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Sample records for atherosclerotic risk factors

  1. Risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease.

    PubMed

    von Eckardstein, A

    2005-01-01

    Several controlled interventional trials have shown the benefit of anti-hypertensive and hypolipidaemic drugs for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). International guidelines for the prevention of CHD agree in their recommendations for tertiary prevention and recommend lowering the blood pressure to below 140 mm/90 mm Hg and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol to below 2.6 mmol/l in patients with manifest CHD. Novel recommendations for secondary prevention are focused on the treatment of the pre-symptomatic high-risk patient with an estimated CHD morbidity risk of higher than 20% per 10 years or an estimated CHD mortality risk of higher than 5% per 10 years. For the calculation of this risk, the physician must record the following risk factors: sex, age, family history of premature myocardial infarction, smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride. This information allows the absolute risk of myocardial infarction to be computed by using scores or algorithms which have been deduced from results of epidemiological studies. To improve risk prediction and to identify new targets for intervention, novel risk factors are sought. High plasma levels of C-reactive protein has been shown to improve the prognostic value of global risk estimates obtained by the combination of conventional risk factors and may influence treatment decisions in patients with intermediate global cardiovascular risk (CHD morbidity risk of 10%-20% per 10 years or CHD mortality risk of 2%-5% per 10 years).

  2. Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holmstedt, Christine A; Turan, Tanya N; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and is associated with a high risk of recurrent stroke. New therapeutic approaches to treat this high-risk disease include dual antiplatelet treatment, intensive management of risk factors, and endovascular therapy. Early data from randomised trials indicate that aggressive medical therapy is better than stenting for prevention of recurrent stroke in high-risk patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Nevertheless, there are subgroups of patients who remain at high risk of stroke despite aggressive medical therapy. Further research is needed to identify these high-risk subgroups and to develop more effective treatments. Non-invasive vascular imaging methods that could be used to identify high-risk patients include fractional flow on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), quantitative MRA, and high-resolution MRI of the atherosclerotic plaque. Alternative therapies to consider for future clinical trials include angioplasty alone, indirect surgical bypass procedures, ischaemic preconditioning, and new anticoagulants (direct thrombin or Xa inhibitors). PMID:24135208

  3. Atherosclerotic risk factors, vascular cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Jason C; Fuster, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of vascular factors in Alzheimer dementia was first appreciated over 100 years ago. Recently, significant advances in our understanding of these brain-vascular relationships have taken place. Vascular cognitive impairment is now recognized as a distinct group of interrelated vascular-based neurological insults that can accumulate and lead to dementia. Importantly, the pathology of vascular cognitive impairment extends far beyond brain destruction wrought by major stroke. Other subtle changes may also arise that contribute to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, including subclinical stroke, white-matter changes such as hyperintensities and lipohyalinosis, small lacunar infarcts, cerebral hypoperfusion, and compromise of the blood-brain barrier. In this review we critically examine the emerging body of evidence that relates atherosclerotic risk factors, brain functioning, and Alzheimer disease. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  4. Research Progress on the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiang-Dong; Xiong, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Shang-Shen; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to June 2016, with the key words of “risk factors”, “outcomes”, “blood components”, “molecular mechanisms”, “cellular mechanisms”, and “human carotid atherosclerotic plaques”. Study Selection: The articles, regarding the latest developments related to the risk factors and outcomes, atherosclerotic plaque composition, blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention, were selected. Results: This review described the latest researches regarding the interactive effects of both traditional and novel risk factors for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, novel insights into human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusion: Carotid plaque biology and serologic biomarkers of vulnerability can be used to predict the risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, plaque composition, rather than lesion burden, seems to most predict rupture and subsequent thrombosis. PMID:28303857

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and plaque

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Shin Young; Joh, Jin Hyun; Han, Sang-Ah; Park, Ho-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Screening for asymptomatic ACS is important to identify the patients who require longitudinal surveillance, medication, or endovascular surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for ACS and carotid plaque (CP) in Korea using a population-based screening study. We recruited participants during visits to several community welfare centers in Korea. The baseline characteristics of the study population were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography to examine their bilateral carotid arteries. ACS was defined as the presence of plaque with ≥50% vessel diameter reduction and peak systolic velocity (PSV) ≥125 cm/s or PSV ratio ≥2.0. CP was defined as the presence of plaque with <50% vessel diameter reduction. The Mann–Whitney test, χ2 test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. A total of 3030 participants were enrolled in this study (male 43.7% and female 56.3%). The prevalence of ACS and CP was 1.1% and 5.7%, respectively. Significant risk factors for CP included age ≥80 years (odds ratio [OR], 8.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45–18.93), male sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.29–3.61), hypertension (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.45), and hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30–2.62). The presence of ACS was significantly associated with age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03–1.12), hypertension (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.34–7.46), and being an ex-smoker (OR, 6.81; 95% CI, 1.66–27.93) or current smoker (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 1.78–27.31) after adjusting for confounding factors. This population-based screening study revealed that ACS was uncommon and had a prevalence of 1.1% in the study population. Age, hypertension, and smoking were risk factors for ACS. Further investigations into the prevalence and risk factors of ACS are required, as are studies on the cost-effectiveness of a national screening

  6. Modulation of human monocyte CD36 by type 2 diabetes mellitus and other atherosclerotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Lopez, Rosa M; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; López-Carmona, Dolores; Mayas, Dolores M; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Tinahones, Francisco J; Badimon, Lina

    2011-08-01

    The pathophysiological role of CD36 in atherosclerosis seems to be largely dependent on its pro-inflammatory function and ability to take up oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Controversy exists concerning the potential beneficial/harmful effects of vascular CD36 inhibition in atherosclerosis. However, as atherosclerosis in murine models does not result in clinical end points such as plaque rupture and thrombotic ischaemia, typical of human disease, clinical studies are required to understand the functional role of CD36 in human atherosclerosis. Our aim was to investigate whether CD36 expression in monocytes is modulated by the presence of an increasing number of atherosclerotic risk factors, and specifically by hyperglycaemia because of diabetes mellitus. The study included 33 patients with advanced atherosclerosis and eight healthy blood donors, as controls. The patients were classified according to the presence of atherosclerotic risk factors. Diabetes mellitus was classified as either well-controlled or poorly controlled. Monocytes were exposed in vitro to low (5·5mM) or high glucose (26mM) concentrations for increasing times. Our results demonstrated that protein levels of glycated CD36 were significantly higher in patients with 3-4 atherosclerotic risk factors than in those with 0-2 atherosclerotic risk factors or in subjects with no atherosclerotic symptoms (P=0·04, in both cases). However, when we analysed just the poorly controlled diabetic patients, their glycated CD36 levels were lower. These data were corroborated by in vitro studies demonstrating that increasing glucose concentrations reduced glycated protein levels (P<0·05). Our results demonstrate that CD36 expression is altered by hyperglycaemia in atherosclerotic patients. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in China: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, C-Y; Chen, C-Q

    2014-11-01

    Data regarding the cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis (CAS) and incidence of stroke are conflicting. The number of stroke patients is more than three times that from coronary heart disease in China. The main aim of this report is to review the current status of intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis including epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors in China. Data was identified by searches of MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2008), China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc 1979 to 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI 1994 to December 2008). The occurrence of intracranial artery stenosis was more frequent than that of extracranial artery in the Chinese population. TCD, Doppler ultrasound, CTA, MRA and DSA techniques are established to examine intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in China. Evidence-based treatments and CAS are more commonly applied in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis in China. However, the development of carotid endoarterectomy (CEA) is limited in Chinese communities. The risks of cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis include age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking and metabolic syndrome. Further studies are needed to focus on the intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

  8. CD154: the atherosclerotic risk factor in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, now regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, and its clinical manifestations have increasingly been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), supporting the notion that autoimmune diseases and vascular disorders share common etiological features. Indeed, evidence pertaining to this matter indicates that inflammation and its multiple components are the driving force behind the pathogenesis of these disorders. Interestingly, CD154 and its receptors have emerged as major players in the development of RA and atherosclerosis, which raises the possibility that this axis may represent an important biological link between both complications. Indeed, CD154 signaling elicits critical inflammatory responses that are common to the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the traditional and disease-related interrelations between RA and vascular abnormalities, while focusing on CD154 as a potential mediator in the development of atherosclerotic events in RA patients. PMID:23433179

  9. Performance of traditional risk factors in identifying a higher than expected coronary atherosclerotic burden.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro; Ferreira, António Miguel; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Sousa, Pedro Jerónimo; Cardim, Nuno; Marques, Hugo; Pereira Machado, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in identifying a higher than expected coronary atherosclerotic burden. We assessed 2069 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography, with assessment of calcium score (CS), for suspected coronary artery disease. A higher than expected atherosclerotic burden was defined as CS >75th percentile (CS >P75) according to age and gender-adjusted monograms. The ability of traditional CV risk factors to predict a CS >P75 was assessed in a customized logistic regression model ("Clinical Score") and by the calculation of SCORE (Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation). The population attributable risk (PAR) of risk factors for CS >P75 was calculated. The median CS was 3.0 (IQR 0.0-98.0); 362 patients had CS >P75. The median SCORE was 3.0 (IQR 1.0-4.0). With the exception of hypertension, all traditional CV risk factors were independent predictors of CS >P75: diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and family history (OR 1.3-2.2, p≤0.026). The areas under the ROC curves for CS >P75 were 0.64 for the Clinical Score (95% CI 0.61-0.67, p<0.001) and 0.53 for SCORE (95% CI 0.50-0.56, p=0.088). About a quarter of patients with CS >P75 were in the two lower quartiles of the Clinical Score. Altogether, the traditional risk factors explain 56% of the prevalence of CS >P75 (adjusted PAR 0.56). Despite the association of CV risk factors with a higher than expected atherosclerotic burden, they appear to explain only half of its prevalence. Even when integrated in scores, the predictive power of these risk factors was modest, exposing the limitations of risk stratification based solely on demographic and clinical risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Competing risk of atherosclerotic risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis in a general population: the Tromso study.

    PubMed

    Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hald, Erin M; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2012-02-01

    To investigate and compare the impact of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors for the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis, taking into account competing risks. In 1994-1995, 26,185 subjects were screened in the Tromsø study. Information on traditional atherosclerotic risk factors was obtained by physical examination, blood samples, and questionnaires. Subjects were followed to the first incident event of myocardial infarction (MI) or venous thromboembolism (VTE), or December 31, 2005. During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up, there were 1279 cases of incident MI and 341 VTE events. Advancing age and high body mass index were both associated with MI and VTE. Hazard ratio per decade of age was 2.34 (95% CI: 2.25-2.43) for MI and 1.87 (1.74-2.01) for VTE, and 3 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.20 (1.12-1.29) increased risk of MI and VTE, respectively. Blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, self-reported diabetes, and smoking were all associated with increased risk of MI but not associated with VTE. Our findings imply that traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are not shared by arterial and venous thrombosis.

  11. Histological changes and risk factor associations in type 2 atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks) in young adults.

    PubMed

    Homma, Satoki; Troxclair, Dana A; Zieske, Arthur W; Malcom, Gray T; Strong, Jack P

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which histological changes associated with risk factors could contribute to the progression from the initial atherosclerotic lesions including fatty streaks to the advanced lesions. We examined the associations of histomorphometric findings in the determined anatomical sites of mid-thoracic aortas (TAs) and left anterior descending coronary arteries (LADs) with major risk factors for atherosclerosis, using a young autopsied series from the the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. The histological classification by the American Heart Association was graded for 1013 TAs and 1009 LADs. Histometric study, including immunohistochemistry, was performed in type 2 lesions (fatty streaks) of TAs from 59 subjects and LADs from 45 ones. For the progression from the initial lesions into the advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the most effective lipid profiles were low plasma HDL-C in TA and elevated serum non-HDL-C in LAD. This lipid profile of each artery correlated with number or density of intimal smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells, respectively. The serum concentration of non-HDL-C correlated with macrophage foam cells in TAs. Hypertension and hyperglycemia were associated with increase of intimal area and/or collagen content in both arteries, but not with either types of foam cell proliferation. Smoking correlated with increased collagen content in TAs. There were histologically different ways of progressing from fatty streaks to advanced atherosclerotic lesions depending on the risk factors. For the atherosclerosis progression from type 2 lesions to advanced lesions, increase in number of smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells could be an important indicator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carotid artery intima media thickness in relation with atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, R; Chandni, R; Udayabhaskaran, V

    2012-09-01

    The present study was carried out to study the correlation between carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT) with risk factors for atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic events in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. The predictive value of CIMT as an indicator of early atherosclerosis was determined and the various atherosclerotic risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied. Our study showed that CIMT was significantly higher in those type 2 diabetic patients who had atherosclerotic events than in those patients who had no atherosclerotic events. It was also found that waist hip ratio showed a significant positive correlation and independent association with CIMT emphasizing the emerging concept of central obesity. Duration of diabetes, urinary albumin excretion rate, hypertension and glycated hemoglobin had positive correlation with CIMT, but could not assume statistical significance. Age, smoking and dyslipidemia did not show any association with CIMT.

  13. Adiponectin levels and atherosclerotic risk factors in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Buyan, Necla; Funahashi, Tohru; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Elhan, Atilla H; Hasanoglu, Enver; Soylemezoglu, Oguz

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular diseases are the major cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD), even in children. Adiponectin (ADPN) is a recently discovered adipocyte-derived plasma protein having anti-atherogenic properties. ADPN levels are elevated in ESRD but it has been reported that ESRD patients with low plasma ADPN levels have a high risk of cardiovascular death. To clarify the atherosclerotic risk and especially the significance of ADPN levels in pediatric patients on CPD. Cross-sectional studyin the pediatric peritoneal dialysis unit of a university hospital. 18 children, aged 12.6 +/- 5.6 years, being treated with CPD and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum ADPN levels and other risk factors, including blood pressure, blood glucose, serum lipid/lipoprotein fractions, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipoprotein(a), and homocysteine levels, were studied in CPD patients and compared to the controls. Serum ADPN levels were three times higher in the CPD group compared to the control subjects, as was previously reported. Apolipoprotein B and CRP levels were also high in the CPD group. No significant difference was found in other atherosclerotic parameters, including lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine levels. Interestingly, we found a negative correlation between log ADPN and creatinine levels among the CPD patients (r = -0.54, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between log ADPN and duration of CPD. Creatinine and low-density lipoprotein levels could account for 54% of the total variation in ADPN levels. Among pediatric CPD patients, serum levels of the anti-atherogenic protein, ADPN, were inversely associated with creatinine. ADPN level might be a novel marker to predict prognosis in pediatric CPD patients.

  14. The role of urotensin II and atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with slow coronary flow

    PubMed Central

    Şatıroğlu, Ömer; Emre Durakoğlugil, Murtaza; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçek, Yüksel; Erdoğan, Turan; Duman, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Slow coronary flow (SCF) is an angiographic finding characterized with delayed opacification of epicardial coronary arteries without obstructive coronary disease. Urotensin II (UII) is an important vascular peptide, which has an important role in hypertension, coronary artery disease, and vascular remodeling in addition to potent vasoconstrictor effect. Objectives We investigated UII levels, hypertension, and other atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with SCF, a variety of coronary artery disease. Methods We enrolled 14 patients with SCF and 29 subjects with normal coronary arteries without SCF. We compared the UII levels and the atherosclerotic risk factors between patients with SCF and control subjects with normal coronary flow. Results UII concentrations were significantly higher in patients with SCF compared to controls (711.0 ± 19.4 vs. 701.5 ± 27.2 ng/mL, p = 0.006). We detected a positive correlation between SCF and age (r = 0.476, p = 0.001), BMI (r = 0.404, p = .002), UII concentrations (r = 0.422, p = 0.006), and hypertension (r = 0.594, p = 0.001). Conclusion We identified increased UII levels in patients with SCF. We think that UII concentrations may be informative on SCF pathogenesis due to relationship with inflammation, atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. PMID:28180005

  15. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  16. Novel atherosclerotic risk factors and angiographic profile of young Gujarati patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Jain, Sharad; Virpariya, Kapil; Rawal, Jayesh; Joshi, Hasit; Sharma, Kamal; Roy, Bhavesh; Thakkar, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    In this study we aimed to analyse the frequency of atherosclerotic risk factors with focus to novel risk factors for coronary artery disease and angiographic profile in young (≤ 40 years) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patient with healthy controls in Gujarat, India. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 109 consecutive young patients aged ≤ 40 years old, diagnosed to have ACS were included in the study. All ACS patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. An equivalent age and sex matched population without coronary disease with similar risk factors without tobacco considered a control group. All angiographic patients were evaluated for conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, obesity as well as novel atherogenic risk factors like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), Lipoprotein(a) [LP(a)], homocysteine, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). In a study group, out of 109 young patients, 90 (82.6%) patients were presented to our hospital as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 10 (9.2%) presented as known non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 9 (8.3%) presented as unstable angina (UA). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, LP(a) and lipid tetrad index were significantly higher in the study group whereas the HDL levels significantly lower as compared to the control group. A quite common risk factors of premature CAD are smoking, high Hs-CRP, high LP(a), hyperhomocysteinaemia and positive family history in the young ACS. Most common presentation of ACS in young was STEMI. On angiography, single vessel involvement was the most common finding.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Activated von Willebrand Factor to Detect High-Risk Atherosclerotic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Owen J. T.; Conley, Robert B.; Shentu, Weihui; Tormoen, Garth W.; Zha, Daogang; Xie, Aris; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Yan; Carr, Chad; Belcik, Todd; Keene, Douglas R.; de Groot, Philip G.; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that noninvasive molecular imaging of activated von Willebrand factor (vWF) on the vascular endothelium could be used to detect a high-risk atherosclerotic phenotype. BACKGROUND Platelet-endothelial interactions have been linked to increased inflammatory activation and prothrombotic state in atherosclerosis. These interactions are mediated, in part, by platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, suggesting that dysregulated endothelial vWF is a marker for high-risk atherosclerotic disease. METHODS Microbubbles targeted to activated vWF were prepared by surface conjugation of recombinant GPIbα. Flow-chamber studies were used to evaluate attachment of targeted microbubbles to immobile platelet aggregates bearing activated vWF. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging of the aorta from mice was performed: 1) ex vivo after focal crush injury and blood perfusion; and 2) in vivo in mice with advanced atherosclerosis produced by deletion of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and ApoBec-1 editing peptide (LDLR−/−/ApoBec-1−/−). RESULTS In flow-chamber studies, tracer attachment to vWF was >10-fold greater for microbubbles bearing GPIbα compared with control microbubbles (p < 0.01). In the ex vivo aortic injury model, CEU signal enhancement for vWF-targeted microbubbles occurred primarily at the injury site and was 4-fold greater than at noninjured sites (p < 0.05). In LDLR−/−/ApoBec-1−/− mice, inflammatory cell infiltrates and dense vWF expression on the intact endothelium were seen in regions of severe plaque formation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated widespread platelet-endothelial interaction and only few sites of endothelial erosion. On CEU, signal enhancement for vWF-targeted microbubbles was approximately 4-fold greater (p < 0.05) in LDLR−/−/ApoBec-1−/− compared with wild-type mice. En face aortic microscopy demonstrated regions where platelet adhesion and microbubble attachment colocalized. CONCLUSIONS

  18. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD) among a sample in India.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Omar; Gupta, Vineet; Dhawan, Naveen; Streja, Leanne; Shin, John S; Ku, Melvin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Verma, Sanjay

    2009-02-04

    The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD) is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217) recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) adjusted odds ratio (aOR) were: routine exercise of moderate intensity, aOR 8.41 (compared to infrequent or no exercise), no history of smoking, aOR 8.25, and former smokers, aOR 48.28 (compared to current smokers). Although statistically insignificant, a trend towards a good knowledge level was associated with higher levels of education. An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge

  19. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  20. Influences of gender and age on relationships between alcohol drinking and atherosclerotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol drinking affects atherosclerotic progression mainly through blood pressure and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether effects of alcohol drinking on atherosclerotic risk factors differ by gender and age. The database of periodic health check-ups for local district workers was used. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mean ethanol consumption per day (nondrinkers; light drinkers, less than 30 g per day; moderate-to-heavy drinkers, 30 g or more per day). The mean levels of each atherosclerosis-related variable in the 3 groups were compared. The mean level of body mass index (BMI) was slightly but significantly lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in men and in the twenties, thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in women, while this tendency was not found in the sixties age groups of men and women. In men, mean blood pressure was higher in moderate-to-heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers in all age groups and was higher in light drinkers than in nondrinkers only in the age groups after 40 years. Mean blood pressure of women was higher in the moderate-to-heavy drinker group than in the nondrinker group and this difference became higher with advance of age. In women, mean blood pressure was not affected by light drinking in any of the age groups except for the fifties age group. In men, serum total cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the twenties age group but was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers at thirties or older. Serum total cholesterol in women was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the age groups from twenties to forties but tended to be higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the sixties age group. Serum HDL cholesterol increased with advance of age from thirties to sixties in men, while it decreased with advance of age from twenties to sixties in women. Serum HDL cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers

  1. Atherosclerotic Heart Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Hospitalized Men with Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Moore, Charity G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Few studies have determined prevalence and predictors of ASHD in hemophilia (HA), a population whose survival is improving with safer blood products and effective treatments for AIDS and hepatitis C. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with ASHD in hemophilia A patients in Pennsylvania. Methods The prevalence of ASHD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease), cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, co-morbidities, and in-hospital mortality were assessed on statewide ASHD discharge data, 2001–2006, from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4). Results The prevalence of hemophilia ASHD admissions fluctuated between 6.5% and 10.5% for 2001 to 2006, p=0.62. Compared to HA without ASHD, HA with ASHD were older and more likely to be hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic, all p<0.0001, with greater severity of illness, p=0.013. By contrast, HA and non-HA with ASHD had similar rates of hypertension, diabetes, and ICD-9 specified ischemic heart disease, including acute myocardial infarction (MI), p=0.39, old MI, p=0.47, and angina, p=0.63. Rates of catheterization and angiography, p=0.06 and p=0.07, were marginally lower, but primary circulatory system admitting diagnoses, p=0.29, were similar between HA and non-HA ASHD groups, as was length of stay, p=0.14, severity of illness, p=0.64, and in-hospital deaths, p=0.75. Conclusions Hemophilia patients with ASHD have similar cardiovascular risk factors, admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, and in-hospital mortality as the general population. These findings suggest cardiovascular prevention measures should be promoted in hemophilia. PMID:21371197

  2. Residual Risk Factors to Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Ju; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2017-08-23

    A prospective observational study was conducted to investigate the residual risk factors to predict recurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients with a high prevalence under lipid-lowering therapy, particularly in the subpopulations of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. A total of 5,483 adults (with a mean age of 66.4 and 73.3% male) with established coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease were identified from the T-SPARCLE multi-center registry. Of them, 38.6% had diabetes. The residual risk factors for MACE are divergent in these atherosclerotic patients with and without diabetes. In diabetic subpopulation, the risk of MACE was significantly increased with heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (vs. stage 1-2), without beta blocker use, and higher non-HDL-C, after controlling for covariates including statin use and the intensity of therapy. Increased LDL-C and TG levels were also associated with increased risk, but to a much less extent. Among nondiabetic individuals, HF, CKD stage 4-5, and history of myocardial infarction were the significant independent predictors of MACE. It is suggested that ASCVD patients with concomitant diabetes need stricter control of lipid, particularly non-HDL-C levels, to reduce cardiovascular risk when on statin therapy.

  3. Is Mitral Annular Calcification Associated With Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Severity and Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease?

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hemal; Sanghani, Dharmesh; Julliard, Kell; Fernaine, George

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the association of mitral annular calcification (MAC) with atherosclerotic risk factors and severity and complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac catheterization reports and electronic medical records from 2010 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 481 patients were divided into 2 groups: MAC present (209) and MAC absent (272). All major cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, and coronary lesion characteristics were included. On linear regression analysis, age (P = .001, β 1.12) and female gender (P = .031, β 0.50) were the independent predictors of MAC. Mitral annular calcification was not independently associated with the presence of lesions with >70% stenosis (P = .283), number of obstructive vessels (P = .469), lesions with 50% to 70% stenosis (P = .458), and Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score (P = .479). Mitral annular calcification is probably a benign marker of age-related degenerative changes in the heart independent of the severity and complexity of CAD.

  4. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bjerre, Mette; Iversen, Allan Z; Galatius, Soren; Frystyk, Jan; Jensen, Jan S

    2012-02-15

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to clinical and subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a large community-based, cross-sectional population study. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, OPG concentrations were measured in 5,863 men and women. A total of 494 participants had been hospitalized for ischemic heart disease or ischemic stroke, and compared to controls, this group with clinical atherosclerosis had higher mean OPG (1,773 vs 1,337 ng/L, p <0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (2.3 vs 1.6 mg/L, p <0.001). In a multivariate model with age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and OPG, OPG remained significantly associated with clinical atherosclerosis (p <0.01); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, in contrast, did not (p = 0.74). In the control group without clinical atherosclerosis, OPG was independently associated with hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis as measured by ankle brachial index. For each doubling of the plasma OPG concentration, the risk for subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis increased by 50% (p <0.001) after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, OPG appears to be a promising biomarker of atherosclerosis that is independently associated with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis, and clinical atherosclerotic disease such as ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke.

  5. Multicenter Study of Temporal Trends in the Achievement of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Goals During Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil F; Salmon, Richard D; Sperling, Laurence S; Wright, Brenda S; Faircloth, George C; Gordon, Terri L; Berk, Martin R; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-01-01

    Secondary prevention risk factor goals have been established by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association has further delineated ideal cardiovascular health metrics. We evaluated risk factor goal achievement during early-outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and temporal trends in risk factor control. Patients completed assessments on entry into and exit from CR at 35 centers between 2000 and 2009 and were categorized into 3 cohorts: entire (N = 12 984), 2000-2004 (n = 5468), and 2005-2009 (n = 7516) cohorts. Improvements occurred in multiple risk factors during CR. For the entire cohort, the percentages of patients at goal at CR completion ranged from 95.5% for smoking to 21.9% for body mass index (BMI) of <25.0 kg/m. Compared with 2000-2004, the percentage of the 2005-2009 cohort at goal was higher (P < .001) for blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and physical activity, lower (P = .005) for BMI, and not significantly different (P > .05) for fasting glucose and smoking. At CR completion, of those in the entire, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009 cohorts, 4.4%, 3.9%, and 4.8% (P = .219 vs 2000-2004), respectively, had all biomarkers at the goal for ideal cardiovascular health and, of those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 70.8%, 71.5%, and 70.3% (P = .165 vs 2000-2004), respectively, were receiving statins. The percentage of patients at goal at CR completion increased for some, but not all, risk factors during 2005-2009 versus 2000-2004. Despite the benefits of CR, risk factor profiles are often suboptimal after CR. There remains room for improvement in risk factor management during CR and a need for continued intervention thereafter.

