Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, L.D.

    1985-05-01

    The Paradox basin is an elongate sedimentary basin, asymmetric in profile, extending across common corners of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Subsidence of the basin began in Desmoinesian time and was coincident with the development of the ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Uncompahgre uplift formed the northeast boundary of the basin during Pennsylvanian and Permian times. Formation thickness and lithologies were obtained from lithologic and radioactivity logs from various parts of the basin. The stratigraphic column at each well, restored through the Upper Cretaceous, was back-stripped and decompacted to reconstruct its depositional history. Decompacted geohistory diagrams and residual (tectonic) subsidence curves were then generated for each well. The Mobil 1 McCormick well, drilled in 1977, penetrates Pennsylvanian strata beneath reverse-faulted granitic basement; this indicates that the basin was flexed down in response to pennsylvanian and Permian thrust faulting along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift. However, close correspondence of the residual subsidence curves to theoretical thermal subsidence curves indicates that the basin formed by crustal extension. Consequently, development of the basin may have involved crustal stretching (transtensional.) beneath the basin floor, followed by thrusting (transpressional.) along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift.

  5. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  6. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  7. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  8. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  9. Foreland basins and fold belts

    SciTech Connect

    Macqueen, R.W.; Leckie, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this book describe six foreland basins and fold belts in terms of their regional setting, stratigraphy, tectonics, and structure, and their oil and gas systems. All of the basins show general similarities, but each differs significantly in detail from the others, posing something of a problem in terms of arriving at a 'typical' foreland basin and fold belt. Some are major hydrocarbon producers; others are not. The major characteristics of the six foreland basins and fold belts are summarized in Tables 1 through 5, which provide a convenient means of comparing and contrasting these basins and their hydrocarbon resources. The Western Canada foreland basin and fold belt serves as the type example for several reasons. These include: its setting and clear relationship to a major orogene of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age; the fact that it is uncomplicated by later overprinting, segmentation, or cover rocks unlike the Ouachita, Eastern Venezuela, and U.S. Rocky Mountain foreland basins and fold belts); the fact that there is a large volume of publicly available data on the basin and an active exploration and research community; and the fact that it has reasonable oil and gas reserves in a well-defined stratigraphic framework.

  10. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  11. Ichnofabric and basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J. ); Droser, M.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Utilization of ichnofabric indices for measuring recorded extent of bioturbation allows comparative studies of ichnofabric between different facies. In vertical sequences, measurements of ichnofabric indices can be normalized to percent of the total thickness measured for each ichnofabric index. These data can be presented as histograms, or ichnograms, when measurements are from strata deposited in a single genetically-defined sedimentary environment. Ichnograms can be used in conjunction with ichnofacies analysis to present a more complete summary of bioturbation in a sedimentary unit. Using a knowledge of the factors which contribute towards producing ichnofabric in different sedimentary environments, the range of possible ichnograms for any environment can be modeled. In addition to ichnograms, an average ichnofabric index also can be calculated as a useful summary characterization of the extent of bioturbation recorded in a sedimentary unit. Through measurement of ichnofabric indices, construction of ichnograms, and calculation of average ichnofabric index, broad-scale summary data are produced that can allow a more complete understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of sedimentary basins, especially when employed in conjunction with other basin analysis approaches.

  12. New Maturin basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    The Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela is an outstanding example of the historical logic of exploration concepts progressively woven into large-scale commercial development. Exploitation of natural asphalt in the basin started with the end of the 19th century. Geological reconnaissance in a systematic way started in 1911; first oil field, Guanoco, was discovered August 15, 1913; first seismic survey was shot in 1934; first giant oil field, Quiriquire, was discovered June 1, 1928. A well completed January 6, 1936, went through a very heavy and viscous tar interval, non-exploitable at the time, the first in the Orinoco Belt field; the preliminary geological evaluation of the 13,000 km{sup 2} accumulation started in 1967, but was done in earnest during 1979-1983. Only one well had been drilled deeper than 5,200 m in 1985, but then for the contrast, the El Furrial trend with many deep giant light crude oil fields was discovered in 1986.

  13. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  14. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  15. Thermal history of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.

    1984-02-01

    The elevated organic maturity observed in shallowly buried units from the Michigan basin implies that higher temperatures and thicker overburdens once existed in the basin. Evidence from sediment-accumulation rates, regional dips, and maturity of Pennsylvanian-age coals suggests that up to 1,000 m of sediment were removed by erosion prior to the Late Jurassic, when the basin became stable. Geothermal gradients during Paleozoic basin subsidence probably ranged from 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ C/ km in contrast to the average present value of 25/sup 0/ C/km. Depths to the top of the oil window ranged from 1,900 to 2,300 m during the Paleozoic. Post-Pennsylvanian erosional uplift and further thermal maturation of the basin have combined to raise the top of the oil window to its present level of 500 m.

  16. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  17. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  18. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  19. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  20. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  1. KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

    2004-06-23

    In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

  2. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  3. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 μM and a concentrated pocket of 300 μM occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 μM) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

  4. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  5. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  6. Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Robert J., Jr.

    Basin analysis is the ultimate act of synthesis in stratigraphy. Its objective is to weave together the diverse strands of information in order to portray the tectonic evolution of a basin, its filling with sediments in a broad range of depositional environments, the subsequent diagenesis and lithification of these sediments, and the localization therein of mineral and petroleum resources. Thus, although the primary emphasis in basin analysis is stratigraphic and sedimentologic in nature, paleontologic, tectonic, and geophysical data, among others, are also integral components of the effort. It is scientifically challenging and, in practical terms, forms the foundation for the exploration for strata-bound resources. The wide range of topics that must be incorporated into a basin analysis requires that it be a group project of specialists and means that it is a difficult subject to teach or to present in a book.

  7. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  8. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  9. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  10. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  11. Basin modeling of Tadla basin, Morocco, for hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-09-01

    The Tadla basin, Morocco, is the easternmost major structural subdivision of the Meseta south of the Central Massif. After the basin remained relatively stable through the Paleozoic, movements during the Variscan orogeny divided the basin into two subbasins, a western subbasin where compressional forces formed large anticlines and an eastern subbasin where intense folding and faulting are associated with uplift and erosion. The sedimentary basin fill includes numerous organic shales, which provide the source beds. Also deposited were numerous shallow-water to continental clastics and to a lesser extent carbonates, providing several possible reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons. The results from computer modeling show that the chief formations of hydrocarbon generation are Carboniferous and Silurian. Most of these formations may have generated hydrocarbons before Variscan movements, which probably destroyed preexisting oil and gas traps. The only source rocks in the generation stage from Mesozoic to the present are the upper Visean shales. The western part of the Tadla basin was the most favorable area for the generation and maturation of hydrocarbons of the upper Visean shales. 22 figures.

  12. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  13. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  14. Smythii basin topography and comparisons with Orientale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The Smythii basin has the most extensive topographic coverage of any lunar multi-ringed basin. Topographic data are used to study the morphology and morphometry of Smythii and to make comparisons with similar basins. The depth of the basin is shown to be over 8 km, which is comparable to that of Orientale. The inner ring reaches heights of 3.4 km, while the intermediate ring exhibits little relief. Lowest points in the basin are related to mare ridges. Basin volume is estimated to be 21 million cubic kilometers. Evidence suggests that significant differences in substrate characteristics may have existed for the Smythii and Orientale impacts.

  15. Analogue models of pull-apart basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClay, Ken; Dooley, Tim

    1995-08-01

    Sandbox analogue models of pull-apart basins that developed in sedimentary strata above releasing steps in underlying basement faults are characterized by rhombic basins that are flat-bottomed box grabens with a subhorizontal synkinematic basin infill. Steep to nearly vertical, sigmoidal oblique-slip and segmented oblique-extensional faults are the dominant bounding structures of the pull-apart basins. Cross-basin, short-cut faults link the offset principal displacement zones that are characterized by flower structure development. The structural architectures of the physical models compare directly in form and dimensions to natural examples of strike-slip pull-apart basins.