  6. AGE-Related Differences of Novel Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Angiographic Profile Among Gujarati Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Joshi, Hasit; Sahoo, Sibasis; Virpariya, Kapil; Parmar, Meena; Shah, Komal

    2015-06-01

    Although numerous risk factors have been established to predict the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the risk factor profile may be different between the younger and older individuals. To analyse the frequency and pattern of atherogenic risk factors and angiographic profiles in age-stratified Gujarati patients with ACS. ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography at U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research, Gujarat, India between January 2008 and December 2012 were classified in to two age groups with 40y as cut-off. Patients were assessed for conventional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity), novel risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine), and angiographic profiles.The statistical difference between two age groups was determined by Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. A total of 200 patients, 100 patients ≤40 y of age and 100 patients >40 y of age, were evaluated. Older patients had higher frequency of hypertension (32 vs. 16%, p=0.008), while family history of coronary artery disease was more common among younger patients (19 vs. 9%, p=0.041). The incidence of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking and tobacco chewing did not vary significantly between the two groups. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the younger group (p<0.05). Lipoprotein (a), homocysteine and high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels were comparable between two age groups. Multi-vessel coronary artery disease was more common among older group. The most commonly affected coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery among younger patients (44%) and the left circumflex artery among older patients (38.1%). Young patients with ACS had different atherosclerotic risk profile and less extensive coronary artery disease as compared to older counterparts. Emphasis

  7. The Emerging Epidemic of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Atherosclerotic Disease in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Teo, Koon K; Dokainish, Hisham

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, which are major health burdens in high-income countries, are a growing problem in developing or lower-income countries, where the vast majority of CVD now occurs. Two case-control studies, INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE, which included a majority of patients from developing countries, were seminal in identifying common risk factors explaining the vast majority of risk for acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. The population-based Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, which included > 150,000 participants, also with a majority from developing countries, found that although high-income countries were at highest cardiovascular (CV) risk, they had the lowest incidence of CVD and associated case-fatality rates, whereas patients in low-income countries had the lowest CV risk and yet the highest CVD and case-fatality rates. The PURE study also demonstrated relatively low rates of CV medicine use in high- and middle-income countries, but even lower rates in low-income countries, where these medicines were often either unavailable or unaffordable. The PURE study also demonstrated that control of CV risk factors and adherence to lifestyle modifications, although suboptimal globally, were poorest in low-income countries. Taken together, these data identify common CV risk factors requiring targeted, systematic, sustained, and effective interventions in developing countries to mitigate the emerging epidemic of CVD in these regions of the world. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suboptimal control of atherosclerotic disease risk factors after cardiac and cerebrovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Eric M; Asch, Steve M; Brook, Robert H; Vassar, Stefanie D; Jacob, Erin L; Lee, Martin L; Chang, Donald S; Sacco, Ralph L; Hsiao, An-Fu; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2007-03-01

    Undergoing a carotid endarterectomy, a coronary artery bypass graft, or a percutaneous coronary intervention provides an opportunity to optimize control of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein. Using Veterans Administration databases, we determined whether patients who underwent a carotid endarterectomy (n=252), coronary artery bypass graft (n=486), or percutaneous coronary intervention (n=720) in 2002 to 2003 at 5 Veterans Administration Healthcare Systems had guideline-recommended control of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein in 12-month periods before and after a vascular procedure. Postprocedure control of risk factors across procedure groups was compared using chi(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. The proportion of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy who had optimal control of both blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein increased from 23% before the procedure to 33% after the procedure (P=0.05) compared with increases from 32% to 43% for coronary artery bypass graft (P=0.001) and from 29% to 45% for percutaneous coronary intervention (P=0.002). Compared with the carotid endarterectomy group, the percutaneous coronary intervention group was more likely to achieve optimal control of blood pressure (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.42 to 2.59) or low-density lipoprotein (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.26) and the coronary artery bypass graft group was more likely to achieve optimal control of blood pressure (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.42 to 2.59). Postprocedure cardiology visits, increase in medication intensity, and greater frequency of outpatient visits were also associated with optimal postprocedure risk factor control. Although modest improvements in risk factor control were detected, a majority of patients in each vascular procedure group did not achieve optimal risk factor control. More effective risk factor control programs are needed among most vascular procedure patients.

  9. Obesity, Exercise, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Modifiable Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared D; Aronis, Konstantinos N; Chrispin, Jonathan; Patil, Kaustubha D; Marine, Joseph E; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Calkins, Hugh

    2015-12-29

    Classically, the 3 pillars of atrial fibrillation (AF) management have included anticoagulation for prevention of thromboembolism, rhythm control, and rate control. In both prevention and management of AF, a growing body of evidence supports an increased role for comprehensive cardiac risk factor modification (RFM), herein defined as management of traditional modifiable cardiac risk factors, weight loss, and exercise. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence demonstrating the importance of each facet of RFM in AF prevention and therapy. Additionally, we review emerging data on the importance of weight loss and cardiovascular exercise in prevention and management of AF. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AGE-Related Differences of Novel Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Angiographic Profile Among Gujarati Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit; Sahoo, Sibasis; Virpariya, Kapil; Parmar, Meena; Shah, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Context Although numerous risk factors have been established to predict the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the risk factor profile may be different between the younger and older individuals. Aim To analyse the frequency and pattern of atherogenic risk factors and angiographic profiles in age-stratified Gujarati patients with ACS. Materials and Methods ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography at U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research, Gujarat, India between January 2008 and December 2012 were classified in to two age groups with 40y as cut-off. Patients were assessed for conventional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity), novel risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine), and angiographic profiles.The statistical difference between two age groups was determined by Student’s t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Results A total of 200 patients, 100 patients ≤40 y of age and 100 patients >40 y of age, were evaluated. Older patients had higher frequency of hypertension (32 vs. 16%, p=0.008), while family history of coronary artery disease was more common among younger patients (19 vs. 9%, p=0.041). The incidence of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking and tobacco chewing did not vary significantly between the two groups. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the younger group (p<0.05). Lipoprotein (a), homocysteine and high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels were comparable between two age groups. Multi-vessel coronary artery disease was more common among older group. The most commonly affected coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery among younger patients (44%) and the left circumflex artery among older patients (38.1%). Conclusion Young patients with ACS had different atherosclerotic risk profile and less extensive coronary

  11. Diabetic retinopathy, duration of diabetes and risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Job, D; Eschwège, E; Tchobroutsky, G; Guyot-Argenton, C; Aubry, J P; Dérot, N

    1975-01-01

    The present study, concerning 145 insulin-dependent diabetics showed positive relationships between the severity of retinal disease on the one hand, and body weight, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol level on the other. These relationships remain significant when the duration of the clinical diabetes and the age of the patient are taken into account. Two interpretations are suggested. They are not incompatible. In diabetic subjects, either the increase in blood pressure and serum cholesterol level causes an aggravation of diabetic retinopathy or there exists a common factor at the origin of retinal lesions and of an increase in risk of cardiovascular disease through atherosclerosis.

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia in an outpatient department--Significance as an atherosclerotic risk factor.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Tselmin, S; Fischer, S; Julius, U

    2015-05-01

    Although a relationship between elevated triglycerides (TG) and cardiovascular diseases is generally accepted, its extent is still discussed. This retrospective study analyzed the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) and pancreatitis as well as the therapeutic regimen in patients being treated for hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) at an outpatient department. The cohort included 183 patients with mild and 49 patients with severe HTG; subgroups were formed and compared according to gender, presence of metabolic vascular syndrome (MVS) and lipid values. Patients in this study seem to have had CVE at younger age than reported event rates in the general population. TG levels, rates of CVE and pancreatitis were reduced in all groups during therapy, which could be linked to use of omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates. Patients with persisting severe HTG as a result of incompliance showed massive risk for pancreatitis. Although no significant association between TG levels and CVE could be established, the combination of HTG and other cardiovascular risk factors such as MVS seems to be especially dangerous. The lipid-lowering drug therapy appeared to be effective with respect to CVE and pancreatitis incidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for microvascular atherosclerotic changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Simić, Iveta; Pećin, Ivan; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Zrinsćak, Ozren; Sućur, Nediljko; Reiner, Zeljko

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder primarily characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and by microvascular and macrovascular complications which increase the morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether in high risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose blood pressure and lipid levels are well controlled still exist risk factors for microvascular changes and target organ damage (nephropathy and retinopathy). In this case control retrospective study 326 patients (111 with nephropathy and/or retinopathy and 215 controls) were enrolled. Nephropathy or retinopathy was present in 10.1% and 26.9% cases, respectively. Only 71% of patients (no significant difference between cases and controls) were treated with antidiabetic drugs. Therefore their diabetes was not properly controlled (hemoglobin A1c was 7.96% in cases and 7.58% in controls). Patients with microvascular changes had significantly longer diabetes than the controls (p < 0.05) but there were no significant differences between these two groups concerning lipids concentrations. Statins and fibrates were used by significantly less (p < 0.05) patients with microvascular complications than by those without them (21.6% vs. 36.3% and 1.8% vs. 17.2% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the duration of the disease and adequate control of glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are more important for microvascular complications than the serum lipoproteins levels. Lipid-lowering treatment might have an impact on microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, irrespectively of their serum lipid levels.

  14. Self-rated health status as a risk factor for future vascular events and mortality in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease: the SMART study.

    PubMed

    Grool, A M; van der Graaf, Y; Visseren, F L J; de Borst, G J; Algra, A; Geerlings, M I

    2012-09-01

    Lower self-rated health status has been associated with worse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the influence of self-rated physical and mental health status on the risk of future vascular events and mortality for various locations of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and asymptomatic disease. Patients with CAD (n = 2547), cerebrovascular disease (n = 1061), peripheral arterial disease (PAD; n = 648), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; n = 272) and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease (n = 1933) were followed for a median of 4 years for the occurrence of a new vascular event or death. Self-rated health status was assessed with the Short Form-36 physical and mental component summary scales. Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between health status and vascular events and death, adjusted for age, sex, vascular risk factors and intima-media thickness. In the total population, lower self-rated physical health status (per 10-point decrease) increased the risk of vascular events [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.52], and all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.29-1.63) and vascular mortality (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.64). A 10-point decrease in mental health status was associated with a modest increase in the risk of vascular events (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32), and all-cause (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.34) and vascular mortality (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Risk estimates of physical and mental health status were highest in patients with asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease and lowest in those with PAD. Poorer self-rated physical and mental health status increases the risk of vascular events and mortality in a broad population of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  16. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55-2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78-2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks.

  17. Thyroid Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Incident Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Seth S; Daya, Natalie; Lutsey, Pamela L; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Fretz, Anna; McEvoy, John W; Blumenthal, Roger S; Coresh, Josef; Greenland, Philip; Kottgen, Anna; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes in mild thyroid dysfunction (treatment controversial) and moderate or severe dysfunction (treatment standard) remain uncertain. To examine cross-sectional and prospective associations of thyroid function with cardiovascular risk factors and events. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we measured concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and total triiodothyronine (T3) in stored serum samples originally collected in 1990-1992. We used multivariable linear regression to assess cross-sectional associations of thyroid function with cardiovascular risk factors and Cox regression to assess prospective associations with cardiovascular events. Follow-up occurred through 31 December 2014. General community. Black and white men and women from the United States, without prior myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure. Cross-sectional outcomes were blood pressure, glycemic markers, and blood lipids. Prospective outcomes were adjudicated fatal and nonfatal MI and stroke. Among 11,359 participants (57 ± 6 years, 58% women), thyroid function was more strongly associated with blood lipids than blood pressure or glycemic measures. Mean adjusted differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were +15.1 (95% confidence interval: 10.5 to 19.7) and +3.2 (0.0 to 6.4) mg/dL in those with moderate/severe and mild chemical hypothyroidism, relative to euthyroidism; an opposite pattern was seen in hyperthyroidism. Similar differences were seen in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. With a 22.5-year median follow-up, 1102 MIs and 838 strokes occurred, with similar outcomes among baseline thyroid function groups and by T3 concentrations. Hypothyroidism is associated with hyperlipidemia, but the magnitude is small in mild chemical hypothyroidism, and cardiovascular outcomes are similar between thyroid function groups.

  18. Are atherosclerotic risk factors associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hyperuricemic acute heart failure? The evaluation of the causal dependence of acute heart failure and hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hirotake; Shirakabe, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hata, Noritake; Shinada, Takuro; Matsushita, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Shibata, Yusaku; Shibuya, Junsuke; Shiomura, Reiko; Nishigoori, Suguru; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-04-01

    Atherosclerosis induces the elevation of uric acid (UA), and an elevated UA level is well known to lead to a poor prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, the prognostic value of atherosclerotic risk factors in hyperuricemic AHF patients remains to be elucidated. The data from 928 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between January 2001 and December 2014, and whose serum UA levels were measured were screened. A total of 394 AHF patients with hyperuricemia were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to a low-risk group (≤1 atherosclerosis risk factor) and a high-risk group (≥2 atherosclerosis risk factors) according to their number of risk factors. The patients in the low-risk group were more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, clinical scenario 3 than those in the high-risk group. The serum total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein, and brain-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher in the low-risk group than the high-risk group (p < 0.001, p = 0.005, p = 0.003, and p = 0.008, respectively). A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that the number of risk factors (number = 1, HR (hazard ratio) 0.243, 95 % CI 0.096-0.618, p = 0.003; number = 2, HR 0.253, 95 % CI 0.108-0.593, p = 0.002; number ≥3, HR 0.209, 95 % CI 0.093-0.472, p < 0.001), eGFR (per 1.0 mmol/l increase) (HR 0.977, 95 % CI 0.961-0.994, p = 0.007), and serum UA level (per 1 mg/dl increase) (HR 1.270, 95 % CI 1.123-1.435, p < 0.001) was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality. The prognosis, including all-cause death and HF events, was significantly poorer among the low-risk patients than among the high-risk patients. Atherosclerotic risk factors were not associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hyperuricemic AHF.

  19. Biological features (inflammation and neoangiogenesis) and atherosclerotic risk factors in carotid plaques and calcified aortic valve stenosis: two different sites of the same disease?

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Annamaria; Epistolato, Maria Carmela; Gianetti, Jacopo; Castagnini, Marta; Sassi, Carlo; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Glauber, Mattia; Biagini, Andrea; Tanganelli, Piero

    2006-10-01

    Neoangiogenesis and inflammation have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. Observations support the hypothesis that calcified aortic valve stenosis is an inflammatory process, similar to atherosclerosis in tissue features and risk factors. We studied 2 groups of cases: 47 were affected by hemodynamic atherosclerotic carotid plaque (group 1) and 35 by severe calcified aortic valve stenosis (group 2). We compared the groups for atherosclerosis risk factors, morphologic features, and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In both groups, men, smokers, and hypertensive subjects prevailed, and histologic analysis showed an elevated score for T-lymphocyte infiltrates, neoangiogenesis, calcium, and sclerosis. Adhesion molecule expression was present in both lesions. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 correlated with inflammatory infiltrates (group 1, P = .0007; group 2, P = .06). Neoangiogenesis also correlated with inflammatory infiltrates (group 1, P = .035; group 2, P = .045). In valves, neoangiogenesis correlated with calcium (P = .048). Carotid plaque and calcified valve stenosis showed common risk factors and biologic hallmarks of a chronic inflammatory process. Inflammation and neoangiogenesis have a crucial role in plaque evolution and in the progression of aortic valve stenosis.

  20. Cardiovascular complications and atherosclerotic manifestations in the HIV-infected population: type, incidence and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Franck

    2008-09-01

    Before the introduction of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART), cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected patients were largely those resulting from immunosuppression (e.g. myocarditis, pericarditis, tamponade). With the advent of ART, there has been a spectacular decrease in morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. However, alongside metabolic complications caused by ART such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy syndrome have been observed, which potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular complications, in particular coronary artery disease. Whether HIV infection and ART are independent and individual coronary risk factors is still controversial. More and more data are available demonstrating that increasing the duration of exposure to ART, and in particular protease inhibitors, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. At the same time, chronic infection, inflammation and the disruption of immune balance as a result of HIV infection itself may have the potential to alter vascular structure and function. In this article, we will review cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected patients before and after the advent of ART, focusing on coronary artery disease, its diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

  1. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Setorki, Mahbubeh; Asgary, Sedighe; Eidi, Akram; rohani, Ali Haeri; Esmaeil, Nafiseh

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol), 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose) and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose) for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC) and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups. Results Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations. Conclusion Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice. PMID:19804641

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors underestimate atherosclerotic burden in chronic kidney disease: usefulness of non-invasive tests in cardiovascular assessment.

    PubMed

    Coll, Blai; Betriu, Angels; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Borràs, Mercè; Craver, Lourdes; Amoedo, Maria Luisa; Marco, Ma Paz; Sarró, Felipe; Junyent, Mireia; Valdivielso, Jose Manuel; Fernández, Elvira

    2010-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk scoring (Score) does not specifically address chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of our study is to quantify atherosclerosis using carotid ultrasound and ankle-brachial index (ABI) and to assess its additional value in risk scoring. In this cross-sectional, observational study, patients were studied according to a standardized protocol including carotid ultrasound and ABI to determine the atherosclerosis score (AS), ranging from absence of to severe atherosclerosis (AS 0 to AS 3). We included 409 CKD-affected patients (231 on dialysis, 99 in CKD Stages IV-V and 79 in CKD Stages I-III) and 851 subjects with normal renal function. The presence and severity of atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the CKD group than in the controls at every decade of age studied. Among the CKD-affected subjects, the prevalence of carotid plaques was significantly higher in the dialysis group (78.3%) than in the group in CKD Stages I-III (55.6%, P < 0.001). We identified 174 patients at low-intermediate risk. Among them, 110 (63.2%) presented either moderate (AS 2) or severe (AS 3) atherosclerosis. Variables significantly (P < 0.05) and positively related to atherosclerosis were being on dialysis [OR = 3.40, 95% CI (1.73, 6.78) vs CKD Stages I-III], age [OR = 1.08, 95% CI (1.06-1.11)] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.04, 95% CI (1.01-1.08)]. Conversely, female sex was negatively related to atherosclerosis [OR = 0.40, 95% CI (0.23-0.71), P = 0.002]. The use of carotid ultrasound and ABI identifies atherosclerosis in a population of CKD patients in which risk scoring underestimates atherosclerosis burden.

  3. 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism as a risk factor for carotid plaque rupture and cerebral ischaemia in old type 2 diabetes-atherosclerotic patients.

    PubMed

    Giacconi, Robertina; Caruso, Calogero; Lio, Domenico; Muti, Elisa; Cipriano, Catia; Saba, Vittorio; Boccoli, Gianfranco; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Malavolta, Marco; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2005-08-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are at risk for macrovascular disease complications, such as myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke from plaque rupture. Cytokines play a key role in plaque vulnerability. IFN-gamma inhibits collagen synthesis thereby affecting plaque stability. High IL-6, TNF-alpha, and dyslipidemia are risk factors for thrombosis. Abnormal increments of HSP70 in atherosclerotic plaques might lead to plaque instability and rupture caused by chronic inflammation, which up-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in human monocytes. Studies of a polymorphic PstI site lying in the coding region at position 1267 of the HSP70-2 gene have shown that the BB genotype is associated with NIDDM. We screened 60 old NIDDM patients with carotid stenosis and 107 old healthy controls for 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism in order to establish if an association with plaque frailty exists. Different genotypic distributions were observed between patients and healthy controls. An increased relative risk was associated with the B allele (p = 0.0107; odds ratio = 1.861). HSP70-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha gene expressions within the plaques and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were tested from patients stratified according to their B+ (AB and BB) and B- (AA) genotypes. Plaque morphology (soft or fibrous-calcified) and the incidence of cerebral ischaemia were also assessed. B+ patients showed increased HSP70-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and dyslipidemia as compared to B- carriers. The frequency of soft plaques increased in B+ in comparison to B- patients (67% versus 13%; odds ratio 13.0, p = 0.0006). A higher frequency of cerebral ischaemia (ictus or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)) was present in B+ than in B- genotype (53% versus 20%; odds ratio 4.57, p < 0.05) Hence, 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism may be of use in identifying B+ NIDDM patients at risk for carotid plaque rupture and cerebral

  4. From Lipids to Inflammation: New Approaches to Reducing Atherosclerotic Risk.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael D; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-02-19

    The introduction of statins ≈ 30 years ago ushered in the era of lipid lowering as the most effective way to reduce risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, residual risk remains high, and statin intolerance is frequently encountered in clinical practice. After a long dry period, the field of therapeutics targeted to lipids and atherosclerosis has entered a renaissance. Moreover, the demonstration of clinical benefits from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndromes has renewed the enthusiasm for the cholesterol hypothesis and the hope that additional agents that lower low-density lipoprotein will decrease risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Drugs in the orphan disease category are now available for patients with the most extreme hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, discovery and rapid translation of a novel biological pathway has given rise to a new class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 inhibitors. Trials of niacin added to statin have failed to demonstrate cardiac benefits, and 3 cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors have also failed to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, despite producing substantial increases in HDL levels. Although the utility of triglyceride-lowering therapies remains uncertain, 2 large clinical trials are testing the influence of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on atherosclerotic events in hypertriglyceridemia. Novel antisense therapies targeting apolipoprotein C-III (for triglyceride reduction) and apo(a) (for lipoprotein(a) reduction) are showing a promising trajectory. Finally, 2 large clinical trials are formally putting the inflammatory hypothesis of atherosclerosis to the test and may open a new avenue for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

  5. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE−/− mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  6. Apolipoprotein L1 risk variants associate with prevalent atherosclerotic disease in African American systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Blazer, Ashira; Wang, Binhuan; Simpson, Danny; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Heffron, Sean; Clancy, Robert M; Heguy, Adriana; Ray, Karina; Snuderl, Matija; Buyon, Jill P

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is exaggerated in African American (AA) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, with doubled cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to White patients. The extent to which common Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles (RA) contribute to this trend is unknown. This retrospective cohort study assessed prevalent atherosclerotic disease across APOL1 genotypes in AA SLE patients. One hundred thirteen AA SLE subjects were APOL1-genotyped and stratified as having: zero risk alleles, one risk allele, or two risk alleles. Chart review assessed CVD manifestations including abdominal aortic aneurysm, angina, carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and vascular calcifications. Associations between the genotypes and a composite endpoint defined as one or more CVD manifestations were calculated using logistic regression. Symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, excluding incidental vascular calcifications, was also assessed. The 0-risk-allele, 1-risk-allele and 2-risk-allele groups, respectively, comprised 34%, 53%, and 13% of the cohort. Respectively, 13.2%, 41.7%, and 60.0% of the 0-risk allele, 1-risk-allele, and 2-risk-allele groups met the composite endpoint of atherosclerotic CVD (p = 0.001). Adjusting for risk factors-including smoking, ESRD, BMI >25 and hypertension-we observed an association between carrying one or more RA and atherosclerotic CVD (OR = 7.1; p = 0.002). For symptomatic disease, the OR was 3.5 (p = 0.02). In a time-to-event analysis, the proportion of subjects free from the composite primary endpoint, symptomatic atherosclerotic CVD, was higher in the 0-risk-allele group compared to the 1-risk-allele and 2-risk-allele groups (χ2 = 6.5; p = 0.04). Taken together, the APOL1 RAs associate with prevalent atherosclerotic CVD in this cohort of AA SLE patients, perhaps reflecting a potentiating effect of SLE on APOL1-related cardiovascular phenotypes.

  7. Applying Atherosclerotic Risk Prevention Guidelines to Elderly Patients: A Bridge Too Far?

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Harris, Stewart B; Hegele, Robert A; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The primary prevention of atherosclerotic disease is on the basis of optimal management of the major risk factors. For the major risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, management for most patients is on the basis of well developed and extensive evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. However, for a growing segment of the population who are at the highest risk for atherosclerotic disease (ie, older adults), the application of these guidelines is problematic. First, few studies that form the evidence base for these primary prevention guidelines actually include substantial numbers of elderly subjects. Second, elderly patients represent a special population from multiple perspectives related to their accumulation of health deficits and in their development of frailty. These patients with frailty and multiple comorbidities have been mostly excluded from the primary prevention studies upon which the guidelines are based yet comprise a very significant proportion of the very elderly population. Third, elderly people are at most risk from adverse drug reactions because of the increasing number of medications prescribed in this patient population. When applying the existing guidelines to elderly people the limitations of our knowledge must be recognized regarding how best to mitigate the high risk of heart disease in our aging population and how to generalize these recommendations to the management of the largest subgroup of elderly patients (ie, those with multiple comorbidities and frail older adults). Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IL-24 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Parameters and Cardiovascular Risk Factors But Not with Premature Coronary Artery Disease: The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease Mexican Study

    PubMed Central

    Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Angeles-Martinez, Javier; Posadas-Sanchez, Rosalinda; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma; Luna-Fuentes, Sergio; González-Salazar, Carmen; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder that results from an excessive inflammatory response. We analyzed whether interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene polymorphisms are associated with premature CAD in a case–control association study. Four polymorphisms (rs1150253, rs1150256, rs1150258, and rs3762344) of the IL-24 gene were analyzed by 5′ exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 952 patients with premature CAD, 284 individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis (SA), and 912 controls. The studied polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of premature CAD or SA (P>0.05). Under dominant models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and medication, the polymorphisms were associated with cardiometabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Three polymorphisms (rs1150253, rs1150256, and rs3762344) were associated with hypertension and increased levels of systolic blood pressure in controls. In SA, 2 polymorphisms (rs1150256 and rs3762344) were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase, whereas rs1150253 was associated with GGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus and rs1150258 with GGT and alkaline phosphatase. In premature CAD, the 4 polymorphisms were associated with total cholesterol >200 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and GGT, whereas rs1150256 was associated also with ApoA. On the other hand, rs1150258 was associated with ApoA, LDL-C >100 mg/dL, and apoB/apoA ratio, and rs3762344 with ApoA, apoB/apoA ratio, LDL-C >100 mg/dL, and total cholesterol. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphism functional prediction software, rs1150253 and rs1150258 polymorphisms seem to be functional. The 4 studied polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and had a similar haplotype distribution in patients and controls. Our study demonstrates the association of IL-24 polymorphisms with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with

  9. IL-24 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiometabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors but not with premature coronary artery disease: the genetics of atherosclerotic disease Mexican study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Angeles-Martinez, Javier; Posadas-Sanchez, Rosalinda; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma; Luna-Fuentes, Sergio; González-Salazar, Carmen; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder that results from an excessive inflammatory response. We analyzed whether interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene polymorphisms are associated with premature CAD in a case-control association study. Four polymorphisms (rs1150253, rs1150256, rs1150258, and rs3762344) of the IL-24 gene were analyzed by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 952 patients with premature CAD, 284 individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis (SA), and 912 controls. The studied polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of premature CAD or SA (P>0.05). Under dominant models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and medication, the polymorphisms were associated with cardiometabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Three polymorphisms (rs1150253, rs1150256, and rs3762344) were associated with hypertension and increased levels of systolic blood pressure in controls. In SA, 2 polymorphisms (rs1150256 and rs3762344) were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase, whereas rs1150253 was associated with GGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus and rs1150258 with GGT and alkaline phosphatase. In premature CAD, the 4 polymorphisms were associated with total cholesterol >200 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and GGT, whereas rs1150256 was associated also with ApoA. On the other hand, rs1150258 was associated with ApoA, LDL-C >100 mg/dL, and apoB/apoA ratio, and rs3762344 with ApoA, apoB/apoA ratio, LDL-C >100 mg/dL, and total cholesterol. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphism functional prediction software, rs1150253 and rs1150258 polymorphisms seem to be functional. The 4 studied polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and had a similar haplotype distribution in patients and controls. Our study demonstrates the association of IL-24 polymorphisms with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with

  10. Risk factor profiling and study of atherosclerotic coronary plaque burden and morphology with coronary computed tomography angiography in coronary artery disease among young Indians.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R; Chauhan, A; Singhal, M; Bagga, S

    2017-08-01

    With a decade earlier manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and paucity of data characterizing coronary plaque with coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) among CAD patients in India, the study aimed to analyze patient characteristics and coronary plaque burden and morphology in young Indian patients with CAD. Serial coronary CTA was performed in 96 CAD patients. Among 60 patients ≤40years, risk factor and coronary plaque analysis done using a 256- slice CT in 33 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was compared with 27 patients with chronic stable angina (CSA). Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed, for factors predicting ACS as an outcome among young CAD patients. In addition, quantitative and morphologic plaque characteristics were compared among those ≤40years and >40years. Among 60 subjects ≤40years of age, 77% had dyslipidemia, 70% high lipoprotein(a), 53.33% elevated hs-CRP and 73.33% raised homocysteine. hs-CRP (9.33 vs. 3.33, p value=0.01) and serum triglycerides (178.67 vs. 141.42, p value=0.03) were markedly raised in patients with ACS. Statistically significant number of patients in the ACS group had positive remodelling (ACS, 69.7% vs. CSA, 14.8%; p value<0.001), low attenuation plaque (ACS, 63.6% vs. CSA, 11.1%; p value<0.001), spotty calcification (ACS, 36.4% vs. CSA, 3.7%; p=0.002) and non-calcified plaque (ACS, 69.7% vs. CSA, 11.1%; p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, only lipoprotein (a) >30mg/dL and composite vulnerability score maintained a predictive value for ACS in patients ≤40years. Statistically significant number of patients in the younger age group had higher mean total plaque volume (66.17±41.31mm(3) vs. 44.94±49.07mm(3); p=0.03), remodelling index (1.5±0.27 vs. 1.08±0.38; p=0.0001). Comparing culprit lesion characteristics of ACS patients in the two age groups, positive remodelling (95.8% vs. 70.5%, p=0.02), spotty calcification (50% vs. 11.7%, p=0.01) and non-calcified plaque (95.8% vs

  11. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; de la Aleja, Jesús González; Martínez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population. In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed. A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P < 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of cancer-specific mortality was decreased in participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55−0.98, P = 0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38−0.89; P = 0.01. This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  12. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity as a risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with triglyceride metabolic disorder: a pilot cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kiyoshi; Tani, Shigemasa; Atsumi, Wataru; Yagi, Tsukasa; Kawauchi, Kenji; Matsumoto, Naoya; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-11-01

    We hypothesized that an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) might reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size in conjunction with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This study was carried out as a hospital-based cross-sectional study in 537 consecutive outpatients (mean age: 64 years; men: 71%) with one or more risk factors for ASCVD from April 2014 to October 2014 at the Cardiovascular Center of Nihon University Surugadai Hospital. The estimated LDL-particle size was measured as relative LDL migration using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the LipoPhor system.The plasma PAI-1 level, including the tissue PA/PAI-1 complex and the active and latent forms of PAI-1, was determined using a latex photometric immunoassay method. A multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for ASCVD risk factors showed that an elevated PAI-1 level was an independent predictor of smaller-sized LDL-particle in both the overall patients population (β=0.209, P<0.0001) and a subset of patients with a serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level lower than 100 mg/dl (β=0.276, P<0.0001). Furthermore, an increased BMI and TG-rich lipoprotein related markers [TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo C-II, and apo C-III] were found to be independent variables associated with an increased PAI-1 level in multivariate regression models. A statistical analysis of data from nondiabetic patients with well-controlled serum LDL-C levels yielded similar findings. Furthermore, in the 310 patients followed up for at least 6 months, a multiple-logistic regression analysis after adjustments for ASCVD risk factors identified the percent changes of the plasma PAI-1 level in the third tertile compared with those in the first tertile as being independently predictive of decreased LDL-particle size [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.11 (1

  13. Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Masters Endurance Athletes With a Low Atherosclerotic Risk Profile.

    PubMed

    Merghani, Ahmed; Maestrini, Viviana; Rosmini, Stefania; Cox, Andrew T; Dhutia, Harshil; Bastiaenan, Rachel; David, Sarojini; Yeo, Tee Joo; Narain, Rajay; Malhotra, Aneil; Papadakis, Michael; Wilson, Mathew G; Tome, Maite; AlFakih, Khaled; Moon, James C; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-07-11

    Studies in middle-age and older (masters) athletes with atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease report higher coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores compared with sedentary individuals. Few studies have assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease in masters athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile. We assessed 152 masters athletes 54.4±8.5 years of age (70% male) and 92 controls of similar age, sex, and low Framingham 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores with an echocardiogram, exercise stress test, computerized tomographic coronary angiogram, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and a 24-hour Holter. Athletes had participated in endurance exercise for an average of 31±12.6 years. The majority (77%) were runners, with a median of 13 marathon runs per athlete. Most athletes (60%) and controls (63%) had a normal CAC score. Male athletes had a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques of any luminal irregularity (44.3% versus 22.2%; P=0.009) compared with sedentary males, and only male athletes showed a CAC ≥300 Agatston units (11.3%) and a luminal stenosis ≥50% (7.5%). Male athletes demonstrated predominantly calcific plaques (72.7%), whereas sedentary males showed predominantly mixed morphology plaques (61.5%). The number of years of training was the only independent variable associated with increased risk of CAC >70th percentile for age or luminal stenosis ≥50% in male athletes (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.15; P=0.016); 15 (14%) male athletes but none of the controls revealed late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Of these athletes, 7 had a pattern consistent with previous myocardial infarction, including 3(42%) with a luminal stenosis ≥50% in the corresponding artery. Most lifelong masters endurance athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile have normal CAC scores. Male athletes are more likely to have a CAC

  14. Effect of Hemodynamics on Stroke Risk in Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Vertebrobasilar Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Pandey, Dilip K.; Rose-Finnell, Linda; Du, Xinjian; Richardson, DeJuran; Thulborn, Keith R.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Liebeskind, David S.; Silver, Frank L.; Kasner, Scott E.; Aletich, Victor A.; Caplan, Louis R.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Charbel, Fady T.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar (VB) occlusive disease is a significant etiology of posterior circulation stroke, with regional hypoperfusion as an important potential contributor to stroke risk. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that, among patients with symptomatic VB stenosis or occlusion, those with distal blood flow compromise as measured by large-vessel quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA) are at higher risk of subsequent posterior circulation stroke. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, blinded, longitudinal cohort study was conducted at 5 academic hospital-based centers in the United States and Canada; 82 patients from inpatient and outpatient settings were enrolled. Participants with recent VB transient ischemic attack or stroke and 50% or more atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion in vertebral and/or basilar arteries underwent large-vessel flow measurement in the VB territory using QMRA. Physicians performing follow-up assessments were blinded to QMRA flow status. Follow-up included monthly telephone calls for 12 months and biannual clinical visits (for a minimum of 12 months, and up to 24 months or the final visit). Enrollment took place from July 1, 2008, to July 31, 2013, with study completion on June 30, 2014; data analysis was performed from October 1, 2014, to April 10, 2015. EXPOSURE Standard medical management of stroke risk factors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was VB-territory stroke. RESULTS Of the 82 enrolled patients, 72 remained eligible after central review of their angiograms. Sixty-nine of 72 patients completed the minimum 12-month follow-up; median follow-up was 23 (interquartile range, 14–25) months. Distal flow status was low in 18 of the 72 participants (25%) included in the analysis and was significantly associated with risk for a subsequent VB stroke (P = .04), with 12- and 24-month event-free survival rates of 78% and 70%, respectively, in the low-flow group vs 96% and 87

  15. Depletion of systemic concentrations of coagulation factors in blood from patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Lam, Phillip H; Gissel, Matthew; Gauthier, Eric; Schneider, David J

    2013-09-01

    Thrombosis complicating the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque can lead to arterial occlusion. Tissue factor, a membrane-bound glycoprotein, is expressed to a greater extent in atherosclerotic plaques and may be a key mediator of microthrombosis and macrothrombosis. This pilot study was designed to determine whether the angiographic presence or the extent of atherosclerosis was correlated with the activity of coagulation factors in blood. A novel computational model was used to predict whether differences in the activity of coagulation factors would alter the generation of thrombin. Blood was obtained for the determination of coagulation factor activity from patients undergoing cardiac catheterization (n=50) who were grouped by the extent of their coronary artery disease (CAD). Generation of thrombin and factor (f) Xa were determined computationally. The activities of fII and fX were significantly lower in blood from patients with more severe CAD. Despite this, the time to clot (presumably reflecting a hypercoagulable state) was shorter in all patient groups than projected in healthy participants. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor concentrations were strongly associated with the generation of fXa and thrombin, and it is the best predictor of the time to clot. The balance between tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor appears to be a primary determinant of a hypercoagulable state that can accompany CAD. Lower concentrations of fX and fII in blood from patients with more severe CAD, who exhibit a shorter time to clot in vitro, are consistent with the clinical observation that patients at greater risk for thrombosis can also be at greater risk for bleeding.

  16. Factor XI regulates pathological thrombus formation on acutely ruptured atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    van Montfoort, Maurits L; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Knaup, Véronique L; Bhanot, Sanjay; Monia, Brett P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Meijers, Joost C M

    2014-08-01

    Coagulation factor XI is proposed as therapeutic target for anticoagulation. However, it is still unclear whether the antithrombotic properties of factor XI inhibitors influence atherosclerotic disease and atherothrombosis. Our aim is to investigate whether factor XI antisense oligonucleotides could prevent thrombus formation on acutely ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries of Apoe(-/-) mice were acutely ruptured using ultrasound. The subsequent thrombus formation was visualized and quantified by intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Mice were pretreated with either factor XI antisense or nonsense oligonucleotides (50 mg/kg) to lower factor XI plasma levels. A tail bleeding assay was used to determine the safety. On plaque rupture, initial platelet adhesion and platelet plug formation were not impaired in animals treated with factor XI antisense oligonucleotides. However, the ensuing thrombus formation and fibrin deposition were significantly lower after 5 to 10 minutes (P<0.05) in factor XI antisense oligonucleotide-treated animals without inducing a bleeding tendency. Furthermore, thrombi from antisense-treated animals were less stable than thrombi from placebo-treated animals. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition were lower in the carotid arteries of factor XI antisense-treated animals. No neutrophils were present. Factor XI antisense oligonucleotides safely prevent thrombus formation on acutely ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in mice. Furthermore, perturbed carotid arteries from factor XI antisense-treated animals show a less severe inflammatory response. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Investigations of Carotid Stenosis to Identify Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque and Determine Individual Stroke Risk.

    PubMed

    Liem, Madieke I; Kennedy, Fiona; Bonati, Leo H; van der Lugt, Aad; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Jager, Hans R; Brown, Martin M; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2017-08-25

    Selection of patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis for revascularization is mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing of the carotid artery. However, identification of other features of plaque apart from the degree of stenosis could enable better selection for intervention if they are also associated with the occurrence of stroke. Before these risk factors can possibly play a role in treatment decisions, their prognostic value needs to be proven. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the risk factors for stroke in patients with carotid stenosis, how they can be determined, and to what extent they predict stroke, based on recent literature. References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed between 1995 and October, 2016 and references from relevant articles. For each topic in this review different relevant search terms were used. The main search terms were 'carotid stenosis', 'atherosclerosis', 'stroke risk', and 'vulnerable plaque'. Language was restricted to English. The final reference list was generated on the basis of relevance to the topics covered in this review.

  18. The impact of atherosclerotic factors on cerebral aneurysm is location dependent: aneurysms in stroke patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Masaaki; Isobe, Masanori; Imai, Tetsuaki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Isu, Toyohiko

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) seem to increase the occurrence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). However, this maybe explained by the fact that CVDs and UIAs share common risk factors, such as hypertension (HT) and smoking. To clarify the impact of atherosclerotic risk factors on cerebral aneurysmal formation, we explored the incidence of UIAs and their locations in healthy controls and patients with CVD, who frequently have atherosclerotic risk factors. This study included consecutive 283 asymptomatic healthy adults and 173 acute stroke patients, from patients diagnosed with acute cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction and admitted to our hospital. The incidence, maximum diameter, and location of UIAs were evaluated, and we also investigated the following factors: age, gender, current smoking, HT, diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia. UIAs were found in 19 of the total 456 subjects (4.2%), 11 of 283 healthy subjects (3.9%), and 8 of 173 stroke patients (4.6%). These differences are not statically significant. The incidence of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms was significantly higher in the CVD patients than in the healthy controls (P = .03), and the incidence of paraclinoid aneurysms was significantly higher in the healthy controls than in the CVD patients (P = .03). Moreover, higher incidences of HTs and CVDs in the MCA aneurysms than in the other locations of UIAs were observed. These results indicate that the impact of atherosclerotic factors on cerebral aneurysmal formation depends on their location and that there is a stronger impact on MCA aneurysms than on paraclinoid aneurysms.

  19. Smoking increases tissue factor expression in atherosclerotic plaques: implications for plaque thrombogenicity.

    PubMed

    Matetzky, S; Tani, S; Kangavari, S; Dimayuga, P; Yano, J; Xu, H; Chyu, K Y; Fishbein, M C; Shah, P K; Cercek, B

    2000-08-08

    Smoking increases the risk of atherothrombotic events. To determine whether smoking influences plaque thrombogenicity, we examined the effect of cigarette smoking and aspirin use on tissue factor (TF) expression in atherosclerotic plaques. A total of 23 apoE-/- mice were exposed to cigarette smoke with (n=9) or without (n=14) aspirin treatment. Eleven mice who were exposed to filtered room air served as controls. Aortic root plaques of mice exposed to smoke had higher immunoreactivity for TF (14+/-4% versus 6.4+/-3%; P=0.0005), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (15+/-4% versus 5+/-2%; P=0.002), and macrophages (16+/-5% versus 6+/-2%; P=0.002) compared with nonsmoking controls. Aspirin treatment attenuated smoking-induced changes in plaque composition. In human plaques obtained by carotid endarterectomy, TF immunoreactivity (8+/-5% versus 2+/-2%; P=0.0002) and activity (P=0. 03) were higher in the plaques from smokers (n=28) than those from nonsmokers (n=28). Aspirin use was associated with reduced TF expression in smokers (9+/-8% versus 3+/-4%; P=0.0017). Our results suggest increased plaque TF expression and thrombogenicity as a novel mechanism for the increased risk of atherothrombotic events in smokers. Treatment with aspirin may reduce TF expression.

  20. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  1. Selepressin and Arginine Vasopressin Do Not Display Cardiovascular Risk in Atherosclerotic Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Boucheix, Olivier; Blakytny, Robert; Haroutunian, Gerard; Henriksson, Marie; Laporte, Regent; Milano, Stephane; Reinheimer, Torsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock remains associated with significant mortality rates. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and analogs with V1A receptor agonist activity are increasingly used to treat fluid-resistant vasodilatory hypotension, including catecholamine-refractory septic shock. Clinical studies have been restricted to healthy volunteers and catecholamine-refractory septic shock patients excluding subjects with cardiac co-morbidities because of presumed safety issues. The novel selective V1A receptor agonist selepressin, with short half-life, has been designed to avoid V2 receptor-related complications and long-term V1A receptor activation. Cardiovascular safety of selepressin, AVP, and the septic shock standard of care norepinephrine was investigated in a rabbit model of early-stage atherosclerosis. Methods Atherosclerosis was established in New Zealand White rabbits using a 1% cholesterol-containing diet. Selepressin, AVP, or norepinephrine was administered as cumulative intravenous infusion rates to atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals. Results Selepressin and AVP induced a slight dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure (AP) associated with a moderate decrease in heart rate, no change in stroke volume, and a moderate decrease in aortic blood flow (ABF). In contrast, norepinephrine induced a marked dose-dependent increase in AP associated with a lesser decrease in the heart rate, an increase in stroke volume, and a moderate increase in ABF. For all three vasopressors, there was no difference in responses between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals. Conclusion Further studies should be considered using more advanced atherosclerosis models, including with septic shock, before considering septic shock clinical trials of patients with comorbidities. Here, selepressin and AVP treatments did not display relevant cardiovascular risk in early-stage rabbit atherosclerosis. PMID:27788216

  2. Polymorphisms in NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α Genes and Risk of Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Kazemi, Mahbobeh; Mahamed, Sahar; Malekzadeh, Pegah; Mirjalili, Massomeh

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we investigated the possible association between NOS3 (rs1799983), MTHFR (rs1801133), APOB (rs5742904) and TNF-α (rs361525) polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in Iranian patients. In the case-control study, 108 patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease and 95 control subjects with no family history of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. Genotypes for NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We specifically detected the NOS3 TT genotype in 12 patients (11.11%) and did not find the same genotype in any of the controls. The frequencies of T allele in patients and the controls were 24% and 17.8%, respectively. The prevalence of the MTHFR TT genotype was 16.7% in patients and 2.2% in control groups. The prevalence of the APOB-100 (R3500Q) mutation in this patient population was 0%. The frequency of the A allele in the TNF-α gene was 11.1% and 11% in patients and controls, respectively, and the AA genotype was undetected. Our results show a significant association of NOS3 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms with coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, these variants might influence the risk of coronary artery disease, specifically in the Iranian population.

  3. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is associated with atherosclerotic stroke risk: the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon P; Paik, Myunghee C; Wolfert, Robert L; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) levels are associated with stroke, though whether this extends to all populations and stroke subtypes is unknown. Serum samples from stroke-free community participants in the Northern Manhattan Study were assayed for LpPLA2 mass and activity. Participants were followed annually for stroke. Cox-proportional-hazard models were fitted to estimate hazard-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR, 95% CI) for the association of LpPLA2 levels with ischemic stroke (IS), after adjusting for demographic and medical risk factors. Serum samples were available in 1946 participants, of whom 151 (7.8%) experienced a first IS during median follow-up 11 years. Mean age was 69 (SD 10), 35.6% were men, 20% non-Hispanic Whites, 22% non-Hispanic Blacks, and 55% Hispanics. LpPLA2 mass and activity levels were not associated with overall IS risk. LpPLA2 mass but not activity levels were associated with strokes due to large artery atherosclerosis (LAA; adjusted HR per SD 1.55, 95% CI 1.17-2.04). There was a dose-response relationship with LAA (compared to first quartile, 2nd quartile HR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.23-8.64; 3rd quartile HR = 4.47, 95% CI 0.93-21.54; 4th quartile HR = 5.07, 95% CI 1.07-24.06). The associations between LpPLA2-mass and LAA-stroke risk differed by race-ethnicity (p = 0.01); LpPLA2-mass was associated with increased risk of LAA among non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted HR per SD 1.44, 95% CI 0.98-2.11), but not other race-ethnic groups. LpPLA2-mass levels were associated with risk of atherosclerotic stroke among non-Hispanic White participants, but not in other race-ethnic groups in the cohort. Further study is needed to confirm these race-ethnic differences and the reasons for them.

  4. Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants regulate lipoprotein metabolism in women and USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue-Mei; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Oksala, Niku; Levula, Mari; Raitoharju, Emma; Collings, Auni; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Marniemi, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Mennander, Ari; Tarkka, Matti; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Salenius, Juha Pekka; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Laitinen, Tomi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laaksonen, Reijo; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2014-04-11

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants significantly influence future risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in females. We investigated sex-specific effects of USF1 gene allelic variants on serum indices of lipoprotein metabolism, early markers of asymptomatic atherosclerosis and their changes during six years of follow-up. In addition, we investigated the cis-regulatory role of these USF1 variants in artery wall tissues in Caucasians. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1,608 participants (56% women, aged 31.9 ± 4.9) with lipids and cIMT data were included. For functional study, whole genome mRNA expression profiling was performed in 91 histologically classified atherosclerotic samples. In females, serum total, LDL cholesterol and apoB levels increased gradually according to USF1 rs2516839 genotypes TT < CT < CC and rs1556259 AA < AG < GG as well as according to USF1 H3 (GCCCGG) copy number 0 < 1 < 2. Furthermore, the carriers of minor alleles of rs2516839 (C) and rs1556259 (G) of USF1 gene had decreased USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques (P = 0.028 and 0.08, respectively) as compared to non-carriers. The genetic variation in USF1 influence USF1 transcript expression in advanced atherosclerosis and regulates levels and metabolism of circulating apoB and apoB-containing lipoprotein particles in sex-dependent manner, but is not a major determinant of early markers of atherosclerosis.

  5. Factors associated with lower extremity atherosclerotic disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingge; He, Binbin; Zhu, Chaoyu; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Wei, Li; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early detection and treatment of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease (LEAD), and controlling its risk factors are critical in preventing amputation and death in diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with LEAD in Chinese diabetic patients. In this case-control study, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (N = 1289) were divided into 2 groups according to the ultrasonic Doppler examination: with (LEAD+, n = 737) and without (LEAD−, n = 552) LEAD. In subgroup analysis, the LEAD+ group was divided based on the diameter of lower-extremity arteries: LEAD+A (1%–49% reduction) and LEAD+B (≥50% reduction). Clinical and demographic data of patients were analyzed. Compared with the LEAD− group, serum creatinine levels were significantly increased (P < 0.001), whereas glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the LEAD+ group. Multivariate analysis results showed that GFR (odds ratio [OR] 0.991, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.986–0.997, P = 0.003), diabetes duration (OR 1.055, 95% CI 1.026–1.084, P < 0.001), age (OR 1.123, 95% CI 1.104–1.142, P < 0.001), and uric acid (OR 1.002, 95% CI 1.000–1.004, P = 0.031) were independently associated with LEAD in patients with T2DM. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.078, 95% CI 1.048–1.109, P < 0.001) and GFR (OR 0.985, 95% CI 0.975–0.994, P = 0.002) were independently associated with the severity of arterial lesions in patients with T2DM and LEAD. The risk factors of LEAD in Chinese patients with T2DM include age, course of disease, uric acid, and GFR. Patients with T2DM, high uric acid levels, and declined GFR could be listed in the high-risk group for LEAD. PMID:28002317

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Levels Unaltered in Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Patients from North India

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Dheeraj; Mathur, Deepali; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques, and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of MCP-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis (p < 0.05). Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountain region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at non mountain region. On the contrary, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, and tobacco chewing were not observed as the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis risk in North India (p > 0.05). We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress

  7. Paraoxonase 1: a better atherosclerotic risk predictor than HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Patra, Surajeet Kumar; Singh, Kamna; Singh, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a state of glycative stress and oxidative stress. Lower level of serum PON 1 has been correlated to higher morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To estimate and compare the serum PON 1 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls and to predict which one is the better atherosclerotic risk predictor among HDL and PON 1 in T2DM patients. An observational analytical case-control study was conducted with a sample size of 30 in two groups like group I (30 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed by ADA 2010 criteria) and group II (30 age and sex matched controls). Human serum paroxonase 1 levels were measured by ELISA. Both HDL and PON 1 were negatively correlated with the various atherogenic indices (AIP, AC, CRI I, CRI II) but the strength of negative correlation is always greater for PON 1. In multiple linear regression analysis, we found that the regression coefficient (β) is always higher for PON 1 than for HDL while taking the atherogenic indices as outcome variable. PON 1 can be a better predictor than HDL for atherosclerotic risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Equations in U.S. Hypertensive Adults.