  16. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  17. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  18. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  19. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  20. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  1. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  2. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  4. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  5. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  6. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  7. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  8. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  9. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  10. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  11. Tectonic development of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Prouty, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The general form of the Michigan basin and surrounding frame structures - the Findlay, Kankakee, and Wisconsin arches - was inherited from the Precambrian. An ongoing study has provided new information on present basin configuration and the evolution of intrabasinal structures during the Paleozoic. This study involves: (1) isopach, structure contour, depocenter, and lithofacies map preparation; (2) diagenetic and epigenetic dolomitization processes and patterns; (3) Landsat imagery and lineament interpretation; (4) recognition of shearing mechanics and the resulting shear faulting and folding; and (5) the recognition of radial faults in contrast to shear faults. Monitoring of the above throughout the Paleozoic indicates that tectonic events within the basin were episodic in nature. Stresses are recognized as external and, through Fourier analysis of lineaments (shear faults), may be demonstrated as from the southeast, probably the Appalachian mobile belt. Shear faults are seated in Precambrian rocks, although they are probably not of that age. The faults occur with accompanying shear folds in rocks possibly as early as the Late Ordovician or Middle Silurian, but definitely by the Middle Devonian with the principal faulting and folding during the post-Osage Mississippian. Local shifting of the depocenter within the general Saginaw Bay area occurred during the early Paleozoic with a major shift westward to the present central basin position accompanied by the development of the present north-northwest ellipticity of the basin during the post-Osage, pre-Meramecian Mississippian. Barrier separation of the West Michigan Lagoon occurred in the Middle Ordovician and Middle and Late Devonian. Radial structures can be demonstrated in at least the Upper Silurian and Upper Devonian.

  12. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D.; Dozier, J.; Frew, J.

    1983-01-01

    While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.

  13. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  14. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  15. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  16. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, T.; Allard, T.; Beaufort, D.; Cantin, J.-L.; von Bardeleben, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    High-purity illite specimens from the Mesoproterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits of Kiggavik, Thelon basin, Nunavut (Canada), and Shea Creek (Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada) have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the thermal stability of the main radiation-induced defects and question the potential of using illite as a natural dosimeter. The observed spectra are complex as they can show in the same region several contributions: (1) an unstable native defect, (2) the main stable defect named Ai by reference to a previous study (Morichon et al. in Phys Chem Minerals 35:339-346, 2008), (3) a signal at g = 2.063 assigned to a new defect, not yet fully characterized, named Ai2 center and (4) impurities such as vanadyl complex or divalent manganese. Isochronal heating shows that the new signal corresponds to a stable species. Isothermal heating experiments at 400 and 450 °C provide values of half-life extrapolated at room temperature and activation energy of 1.9-29,109 years and 1.3-1.4 eV, respectively, corresponding to the Ai center. These parameters allow the use of stable radiation-induced defects as a record of radioactivity down to the Paleoproterozoic period.

  17. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  18. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  19. Combining point and distributed snowpack data with landscape-based discretization for hydrologic modeling of the snow-dominated Maipo River Basin, in the semi-arid Andes central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videla Giering, Y. A., III; McPhee, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Snow hydrology in mountain environments plays an important role in the availability of hydrological resources in warm climate areas and height effects, since the magnitude of snowpack, its spatial and temporal distribution is very important to determine the availability of water in the snowmelt season and take forward different productive activities This investigation models and assess the main phenomena hydrological cycle of snow using the software Cold Region Hydrological Model (Pomeroy et al., 2007). The software is a physically based model developed by the centre for hydrology, University of Saskatchewan. The aim of this model is to have a better understanding of hydrological processes involved in cold environments, which are particular in the sense that a host of specific phenomena such as snow and ice accumulation, transport and melt, infiltration through frozen soils, and the like, control the hydrograph timing) The analysis involved the development of a hydrologic model for the Upper Maipo River Basin, with elevations between 800 and 6500 meters above sea level and 5000-km^2 watershed in the Andes of Central Chile which supplies water resources to the capital city of Santiago (7 million inhabitants), to a thriving agricultural region, as well as to hydropower and large mining activities. The paper concludes that there is a differential distribution of snow cover in the study area, determined mainly by steep terrain geomorphology. These factors have been considered in the parameterization of the model, showing considerable variation in storage time, redistributions by blowing snow, melting intervals, infiltration rates and drainage basin. The fictional scenarios modeled demonstrate noticeable changes in the hydrograph, showing the fragile climate and hydrological condition of this basin of Central Chile.