    PubMed

    Nong, Qingjiao; Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhong, Qiuan

    2016-11-07

    This study was to evaluate the association of urine arsenic with predicted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in U.S. adults with hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1570 hypertensive adults aged 40-79 years in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with determinations of urine arsenic. Predicted 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by the Pooled Cohort Equations, developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2013. For men, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, urine dilution, ASCVD risk factors and organic arsenic intake from seafood, participants in the highest quartiles of urine arsenic had higher 10-year predicted ASCVD risk than in the lowest quartiles; the increases were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 53%) for total arsenic, 13% (95% CI: 2%, 25%) for dimethylarsinate and 22% (95% CI: 5%, 40%) for total arsenic minus arsenobetaine separately. For women, the corresponding increases were 5% (95% CI: -15%, 29%), 10% (95% CI: -8%, 30%) and 0% (95% CI: -15%, 19%), respectively. Arsenic exposure, even at low levels, may contribute to increased ASCVD risk in men with hypertension. Furthermore, our findings suggest that particular circumstances need urgently to be considered while elucidating cardiovascular effects of low inorganic arsenic levels.

  10. Arsenic Exposure and Predicted 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Equations in U.S. Hypertensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Qingjiao; Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhong, Qiuan

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the association of urine arsenic with predicted 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in U.S. adults with hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1570 hypertensive adults aged 40–79 years in the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with determinations of urine arsenic. Predicted 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by the Pooled Cohort Equations, developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2013. For men, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, urine dilution, ASCVD risk factors and organic arsenic intake from seafood, participants in the highest quartiles of urine arsenic had higher 10-year predicted ASCVD risk than in the lowest quartiles; the increases were 24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 53%) for total arsenic, 13% (95% CI: 2%, 25%) for dimethylarsinate and 22% (95% CI: 5%, 40%) for total arsenic minus arsenobetaine separately. For women, the corresponding increases were 5% (95% CI: −15%, 29%), 10% (95% CI: −8%, 30%) and 0% (95% CI: −15%, 19%), respectively. Arsenic exposure, even at low levels, may contribute to increased ASCVD risk in men with hypertension. Furthermore, our findings suggest that particular circumstances need urgently to be considered while elucidating cardiovascular effects of low inorganic arsenic levels. PMID:27828001

  11. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes Glodny, Bernhard

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III in 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that affects ... these are risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer . Risk factors that can be changed Tobacco use Smoking ...

  13. High-risk clinical presentations in atherosclerotic renovascular disease: prognosis and response to renal artery revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, James; Green, Darren; Chrysochou, Constantina; Chalmers, Nicholas; Foley, Robert N; Kalra, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Current trial data may not be directly applicable to patients with the highest risk presentations of atherosclerotic renovascular disease, including flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining kidney function, and refractory hypertension. We consider the prognostic implications of these presentations and response to percutaneous revascularization. Single-center prospective cohort study; retrospectively analyzed. 467 patients with renal artery stenosis ≥50%, managed according to clinical presentation and physician/patient preference. Presentation with flash pulmonary edema (n = 37 [7.8%]), refractory hypertension (n = 116 [24.3%]), or rapidly declining kidney function (n = 46 [9.7%]) compared to low-risk presentation with none of these phenotypes (n = 230 [49%]). Percutaneous revascularization (performed in 32% of flash pulmonary edema, 28% of rapidly declining kidney function, and 28% of refractory hypertension patients) compared to medical management. Death, cardiovascular (CV) event, end-stage kidney disease. During a median follow-up of 3.8 (IQR, 1.8-5.8) years, 55% died, 33% had a CV event, and 18% reached end-stage kidney disease. In medically treated patients, flash pulmonary edema was associated with increased risk of death (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.5; P < 0.001) and CV event (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.5; P < 0.001), but not end-stage kidney disease, compared to the low-risk phenotype. No increased risk for any end point was observed in patients presenting with rapidly declining kidney function or refractory hypertension. Compared to medical treatment, revascularization was associated with reduced risk for death (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; P = 0.01), but not CV event or end-stage kidney disease, in patients presenting with flash pulmonary edema. Revascularization was not associated significantly with reduced risk for any end point in rapidly declining kidney function or refractory hypertension. When these presentations were present in

  14. Infection and inflammation as risk factors for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M S; Mattila, K; Valtonen, V

    1993-12-01

    Recent studies have illustrated that in addition to the well known risk factors, such as lipoproteins, smoking, hypertension, there are others that cause atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Our knowledge of atherosclerotic lesions has increased. We now know that atherosclerotic changes are due to inflammatory cell infiltration as well as to increases in migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Endothelial cells play a major role in the pathology of vascular changes. In recent years a new risk factor for coronary artery disease has been discovered: chlamydia pneumonial infections. Herpes class viruses have also been associated with pathology of atherosclerotic lesions. Studies show that dental status and bacterial infections are also related to the risk of myocardial infarction. This review discusses the possible mechanisms of infection and inflammation and whether they are major or modifying risk factors for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

  15. Circulating adiponectin levels in relation to carotid atherosclerotic plaque presence, ischemic stroke risk, and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Gorgui, Jessica; Gasbarrino, Karina; Georgakis, Marios K; Karalexi, Maria A; Nauche, Bénédicte; Petridou, Eleni Th; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2017-04-01

    Low circulating levels of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective adipokine, are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease. Presence of unstable plaques in the carotid artery is a known etiological factor causing ischemic strokes. Herein, we systematically reviewed the association between circulating adiponectin and progression of carotid atherosclerotic disease, particularly evaluating the occurrence of (1) carotid atherosclerotic plaques, (2) ischemic stroke, and (3) mortality in subjects who suffered a previous ischemic stroke. Medline, Embase, Biosis, Scopus, Web of Science, and Pubmed were searched for published studies and conference abstracts. The effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the individual studies were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models. The quality of the eligible studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Sensitivity, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses were performed to address the impact of various risk factors on the association between adiponectin and ischemic stroke risk. Twelve studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for 3 independent meta-analyses. The association of increasing circulating adiponectin levels (5μg/mL-increment) with presence of carotid plaque was not conclusive (n=327; OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85-1.35; 2 studies), whereas high adiponectin levels showed a significant 8% increase in risk of ischemic stroke (n=13,683; 7 studies), with a more sizable association observed among men compared to women. HDL was observed to have a marginal effect on the association between adiponectin and ischemic stroke, while other evaluated parameters were not found to be effect modifiers. A non-significant association of adiponectin with mortality was yielded (n=663; OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 0.69-9.62; 3 studies). Although no publication bias was evident, there was significant between-study heterogeneity in most analyses. It appears that the direction

  16. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  17. Symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease: correlations between plaque composition and ipsilateral stroke risk

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Peter M; Redgrave, Jessica N; Moll, Frans L; de Vries, Jean-Paul PM; de Kleijn, Dominique PV; den Ruijter, Hester M; de Borst, Gert Jan; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE For symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis the risk-benefit for surgical intervention may vary among patient groups. Various modalities of plaque imaging have been promoted as potential tools for additional risk stratification, particularly in patients with moderate stenosis. However, it remains uncertain to what extent carotid plaque components predict risk of future ipsilateral ischaemic stroke. METHODS In two large atherosclerotic carotid plaque biobank studies, we related histological characteristics of 1640 carotid plaques with a validated risk model for the prediction of individual 1- and 5-year stroke risk. RESULTS No significant heterogeneity between the studies was found. Predicted 5-year stroke risk (top versus bottom quartile) was related to plaque thrombus (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.11-1.89, p=0.02), fibrous content (0.65, 0.49-0.87, p=0.004), macrophage infiltration (1.41, 1.05-1.90, p=0.02), high micro-vessel density (1.49, 1.05-2.11, p=0.03), and overall plaque instability (1.40, 1.05-1.87,p=0.02). This association was not observed for cap thickness, calcification, intra-plaque haemorrhage, or lymphocyte infiltration. Plaques removed within 30-days of most recent symptomatic event were most strongly correlated with predicted stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS Features of ‘the vulnerable carotid plaque’ including plaque thrombus, low fibrous content, macrophage infiltration and microvessel density correlate with predicted stroke risk. This study provides a basis for plaque imaging studies focused on stroke risk stratification. PMID:25477221

  18. Phenotypic alterations in human saphenous vein culture induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipoproteins: a preliminary development of an initial atherosclerotic plaque model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of blood vessels particularly the arteries. The development of atherosclerotic plaques or atherogenesis is a complex process that is influenced by cardiovascular risk factors such as vascular inflammation and dyslipidemia. This study demonstrates the ability of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) to induce atherosclerotic plaque in human saphenous vein (HSV) organ culture. Methods Normal HSV segments, from male patients who had coronary bypass graft, were cultured in DMEM containing 5% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum. TNF-α (5 ng/ml) was applied in combination with native LDL (nLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) at the dose of 50 μg/ml for 14 days. The phenotypic changes of the organ cultures characteristic of initial atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated. The effect of anti-atherogenic agent, 17-β estradiol (E2), was also determined. Results Histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that HSV rings stimulated with TNF-α + nLDL or TNF-α + oxLDL can exhibit the essential morphological features of atherogenesis, including fibrous cap formation, cholesterol clefts, evident thickening of the intimal layer, increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and migration to the subendothelial layer, significant SMC foam cell formation, and increased expression of adhesion molecules in the vascular wall. Addition of E2 (50 nM) to the culture significantly modulated the critical changes. Consistently, mRNA profiling of the HSV model revealed that 50 of 84 genes of atherosclerosis were up-regulated. Conclusions Phenotypic changes characteristic of the initial development of atherosclerotic plaques can be induced in HSV organ culture. PMID:24010774

  19. Accuracy of the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Equation in a Large Contemporary, Multiethnic Real-World Population

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Jamal S.; Tabada, Grace H.; Solomon, Matthew D.; Lo, Joan C.; Jaffe, Marc G.; Sung, Sue Hee; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk equation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in contemporary and ethnically diverse populations is not well understood. Objectives We sought to evaluate the accuracy of the 2013 ACC/AHA risk equation within a large, multiethnic population in clinical care. Methods The target population for consideration of cholesterol-lowering therapy in a large, integrated health care delivery system population was identified in 2008 and followed through 2013. The main analyses excluded those with known ASCVD, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 or ≥190 mg/dl, prior statin use, or incomplete 5-year follow-up. Patient characteristics were obtained from electronic medical records and ASCVD events were ascertained using validated algorithms for hospitalization databases and death certificates. We compared predicted versus observed 5-year ASCVD risk, overall and by sex and race/ethnicity. We additionally examined predicted versus observed risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Results Among 307,591 eligible adults without diabetes between 40 and 75 years of age, 22,283 were black, 52,917 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 18,745 Hispanic. We observed 2,061 ASCVD events during 1,515,142 person-years. In each 5-year predicted ASCVD risk category, observed 5-year ASCVD risk was substantially lower: 0.20% for predicted risk <2.50%; 0.65% for predicted risk 2.50 to 3.74%; 0.90% for predicted risk 3.75 to 4.99%; and 1.85% for predicted risk ≥5.00%, with C: 0.74. Similar ASCVD risk overestimation and poor calibration with moderate discrimination (C: 0.68 to 0.74) was observed in sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status subgroups, and in sensitivity analyses among patients receiving statins for primary prevention. Calibration among 4,242 eligible adults with diabetes was improved, but discrimination was worse (C: 0.64). Conclusions

  20. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway is a promising target to reduce atherosclerotic plaque calcification.

    PubMed

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Luciano Viviani, Giorgio; Dallegri, Franco; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque calcification represents a common pathophysiologic process in the advanced phases of the disease. Both inflammatory and vascular cells (such as osteoblast-like cells, osteoclast-like cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells) are active players in the balance between intraplaque bone deposition and resorption. Inflammatory processes underlying plaque calcification are regulated by soluble mediators that also contribute to plaque destabilization and increased vulnerability. Among different mediators, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) ligand (RANKL)/osteoprogerin (OPG) system is a major determinant in inflammatory cell differentiation toward osteoclast-like cells. Thus, this system might be a promising parameter to be investigated as a marker of calcification-related cardiovascular risk and a therapeutic target. Despite some promising results, several limitations have been shown in the potential clinical use of serum RANKL/OPG to better assess the cardiovascular risk. At present, the potential relationship between RANKL/OPG and the content of calcium within the intima of the coronary arteries (CAC score, assessed by computed tomography) needs to be explored in large clinical studies. On the other hand, the antiatherosclerotic relevance of treatments antagonizing RANKL is still under investigation. Despite that clinical evidence is needed, this therapeutic approach might be of particular benefit in selective populations (such as rheumatoid arthritis patients) with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  1. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  2. Risk factors.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  3. Imaging of oxidation-specific epitopes with targeted nanoparticles to detect high-risk atherosclerotic lesions: Progress and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Briley-Saebo, Karen; Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) within developing atherosclerotic lesions are key antigens that drive innate and adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis, leading to chronic inflammation. Oxidized phospholipids and malondialdehyde-lysine epitopes are well-characterized OSE present in human atherosclerotic lesions, particularly in pathologically defined vulnerable plaques. Using murine and human OSE-specific antibodies as targeting agents, we have developed radionuclide and magnetic resonance based nanoparticles, containing gadolinium, manganese or lipid-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide, to noninvasively image OSE within experimental atherosclerotic lesions. These methods quantitate plaque burden, allow detection of lesion progression and regression, plaque stabilization, and accumulation of OSE within macrophage-rich areas of the artery wall, suggesting they detect the most active lesions. Future studies will focus on using “natural” antibodies, lipopeptides and mimotopes for imaging applications. These approaches should enhance the clinical translation of this technique to image, monitor, evaluate efficacy of novel therapeutic agents and guide optimal therapy of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25297940

  4. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: grand rounds discussion from the beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, Murray A; Taylor, William C; Smetana, Gerald; Burns, Risa B

    2015-08-18

    In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in adults. The recommendation identifies 4 patient groups with strong evidence that the benefits of reduction in ASCVD events from statin therapy exceed adverse events. For these patients, initiating statin therapy of an appropriate intensity to reduce ASCVD risk and minimize adverse effects is recommended. A new risk estimator based on a pooled cohort equation is presented for estimating 10-year ASCVD risk. There is also a recommendation to engage in a clinician-patient discussion before initiating a statin, especially for primary prevention of ASCVD. This paper summarizes a discussion between a cardiologist and an internist about how each clinician would balance these factors and what treatment they would suggest for an individual patient.

  5. [Demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and influential factors].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Huang, Lingzhi; Li, Lezhi

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) and influential factors. 
 Methods: Information demands for cardiac rehabilitation in CHD patients were surveyed by questionnaire and the influential factors were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and multi-factor analysis of variance.
 Results: The score of demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in CHD patients was 3.86±0.53. Among them, the most urgent top 5 items were: drug knowledge, diagnosis and treatment, basic knowledge of the heart, emergency and safety and nutrition knowledge. The top 3-demand modes were: communication with medical workers, movies or videos to take home, and lectures. The score of demands for cardiac rehabilitation information was different in different age groups. The highest score was in the patients with age less than 60. There were different demands in different characteristic groups.
 Conclusion: The most urgent need and mode are drug knowledge and communication with medical workers, respectively. With the age increase, the demands for patients' cardiac rehabilitation information decrease. An individualized health education strategy should be developed according to the characteristics of CHD patients.

  6. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-28

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques.

  7. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26828485

  8. Healthy lifestyle and risk of kidney disease progression, atherosclerotic events, and death in CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Cheryl A; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Fischer, Michael J; Dember, Laura M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Frydrych, Anne; Jensvold, Nancy G; Lustigova, Eva; Nessel, Lisa C; Porter, Anna C; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Daviglus, Martha L; Lash, James P

    2015-03-01

    In general populations, healthy lifestyle is associated with fewer adverse outcomes. We estimated the degree to which adherence to a healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of renal and cardiovascular events among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. 3,006 adults enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. 4 lifestyle factors (regular physical activity, body mass index [BMI] of 20-<25kg/m(2), nonsmoking, and "healthy diet"), individually and in combination. CKD progression (50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage renal disease), atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease), and all-cause mortality. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 4 years, we observed 726 CKD progression events, 355 atherosclerotic events, and 437 deaths. BMI≥25kg/m(2) and nonsmoking were associated with reduced risk of CKD progression (HRs of 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.97] and 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.82] for BMIs of 25 to <30 and ≥30kg/m(2), respectively, versus 20 to <25kg/m(2); HR for nonsmoking of 0.68 [95% CI, 0.55-0.84] compared to the current smoker reference group) and reduced risk of atherosclerotic events (HRs of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96] for BMI of 25-<30 vs 20-<25kg/m(2) and 0.55 [95% CI, 0.40-0.75] vs current smoker). Factors associated with reduced all-cause mortality were regular physical activity (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.79] vs inactive), BMI≥30kg/m(2) (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.96] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)), and nonsmoking (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.34-0.60] vs current smoker). BMI<20kg/m(2) was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.13-3.93] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)). Adherence to all 4 lifestyle factors was associated with a 68% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to adherence to no lifestyle factors (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.89). Lifestyle factors were measured only once. Regular physical activity, nonsmoking

  9. A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2014-03-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

  10. Nuclear microscopy of atherosclerotic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Selley, M.; Thong, P. S. P.; Tang, S. M.

    1995-09-01

    Of the many proposed coronary disease risk factors, the link between heart disease and stored iron has been the subject of recent interest. Samples of proximal thoracic aorta were taken from rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol for 12 weeks, and also from control animals. Unstained freeze dried sections were scanned using the nuclear microscope at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and results indicate that there is an eightfold increase in iron (from 12 ppm to 90 ppm) within the atherosclerotic lesion compared with normal tissue. This result adds weight to the theory that iron may act as a factor in the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which induces the formation of foam cells, characteristic of early atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  12. Atherosclerotic risk and social jetlag in rotating shift-workers: first evidence from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kantermann, Thomas; Duboutay, Françoise; Haubruge, Damien; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Skene, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify atherosclerotic risk using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in steel workers employed in different shift-work rotations, and to elucidate its relationship to social jetlag and shift schedule details. Male workers in a steel factory (n=77, 32 fast clockwise (CW), 30 slow counterclockwise (CC), 15 day workers (DW); mean age 42 ± SD 7.6 yrs) with at least 5 years of experience in their current work schedule participated. All workers completed questionnaires on demographics, health, psychotropic agents, sleep, social and work life, social jetlag (difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and days off used as a marker of circadian disruption) and chronotype (mid-sleep time on free days corrected for sleep deficit on workdays). In 63 workers we measured PWV, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) between 08:00 and 12:30 h in controlled posture conditions (no caffeine/smoking/exercise). There was no significant difference in PWV (covariates: age, BP) between the different shift-rotations (CW, CC and DW). In all workers combined, HR and social jetlag were significantly positively correlated. Demographic variables did not differ between shift-workers and day workers; shift-workers (CW, CC) reported significantly more stomach upsets, digestion problems, weight fluctuations, and social jetlag. The CW and CC workers did not differ in ratings of how shift-work affected sleep, social and work life. PWV was not different between the two shift-rotations. This pilot study shows first evidence that HR is related to social jetlag, and therefore warrants more studies in different shift schedules.

  13. Prediction of 10-year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Adults Aged 40-79 Years in China: a Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Li Min; Li, Yi Chong; Huang, Zheng Jing; Li, Jian Hong; Zhou, Mai Geng; Zhao, Wen Hua

    2017-04-01

    To establish the distribution of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Chinese adults. We estimated the 10-year ASCVD risk by applying the 2013 American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCEs) to the data obtained from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that involved 61,541 participants (representing 520,158,652 Chinese adults) aged 40-79 years. We also compared the ASCVD risk with the 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk, which was calculated using the simplified scoring tables recommended by the Chinese Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (Chinese model). Based on the PCEs, the average 10-year ASCVD risk among adults without self-reported stroke or myocardial infraction was 12.5%. Approximately 247 million (47.4%) and 107 million (20.6%) adults had ⋝ 7.5% and > 20% 10-year ASCVD risks, respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk > 20% was higher among men, less educated individuals, smokers, drinkers, and physically inactive individuals than among their counterparts. Overall, 29.0% of adults categorized using the Chinese model were overclassified with the PCEs. Our results define the distribution of 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults. The 10-year ASCVD risk predicted by the PCEs was higher than the ICVD risk predicted by the Chinese model. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Gremlin-1 is an inhibitor of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and attenuates atherosclerotic plaque growth in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Iris; Schönberger, Tanja; Schneider, Martina; Borst, Oliver; Ziegler, Melanie; Seizer, Peter; Leder, Christoph; Müller, Karin; Lang, Michael; Appenzeller, Florian; Lunov, Oleg; Büchele, Berthold; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Olbrich, Marcus; Langer, Harald; Geisler, Tobias; Lang, Florian; Chatterjee, Madhumita; de Boer, Jan Freark; Tietge, Uwe J F; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Simmet, Thomas; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2013-11-01

    Monocyte infiltration and macrophage formation are pivotal steps in atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability. Gremlin-1/Drm is crucial in embryo-/organogenesis and has been shown to be expressed in the adult organism at sites of arterial injury and to inhibit monocyte migration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the role of Gremlin-1 in atherosclerosis. Here we report that Gremlin-1 is highly expressed primarily by monocytes/macrophages in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and is secreted from activated monocytes and during macrophage development in vitro. Gremlin-1 reduces macrophage formation by inhibiting macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine critically involved in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. Gremlin-1 binds with high affinity to MIF (KD = 54 nm), as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, and reduces MIF-induced release of TNF-α from macrophages. Treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice with a dimeric recombinant fusion protein, mGremlin1-Fc, but not with equimolar control Fc or inactivated mGremlin1-Fc, reduced TNF-α expression, the content of monocytes/macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions, and attenuated atheroprogression. The present data disclose that Gremlin-1 is an endogenous antagonist of MIF and define a role for Gremlin-1/MIF interaction in atherosclerosis.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Morales, Dante D; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth; Sy, Rody G; Duante, Charmaine A

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its component risk factors among Filipinos using three sets of criteria and to evaluate the association between MS and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The study utilised a multi-staged cluster sampling design. The prevalence of MS was found to be 11.9% by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, 14.5% by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 18.6% by NCEP/ATP III criteria modified by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI) criteria. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) occurred in 60.2% of men and 80.9% of women. Abdominal obesity was noted in 17.7% of men and 35.1% of women. Blood pressure (BP) > or = 130/85 mmHg was seen in 33.3%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 20.6% and fasting blood sugar > or = 100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L) in 7.1%. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that MS, by all three definitions, predisposed an individual to diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke while MS by the IDF definition predisposed an individual to myocardial infarction (MI). Individuals with MS did not have a significant predisposition to angina and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thus, the metabolic syndrome is common in Filipinos, with low HDL-C as the most prevalent component. The metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes mellitus and stroke, with a tendency to MI using the IDF criteria.

  16. Localisation of members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and their receptors in human atherosclerotic arteries

    PubMed Central

    Belgore, F; Blann, A; Neil, D; Ahmed, A S; Lip, G Y H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediates endothelial cell mitogenesis and enhances vascular permeability. The existence of single or multiple VEGF isoforms and receptors suggests that these proteins may have overlapping but distinct functions, which may be reflected in their cell expression and distribution. Methods: The localisation of VEGFs A–C and their receptors (VEGFRs 1–3, respectively) in 30 fresh human atherosclerotic arteries, 15 normal uterine arteries, and 15 saphenous veins using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results: Saphenous veins showed no staining for VEGF-B or VEGFR-2. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) showed the strongest staining for VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in all specimens. Conversely, VEGFR-3 and VEGF-C were predominately localised to the endothelial vasa vasorum in normal arteries, whereas medial SMCs showed the strongest staining in atherosclerotic arteries. Western blotting showed variations in VEGF protein localisation, with lower amounts of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in saphenous veins, compared with arterial tissue. Amounts of VEGF-C were lower than those of VEGF-A and VEGF-B in all specimens. Conclusion: This study provides direct evidence of the presence of VEGF proteins and receptors in human physiology and pathology, with variations in both the amounts of VEGF proteins expressed and their cellular distribution in normal arteries compared with atherosclerotic arteries. The presence of VEGFs A–C and their receptors in normal arterial tissue implies that VEGF functions may extend beyond endothelial cell proliferation. Reduced VEGFR-2 staining in atherosclerotic arteries may have implications for the atherosclerosis process and the development of vascular disease and its complications. PMID:14990597

  17. A Study Design to Evaluate Association between Smoking and Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hairi; Lee, Dong-geun; Jung, Seung Chul; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Seon Moon; Kim, Bum Joon; Kim, Yeonjung; Cho, Hong Jun; Kim, Min-ju; Baek, Seung Hee; Jeon, Sang-Beom; Kim, Jong Sung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Smoking is a well known risk factor for stroke. The cerebral arteries may be uniquely susceptible to the atherosclerotic effects of smoking, such that it has a different risk profile for stroke compared with other atherosclerosis risk factors. It remains uncertain whether smoking is associated specifically with intracranial (IC) or extracranial (EC) atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study design will be to evaluate the association between smoking and severe IC stenosis, adjusting for other atherosclerosis risk factors, particularly age distribution. Study design This is a retrospective cohort study design. Participants are patients (n=1714) with severe atherosclerotic stenosis undergoing cerebral catheter angiography because of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. All atherosclerotic steno-occlusive lesions are described in terms of location (anterior versus posterior circulation, IC versus EC, or intradural versus extradural). The atherosclerotic or stroke risk factors for analysis include age, gender, smoking history, number of lesions (single versus multiple), cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history, dyslipidemia, history of previous stroke, alcohol intake, metabolic syndrome and body mass index. Statistical analysis includes univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression. The relationship between IC atherosclerotic stenosis and smoking will be assessed. Differences in risk factor distribution is analysed according to age at intervals of 10 years. Significant risk factors associated with IC atherosclerotic stenosis will also be assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Summary This is an analytical study design that intends to measure the association between IC or EC atherosclerotic stenosis and smoking and other risk factors. We anticipate that it will have the power to detect any relationship between smoking and IC atherosclerotic lesions especially in younger patients

  18. The Myth of “The Vulnerable Plaque”: Transitioning from a Focus on Individual Lesions to Atherosclerotic Disease Burden for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular science community has pursued the quest to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in patients for decades, hoping to prevent acute coronary events. However, despite major advancements in imaging technology that allow visualization of rupture-prone plaques, clinical studies have not demonstrated improved risk prediction compared to traditional approaches. Considering the complex relationship between plaque rupture and acute coronary event risk suggested by pathology studies and confirmed by clinical investigations, these results are not surprising. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a multifaceted hypothesis of the natural history of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Managing patients at risk of suffering acute coronary events mandates a greater focus on the atherosclerotic disease burden, rather than on features of individual plaques. PMID:25601032

  19. [Cardiovascular risk factors in young people].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Contreras, Mónica; Moreno-Gómez, Germán A; Marín-Grisales, Marta E; García-Ortiz, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves several disorders related to the formation and development of atherosclerotic processes. Several risk factors are involved in CVD aetiology; some of them (i.e. age, hypertension, obesity, dislipidemia and diabetes) have been clearly associated, whereas others have a variable level of association. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors has been recently reported in the young population; studies of cardiovascular risk factors in this population have shown that its cardiovascular risk profile could be different from that presented by older populations. This review presents a summary of reported cardiovascular risk factors in the young population and their causes which have been released and indexed in different databases. Most factors discussed are life-habit risk factors and represent direct targets for clinical intervention. We propose that primary CVD prevention should include a more detailed knowledge of the nature of the risk factors concerning the young population and could have a positive impact on CVD prevalence during the next few years.

  20. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua R; Calver, Janine; Zhu, Kun; Flicker, Leon; Prince, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that calcium supplementation, a key intervention for preventing osteoporotic fracture in older women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To evaluate the risk further, an examination of complete verified atherosclerotic vascular hospitalization and mortality data from a 5-year randomized, controlled trial (RCT) of calcium carbonate and 4.5 years of posttrial follow-up was undertaken. This study used data from a published 5-year randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial [Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS)]. The participants were 1460 women aged 75.1 ± 2.7 years at baseline (1998) recruited from the general population and randomized to receive 1200 mg of calcium carbonate daily or an identical placebo. All hospital admission and deaths during the 5-year study and the 4.5-year follow-up were derived from the Western Australian Data Linkage Service (WADLS). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint of atherosclerotic vascular mortality or first hospitalization were calculated using prespecified intention-to-treat and per-protocol models. The intervention group that received calcium supplementation did not have a higher risk of death or first-time hospitalization from atherosclerotic vascular disease in either the 5-year RCT [multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.938, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-1.275] or during the 9.5 years of observational study (multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.737-1.146). Further analysis suggested that calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This trial provides compelling evidence that calcium supplementation of 1200 mg daily does not significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in elderly women.

  1. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still unknown. Scientists ... help find improved therapies and a cure for scleroderma! Your gift today will be matched to have ...

  2. Performance of the Pooled Cohort Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score in Hepatitis C Virus-infected Persons.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kara W; Bhattacharya, Debika; Horwich, Tamara B; Yan, Peng; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Freiberg, Matthew S; Currier, Judith S; Butt, Adeel A

    2017-03-08

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The recommended Pooled Cohort Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk equation for estimation of 10-year CVD risk has not been validated in HCV-infected populations. We examined the performance of the ASCVD risk score in HCV-infected persons, using the national Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) to derive a cohort of HCV-infected and uninfected subjects without baseline ASCVD, hepatitis B, or HIV infection, and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level<190 mg/dL. Performance of the ASCVD risk equation was assessed by Cox proportional hazard regression, C-statistics, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The cohort included 70,490 HCV-infected and 97,766 HCV-uninfected men with mean age of 55 years, 56% white and 29% black. Incident CVD event rates were similar between the two groups (13.2 and 13.4 events/1000 person-years), with a higher incidence of coronary heart disease events in the HCV-uninfected group and of stroke events in the HCV-infected group. Adjusting for ASCVD risk score, HCV infection was associated with higher risk for an ASCVD event in the subgroup with baseline ASCVD risk ≥7.5% (HR 1.19, p<0.0001). C-statistics were poor in both the HCV-infected and uninfected groups (0.60 and 0.61, respectively). By Hosmer-Lemeshow test, the ASCVD risk equation overestimated risk amongst lower risk patients and underestimated risk amongst higher risk patients in both the HCV-infected and uninfected groups. Further investigation is needed to determine if a modified equation to accurately predict ASCVD risk in HCV-infected persons is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors associated with high cardiovascular risk in a primarily African American, urban HIV-infected population

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Shashwatee; Burrowes, Shana AB; Fantry, Lori E; Hossain, Mian B; Tollera, Gemechis H; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Pauza, C David; Miller, Michael; Baumgarten, Mona; Redfield, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a high-risk patient population. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Methods: One-hundred patients at an inner city HIV clinic in 2008 were reviewed. The atherosclerotic vascular disease risk score was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equation. Chi-square test was performed to identify associations of potential risk factors with elevated atherosclerotic vascular disease risk. Results: Eighty-one participants were included in the final analysis. In total, 95.1% were African American, and 38.3% were women. The median atherosclerotic vascular disease risk score was 8.8% and 8.1% in 2008 and 2012, respectively. The medical co-morbidities associated with increased atherosclerotic vascular disease risk were hepatitis C infection (X2 = 3.93; p value = 0.048), elevated triglycerides levels (X2 = 4.0; p value = 0.046), and low albumin (X2 = 4.65; p value = 0.031). There were a higher number of women with known atherosclerotic vascular disease despite lower median atherosclerotic vascular disease risk score compared to men. Conclusion: An elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease persists in high-risk demographic groups of the HIV epidemic even in the current HIV era. There is an unexplained gender disparity and some non-traditional risk factors not accounted for in the Pooled Cohort Equation may be contributing to the excess cardiovascular disease risk observed among HIV-infected patients. PMID:28839941

  4. Diagnosis and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Roy O; Bangalore, Sripal; Lavelle, Michael P; Pellikka, Patricia A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Boden, William E; Asif, Arif

    2016-12-28

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, likely reflecting the presence of traditional risk factors. A greater distinguishing feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in CKD is the severity of the disease, which is reflective of an increase in inflammatory mediators and vascular calcification secondary to hyperparathyroidism of renal origin that are unique to patients with CKD. Additional components of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that are prominent in patients with CKD include microvascular disease and myocardial fibrosis. Therapeutic interventions that minimize cardiovascular events related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD, as determined by well-designed clinical trials, are limited to statins. Data are lacking regarding other available therapeutic measures primarily due to exclusion of patients with CKD from major trials studying cardiovascular disease. Data from well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to guide clinicians who care for this high-risk population in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to improve clinical outcomes.

  5. Cyclic Bending Contributes to High Stress in a Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque and Rupture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:19412353

  6. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and protein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M. E.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.; Lipton, B. A.; Ord, V. A.; Witztum, J. L.; Steinberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate the expression of mRNA and the presence of protein for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and rabbits. In situ hybridization of serial sections of human fatty streaks demonstrated expression of MCSF mRNA by cells dispersed throughout the lesions. Immunocytochemical staining with a panel of MCSF-specific antibodies showed extensive cell-associated staining of all of the cell types in the lesions. Immunocytochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions from Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and cholesterol-fed rabbits demonstrated a similar cell-associated pattern of staining. There was no MCSF-specific staining of aortas from normal rabbits or of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from either humans or rabbits. Macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of ballooned, cholesterol-fed rabbits. A Northern blot demonstrated that RNA isolated from the MFC hybridized with a human cDNA probe for MCSF. RNA from alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not hybridize with the MCSF probe. Conditioned media from an 18- to 24-hour incubation of the MFC contained colony-stimulating activity as demonstrated in a mouse bone marrow culture assay. Most of this colony-stimulating activity was neutralized by preincubating the conditioned media with an MCSF-specific antibody. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1739123

  7. [Atorvastatin inhibits the atherosclerotic lesion induced by tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Laso, Valvanera; Sastre, Cristina; Egido, Jesús; Martín-Ventura, Jose L; Blanco-Colio, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) with its receptor Fn14 accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE deficient mice (ApoE KO). In this work, an analysis has been made on the effect of an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on atherosclerotic plaque development accelerated by TWEAK in ApoE KO mice. Eight week-old ApoE KO mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. The animals were then randomized into 3 groups: mice injected i.p. with saline, recombinant TWEAK (10 μg/kg/twice a week), or recombinant TWEAK plus atorvastatin (1 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The lesion size, cellular composition, lipid and collagen content were analyzed, as well as inflammatory response in atherosclerotic plaques present in aortic root of mice. TWEAK treated mice showed an increase in atherosclerotic plaque size, as well as in collagen/lipid ratio compared with control mice. In addition, macrophage content, MCP-1 and RANTES expression, and NF-κB activation were augmented in atherosclerotic plaques present in aortic root of TWEAK treated mice compared with control mice. Treatment with atorvastatin prevented all these changes induced by TWEAK in atherosclerotic lesions. Atorvastatin treatment also decreased Fn14 expression in the atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE KO mice. Atorvastatin prevents the pro-atherogenic effects induced by TWEAK in ApoE KO mice, which could be related to the inhibition of Fn14 expression. The results of this study provide new information on the beneficial effects of statin treatment in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction analysis of the new pooled cohort equations for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimation: a simulation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schiros, Chun G; Denney, Thomas S; Gupta, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the individual and interacting impacts of the continuous variables (age, total cholesterol (total-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and systolic blood pressure(BP)) on 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and better understand the pattern of predicted 10-year risk with change of each variable using recently published new pooled cohort equations. Design Simulation analysis was performed across the whole range of the boundary limits suggested for the continuous variables for groupings based on race and gender in the pooled cohort 10-year risk equations. Setting Computer-based simulation analysis. Participants Data were generated by simulation using prespecified variable ranges. Intervention Data simulation and visual display of the hazard analysis. Main outcome measures Interactions of age with other variables were analysed using multidimensional visualisation and hazard analysis. Results In African–American females, due to the interaction of age with HDL-C, treated BP and untreated BP, increasing age may not always increase 10-year risk. Furthermore, in the same cohort, increasing HDL-C level may result in higher 10-year risk for older individuals. For Caucasian females, due to square of Ln (age) term in the equation, the age-risk curve does not monotonically increase with age. The vertex is within the given age range of 40–79 years for a certain range of total-C and HDL-C, indicating that age may not always result in increased predicted 10-year risk. Conclusions The new pooled cohort equations are sophisticated as they take into account the interactions of the continuous variables in predicting 10-year risk. We find situations where the estimated 10-year risk does not follow the general secular trends. The impact of such interesting patterns may be substantial and therefore further exploration is needed as it has direct implications in clinical management for primary prevention. PMID:25941176

  9. Cerebral small vessel disease and risk of death, ischemic stroke, and cardiac complications in patients with atherosclerotic disease: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study.

    PubMed

    Conijn, Mandy M A; Kloppenborg, Raoul P; Algra, Ale; Mali, Willem P Th M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Vincken, Koen L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2011-11-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease may be related to vascular and nonvascular pathology. We assessed whether lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions on MRI increased the risk of vascular and nonvascular death and future vascular events in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Brain MRI was performed in 1309 patients with atherosclerotic disease from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study. Infarcts were scored visually and volumetric assessment of white matter lesion was performed. Patients were followed for a median of 4.5 years (range, 0.2 to 7.1 years) for death, ischemic stroke, and ischemic cardiac complications. Cox regression models showed that presence of lacunar infarcts (n=229) increased the risk of vascular (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.9) and nonvascular death (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.3), adjusted for age, sex, vascular risk factors, nonlacunar infarcts, and white matter lesion. These risks were similar for patients with silent lacunar infarcts. White matter lesion volume (relative to total intracranial volume) increased the risk of vascular death (hazard ratio per milliliter increase, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05) and white matter lesions in the upper quintile compared with lower quintiles increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.9). Cerebral small vessel disease, with or without a history of cerebrovascular disease, is associated with increased risk of death and ischemic stroke in patients with atherosclerotic disease.

  10. The BioImage Study: novel approaches to risk assessment in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease--study design and objectives.

    PubMed

    Muntendam, Pieter; McCall, Carol; Sanz, Javier; Falk, Erling; Fuster, Valentin

    2010-07-01

    The identification of asymptomatic individuals at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events to ensure optimal preventive treatment remains a challenging goal. In the BioImage Study, novel approaches are tested in a typical health-plan population. Based on certain demographic and risk characteristics on file with Humana Inc, a total of 7,687 men 55 to 80 years of age and women 60 to 80 years of age without evidence of atherothrombotic disease but presumed to be at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events were enrolled between January 2008 and June 2009. Those who met the prespecified eligibility criteria were randomized to a telephonic health survey only (survey only: n = 865), standard risk assessment (Framingham only: n = 718), or comprehensive risk assessment in a dedicated mobile facility equipped with advanced imaging tools (n = 6,104). Baseline examination included assessment of cardiovascular risk factors and screening for subclinical (asymptomatic) atherosclerosis with quantification of coronary artery calcification by computed tomography (CT), measurement of intima-media thickness, presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques and abdominal aortic aneurysm by ultrasound, and ankle brachial index. Participants with one or more abnormal screening test results underwent advanced imaging with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for carotid and aortic plaques, contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography for luminal stenosis and noncalcified plaques, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT for carotid and aortic plaque inflammation. Plasma, PAXgene RNA, and DNA samples were obtained, frozen, and stored for future biomarker discovery studies. All individuals will be followed until 600 major atherothrombotic events have occurred in those undergoing imaging. The BioImage Study will help identify those patients with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events and enable a more personalized management of

  11. Accuracy of the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Equation in a Large Contemporary, Multiethnic Population.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Tabada, Grace H; Solomon, Matthew D; Lo, Joan C; Jaffe, Marc G; Sung, Sue Hee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Go, Alan S

    2016-05-10

    The accuracy of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort Risk Equation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in contemporary and ethnically diverse populations is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the 2013 ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Risk Equation within a large, multiethnic population in clinical care. The target population for consideration of cholesterol-lowering therapy in a large, integrated health care delivery system population was identified in 2008 and followed up through 2013. The main analyses excluded those with known ASCVD, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 or ≥190 mg/dl, prior lipid-lowering therapy use, or incomplete 5-year follow-up. Patient characteristics were obtained from electronic medical records, and ASCVD events were ascertained by using validated algorithms for hospitalization databases and death certificates. We compared predicted versus observed 5-year ASCVD risk, overall and according to sex and race/ethnicity. We additionally examined predicted versus observed risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Among 307,591 eligible adults without diabetes between 40 and 75 years of age, 22,283 were black, 52,917 were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 18,745 were Hispanic. We observed 2,061 ASCVD events during 1,515,142 person-years. In each 5-year predicted ASCVD risk category, observed 5-year ASCVD risk was substantially lower: 0.20% for predicted risk <2.50%; 0.65% for predicted risk 2.50% to <3.75%; 0.90% for predicted risk 3.75% to <5.00%; and 1.85% for predicted risk ≥5.00% (C statistic: 0.74). Similar ASCVD risk overestimation and poor calibration with moderate discrimination (C statistic: 0.68 to 0.74) were observed in sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status subgroups, and in sensitivity analyses among patients receiving statins for primary prevention. Calibration among 4,242 eligible adults

  12. Management of Atherosclerotic Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Marcin; Gamberdella, Jacqueline; Mena, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Development of aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) is associated with classic risk factors for atherosclerotic disease such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, or smoking. Risk factor modification, smoking cessation, and prevention of cardiovascular events remain the cornerstones of AIOD management. Symptom improvement and limb loss prevention are considered secondary goals of therapy. Continuous technological advances, new devices, as well as new revascularization techniques are constantly changing the landscape of AIOD management. Surgical interventions, which were considered a gold standard therapy for nearly 50 years, currently give way to newer and less invasive endovascular techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the B Cell Growth Factor APRIL on the Qualitative and Immunological Characteristics of Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; van Leuven, Sander I; Zheng, Kang H; Havik, Stefan R; Versloot, Miranda V; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M; Hahne, Michael; Stroes, Erik S G; Baeten, Dominique L; Hamers, Anouk A J

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the role of B lymphocytes in atherosclerosis development, have yielded contradictory results. Whereas B lymphocyte-deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis in mice; depletion of mature B lymphocytes reduces atherosclerosis. These observations led to the notion that distinct B lymphocyte subsets have different roles. B1a lymphocytes exert an atheroprotective effect, which has been attributed to secretion of IgM, which can be deposited in atherosclerotic lesions thereby reducing necrotic core formation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family member 'A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand' (APRIL, also known as TNFSF13) was previously shown to increase serum IgM levels in a murine model. In this study, we investigated the effect of APRIL overexpression on advanced lesion formation and composition, IgM production and B cell phenotype. We crossed APRIL transgenic (APRIL-Tg) mice with ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. After a 12-week Western Type Diet, ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice and ApoE-/- littermates showed similar increases in body weight and lipid levels. Histologic evaluation showed no differences in lesion size, stage or necrotic area. However, smooth muscle cell (α-actin stain) content was increased in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice, implying more stable lesions. In addition, increases in both plaque IgM deposition and plasma IgM levels were found in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice compared with ApoE-/- mice. Flow cytometry revealed a concomitant increase in peritoneal B1a lymphocytes in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice. This study shows that ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice have increased oxLDL-specific serum IgM levels, potentially mediated via an increase in B1a lymphocytes. Although no differences in lesion size were found, transgenic ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice do show potential plaque stabilizing features in advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  14. Impact of the B Cell Growth Factor APRIL on the Qualitative and Immunological Characteristics of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    van Leuven, Sander I.; Zheng, Kang H.; Havik, Stefan R.; Versloot, Miranda V.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.; Hahne, Michael; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Baeten, Dominique L.; Hamers, Anouk A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the role of B lymphocytes in atherosclerosis development, have yielded contradictory results. Whereas B lymphocyte-deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis in mice; depletion of mature B lymphocytes reduces atherosclerosis. These observations led to the notion that distinct B lymphocyte subsets have different roles. B1a lymphocytes exert an atheroprotective effect, which has been attributed to secretion of IgM, which can be deposited in atherosclerotic lesions thereby reducing necrotic core formation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family member ‘A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand’ (APRIL, also known as TNFSF13) was previously shown to increase serum IgM levels in a murine model. In this study, we investigated the effect of APRIL overexpression on advanced lesion formation and composition, IgM production and B cell phenotype. We crossed APRIL transgenic (APRIL-Tg) mice with ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. After a 12-week Western Type Diet, ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice and ApoE-/- littermates showed similar increases in body weight and lipid levels. Histologic evaluation showed no differences in lesion size, stage or necrotic area. However, smooth muscle cell (α-actin stain) content was increased in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice, implying more stable lesions. In addition, increases in both plaque IgM deposition and plasma IgM levels were found in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice compared with ApoE-/- mice. Flow cytometry revealed a concomitant increase in peritoneal B1a lymphocytes in ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice. This study shows that ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice have increased oxLDL-specific serum IgM levels, potentially mediated via an increase in B1a lymphocytes. Although no differences in lesion size were found, transgenic ApoE-/-APRIL-Tg mice do show potential plaque stabilizing features in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27820817

  15. Accuracy of Pooled-Cohort Equation and SCORE cardiovascular risk calculators to identify individuals with high coronary atherosclerotic burden - implications for statin treatment.

    PubMed

    Tralhão, António; Ferreira, António M; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Rodrigues, Rita; Costa, Cátia; Guerreiro, Sara; Cardim, Nuno; Marques, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Different cardiovascular risk calculators and risk-based thresholds for initiating statin therapy are currently in use. Using coronary computed tomography angiography, we sought to compare the Pooled-Cohort Equation [atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score] with the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in the identification of patients with high coronary atherosclerotic burden. In a single-center prospective registry of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography, we identified individuals aged 40-75 years without diabetes or known cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk and eligibility for statin therapy were determined individually on the basis of the two calculators and the guidelines that endorse them. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was assessed by coronary calcium score, presence of stenosis greater than or equal to 50%, and several measures of plaque severity and extension. In the 327 patients assessed (181 men, mean age 59±9 years), the median SCORE and ASCVD values were 2.6 and 9.7%, respectively. Compared with SCORE, the ASCVD calculator showed greater discriminative power to identify patients with calcium score greater than or equal to 300 [C-statistic 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.82 vs. 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, P=0.008] and showed a trend toward better identification of patients with obstructive stenosis (C-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.64-0.80 vs. 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.76, P=0.053). The proportion of statin-eligible patients would be higher with the SCORE-based criteria, particularly among individuals with little or no detectable coronary atherosclerosis. The SCORE calculator seems to be less discriminative than the ASCVD equation in identifying patients with high atherosclerotic burden. Current SCORE-based criteria would assign statin therapy to a larger proportion of patients with low-risk features, which could result in a lower yield of cholesterol-reducing strategies.

  16. The Roles of Lipid Oxidation Products and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Signaling in Atherosclerotic Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Linda; Tintut, Yin

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the roles of oxylipids and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) signaling in calcific cardiovascular disease. Both intimal and valvular calcification are closely associated with atherosclerosis, leading investigators to study the role of atherogenic oxidatively modified lipids (oxylipids). Results have identified the molecular signaling through which oxylipids induce osteogenic differentiation and calcification in vascular cells. A surprising concomitant finding was that, in bona fide osteoblasts from skeletal bone, oxylipids have the opposite effect, i.e. inhibiting osteoblastic maturation. This is the basis for the lipid hypothesis of osteoporosis. Oxylipids also induce resorptive osteoclastic cells within the bone environment, raising the question of whether resorptive osteoclasts can be harnessed in the vascular context for cell-based therapy to remove artery wall mineral deposits. The challenge is that, vascular cells produce anti-osteoclastogenic factors, including the soluble decoy receptor for RANKL, possibly accounting for the paucity of resorptive cells and the dominance of mineral in atherosclerotic plaque. These factors may have therapeutic use in osteoclastogenic removal of mineral deposits from arteries. PMID:21659652

  17. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  18. The effect of revascularization in patients with anatomically significant atherosclerotic renovascular disease presenting with high-risk clinical features.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Diana; Ritchie, James; Green, Darren; Chrysochou, Constantina; Kalra, Philip A

    2017-03-23

    Patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) and high-risk clinical presentations have largely been excluded from randomized controlled trials comparing renal revascularization and optimal medical therapy. Here, we explore the effect of revascularization on death, progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and cardiovascular events (CVE) in a highly selected cohort of patients with ARVD. All patients with a radiological diagnosis of ARVD referred to our tertiary centre have been recruited into a single-centre cohort study between 1986 and 2014. Patients with ≥70% unilateral or bilateral ARVD together with one or more of the following putative high-risk presentations were designated 'high-risk': flash pulmonary oedema (FPE), severe hypertension, rapidly deteriorating renal function. The effect of revascularization on clinical outcomes in high-risk patients, patients with bilateral severe ARVD and those with <1 g proteinuria at baseline was compared with 'control' patients who had the same degree of renal artery stenosis (RAS) but did not exhibit these features. Median follow-up was 58.4 months [interquartile range (IQR) 25.4-97.3]. Revascularization was associated with a reduced risk of progression to ESKD, CVE and all combined events in patients with rapidly deteriorating renal function [ESKD: hazard ratio (HR) 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.25-0.85), P = 0.01; CVE: HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.91), P = 0.02; Any: HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.90), P = 0.02]. High-risk patients with bilateral ≥70% RAS and those with <1 g/day baseline proteinuria also had significantly better renal and cardiovascular outcomes post-revascularization when compared with controls. Our results indicate that revascularization may be of benefit in patients with anatomically significant RAS who present with rapidly deteriorating renal function, especially in the presence of severe bilateral ARVD or <1 g/day proteinuria.

  19. Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children: Risk Factors and Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Numis, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity or mortality in children and as a financial burden for families and society. Recent studies have identified and confirmed presumptive risk factors and have identified novel associations with childhood arterial ischemic stroke. A better understanding of these risk factors for stroke in children, which differ from the atherosclerotic risk factors in adults, is the first step needed to improve strategies for stroke prevention and intervention and ultimately minimize the physical, mental and financial burden of AIS. Here, we discuss recent advances in research for selected childhood stroke risk factors, highlighting the progress made in our understanding of etiologic mechanisms and pathophysiology, and address the future directions for acute and long-term treatment strategies for pediatric stroke. PMID:24384876

  20. [Risk factors for stroke].

    PubMed

    Mandić, Milan; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of mortality both in men and in women throughout the world. In Serbia, stroke is the first cause of mortality in women older than 55 years of age and the second cause of death in men of the same age. Both ischemic heart diseases and ischemic stroke correlate with the same predisposing, potentially modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus). Stroke does not usually occur on its own. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of associated medical problems. These conditions may predict the stroke ("preexisting conditions"), occur for the first time after stroke ("post-stroke complications"), or present as manifestations of preexisting medical conditions after stroke. Risk factors for stroke are divided into the three groups: risk factors which cannot be influenced on such as: age, gender, positive family history of stroke, race: those which are modifiable such as: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking cigarettes, obesity, physical inactivity and the third group consists of potential risk factors for stroke (consumption of alcohol, hormones, changes in fibrinolysis, changes in blood. Stroke remains a leading cause of long-term disability and premature death of both men and women. Consequently, stroke survivors are often handicapped and doomed to sedentary lifestyle which restrains performance of activities of daily living, increases the risk for falls, and may contribute to a higher risk for recurrent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Prevention of stroke is still a great medical and social problem. Further studies are required to investigate potential risk factors for the occurrence of stroke as well as the measures of primary and secondary prevention.