  20. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Desheng; Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  1. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  2. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  3. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  4. Evaluation of Infiltration Basin Performance in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, E.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration basins are commonly utilized to reduce or eliminate urban runoff in Florida. For permitting purposes, basins are required to recover their design volume, runoff from a one inch rainfall event, within 72 hours to satisfy the design criteria and are not required to account for groundwater mounding if volume recovery can be accomplished by filling of soil porosity by vertical infiltration below the basin surface. Forty infiltration basins were included in a field study to determine whether basin hydraulic performance was significantly different from their designed performance. Basins ranged in age from less than one year to over twenty years and land uses were equally divided between Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and residential developments. Six test sites within each basin were typically selected to measure infiltration rates using a double ring infiltrometer (DRI), a common method for infiltration basin sizing. Measured rates were statistically compared to designed infiltration rates, taking into account factors of safety. In addition, a surface soil boring was collected from each of the test sites for a series of analyses, including soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content. Eleven of the 40 evaluated basins were monitored between March 2008 and January 2012 to evaluate whether basins recovered their volumes from one inch events within 72 hours and to evaluate the effectiveness of using DRI rates to evaluate basin performance. Based on DRI rates, 16 (40%) basins had rates less than their designed rates, 10 (25%) had rates equal to their designed rates, and 14 (35%) basins had rates greater than their designed rates. Additionally, basins with coarser soils were also more likely to have DRI rates greater than designs and FDOT basins were more likely than residential basins to have infiltration rates at or above their designed rates. Five of the eleven monitored basins were expected to function as designed by recovering their

  5. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  6. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  7. Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

  8. Late Cenozoic Basins of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tor H.; Clarke, Samuel H.

    1989-12-01

    The late Cenozoic basins of northern California developed in response to both convergent tectonics associated with subduction of the Farallon plate (and its modern representatives, the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates) and transform tectonics associated with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and formation of the San Andreas fault system. The modern Eel River basin north of the Mendocino triple junction is an active forearc basin located between the Cascade magmatic arc to the east and the trench at the foot of the continental slope of northern California and Oregon to the west. Five different types of late Cenozoic basins or fragments of basins are preserved in onshore northern California south of the Mendocino triple junction: (1) remnants of a formerly more extensive Neogene forearc basin preserved locally in downdropped blocks within the San Andreas fault system; (2) remnants of slightly older trench-slope basins that generally developed west of but which may locally structurally underlie the younger forearc basin; (3) younger strike-slip-related structural basins that have developed along active right-lateral faults of the San Andreas fault system; (4) broad shallow embayments, perhaps similar to the modern San Francisco Bay, that were connected to the deeper Pacific Ocean to the west; and (5) structurally emplaced remnants of oceanic crust and its overlying sedimentary cover (the King Range terrane). Our preliminary stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies suggest that much of northern California was covered during the Neogene by a forearc basin that may have extended as far south as the San Francisco Bay region and into the southern San Joaquin Valley. As the Mendocino triple junction migrated northward during the late Cenozoic, the southern margin of the forearc basin was uplifted, basin deposits were stripped off by erosion, and the locus of forearc sedimentation shifted progressively northward through time. Preserved but isolated fragments

  9. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  10. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  11. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  12. Great Basin geoscience data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  13. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  14. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  15. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  16. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  17. Gravity Anomalies of the Lunar Orientale Basin and the Mercurian Caloris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. M.; Johnson, B. C.; Freed, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.

    2013-08-01

    We model the formation and evolution of the lunar Orientale and mercurian Caloris basin gravity anomalies using a combination of hydrocode and finite-element methods, constrained by free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and basin topography.

  18. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  19. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  1. Agriculture Canada Central Saskatchewan Vector Soils Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Rostad, Harold

    2000-01-01

    This data set consists of GIS layers that describe the soils of the BOREAS SSA. These original data layers were submitted as vector data in ARC/INFO EXPORT format. These data also include the soil name and soil layer files, which provide additional information about the soils. There are three sets of attributes that include information on the primary, secondary, and tertiary soil type within each polygon. Thus, there is a total of nine main attributes in this data set.