  1. Association of eNOS and Cav-1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility risk of large artery atherosclerotic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chen, Ming-Hua; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Shieh, Jia-Ching; Yen, Ling-Rong; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is localized in caveole and has important effects on caveolar coordination through its interaction with caveolin-1 (Cav-1), which supports normal functioning of vascular endothelial cells. However, the relationship between genotypic polymorphisms of e-NOS and Cav-1 genes and ischemic stroke (IS) remains lesser reported. This hospital-based case-control study aimed to determine the genetic polymorphisms of the eNOS (Glu298Asp) and Cav-1 (G14713A and T29107A) genes in association with susceptibility risk in patients who had suffered from a large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke. Genotyping determination for these variant alleles was performed using the TaqMan assay. The distributions of observed allelic and genotypic frequencies for the polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in healthy controls. The risk for an LAA stroke in the Asp298 variant was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.09–2.75) versus Glu298 of the eNOS. In the GA/AA (rs3807987) variant, it was 1.79 (95% CI = 1.16–2.74) versus GG and in TA/AA (rs7804372) was 1.61 (95% CI = 1.06–2.43) versus TT of the Cav-1, respectively. A tendency toward an increased LAA stroke risk was significant in carriers with the eNOS Glu298Asp variant in conjunction with the G14713 A and T29107A polymorphisms of the Cav-1 (aOR = 2.03, P-trend = 0.002). A synergistic effect between eNOS and Cav-1 polymorphisms on IS risk elevation was significantly influenced by alcohol drinking, heavy cigarette smoking (P-trend<0.01), and hypercholesterolemia (P-trend < 0.001). In conclusion, genotypic polymorphisms of the eNOS Glu298Asp and Cav-1 14713A/29107A polymorphisms are associated with the elevated risk of LAA stroke among Han Chinese in Taiwan. PMID:28346478

  2. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  3. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in College Students12

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18–24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction. PMID:24618758

  4. Coronary heart disease risk factors in college students.

    PubMed

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E

    2014-03-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction.

  5. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  6. Nanotechnologic biosensor ellipsometry and biomarker pattern analysis in the evaluation of atherosclerotic risk profile.

    PubMed

    Siegel, G; Rodríguez, M; Sauer, F; Abletshauser, C; de Mey, C; Schötz, K; Ringstad, L; Malmsten, M; Schäfer, P

    2009-01-01

    A proteoheparan sulfate coated, hydrophobic silica surface serves as lipoprotein receptor at which the Ca(2+)-driven arteriosclerotic nanoplaque formation can be pursued by laser-based ellipsometry. Any lipoprotein from human blood can be very sensitively tested for its atherogenic properties. From the same blood sample, it is possible to determine the concentration and activity of a series of interacting biomarker molecules which, through a pattern analysis, allow to assess the state of health with respect to cardiovascular diseases. These two interlinked and complementary biosensors make a prospective cardio-cerebro-vascular risk stratification feasible, especially the sequelae of an underlying arteriosclerotic disease. Based on these diagnostic tools, an optimized therapy decision for the patient can be taken and the necessary preventive measures for the still healthy person.

  7. Prevalence of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the General Population: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Suri, Muhammad Fareed K; Qiao, Ye; Ma, Xiaoye; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhou, Jincheng; Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Li; Chu, Haitao; Qureshi, Adnan I; Alonso, Alvaro; Folsom, Aaron R; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-05-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of stroke, but little is known about its epidemiology. We studied the prevalence of ICAS and its association with vascular risk factors using high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography in a US cardiovascular cohort. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study recruited participants from 4 US communities from 1987 to 1989. Using stratified sampling, we selected 1980 participants from visit 5 (2011-2013) for high-resolution 3T-magnetic resonance angiography. All images were analyzed in a centralized laboratory, and ICAS was graded as: no stenosis, <50% stenosis, 50% to 69% stenosis, 70% to 99% stenosis, and complete occlusion. We calculated per-vessel and per-person prevalence of ICAS (weighted for n=6538 visit 5 participants) and also estimated the US prevalence. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables independently associated with ICAS. Subjects who had an adequate magnetic resonance angiography (n=1765) were aged 67 to 90 years, 41% were men, 70% were white, and 29% were black. ICAS was prevalent in 31% of participants and 9% had ICAS ≥50%. Estimated US prevalence of ICAS ≥50% for 65 to 90 years old was 8% for whites and 12% for blacks. Older age, black race, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were associated with increased odds of ICAS, whereas higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were associated with decreased odds of ICAS. Body mass index and smoking were not associated with ICAS. The prevalence of ICAS in older adults is high, and it could be a target for primary prevention of stroke and dementia in this population. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. LOX-1 in atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-02-02

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits various biological activities and accumulates in atheromas. LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor) is the receptor that mediates oxidized LDL activity in vascular endothelial cells. Activation of LOX-1 results in oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and hyperlipidemia-induced vascular lipid deposition. We hypothesized that LOX-1 is a candidate risk factor beyond LDL cholesterol (LDLC) and developed a novel assay to quantify LOX-1 ligand containing apoB (LAB). In men from the United States, serum LAB showed a significant positive association with carotid intima-media thickness, independent of LDLC. LAB and the LOX index (obtained by multiplying LAB by sLOX-1) were significantly associated with the incidence of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors, including non-HDL cholesterol. sLOX-1 is thought to be a better biomarker for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome than traditional biomarkers, including troponin T. LAB was associated with various atherosclerotic risk factors such as smoking, obesity, diabetes, diastolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Measurement of the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and LAB seems to be useful for evaluating the state and risk of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Further prospective studies using large populations and randomized clinical trials on sLOX-1, LAB, and the LOX index are needed.

  9. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  10. The ABCA1 Gene R230C Variant Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Premature Coronary Artery Disease: The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Antúnez-Argüelles, Erika; Bautista-Grande, Araceli; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aída; González-Salazar, María del Carmen; Martínez-Alvarado, Rocío; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Carnevale, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Background ABCA1 genetic variation is known to play a role in HDL-C levels and various studies have also implicated ABCA1 variation in cardiovascular risk. The functional ABCA1/R230C variant is frequent in the Mexican population and has been consistently associated with low HDL-C concentrations. Although it has been associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not known whether it is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the ABCA1/R230C variant is associated with premature CAD in a case-control association study (GEA or Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease), and to explore whether BMI modulates the effect of the C230 allele on other metabolic traits using a population-based design. Results The C230 allele was significantly associated with both lower HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD as compared to controls (OR = 0.566; Padd = 1.499×10−5). In addition, BMI modulated the effect of R230C on body fat distribution, as the correlation between BMI and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) was negative in RR homozygous individuals, but positive in premenopausal women bearing the C230 allele, with a statistically significant interaction (P = 0.005). BMI-R230C interaction was also significant for triglyceride levels in women regardless of their menopausal status (P = 0.036). Conclusion This is the first study assessing the effect of the R230C/ABCA1 variant in remature CAD. C230 was associated with both decreased HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD, and gender-specific BMI-R230C interactions were observed for different metabolic traits. These interactions may help explain inconsistencies in associations, and underscore the need to further analyze interactions of this functional and frequent variant with diet, exercise and other

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  12. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications.

  13. Plasma-parathyroid hormone is associated with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic disease in 2 community-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hagström, Emil; Michaëlsson, Karl; Melhus, Håkan; Hansen, Thomas; Ahlström, Håkan; Johansson, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Sundström, Johan; Lind, Lars; Arnlöv, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors have different impact on different arterial territories. Diseases with elevated circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) such as primary hyperparathyroidism and chronic renal failure have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, predominantly heart or cerebrovascular diseases. However, data on the associations between circulating PTH and peripheral atherosclerosis are limited. Two prospective, community-based studies were used. In 306 men and women, who were 70 years old, from the Prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study, cross-sectional relations between PTH and atherosclerotic burden assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance angiography were investigated. In 998 men, who were 71 years old, from the Uppsala longitudinal study of adult men (ULSAM) study, the association between PTH concentration and risk of subsequent nonfatal atherosclerotic disease (excluding coronary or cerebrovascular disease) was investigated. Adjusting for established vascular risk factors, PTH was associated with burden of atherosclerosis (increase in total atherosclerotic score per SD PTH increase: 0.04, 0.003-0.08; P=0.03) in the PIVUS study. During follow-up in the ULSAM study (median 16.7 years), 89 men were diagnosed with nonfatal atherosclerotic disease. In Cox-regression analyses adjusting for established vascular risk factors and mineral metabolism, higher PTH was associated with an increased risk of nonfatal atherosclerotic disease (hazard ratio for 1 SD increase of PTH: 1.55, 1.33-1.88; P<0.0001). Results were similar when including fatal atherosclerotic disease in the outcome. In 2 independent community-based cohorts, PTH was associated to the degree of atherosclerosis and risk of clinically overt atherosclerotic disease, respectively. Our data confirm and extend previous studies supporting a role for PTH in the development of atherosclerotic disease. © 2014 American Heart

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score among HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Linda C.; Palai, Tommy; Nkele, Isaac; Bennett, Kara; Lockman, Shahin; Triant, Virginia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, general population CVD risk prediction equations that identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk have not been widely assessed in sub-Saharan African (SSA). Methods HIV-infected adults from 30–50 years of age with documented viral suppression were enrolled into a cross-sectional study in Gaborone, Botswana. Participants were screened for CVD risk factors. Bilateral carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured and 10-year predicted risk of cardiovascular disease was calculated using the Pooled Cohorts Equation for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and the 2008 Framingham Risk Score (FRS) (National Cholesterol Education Program III–NCEP III). ASCVD ≥7.5%, FRS ≥10%, and cIMT≥75th percentile were considered elevated risk for CVD. Agreement in classification of participants as high-risk for CVD by cIMT and FRS or ASCVD risk score was assessed using McNemar`s Test. The optimal cIMT cut off-point that matched ASCVD predicted risk of ≥7.5% was assessed using Youden’s J index. Results Among 208 HIV-infected patients (female: 55%, mean age 38 years), 78 (38%) met criteria for ASCVD calculation versus 130 (62%) who did not meet the criteria. ASCVD classified more participants as having elevated CVD risk than FRS (14.1% versus 2.6%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.01), while also classifying similar proportion of participants as having elevated CVD like cIMT (14.1% versus 19.2%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.34). Youden’s J calculated the optimal cut point at the 81st percentile for cIMT to correspond to an ASCVD score ≥7.5% (sensitivity = 72.7% and specificity = 88.1% with area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic [AUC] of 0.82, 95% Mann-Whitney CI: 0.66–0.99). Conclusion While the ASCVD risk score classified more patients at elevated CVD risk than FRS, ASCVD score classified similar proportion of patients as high risk when compared with

  15. [Psycho-pathological risk factor of arterial disease (prevalence, superposition or vinculation with other factors)].

    PubMed

    Madoery, R J; Luquez, H A; De Loredo, L; Carri, D J; Roiter, H; Bauducco, G; Bilbao, L; Brousset, P; Dávila, A; Fissone, M E; Herreros, S; Luchino, O; Nuciforo, F

    2007-01-01

    Alexitimia and depression may or not coexist with others risk factors (comportment o physical). Frecuently they have relation with socio-echonomic status and with ethnia. Sometimes are determinants of the atherosclerotic process by increasing the vascular reactivity by the alteration of the evolution. There is no information in our country about this problem in general population. The present study result of the investigation of these aspects and the comportamental and physical factors of arterial disease, in a population of Cordoba province (Argentina Republic).

  16. Gremlin-1 Is an Inhibitor of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Attenuates Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth in ApoE−/− Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Iris; Schönberger, Tanja; Schneider, Martina; Borst, Oliver; Ziegler, Melanie; Seizer, Peter; Leder, Christoph; Müller, Karin; Lang, Michael; Appenzeller, Florian; Lunov, Oleg; Büchele, Berthold; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Olbrich, Marcus; Langer, Harald; Geisler, Tobias; Lang, Florian; Chatterjee, Madhumita; de Boer, Jan Freark; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Simmet, Thomas; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte infiltration and macrophage formation are pivotal steps in atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability. Gremlin-1/Drm is crucial in embryo-/organogenesis and has been shown to be expressed in the adult organism at sites of arterial injury and to inhibit monocyte migration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the role of Gremlin-1 in atherosclerosis. Here we report that Gremlin-1 is highly expressed primarily by monocytes/macrophages in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE−/− mice and is secreted from activated monocytes and during macrophage development in vitro. Gremlin-1 reduces macrophage formation by inhibiting macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine critically involved in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. Gremlin-1 binds with high affinity to MIF (KD = 54 nm), as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, and reduces MIF-induced release of TNF-α from macrophages. Treatment of ApoE−/− mice with a dimeric recombinant fusion protein, mGremlin1-Fc, but not with equimolar control Fc or inactivated mGremlin1-Fc, reduced TNF-α expression, the content of monocytes/macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions, and attenuated atheroprogression. The present data disclose that Gremlin-1 is an endogenous antagonist of MIF and define a role for Gremlin-1/MIF interaction in atherosclerosis. PMID:24003215

  17. Periodontitis is an independent risk indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases among 60 174 participants in a large dental school in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Beukers, Nicky G F M; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Wijk, Arjen J; Loos, Bruno G

    2017-01-01

    Background The association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) has been established in some modestly sized studies (<10 000). Rarely, however, periodontitis has been studied directly; often tooth loss or self-reported periodontitis has been used as a proxy measure for periodontitis. Our aim is to investigate the adjusted association between periodontitis and ACVD among all individuals registered in a large dental school in the Netherlands (Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)). Methods Anonymised data were extracted from the electronic health records for all registered patients aged >35 years (period 1998–2013). A participant was recorded as having periodontitis based on diagnostic and treatment codes. Any affirmative answer for cerebrovascular accidents, angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction labelled a participant as having ACVD. Other risk factors for ACVD, notably age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and social economic status, were also extracted. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the adjusted associations between periodontitis and ACVD. Results 60 174 individuals were identified; 4.7% of the periodontitis participants (455/9730) and 1.9% of the non-periodontitis participants (962/50 444) reported ACVD; periodontitis showed a significant association with ACVD (OR 2.52; 95% CI 2.3 to 2.8). After adjustment for the confounders, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.39 to 1.81). With subsequent stratification for age and sex, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD. Conclusions This cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort in the Netherlands of 60 174 participants shows the independent association of periodontitis with ACVD. PMID:27502782

  18. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque-depositions by infrared, Raman and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are mainly composed of proteoglycans, triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterolester and crystalline calcium. From histopathological characterizations it is known that the composition of these atherosclerotic plaques can vary to a great extent, due to different risk factors as smoking, hyperlipedemia, or genetic background ect. The individual plaque components can be spectroscopically easily identified. Furthermore, spectroscopic imaging technologies offer the possibility to study the plaque compositions in a more quantitative manner than traditional staining techniques. Here, we compare the potential of IR, Raman and CARS microscopy to characterize the constitution of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the structure of the surrounding tissue. For data analysis and image reconstruction spectral decomposition algorithms such as vertex component analysis (VCA) were introduced. The results are in good agreement with the histopathology. Aim of the study is to correlate the compositional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques with individual disease patterns.

  19. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  20. Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Pak, Mila; Lindseth, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease is one of the most common public health problems in the United States. Approximately 10%-20% of the national adult populations currently carry gallstones, and gallstone prevalence is rising. In addition, nearly 750,000 cholecystectomies are performed annually in the United States; direct and indirect costs of gallbladder surgery are estimated to be $6.5 billion. Cholelithiasis is also strongly associated with gallbladder, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer occurrence. Moreover, the National Institutes of Health estimates that almost 3,000 deaths (0.12% of all deaths) per year are attributed to complications of cholelithiasis and gallbladder disease. Although extensive research has tried to identify risk factors for cholelithiasis, several studies indicate that definitive findings still remain elusive. In this review, predisposing factors for cholelithiasis are identified, the pathophysiology of gallstone disease is described, and nonsurgical preventive options are discussed. Understanding the risk factors for cholelithiasis may not only be useful in assisting nurses to provide resources and education for patients who are diagnosed with gallstones, but also in developing novel preventive measures for the disease.

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  3. Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor family related protein (GITR) mediates inflammatory activation of macrophages that can destabilize atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Jung; Bae, Eun-Mi; Kang, Yoon-Joong; Bae, Hyung-Uk; Hong, Su Hyung; Lee, Joo Y; Park, Jeong-Euy; Kwon, Byoung S; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor family related protein (GITR) is the 18th member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF18) and is known to interact with its cognate ligand GITRL (TNFSF18). We investigated the potential role of GITR in the pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analyses of human atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated that GITR and its ligand are expressed mainly in lipid-rich macrophages. We then investigated the role of GITR in human and mouse monocyte/macrophage functions. Stimulation of GITR caused nuclear factor (NF)-κB-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in both the human and mouse monocytic/macrophage cell lines, THP-1 and RAW264.7, respectively. These cellular responses were also observed when the THP-1 cells were treated with phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA), which is known to induce macrophage differentiation. To demonstrate that these responses are not restricted to cultured cell lines, we tested primary macrophages. Both peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages responded to GITR stimulation with induction of MMP-9 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the GITR staining pattern overlapped with those of MMP-9 and TNF-α in atherosclerotic plaques. These data indicate that GITR-mediated macrophage activation may promote atherogenesis via the induction of pro-atherogenic cytokines/chemokines, and destabilize the atherosclerotic plaques via the induction of the matrix-degrading enzyme, MMP-9. PMID:17067317

  4. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  5. Increased Risks of Mortality and Atherosclerotic Complications in Incident Hemodialysis Patients Subsequently with Bone Fractures: A Nationwide Case-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chou, Chu-Lin; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Ya; Lin, Yu-Li; Wu, Sheng-Teng; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients with bone fractures have an increased risk for death. However, the risks for mortality and atherosclerotic complications in incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures are unknown. Methods Data derived from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database between January 1997 and December 2008 was analyzed. The enrolled patients included 3,008 incident HD patients subsequently with a single long bone fracture (LB Fx) and 2,070 incident HD patients subsequently with a single non-long bone fracture (NLB Fx). These patients were matched (1:5 ratio) for age, sex, and same duration of HD with incident HD patients who had no fractures and outcomes were measured over a 3-year follow-up. Results After demographic and co-morbidity adjustment, LB Fx increased the risk for overall mortality (HR = 1.59, p < 0.001) and stroke (HR = 1.09, p = 0.028) in incident HD patients. NLB Fx increased the risk for overall mortality (HR = 1.52, p < 0.001), stroke (HR = 1.19, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (CAD), (HR = 1.13, p = 0.003), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), (HR = 1.41, p < 0.001) in incident HD patients. Moreover, incident patients subsequently with NLB Fx had significantly higher risks of CAD and PAOD than those subsequently with LB Fx. Conclusions The rates of mortality and stroke were significantly higher in incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures than in matched patients without bone fractures. Incident HD patients subsequently with NLB Fx had significantly higher risks of CAD and PAOD than those subsequently with LB Fx and without bone fractures. Thus, incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures should be closely followed for a higher mortality and possible development of atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25874794

  6. Increased risks of mortality and atherosclerotic complications in incident hemodialysis patients subsequently with bone fractures: a nationwide case-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chou, Chu-Lin; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Ya; Lin, Yu-Li; Wu, Sheng-Teng; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients with bone fractures have an increased risk for death. However, the risks for mortality and atherosclerotic complications in incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures are unknown. Data derived from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database between January 1997 and December 2008 was analyzed. The enrolled patients included 3,008 incident HD patients subsequently with a single long bone fracture (LB Fx) and 2,070 incident HD patients subsequently with a single non-long bone fracture (NLB Fx). These patients were matched (1:5 ratio) for age, sex, and same duration of HD with incident HD patients who had no fractures and outcomes were measured over a 3-year follow-up. After demographic and co-morbidity adjustment, LB Fx increased the risk for overall mortality (HR = 1.59, p < 0.001) and stroke (HR = 1.09, p = 0.028) in incident HD patients. NLB Fx increased the risk for overall mortality (HR = 1.52, p < 0.001), stroke (HR = 1.19, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (CAD), (HR = 1.13, p = 0.003), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), (HR = 1.41, p < 0.001) in incident HD patients. Moreover, incident patients subsequently with NLB Fx had significantly higher risks of CAD and PAOD than those subsequently with LB Fx. The rates of mortality and stroke were significantly higher in incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures than in matched patients without bone fractures. Incident HD patients subsequently with NLB Fx had significantly higher risks of CAD and PAOD than those subsequently with LB Fx and without bone fractures. Thus, incident HD patients subsequently with bone fractures should be closely followed for a higher mortality and possible development of atherosclerotic complications.

  7. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  9. Risk factors in school shootings.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  10. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

    PubMed

    Van daele, Caroline M; De Meyer, Tim; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Denil, Simon L I J; Bekaert, Sofie; Chirinos, Julio A; Segers, Patrick; De Backer, Guy G; De Bacquer, Dirk; Rietzschel, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the importance of family history (FH) is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH): presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH), also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. Longitudinal population study. Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care). 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound) and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations). Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components) and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05). Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset) in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  11. Addition of a Novel, Protective Family History Category Allows Better Profiling of Cardiovascular Risk and Atherosclerotic Burden in the General Population. The Asklepios Study

    PubMed Central

    Van daele, Caroline M.; De Meyer, Tim; De Buyzere, Marc L.; Gillebert, Thierry C.; Denil, Simon L. I. J.; Bekaert, Sofie; Chirinos, Julio A.; Segers, Patrick; De Backer, Guy G.; De Bacquer, Dirk; Rietzschel, Ernst R.; on behalf of the Asklepios Investigators

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Whereas the importance of family history (FH) is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH): presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH), also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. Design longitudinal population study. Setting random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care). Subjects 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35–55 years, free from overt CVD. Main outcome measures Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound) and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations). Results Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components) and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05). Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset) in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. Conclusions A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool. PMID:23658806

  12. The 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk index is better than SCORE and QRisk II in rheumatoid arthritis: is it enough?

    PubMed

    Ozen, Gulsen; Sunbul, Murat; Atagunduz, Pamir; Direskeneli, Haner; Tigen, Kursat; Inanc, Nevsun

    2016-03-01

    To determine the ability of the new American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk algorithm in detecting high cardiovascular (CV) risk, RA patients identified by carotid ultrasonography (US) were compared with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and QRisk II algorithms. SCORE, QRisk II, 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk and EULAR recommended modified versions were calculated in 216 RA patients. In sonographic evaluation, carotid intima-media thickness >0.90 mm and/or carotid plaques were used as the gold standard test for subclinical atherosclerosis and high CV risk (US+). Eleven (5.1%), 15 (6.9%) and 44 (20.4%) patients were defined as having high CV risk according to SCORE, QRisk II and ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk, respectively. Fifty-two (24.1%) patients were US + and of those, 8 (15.4%), 7 (13.5%) and 23 (44.2%) patients were classified as high CV risk according to SCORE, QRisk II and ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk, respectively. The ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk index better identified US + patients than SCORE and QRisk II (P < 0.0001). With EULAR modification, reclassification from moderate to high risk occurred only in two, five and seven patients according to SCORE, QRisk II and ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk, respectively. The 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year ASCVD risk estimator was better than the SCORE and QRisk II indices in RA, but still failed to identify 55% of high risk patients. Furthermore adjustment of threshold and EULAR modification did not work well. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography combined with inflammatory factors for detecting atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Li, Gongxin; Wang, Luzhao; Liu, Peng; Wen, Zhibo; Huang, Fanheng; Chen, Liheng; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (USPIO-MRA) combined with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 detection for detecting atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits. Twenty-four normal male rabbits were randomly assigned (n=8) into group A with atherosclerosis induced by damaging the aortic tunica intima with Foley's tube in combination with a high fat diet, group B with a high fat diet, and group C without any intervention. At week 12, plain and USPIO-MRA was performed in all the 24 rabbits and the results were compared with pathological examinations; blood samples were collected from the ear vein to examine blood lipids and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. The rabbits in groups A and B showed significantly different IL-6 levels (167 ± 21.3 vs 116 ± 14.3 pg/ml, P<0.05) but comparable blood lipids and IL-10 levels (P>0.05). The levels of IL-6, IL-10, TC, TG, and LDL, but not HDL, differed significantly between groups A and C and between groups B and C (P<0.01). Continuous MRA scan showed significantly different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) between the 3 groups. USPIO-MRA combined with IL-6 and IL-10 detection is feasible in detecting atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits.

  14. The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not

  15. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  16. Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chiang, F.-T.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M.; Chen, C.-J.

    2009-09-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

  17. 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease among Korean adults: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2014-09-20

    This study examined the distribution of the 10-year risk for development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD), and the proportion of participants eligible for lipid management, in the Korean population. The risk was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations for non-Hispanic Whites and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III equations. Eligibility for lipid-lowering treatment was assessed using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline and the ATP III recommendation. Complex sampling design and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used. Among 7594 ASCVD-free Korean adults, aged 40-79 years, 31.3% (men, 44.1%; women, 19%) had a 10-year risk for an ASCVD event of ≥ 7.5%, and 27.1% (men, 39.4%; women, 15.2%) had a 10-year risk for a CHD event of ≥ 10%. These proportions differed according to age groups, ranging from 6.1 to 91.9% and 8.7 to 58.7% for patients in their 40s-70s, using the ASCVD and CHD risk estimations, respectively. Overall, 78.7% of individuals remain in the same risk stratum. Those eligible for lipid management included 32.8% of the participants using the ACC/AHA Guideline and 11.9% of those using the ATP III recommendation. In discriminating ASCVD, AUCs for the ASCVD risk assessment method and the CHD risk assessment method were 0.70 and 0.64, respectively (P<0.001). The distribution of 10-year ASCVD and CHD risk was different according to the risk assessment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for surgical infections.

    PubMed

    Dominioni, Lorenzo; Imperatori, Andrea; Rotolo, Nicola; Rovera, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Many risk factors for postoperative infections have been identified that can be used individually or in combination as scoring indices. Infection risk scores can be applied in clinical practice to identify high-risk surgical patients, to indicate the need to implement risk-reduction strategies, and to stratify risk for comparison of outcome among different patient series. In the hierarchy of patient-related risk factors, serum albumin concentration and advanced age rank at the top of the list. Among the treatment-related factors, the quality of the surgical technique is a most important determinant, although most surgical site infections are attributable to patient-related risk factors rather than to flawed surgical care. Scoring systems can identify the patients at highest risk, thus prompting the implementation of therapy to improve modifiable conditions, but most clinicians outside the academic and research setting do not use them. Risk assessment also can be performed by expert clinical judgment. Discussion with the patient and informed consent are essential. Carefully collected scores of patient risk factors may be valuable to document the relations between the risk and the outcome of surgery. Ideally, each institution should select a validated scoring system to audit postoperative infectious morbidity and surgical performance in the various specialties.