  2. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  3. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  4. Petroleum geology of Norton basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Basement rocks beneath the main part of the Norton basin were deformed and heated during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous to the extent that these rocks were not capable of generating hydrocarbons when the basin formed during the latest Cretaceous or early Paleogene. Consequently, source rocks for oil, if they exist, are most likely to be within the basin fill. If the Norton basin began to form 65 m.y. ago, subsided at a nearly constant rate, and had an average geothermal gradient of between 35 and 45/sup 0/C/km, then rocks as young as late Oligocene are in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65 and 1.30%). The appearance on seismic sections of reflections from rocks in and below the calculated oil window suggests that these rocks were deposited in a nonmarine environment. Thus, gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons to be present in the basin. Because of their shallow depth of burial, Neogene (possibly marine) rocks are not likely to be thermally mature anywhere in the basin. Deep parts of the basin formed as isolated faultbounded lows; consequently, the volume of mature rocks makes up at most 11% of the total basin fill. Numerous potential traps for hydrocarbons exist in the Norton basin; the traps include fractured or weathered basement rocks in horsts, strata in alluvial fans on the flanks of horsts, and arched strata over horsts.

  5. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  6. Regional geophysics and the basement of cratonic basins: a comparative study with the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Lidiak, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The basement of the Michigan basin consists of four major provinces - the complex metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and igneous rocks of the Penokean orogenic assemblage in the north, the felsic anorogenic igneous rocks to the south, the highly metamorphosed schists, gneisses, and related igneous intrusions of the Grenville province in the east, and a middle Proterozoic rift zone, which transects the basin from the north to the southeast margin. Sparse basement drill holes and characteristic geophysical patterns support this interpretation. The direct geologic information on the basement of other cratonic basins is not as well known. However, regional geophysical surveys and sparse, poorly distributed basement drill holes provide information on the complex character and structural relationships of the basement of other basins. Like the Michigan basin, many cratonic basins (e.g., Illinois, Williston, and Paris basins) are underlain by dense and commonly more magnetic rocks than adjacent areas. As in the Michigan basin, these rocks are interpreted to have a profound effect on the origin and tectonic development of the basins. Geologic and geophysical evidence indicates that many of these dense basement rocks originated in rifts that formed hundreds of millions of years prior to basin development. A comparison of the basement in cratonic basins provides important constraints on the origin and tectonic development of the Michigan basin.

  7. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  8. Free energy basin-hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland-Cash, K. H.; Wales, D. J.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2015-04-01

    A global optimisation scheme is presented using basin-hopping with the acceptance criterion based on approximate free energy for the corresponding local minima of the potential energy. The method is illustrated for atomic and colloidal clusters and peptides to examine how the predicted global free energy minimum changes with temperature. Using estimates for the local free energies based on harmonic vibrational densities of states provides a computationally effective framework for predicting trends in structure at finite temperature. The resulting scheme represents a powerful tool for exploration of energy landscapes throughout molecular science.

  9. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  10. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  11. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  13. Potential for a basin-centered gas accumulation in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomsa M.; Nuccio, Vito F.

    2001-01-01

    The potential that a basin-centered or continuous-type gas accumulation is present in the Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico was investigated. The Albuquerque Basin is one of the many rift basins that make up the Rio Grand rift system, an area of active extension from Oligocene to recent time. The basin is significantly different from other Rocky Mountain basins that contain basin-centered gas accumulations because it is actively subsiding and is at near maximum burial and heating conditions at the present time. Burial reconstructions suggest that Cretaceous-age source rocks began to generate gas in the deeper parts of the basin about 20 million years ago and are still generating large amounts of gas. The high mud weights typically used while drilling the Cretaceous interval in the deeper areas of the basin suggest some degree of over-pressuring. Gas shows are commonly reported while drilling through the Cretaceous interval; however, attempts to complete gas wells in the Cretaceous have resulted in subeconomic quantities of gas, primarily because of low permeabilities. Little water has been reported. All of these characteristics suggest that a basin-centered gas accumulation of some sort is present in the Albuquerque Basin.

  14. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up to... vessels up to 107 m in overall length. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut...

  15. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up to... vessels up to 107 m in overall length. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut...

  16. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up to... vessels up to 107 m in overall length. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut...