  19. Stroke - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...

  20. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  1. Environmental risk factors for autism

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

  2. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  3. Are all people with diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors or microvascular complications at very high risk? Findings from the Risk and Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Marzona, Irene; Avanzini, Fausto; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Tettamanti, Mauro; Baviera, Marta; Nicolucci, Antonio; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether it is possible, in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) considered at very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, stratify this risk better and identify significant modifiable risk factor (including lifestyle habits) to help patients and clinicians improve CV prevention. People with DM and microvascular diseases or one or more CV risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, poor dietary habits, overweight, physical inactivity) included in the Risk and Prevention study were selected. We considered the combined endpoint of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and stroke and CV death. A multivariate Cox proportional analysis was carried out to identify relevant predictors. We also used the RECPAM method to identify subgroups of patients at higher risk. In our study, the rate of major CV events was lower than expected (5 % in 5 years). Predictors of CV events were age, male, sex, heart failure, previous atherosclerotic disease, atrial fibrillation, insulin treatment, high HbA1c, heart rate and other CV diseases while being physically active was protective. RECPAM analysis indicated that history of atherosclerotic diseases and a low BMI defined worse prognosis (HR 4.51 95 % CI 3.04-6.69). Among subjects with no previous atherosclerotic disease, men with HbA1c more than 8 % were at higher CV risk (HR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.86-4.14) with respect to women. In this population, the rate of major CV events was lower than expected. This prediction model could help clinicians identify people with DM at higher CV risk and support them in achieving goals of physical activity and HbA1c.

  4. Effects of alcohol and polyphenols from beer on atherosclerotic biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk men: a randomized feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Magraner, E; Condines, X; Valderas-Martínez, P; Roth, I; Arranz, S; Casas, R; Navarro, M; Hervas, A; Sisó, A; Martínez-Huélamo, M; Vallverdú-Queralt, A; Quifer-Rada, P; Lamuela-Raventos, R M; Estruch, R

    2015-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption exerts a cardioprotective effect, but no studies have evaluated the alcohol-independent cardiovascular effects of the non-alcoholic components of beer. We aimed to evaluate the effects of ethanol and the phenolic compounds of beer on classical and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-three high risk male volunteers were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. After a washout period, all subjects received beer (30 g alcohol/d, 660 mL), the equivalent amount of polyphenols as non-alcoholic beer (990 mL), and gin (30 g alcohol/d, 100 mL) for 4 weeks. All outcomes were evaluated before and after each intervention period. Moderate alcohol consumption increased serum HDL-cholesterol (∼5%), ApoA-I (∼6%), ApoA-II (∼7%) and adiponectin (∼7%), and decreased serum fibrinogen (∼8%), and interleukin (IL)-5 (∼14%) concentrations, whereas the non-alcoholic fraction of beer (mainly polyphenols) increased the receptor antagonist of IL-1 (∼24%), and decreased lymphocyte expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (∼11%), lymphocyte and monocyte expression of Sialil-Lewis X (∼16%) and monocyte expression of CCR2 (∼31%), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β (∼14%) and IL-15 (∼22%) plasma concentrations. No changes were observed in glucose metabolism parameters or in body weight and adiposity parameters. The phenolic content of beer reduces leukocyte adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers, whereas alcohol mainly improves the lipid profile and reduces some plasma inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Rebrov, A P; Nikitina, N M; Gaĭdukova, I Z

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of conventional and new factors of cardiovascular risk in development of atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PA). Sixty patients with psoriatic arthritis, 414 RA patients and 79 healthy controls entered the trial. All of them had no manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Screening was made of the leading risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular complications, thickness of the complex intima-media (TIM) of the carotid arteries, vascular wall stiffness were measured, vasoregulatory function of the endothelium, markers of endothelial damage were examined. Patients with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis were found to have increased TIM of the carotid arteries, high incidence of atherosclerotic plaques, increased stiffness, damage of the vascular wall, affected endothelial vasoregulation. These alterations were associated with high arthritis activity, systemic manifestations, seropositivity by rheumatoid factor (in RA), presence of entesitis, uveitis and dactilitis (in psoriatic arthritis), dislipidemia, arterial hypertension (AH). To determine cardiovascular risk in patients with arthritis, it is necessary to consider not only standard risk factors (dislipidemia and AH), but also severity of systemic inflammation, arterial stiffness, endothelial damage and ability of the vascular wall to relax reflecting endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Inhibition of renin angiotensin axis may be associated with reduced risk of developing venous thromboembolism in patients with atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Kwang; Khemasuwan, Danai; Dimou, Anastasios; Neagu, Stefan; Chebrolu, Lakshmi; Gupta, Shikha; Carpio, Alejandra; Kim, Jongoh; Yun, Jeong Hyun; Smyrlis, Athanasios; Friedman, Alan; Tester, William

    2014-01-01

    Arterial and venous thrombosis may share common pathophysiology involving the activation of platelets and inflammatory mediators. A growing body of evidence suggests prothrombotic effect of renin angiotensin system (RAS) including vascular inflammation and platelet activation. We hypothesized that the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) plays a role in protecting against venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients atherosclerosis. We conducted a retrospective study, reviewing 1,100 consecutive patients admitted to a teaching hospital with a diagnosis of either myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke from 2005 to 2010. Patients who had been treated with anticoagulation therapy before or after the first visit were excluded. The occurrence of VTE during the follow up period, risk factors for VTE on admission, and the use of ACEIs or ARBs during the follow up period were recorded. The mean age of the entire study population was 68.1 years. 52.0% of the patients were female and 76.5% were African American. 67.3% were on RAS inhibitors. The overall incidence of VTE was 9.7% (n = 107). Among the RAS inhibitor users, the incidence of VTE events was 9.0% (54/603) for the ACEI only users, 7.1% (8/113) for the ARB only users, and 0% (0/24) for the patients taking combination of ACEI and ARB. Among patients on RAS inhibitors, 8.4% (62/740) developed a VTE, compared with 12.5% (45/360) in the nonuser group [HR (hazard ratio), 0.58; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.39-0.84; P<0.01]. Even after controlling for factors related to VTE (smoking, history of cancer, and immobilization, hormone use) and diabetes, the use of RAS inhibitors was still associated with a significantly lower risk of developing VTE (AHR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.88; P = 0.01). The use of RAS inhibitors appears to be associated with a reduction in the risk of VTE.

  7. Selective Imaging of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 and Receptor-2 in Atherosclerotic Lesions in Diabetic and Non-diabetic ApoE(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Tekabe, Yared; Johnson, Lynne L; Rodriquez, Krissy; Li, Qing; Backer, Marina; Backer, Joseph M

    2017-04-18

    Plaque vulnerability is associated with inflammation and angiogenesis, processes that rely on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling via two receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. We have recently reported that enhanced uptake of scVEGF-PEG-DOTA/Tc-99m (scV/Tc) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer that targets both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, identifies accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic relative to non-diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Since VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 may play different roles in atherosclerotic plaques, we reasoned that selective imaging of each receptor can provide more detailed information on plaque biology. Recently described VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 selective mutants of scVEGF, named scVR1 and scVR2, were site-specifically derivatized with Tc-99m chelator DOTA via 3.4 kDa PEG linker, and their selectivity to the cognate receptors was confirmed in vitro. scVR1 and scVR2 conjugates were radiolabeled with Tc-99m to specific activity of 110 ± 11 MBq/nmol, yielding tracers named scVR1/Tc and scVR2/Tc. 34-40 week old diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice were injected with tracers, 2-3 h later injected with x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agent and underwent hybrid SPECT/CT imaging. Tracer uptake, localized to proximal aorta and brachiocephalic vessels, was quantified as %ID from. Tracer uptake was also quantified as %ID/g from gamma counting of harvested plaques. Harvested atherosclerotic arterial tissue was used for immunofluorescent analyses of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 and various lineage-specific markers. Focal, receptor-mediated uptake in proximal aorta and brachiocephalic vessels was detected for both scVR1/Tc and scVR2/Tc tracers. Uptake of scVR1/Tc and scVR2/Tc was efficiently inhibited only by "cold" proteins of the same receptor selectivity. Tracer uptake in this area, expressed as %ID, was higher in diabetic vs. non- diabetic mice for scVR1/Tc (p = 0.01) but not for scVR2/Tc. Immunofluorescent analysis

  8. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous history of clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and livedo reticularis, a mottled purplish discoloration of the skin. “Risk factors are cumulative,” Dr. Kittner adds. “Reducing even one ...

  9. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... those who smoke. Personal or Family History of Lung Cancer If you are a lung cancer survivor, there ...

  10. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  11. [Perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martinez, A M; Martínez-Sanchez, C; Pérez-Segura, J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk perception on several factors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing an educational intervention based on detected needs. 405 women between 12 and 44 years were interviewed at home. 62.2% perceived the risk of pregnancy at 17 years and younger; 78.8% the risk of pregnancy at 35 years and older; 76.6% the risk of parity of 5 and higher; and 55.1% the risk of birth interval of 2 years and less. 60.5% recognized family history of birth defects, 80.2% age 35 years and older, and 84.4% rubella during pregnancy, as risk factors for newborns with congenital malformations. 27.7% identified history of a low birth weight and 61.0% birth interval of 1 year and less, as risk factors for low birth weight. The majority perceived the risk of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption during pregnancy, diseases with no treatment and deficient nutrition. There was an inconsistent influence of social and obstetric variables on risk perception. No linear correlation was detected. Health educators should recognize differences on knowledge and behavior of future receptors before an educational intervention starts.

  12. [Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tokuhei; Yamada, Masahito

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly patients. Identification of risk factors for AD would contribute to the understanding of AD pathogenesis and thus, help in the development of preventive methods. Early-onset familial AD is associated with mutations of the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS-1), or PS-2, resulting in the overproduction of amyloid beta-protein. Epidemiological and case-control studies have led to the identification of several risk factors for sporadic AD. The most concrete genetic risk factor for AD is the epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). In addition, several genes such as CTNNA3, GAB2, PVRL2, TOMM40, and APOC1 are known to be the risk factors that contribute to AD pathogenesis. On the other hand, nongenetic risk factors, such as age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, depression, head injury, and nutrition have also been reported. Although aging is the strongest risk factor for AD, the mechanisms underlying the development of AD as a result of ageing remain to be elucidated.

  13. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: synopsis of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guideline.

    PubMed

    Stone, Neil J; Robinson, Jennifer G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Smith, Sidney C; Blum, Conrad; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2014-03-04

    In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults. This synopsis summarizes the major recommendations. In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) IV to update the 2001 ATP-III cholesterol guidelines using a rigorous process to systematically review randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that examined cardiovascular outcomes. The panel commissioned independent systematic evidence reviews on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in secondary and primary prevention and the effect of lipid drugs on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events and adverse effects. In September 2013, the panel's draft recommendations were transitioned to the ACC/AHA. This synopsis summarizes key features of the guidelines in 8 areas: lifestyle, groups shown to benefit from statins, statin safety, decision making, estimation of cardiovascular disease risk, intensity of statin therapy, treatment targets, and monitoring of statin therapy.

  14. Sex Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Psychosocial Factors, and Outcomes Among Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: Insights from the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) Trial.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Patricia Oliveira; Granger, Christopher B; Stebbins, Amanda; Chiswell, Karen; Held, Claes; Hochman, Judith S; Krug-Gourley, Susan; Lonn, Eva; Lopes, Renato D; Stewart, Ralph A H; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wallentin, Lars; White, Harvey D; Hagström, Emil; Danchin, Nicolas

    2017-09-14

    Greater understanding of differences between men and women with coronary heart disease is needed. In this post hoc analysis of the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial, we described psychosocial factors, treatments, and outcomes of men versus women with stable coronary heart disease and explored the association of sex with psychosocial characteristics and cardiovascular risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between sex and outcomes. Interactions among sex, psychosocial factors, and the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke were tested. Of 15 828 patients, 2967 (19%) were women. Among women, 21.2% felt often or always stressed at home (versus 9.8% of men), and 19.2% felt often or always sad or depressed (versus 10.1% of men; all P<0.0001). The median duration of follow-up was 3.7 years (25th-75th percentiles: 3.5-3.8 years). Use of evidence-based medications for coronary heart disease at baseline and 24 months was similar between sexes, as were event rates for all outcomes analyzed. In the multivariable model including psychosocial measures, female sex was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. There was a statistically significant interaction (P=0.03) such that the lower risk in women varied by depressive symptom frequency, whereby women who were more depressed had a risk similar to men. Female sex was independently associated with better long-term clinical outcomes, although this was modified by frequency of depressive symptoms. This suggests that emotional state may be an important target for improving outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, specifically in women. STABILITY ClinicalTrials.gov number (NCT00799903). © 2017 The Authors and GlaxoSmithKline. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Cantú-Brito, C; Rodríguez-Saldaña, J; Reynoso-Marenco, M T; Marmolejo-Henderson, R; Barinagarrementeria-Aldatz, F

    1999-01-01

    To assess the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in a general elderly population of Mexico City. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to investigate carotid atherosclerosis in 145 CUPA (a research project) participants, between July 1993 and January 1996. The outcome was then related to cardiovascular risk factors. Prevalence of ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis was 64.8%. Intimal-medial thickening was detected in 64 subjects (44.1%) and carotid plaques in 82 (56.5%); Fifty-two subjects had both intimal-medial thickening and plaques. However, only 8 subjects had carotid plaques with severe stenosis (5.5%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions (male 61.9%, female 66.0%). Carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (p < 0.0001), high blood pressure (p < 0.001), isolated systolic hypertension (p = 0.01), hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.04), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.06). Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis increased progressively with the number of vascular risk factors. There was a high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in this general elderly population of Mexico City, and was almost equal to that reported in developed western countries. Age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were the strongest predictors of atherosclerosis.

  17. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  18. Risk factors for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

    2014-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen driven disease, whereby food and/or aeroallergens result in inflammation and luminal narrowing, and the clinical symptoms of dysphagia and food bolus obstruction events (FBOE). Established risk factors are male gender, Caucasian race and atopy. Increased risk amongst family members, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene coding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes supports a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors including the timing and nature of food and aeroallergen exposure to the developing immune system may be important, whilst esophageal barrier function integrity and the influence of microbiota are worthy of future research.

  19. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  20. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  1. Paracrine osteogenic signals via bone morphogenetic protein-2 accelerate the atherosclerotic intimal calcification in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yusuke; Ikeda, Koji; Akakabe, Yoshiki; Koide, Masahiro; Uraoka, Maki; Yutaka, Ko-Taro; Kurimoto-Nakano, Ritsuko; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matoba, Satoaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Okigaki, Mitsuhiko; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-10-01

    Vascular calcification is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated a role of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the atherosclerotic intimal calcification. We prepared human cultured VSMCs in either redifferentiatiated or dedifferentiated state and analyzed the gene expressions of bone-calcification regulatory factors. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent initiator for osteoblast differentiation, was significantly enhanced in dedifferentiated VSMCs. Furthermore, endogenous BMP-2 antagonists, such as noggin, chordin, and matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein, were all downregulated in the dedifferentiated VSMCs. Conditioned medium from dedifferentiated VSMCs, but not from redifferentiated VSMCs, stimulated the osteoblastic differentiation of the mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells, which was abolished by BMP-2 knockdown. In atherosclerotic intima from apolipoprotein (apo)E-deficient mice, αSM-actin-positive cells, presumably dedifferentiated VSMCs, expressed BMP-2. We generated BMP-2-transgenic mice using αSM-actin promoter and crossed them with apoE-deficient mice (BMP-2-transgenic/apoE-knockout). Significantly accelerated atherosclerotic intimal calcification was detected in BMP-2-transgenic/apoE-knockout mice, although serum lipid concentration and atherosclerotic plaque size were not different from those in apoE-knockout mice. Enhanced calcification appeared to be associated with the frequent emergence of osteoblast-like cells in atherosclerotic intima in BMP-2-transgenic/apoE-knockout mice. Our findings collectively demonstrate an important role of dedifferentiated VSMCs in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic calcification through activating paracrine BMP-2 osteogenic signals.

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a new risk factor for degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Knapp, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) is a consequence of disturbed methionine metabolism. It results from enzyme and/or vitamin deficiency. Epidemiological and clinical studies have proven HHCY to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. Trials in progress may clarify the "causality" of high homocysteine (HCY) concentrations and will assess the value of HCY lowering therapy. HHCY is also seen as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and also for depression. There is a high prevalence of HHCY as a syndrome of vitamin shortage in elderly subjects, which strongly increases with advancing age. Elderly people have a high frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency which is more reliably diagnosed by measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin II, the metabolically active B12 fraction, than by total serum vitamin B12. Subjects who follow a strict vegetarian diet also have a high prevalence of HHCY caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. For prevention of neurological damages an early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is important. Furthermore, HHCY is a factor in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects and preeclampsia. HCY should be measured in patients with a history of atherothrombotic vessel diseases, in patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia, in renal patients, in adipose subjects, in elderly people, in vegetarians, in postmenopausal women, and in early pregnancy.

  3. Atherosclerotic Disease of the Proximal Aorta and the Risk of Vascular Events in a Population-Based Cohort: the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proximal aortic plaques are a risk factor for vascular embolic events. However, this association in the general population is unclear. We sought to assess whether proximal aortic plaques are associated with vascular events in a community-based cohort. Methods Stroke-free subjects from the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study were evaluated. Aortic arch and proximal descending aortic plaques were assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, vascular death) were prospectively recorded and their association with aortic plaques was assessed. Results 209 subjects were studied (age 67.0±8.6 years). Aortic arch plaques were present in 130 subjects (62.2%); large plaques (≥4 mm) in 50 (23.9%). Descending aortic plaques were present in 126 subjects (60.9%), large plaques in 41 (19.8%). During a follow-up of 74.4±26.3 months, 29 events occurred (12 myocardial infarctions, 11 ischemic strokes, 6 vascular deaths). After adjustment for risk factors, large aortic arch plaques were not associated with combined vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.35 to 3.02) or ischemic stroke (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.39). Large descending aortic plaques were also not independently associated with vascular events (HR 1.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 7.69) or ischemic stroke (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.48). Conclusions In a population-based cohort, the incidental detection of plaques in the aortic arch or proximal descending aorta was not associated with future vascular events. Associated co-factors may affect the previously reported association between proximal aortic plaques and vascular events. PMID:19498195

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  5. Prediction of fracture risk. II: Other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D

    1996-12-01

    Many osteoporotic fractures are probably preventable-by definition, prevention requires identification of those at risk prior to fracture. There is a continuum in fracture risk and a very wide range in risk among individuals. Bone density, previous fractures, and the frequency and types of falls are important risk factors for fractures. There are also many other risk factors for bone loss, falls, and fractures. People with multiple risk factors are at greater risk than those with either a single risk factor or none. Identification of risk factors can help when planning interventions. For example, dietary deficiencies are amenable to dietary modification or supplementation; however, the effects of many risk factors have not been quantified separately, making it difficult to determine the importance. In addition, it is not possible to accurately predict current bone density and fracture risk from risk factors for bone loss; bone density should always be measured directly.

  6. Interpreting Hemoglobin A1C in Combination With Conventional Risk Factors for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jarmul, Jamie A.; Pignone, Michael; Pletcher, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, but its use for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in combination with conventional risk factors has not been well defined. Methods and Results To understand the effect of HbA1C on CVD risk in the context of other CVD risk factors, we analyzed HbA1C and other CVD risk factor measurements in 2000 individuals aged 40-79 years old without pre-existing diabetes or cardiovascular disease from the 2011-2012 NHANES survey. The resulting regression model was used to predict the HbA1C distribution based on individual patient characteristics. We then calculated post-test 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk incorporating the actual versus predicted HbA1C, according to established methods, for a set of example scenarios. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were significant predictors of HbA1C in our model, with the expected HbA1C distribution being significantly higher in non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic white/other individuals. Incorporating the expected HbA1C distribution into pretest ASCVD risk has a modest effect on post-test ASCVD risk. In the patient examples we assessed, having an HbA1C < 5.7% reduced post-test risk by 0.4%-2.0% points, whereas having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5% increased post-test risk by 1.0%-2.5% points, depending on the scenario. The post-test risk increase from having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5 % tends to approximate the risk increase from being five years older in age. Conclusions HbA1C has modest effects on predicted ASCVD risk when considered in the context of conventional risk factors. PMID:26349840

  7. Increased platelet deposition on atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, G H; de Graaf, S; Slootweg, P J; Heijnen, H F; Connolly, T M; de Groot, P G; Sixma, J J

    1994-01-01

    A ruptured atherosclerotic plaque leads to exposure of deeper layers of the plaque to flowing blood and subsequently to thrombus formation. In contrast to the wealth of data on the occurrence of thrombi, little is known about the reasons why an atherosclerotic plaque is thrombogenic. One of the reasons is the relative inaccessibility of the atherosclerotic plaque. We have circumvented this problem by using 6-microns cryostat cross sections of human coronary arteries. These sections were mounted on coverslips that were exposed to flowing blood in a rectangular perfusion chamber. In normal-appearing arteries, platelet deposition was seen on the luminal side of the intima and on the adventitia. In atherosclerotic arteries, strongly increased platelet deposition was seen on the connective tissue of specific parts of the atherosclerotic plaque. The central lipid core of an advanced plaque was not reactive towards platelets. The results indicate that the atherosclerotic plaque by itself is more thrombogenic than the normal vessel wall. To study the cause of the increased thrombus formation on the atherosclerotic plaque, perfusion studies were combined with immunohistochemical studies. Immunohistochemical studies of adhesive proteins showed enrichment of collagen types I, III, V, and VI, vitronectin, fibronectin, fibrinogen/fibrin, and thrombospondin in the atherosclerotic plaque. Laminin and collagen type IV were not enriched. von Willebrand Factor (vWF) was not present in the plaque. The pattern of increased platelet deposition in serial cross sections corresponded best with areas in which collagen types I and III were enriched, but there were also areas in the plaque where both collagens were enriched but no increased reactivity was seen. Inhibition of platelet adhesion with a large range of antibodies or specific inhibitors showed that vWF from plasma and collagen types I and/or III in the plaque were involved. Fibronectin from plasma and fibronectin, fibrinogen

  8. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    PubMed

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  9. Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal aorta and the risk of vascular events in a population-based cohort: the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2009-07-01

    Proximal aortic plaques are a risk factor for vascular embolic events. However, this association in the general population is unclear. We sought to assess whether proximal aortic plaques are associated with vascular events in a community-based cohort. Stroke-free subjects from the Aortic Plaques and Risk of Ischemic Stroke (APRIS) study were evaluated. Aortic arch and proximal descending aortic plaques were assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, vascular death) were prospectively recorded, and their association with aortic plaques was assessed. 209 subjects were studied (age 67.0+/-8.6 years). Aortic arch plaques were present in 130 subjects (62.2%), large plaques (>or=4 mm) in 50 (23.9%). Descending aortic plaques were present in 126 subjects (60.9%), large plaques in 41 (19.8%). During a follow-up of 74.4+/-26.3 months, 29 events occurred (12 myocardial infarctions, 11 ischemic strokes, 6 vascular deaths). After adjustment for risk factors, large aortic arch plaques were not associated with combined vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.35 to 3.02) or ischemic stroke (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.39). Large descending aortic plaques were also not independently associated with vascular events (HR 1.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 7.69) or ischemic stroke (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.48). In a population-based cohort, the incidental detection of plaques in the aortic arch or proximal descending aorta was not associated with future vascular events. Associated cofactors may affect the previously reported association between proximal aortic plaques and vascular events.

  10. Neighborhood risk factors for obesity.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ P

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neighborhood environmental factors associated with obesity in a sample of adults living in a major U.S. metropolitan area. This was a multi-level study combining data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with data from the U.S. Census. A total of 15,358 subjects living in 327 zip code tabulation areas were surveyed between 1998 and 2002. The outcome was obesity (BMI >30), and independent variables assessed included individual level variables (age, education, income, smoking status, sex, black race, and Hispanic ethnicity), and zip code level variables (percentage black, percentage Hispanic, percentage with more than a high school education, retail density, establishment density, employment density, population density, the presence of a supermarket, intersection density, median household income, and density of fast food outlets). After controlling for individual level factors, median household income [relative risk (RR) = 0.992; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.990, 0.994], population density (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.972, 0.990), employment density (RR = 1.004; 95% CI = 1.001, 1.009), establishment density (RR = 0.981 95% CI = 0.964, 0.999), and the presence of a supermarket (RR = 0.893; 95% CI = 0.815, 0.978) were associated with obesity risk. Fast food establishment density was poorly associated with obesity risk. Where one lives may affect obesity status. Given the influence of the presence of a supermarket on obesity risk, efforts to address food access might be a priority for reducing obesity.

  11. Risk factors of striae gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Kasielska-Trojan, A; Sobczak, M; Antoszewski, B

    2015-04-01

    Stretch marks are a common skin disorder. Pregnancy-related lesions are defined as striae gravidarum. The root cause of striae formation remains unknown. The aim of this paper was to identify the risk factors associated with striae gravidarum (SG) development. The study was conducted at Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department among 299 Caucasian women maximum 6 months after the delivery, regardless of whether they were primiparas or multiparas. Among the women participating in the study, 71.2% (213 of 299) developed striae gravidarum at least in one site. Logistic regression analysis showed that four of the analysed factors were independent predictors of striae gravidarum occurrence: family history of SG, BMI before pregnancy, the lack of chronic diseases and birthweight (P < 0.0001). It has been found that the presence of striae distensae on the breasts increases the risk of SG development (71.4% vs. 28.6%, P = 0.0008), whereas the presence of these lesions on the thighs decreases the risk (23% vs. 77%, P = 0.0076). In this study, we presented a model that can help to predict the risk of SG formation, including family history of SG, BMI before pregnancy, birthweight and chronic diseases. Moreover, women with stretch marks on their breasts should know that the risk of SG development is significantly higher, whereas lesions on the thighs do not increase such a risk. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Assessing Level of Agreement for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Categorization Between Coronary Artery Calcium Score and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines and the Potential Impact on Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Isma'eel, Hussain; Min, David; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hachamovitch, Rory; Halliburton, Sandra; Gentry, James; Griffin, Brian; Schoenhagen, Paul; Phelan, Dermot

    2016-11-15

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardiovascular prevention guidelines use a new pooled cohort equation (PCE) to predict 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events which form the basis of treatment recommendations. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has been proposed as a means to assess atherosclerotic risk. We sought to study the level of agreement in predicted ASCVD risk by CACS and PCE-calculated models and the potential impact on therapy of additional CACS testing. We studied 687 treatment naive, consecutive patients (mean age 53.5 years, 72% men) who had a CACS study at our institution. Clinical and imaging data were recorded. ASCVD risk was calculated using the published PCE-based algorithm. CACS-based risk was categorized by previously published recommendations. Risk stratification comparisons were made and level of agreement calculated. In the cohort, mean ASCVD PCE-calculated risk was 5.3 ± 5.2% and mean CACS was 80 ± 302 Agatston units (AU). Of the intermediate PCE-calculated risk (5% to <7.5%) cohort, 85% had CACS <100 AU. Of the cohort categorized as reasonable to treat per the ASCVD prevention guidelines, 40% had a CACS of 0 AU and an additional 44% had CACS >0 but <100 AU. The level of agreement between the new PCE model of ASCVD risk and demonstrable coronary artery calcium is low. CACS testing may be most beneficial in those with an intermediate risk of ASCVD (PCE-calculated risk of 5% to <7.5%) where, in approximately half of patients, CACS testing significantly refined risk assessment primarily into a very low-risk category.