  17. African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

  18. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  19. Relation between Tethys sea and Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Junchao )

    1988-08-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest continental basin in China. It is known as the heart of central Asia. Still it was related to the Mediterranean Sea in the geological past. Based on the investigations of paleontology, stratigraphy, tectonics, and remote sensing, it is suggested that Tethys and the Tarim basin should be connected from the Late Cretaceous to Miocene. The northern branch of the Tethys sea channel began to pass through the Alay gap and invade the Tarim basin at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Up to the Miocene, marine invasion and marine regression must have happened six times in the western Tarim basin. The Paleocene marine invasion encroached upon the widest area and lasted the longest of the six times, which extended to the region of the southern Hotan River. The occurrence of the Paleocene marine fossils in the Kuqa Seg indicates the influence of the marine invasion. At the end of the Miocene, seawater receded fully from the Tarim basin. A Miocene petroleum field has been found in the Yecheng Seg of the western Tarim basin. According to the relationship between Tethys and the Tarim basin, the potentialities of the Late Cretaceous-Miocene hydrocarbon source are considered to be great.

  20. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  1. Scientific review of great basin wildfire issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  2. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  3. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  4. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  5. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  6. Petroleum geochemistry of the Zala Basin, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Koncz, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Zala basin is a subbasin within the Pannonian basin. Geochemical study of oils and rocks in the basin indicate that two, and possibly three, genetic oil types are present in the basin. Miocene source rocks, previously believed to be the predominant source rock, have expelled minor amounts of hydrocarbons. The main source rock is the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) Kossen Marl Formation or its stratigraphic equivalent. Knowledge of the geochemical characteristics of oils derived from these Upper Triassic source rocks and understanding of the source rock distribution and maturation history are important for recognizing Triassic oil-source bed relationships and for further exploration in other basins in Hungary and other parts of Europe where Triassic source rocks are present. -from Authors

  7. China, JNOC start exploration in Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that a joint venture of China National Oil and Natural Gas Corp and Japan National Oil Corp (JNOC) has begun exploration in Northwest China's remote Tarim basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. That marks the first time China has allowed a foreign oil company to participate in exploration of the highly prospective basin. China pins much of its hope for the future on the Tarim basin as production declines from its older, mainstay fields in the east and offshore results have proved largely disappointing. The Chinese-Japanese combine began operations in the southwest part of the 560,000 sq km basin. The 200 member exploration team plans to complete a seismic survey covering 3,500 line km in the Kashi and Yecheng areas during the next 4 1/2 years. The survey follows a feasibility study that began last October covering 30,000 sq km in the basin.

  8. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of nominal drainage basin volume as a potentially useful morphometric parameter for small mountain basins

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric basin parameters have been used in quantitative geomorphic assessments since Horton's Hydrophysical Approach in 1945. A relationship between basin form and dominant process in small mountain basins in the western United States would be valuable for use in differentiating basins which produce deep-seated landslides from those which produce debris flows from debris slides. Drainage basin volume seems like it should be a parameter directly related to the dominant process operating in a basin. Consequently, it may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter. Nominal drainage basin volume is herein defined as the volume creates by the basin topography and linear projection of topographic contours across the basin. Incremental volume is computed from area encompassed by topographic contours and projections and the contour interval using the formula for the volume of the frustrum of a cone. Seven basins in the Wasatch Range and five in the Wasatch Plateau of Utah show strong relationship of log Basin Area to log Basin Volume (r/sup 2/ = 0.97). The relationship between average Basin Slope and log Basin Volume was poorer (r/sup 2/ = 0.78) than between Basin Slope and log Basin Area (r/sup 2/ = 0.87). This suggests that basin area may be a more useful parameter than basin volume, especially since area is more easily measured.

  10. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  11. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  12. Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: procurement of 17 cooperative lease agreements with private landowners, design and layout of 8.6 miles of riparian exclosure fence and 3.0 miles of instream structures, development of five fencing contracts and six instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 10 miles of fencing and 3 miles of instream work. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: data collection from 90 habitat monitoring transects, collection and summarization of temperature data, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of all age groups on habitat improvement and protection. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summa

  14. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  15. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  16. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  17. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confine