  13. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  14. Obesity and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, H; Nabaei, B

    2007-03-01

    To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian schoolgirls and to identify risk factors which lead to obesity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 and a sample of 1800 female students between 7-12 years old was obtained using a multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran. Height and weight were measured and related socio-economic information was collected. The overall percent of overweight and obesity was 13.3% and 7.7% respectively. BMI (Body Mass Index) was directly and significantly(r=+0.28, P< 0.001) correlated with increasing age. Physical activity was significantly different between obese and non-obese children. (P=0.03) Also, economical factors such as the type of school (private&public) were different in these children. (P=0.03) The statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant and inverse correlation(r=-0.03, P=0.04) between maternal education and occurrence of overweight and obesity in children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Iranian girls was high. Advanced age, lack of physical inactivity, low economical factors and maternal educational status could be risk factors for obesity in children.

  15. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  16. Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Gisele dos; Pegoraro, Marina; Sandrini, Fabiano; Macuco, Emílio César

    2008-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in developed countries as well as in developing countries. In general, the clinical manifestations of CVD, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, are caused by an atherosclerotic process with onset as from the middle age. However, current studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process starts to develop in childhood. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been studied as to its inflammatory aspect. Among the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been extensively studied in individuals with CVD, including those apparently healthy. High CRP levels have been related to risk factors for atherosclerosis: family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A great part of these risk factors may be influenced by lifestyle modifications, such as changes in eating habits and engagement in physical activities. The effects of physical activity on CRP levels in adulthood are documented in the literature, however little is known on the influence of an active or sedentary lifestyle of children and adolescents on CRP levels. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the impact of physical activity of children and adolescents on CRP levels and the risk factors for the development of CVD.

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is ... may have few or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk ...

  18. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: Synopsis of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading U.S. cause of death, lost quality of life and medical costs. Nearly one in three Americans die from heart disease and stroke. Most ASCVD is preventable through a healthy lifestyle and effective treatment of cholesterol and blood pressure...

  19. Low HDL cholesterol is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly diabetic individuals: changes in the risk for atherosclerotic diseases at various ages.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshio; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Itoh, Hideki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Nomura, Hideki; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2009-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between lipid levels and ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic individuals. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4,014 type 2 diabetic patients (1,936 women; mean +/- SD age 67.4 +/- 9.5 years). Lipid and glucose levels and other factors were investigated in relation to occurrence of IHD or CVD. IHD and CVD occurred in 1.59 and 1.43% of participants, respectively, over a 2-year period. The relation of lower HDL or higher LDL cholesterol to occurrence of IHD in subjects <65 years old was significant. Lower HDL cholesterol was also significantly related to CVD in subjects >or=65 years old and especially in those >75 years old (n = 1,016; odds ratio 0.511 [95% CI 0.239-0.918]; P < 0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis with onset of CVD as a dependent variable showed the same result. Lower HDL cholesterol is an important risk factor for not only IHD but also CVD, especially in diabetic elderly individuals.

  20. [Risk factors for birth injuries].

    PubMed

    García, Heladia; Rubio-Espíritu, Jorge; Islas-Rodríguez, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with birth trauma. Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González", Secretaría de Salud. Case-control, prolective study. There were 129 cases and 134 controls. We recorded the following variables: a) maternal and delivery: age, weight, height, prenatal care, pre-existing disease or gestational disease, mode of delivery, anesthetic management during labor, use of external maneuvers or forceps; b) newborn: birth weight, gestational age, academic degree of attendant physician at delivery, and type of birth injury. The independent risk factors associated to birth injury were: for ecchymoses; general anesthesia (OR 13.7, 95% CI = 3 - 62.6), breech presentation (OR 6.4, 95% IC 95% = 1.4 - 27.9) and gestational age < or = 32 weeks (OR 6.4, 95% CI = 1.3 - 31.1); for lacerations, vaginal dystocic delivery or cesarean section (OR 19, 95% CI = 4.4 - 81.1) and use of external maneuvers (OR 5.6, 95% CI = 1.5 - 21.6); for cephalhematoma maternal height < or = 1.54 m (OR 7.4, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7) and external maneuvers (OR 7.2, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7); for caput succedaneum, external maneuvers (OR 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5-7.7) and maternal age < or = 19 or > or = 36 years (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 - 6.4). Risk factors associated with birth injuries identified in this study involved maternal conditions, neonatal conditions and mechanism of delivery.

  1. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  2. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  3. A novel biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis: serum DKK1 concentration correlates with coronary artery calcification and atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Park, Kyoung Un; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Chae, In-Ho; Song, Junghan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2011-09-01

    DKK1 modulates Wnt signaling, which is involved in the atherosclerosis. However, no data exist regarding the usefulness of measuring serum DKK1 concentration in predicting coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 270 consecutive patients (62.8 ± 11.2 yr; 70% male) were included. A contrast-enhanced 64-slice coronary MDCT was performed to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Agatston calcium scores (CS) were calculated to quantify the coronary artery calcification (CAC). DKK1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each subsequent DKK1 quartile, there was a significant increase in CAC (P = 0.004) and the number of segments with coronary atherosclerosis (P < 0.001). In addition, DKK1 concentration was significantly higher in patients with atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of plaque composition (P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified DKK1 as an independent risk factor for the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The adjusted odds ratio for coronary atherosclerotic plaque was 4.88 (95% CI, 1.67 to 14.25) for highest versus lowest quartile of the DKK1 levels. Furthermore, patients with DKK1 concentrations ≥ 68.6 pg/mL demonstrated coronary atherosclerotic plaques even when they had low CS. Serum DKK1 concentrations correlate with the coronary atherosclerosis and play an independent role in predicting the presence of coronary atherosclerosis.

  4. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  5. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  6. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In women, high triglycerides combined ... information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  7. Risk Factors and Causes of Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes of Sy... Back to Fainting Risk Factors & Causes of Syncope Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Syncope The ... heart. LQTS is believed to be a common cause of sudden and unexplained death in children and ...

  8. Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Tailoring Aspirin Therapy for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Events in Patients at High Risk With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; Scholte, Arthur J H A; van Rosendael, Alexander R; van den Hoogen, Inge J; Kharagjitsingh, Aantje V; Wolterbeek, Ron; Knuuti, Juhani; Kroft, Lucia J M; Delgado, Victoria; Jukema, J Wouter; de Graaf, Michiel A; Bax, Jeroen J

    2016-03-15

    Aspirin use for primary prevention in patients at high risk with diabetes mellitus (DM) is often recommended under the assumption that most patients with DM have coronary artery disease (CAD). However, not all patients may have CAD. The present study evaluated, in 425 patients at high risk with DM (without chest pain syndrome or a history of cardiac disease), the prevalence of CAD on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Moreover, the association between the presence and number of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CAD (on coronary CTA) was evaluated. The median coronary artery calcium score was 29 (interquartile range 0 to 298). On coronary CTA, 116 patients (27%) had no CAD (defined as <30% stenosis). Of the 309 patients (73%) with any CAD (≥30% stenosis), 35% had obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). The number of traditional CV risk factors was not associated with the presence of any CAD (≥30% stenosis; p = 0.18) or obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis; p = 0.13). Hypertension was the only traditional CV risk factor associated with a higher frequency of any CAD (≥30% stenosis; odds ratio = 2.21, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.41, p <0.001) and obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis; odds ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.11, p = 0.001). In conclusion, in patients at high risk with DM without chest pain syndrome, any CAD was ruled out by coronary CTA in 27%, whereas 65% of the patients did not have obstructive CAD. The number of CV risk factors was not associated with the presence of CAD. Hypertension was the only traditional CV risk factor that was associated with a higher frequency of CAD. These observations support potential use of coronary CTA to tailor aspirin therapy in patients at high risk with DM.

  9. Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Rebeccah A; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Mathews, Lena M; Michos, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Despite improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention efforts, there remain gaps in cardiovascular disease awareness among women, as well as age and racial disparities in ASCVD outcomes for women. Disparity also exists in the impact the traditional risk factors confer on ASCVD risk between women and men, with smoking and diabetes both resulting in stronger relative risks in women compared to men. Additionally there are risk factors that are unique to women (such as pregnancy-related factors) or that disproportionally affect women (such as auto-immune disease) where preventive efforts should be targeted. Risk assessment and management must also be sex-specific to effectively reduce cardiovascular disease and improve outcomes among women. Evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in women at higher ASCVD risk. However, some pause should be given to prescribing aspirin therapy in women without known ASCVD, with most evidence supporting the use of aspirin for women≥65 years not at increased risk for bleeding. This review article will summarize (1) traditional and non-traditional assessments of ASCVD risk and (2) lifestyle and pharmacologic therapies for the primary prevention of ASCVD in women.

  10. Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Rebeccah A.; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Mathews, Lena M.; Michos, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Despite improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention efforts, there remain gaps in cardiovascular disease awareness among women, as well as age and racial disparities in ASCVD outcomes for women. Disparity also exists in the impact the traditional risk factors confer on ASCVD risk between women and men, with smoking and diabetes both resulting in stronger relative risks in women compared to men. Additionally there are risk factors that are unique to women (such as pregnancy-related factors) or that disproportionally affect women (such as auto-immune disease) where preventive efforts should be targeted. Risk assessment and management must also be sex-specific to effectively reduce cardiovascular disease and improve outcomes among women. Evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in women at higher ASCVD risk. However, some pause should be given to prescribing aspirin therapy in women without known ASCVD, with most evidence supporting the use of aspirin for women≥65 years not at increased risk for bleeding. This review article will summarize (1) traditional and non-traditional assessments of ASCVD risk and (2) lifestyle and pharmacologic therapies for the primary prevention of ASCVD in women. PMID:28149430

  11. Simulated VLF-fields as a risk factor of thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, E.; Richter, O.; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    1981-06-01

    VLF (Very Low Frequencies)-fields are damped electromagnetic waves of atmospheric origin (sferics). Sferics were artificially produced within a steel-built chamber; blood was drawn and platelet adhesiveness, platelet cyclic AMP and coagulation factors were measured in human volunteers placed within the chamber. Following frequency of the impulses of 10 Hz and a field strength of 400 mV/m increased platelet adhesiveness and decreased platelet cyclic AMP. Medication of the anti-platelet drugs were not effective at all, but the pretreatment of dipyridamole 75 mg combined with acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg blocked the sferics induced increment in platelet adhesiveness. Psychologically labile volunteers exhibited more marked effects of sferics upon platelet adhesiveness. Simulation of stressors upon platelets showed the same effect. The increase in platelet adhesiveness induced by all kind of stressors is not a risk factor of thrombosis in itself. Only if the vessel walls are damaged, e.g. by atherosclerotic plaques, or if the blood flow is reduced, e.g. by heart failure, then the increased platelet adhesiveness will cause thrombosis.

  12. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  13. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  14. Environmental and Clinical Risk Factors for Delirium in a Neurosurgical Center: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Matano, Fumihiro; Mizunari, Takayuki; Yamada, Keiko; Kobayashi, Shiro; Murai, Yasuo; Morita, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Few reports of delirium-related risk factors have focused on environmental risk factors and clinical risk factors, such as white matter signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. We prospectively enrolled 253 patients admitted to our neurosurgical center between December 2014 and June 2015 and analyzed 220 patients (100 male patients; mean age, 64.1 years; age range, 17-92 years). An Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score ≥4 points indicated delirium. We evaluated patient factors consisting of baseline characteristics and related factors, such as white matter lesions (WMLs), as well as the surrounding environment. Delirium occurred in 29/220 cases (13.2%). Regarding baseline characteristics, there were significant statistical correlations between delirium and age (P = 0.0187), Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised score (P = 0.0022) on admission, and WMLs (P < 0.0001). WMLs were related to age (P < 0.0001) and atherosclerotic disease (P = 0.004). Regarding related factors, there were significant statistical correlations between delirium and stay in a neurosurgical care unit (P = 0.0245). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed statistically significant correlations of delirium with WMLs (P < 0.0001) and surrounding patients with delirium (P = 0.026). WMLs in patients and the surrounding environment are risk factors for delirium in a neurosurgical center. To prevent delirium, clinicians must recognize risk factors, such as high-grade WMLs, and manage environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  17. [Risk factors for cardiovascular system damage in chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Kutyrina, I M; Rudenko, T E; Savel'eva, S A; Shvetsov, M Iu; Vasil'eva, M P

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of and risk factors (RF) associated with cardiovascular system damage in patients with predialysis diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The investigation enrolled 317 patients with CKD of various etiologies. In Group 1 (165 patients with CKD: 54% of men, 46% of women; mean age 46 +/- 15 years), the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 37.2 ml/min; the serum creatinine level was 2.9 mg/dl. Group 2 included 152 (41%) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (41% of men and 59% of women; mean age 57.3 +/- 7.1 years). The duration of DM averaged 10.4 +/- 7.1 years. All the patients underwent physical examination; the levels of glycated hemoglobin and adipose tissue hormones, urinary albumin excretion were additionally determined in the diabetic patients. Echocardiography was performed in 172 patients. The influence of populationwide and renal failure-associated RFs on the cardiovascular system was evaluated in CKD. Clinical and instrumental examinations of 165 patients with Stages II-IV nondiabetic CKD revealed atherosclerosis of the aorta and the vessels of the heart, brain, kidney, and lower extremities in 60 (37%), 35 (24%), 30 (18%), 23 (14%), and 8 (5%), respectively. As atherosclerotic vascular lesion progressed, the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) increased. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed in 37.3% of the patients with nondiabetic CKD. Along with traditional cardiovascular RFs (age, smoking, gender, arterial hypertension), the renal dysfunction-related factors (anemia, diminished glomerular filtration rate, elevated creatitine levels, and abnormal phosphorus and calcium metabolism) are of importance. An association was found between LVH, atherosclerotic vascular lesion, and heart valve calcification. According to EchoCG data, 36% of the patients with type 2 DM were diagnosed as having LVH. The RFs of the latter were albuminuria, obesity, and abnormal carbohydrate and purine metabolisms. There

  18. Heat Shock Proteins: Mediators of Atherosclerotic Development.

    PubMed

    Deniset, Justin F; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins play important housekeeping roles in a variety of cells within the body during normal control conditions. The many different functions for heat shock proteins in the cell depend upon the specific heat shock protein involved. Each protein is nominally differentiated based upon its molecular size. However, in addition to their role in normal cell function, heat shock proteins may play an even more important role as pro-survival proteins conserved through evolution to protect the cell from a variety of stresses. The ability of a cell to withstand these environmental stresses is critical to its capacity to adapt and remain viable. Loss of this ability may lead to pathological states. Abnormal localization, structure or function of the heat shock proteins has been associated with many pathologies, including those involving heart disease. Heat shock proteins like HSP60 and HSP70 in particular have been identified as playing important roles in inflammation and immune reactions. Inflammation has been identified recently as an important pathological risk factor for heart disease. It is perhaps not surprising therefore, that heat shock protein family has been increasingly identified as an important intracellular pathway associated with inflammatory-mediated heart conditions including atherosclerosis. This paper reviews the evidence in support of a role for heat shock proteins in cardiovascular disease and the potential to target these proteins to alter the progression of atherosclerotic disease.

  19. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiangyuan; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  1. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  2. Suicide Risk Factors in Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motto, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)

  3. [Suicide risk factors among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided.

  4. [Genetic risk factors in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Fabisch, H; Kroisel, P M; Fabisch, Karin

    2005-11-01

    The high pathogenetic relevance of genetic factors in schizophrenia is beyond doubt based on the findings of epidemiological studies. By means of a complex mode of transmission, it is likely that several genes with weak to moderate effect jointly constitute a genetic basis for a vulnerability to schizophrenia that may well vary for different individuals. Other organic and psychosocial factors also play an individually different -- in some cases significant -- role in terms of pathogenesis, as a result of which an oligogenic/polygenic multifactor model is assumed from the standpoint of aetiopathogenetics. Molecular genetic methods consist in linkage analyses and association analyses. Positive linkage findings accumulate particularly for the chromosomes 1q, 6p, 8p, 13q and 22q. By themselves, individual mutations contribute little to the range of schizophrenic feature characteristics, it was not possible -- irrespective of some subtypes -- to replicate genes of major effect. From the large number of possible candidate genes, although studies on DRD3, DRD2 and HTR2A produced positive results, the magnitudes of effect were low. The findings for alleles of dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAO, COMT, PRODH, ZDHHC and DISC are less clear. The search for schizophrenia-relevant mutations is hampered by the possibility of a heterogeneous phenotype of schizophrenia in case of a homogeneous genotype as much as by the possibility of inter-individually homogeneous phenotypical characteristics in case of schizophrenia-relevant heterotype in the genome. With the aid of the concept of endo-phenotypes, based on neurobiological phenomena, it might be possible to take a more direct approach that leads from relevant mutations to the risk of schizophrenias. However, replacing schizophrenic alienation with neurobiological aspects leads to difficulties in explaining these complex disorder profiles. Schizophrenic diseases require an explanatory approach that also incorporates personality and

  5. [Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer disease risk: epidemiological studies review].

    PubMed

    Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean-François; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc

    2006-03-01

    Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still undefined in its most frequent sporadic type, but a role of vascular risk factor is more and more evocated in its pathophysiology. This role enables to hope that preventive or curative care of vascular risk factors could decrease AD incidence. Among these factors, high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and tobacco consumption were the most studied. We review the risk for AD, which had been associated with each of these factors in epidemiological studies. High blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of AD in most studies while the results are more controversial for the others factors. All these four vascular risk factors have variable interaction with the presence of cerebrovascular diseases and of the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene which is a predisposition factor for sporadic AD.

  6. The Relation Between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Risk Factors: An Angiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Ramin; Mostanfar, Baharak; Tavassoli, Aliakbar; Roghani, Farshad; Yazdekhasti, Safoura

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CAD were studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, past medical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measured in all studied patients. ABI≤0.9 (ABI(+)) was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI>0.9 (ABI(-)) was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary artery angiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI(+) and ABI(-) groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis. In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI≤0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%). The prevalence of ABI(+) among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P=0.01). The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI(+) patients than in ABI(-) ones (P<0.05). ABI(+) patients had more significant stenosis than ABI(-) ones. The mean of occlusion was significantly higher in ABI(+) patients with left main artery (LMA), right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), diagonal artery 1 (D1) and left circumflex artery (LCX) involvements (P<0.05). The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method in assessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements in suspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method in diagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of general population.

  7. Management and risk factor control of coronary artery disease in elderly versus nonelderly: a multicenter registry.

    PubMed

    Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Boonyaratavej, Smonporn; Wongvipaporn, Chaiyasith; Tiyanon, Woraporn; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, Rapeephon; Tatsanavivat, Pyatat; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in elderly because aging is the important non-modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis and also a predictor of poor outcomes. Underuse of guideline directed therapy may contribute to suboptimal risk factor control and worse outcomes in the elderly. We aimed to explore the management of CAD, risk factors control as well as goal attainment in elderly compared to nonelderly CAD patients. The CORE-Thailand is an ongoing multicenter, prospective, observational registry of patients with high atherosclerotic risk in Thailand. The data of 4120 CAD patients enrolled in this cohort was analyzed comparing between the elderly (age ≥ 65 years) vs. nonelderly (age < 65 years). There were 2172 elderly and 1948 nonelderly patients. The elderly CAD patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease. The proportion of patients who received coronary revascularization was not different between the elderly and nonelderly CAD patients. Antiplatelets were prescribed less in the elderly while statin was prescribed in the similar proportion. Goal attainments of risk factor control of glycemic control, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking cessation except the blood pressure goal were higher in the elderly CAD patients. The CORE-Thailand registry showed the equity in the treatment of CAD between elderly and non-elderly. Elderly CAD patients had higher rate of goal attainment in risk factor control except blood pressure goal. The effects of goal attainment on cardiovascular outcomes will be demonstrated from ongoing cohort.

  8. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  9. Adipo/cytokines in atherosclerotic secretomes: increased visfatin levels in unstable carotid plaque.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Aragonès, Gemma; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Curriu, Marta; Martinez, Salomé; Alibalic, Ajla; Aguilar, Carmen; Camara, María-Luisa; Hernández, Esteban; Ruyra, Xavier; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-07-08

    Novel pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory derivatives from adipose tissue, known as adipokines, act as metabolic factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the secreted expression of different adipo/cytokines in secretomes of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque versus non-atherosclerotic mammary artery. We evaluated the secretion levels of adiponectin, visfatin, lipocalin-2, resistin, IL-6 and TNFR2 by ELISA in human secretomes from cultured unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque (n = 18) and non-atherosclerotic mammary artery (n = 13). We also measured visfatin serum levels in patients suffering from atherosclerosis and in a serum cohort of healthy subjects (n = 16). We found that visfatin levels were significantly increased in unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque secretome than in non-atherosclerotic mammary artery secretome. No differences were found with regard the other adipo/cytokines studied. Regarding visfatin circulating levels, there were no differences between unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque and non-atherosclerotic mammary artery group. However, these visfatin levels were increased in comparison to serum cohort of healthy subjects. Of all the adipo/cytokines analysed, only visfatin showed increased levels in secretomes of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Additional human studies are needed to clarify the possible role of visfatin as prognostic factor of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  10. Association of Plasma Viscosity with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obesity: As an old marker, a new insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltem, Ercan; Dildar, Konukoglu; Tijen, Yeşim Erdem

    2007-04-01

    Although obesity is related with cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of the relationship is not fully understood. We aim to examine the relationship between plasma viscosity and obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in obese and non-obese groups. We recruited 75 obese subjects who were admitted to the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Plasma viscosity and lipid profile were measured and atherogenic index was calculated as atherogenic risk factors. Plasma viscosity, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and atherogenic index were significantly increased in obese group compared to non-obese group for each. Plasma viscosity was weakly correlated with total cholesterol and atherogenic index only in the obese group. Plasma viscosity, an early atherosclerotic risk factor, might be helpful in the assessment of cardiovascular risk in obese subjects.

  11. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  12. [Assessment of dynamic violent behavior risk factors].

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Cáceres, María Soledad; Campos, María Laura; Silveri, Marina; Ucín, Silvana; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic violent behavior risk factors have special significance since they constitute the main target for preventive intervention. Different dynamic factors as well as violent recidivism were assessed with, among other instruments, the environmental risk (Risk Management) section of the Argentinean version of the HCR-20 in 25 parolees from the Province of Buenos Aires Penitentiary System. Among other findings, the prevalence of the risk factors linked to substance abuse and socioeconomic deprivation, and the heterogeneous perception of the official institutions are very significant. Exposure to destabilizers was the factor most associated with violent recidivism.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 7–13 Years Old Children from Vojvodina (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Dželajlija, Darko D.; Spasić, Slavica S.; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Nataša B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease. Methods Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7–13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk. Results The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS. Conclusions The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the changeable risk factors. PMID:28356880

  14. Risk Factor Modification and Projections of Absolute Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Background Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Methods Using data from a case–control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. Results The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. Conclusions These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions. PMID:21705679

  15. Risk factor modification and projections of absolute breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Gail, Mitchell H

    2011-07-06

    Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions.

  16. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Treatment May Intervene The Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression by Inducing The Variations of Mechanical Factors: A 3D FSI Study Based on in vivo Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianhang; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidences suggest that long-term enhanced external counter-pulsation (EECP) treatment can inhibit the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion by improving the hemodynamic environment in aortas. However, whether this kind procedure will intervene the progression of advanced atherosclerotic plaque remains elusive and causes great concern in its clinical application presently. In the current paper, a pilot study combining animal experiment and numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the acute mechanical stress variations during EECP intervention, and then to assess the possible chronic effects. An experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic porcine model was developed and the basic hemodynamic measurement was performed in vivo before and during EECP treatment. Meanwhile, A 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of blood vessel with symmetric local stenosis was developed for the numerical calculation of some important mechanical factors. The results show that EECP augmented 12.21% of the plaque wall stress (PWS), 57.72% of the time average wall shear stress (AWSS) and 43.67% of the non-dimensional wall shear stress gradient (WSSGnd) at throat site of the stenosis. We suggest that long-term EECP treatment may intervene the advanced plaque progression by inducing the significant variations of some important mechanical factors, but its proper effects will need a further research combined follow-up observation in clinic.

  17. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  18. Periodontitis: a risk factor for coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Beck, J D; Offenbacher, S; Williams, R; Gibbs, P; Garcia, R

    1998-07-01

    measure reflecting microbial burden, also is related to onset of new CHD events. Our previously published model describing the potential biological mechanisms underlying the associations found is reviewed. This model places the associations into a context of an intrinsic or acquired hyperinflammatory monocyte trait that results in a more intense inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, such as periodontal infections. This hyperinflammatory response may promote atheroma formation and thromboembolic events. finally, new findings from ongoing animal studies are presented, indicating that high fat diets in atherosclerotic-susceptible mice induce greater inflammatory responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis challenges. We conclude that the available evidence does allow an interpretation of periodontitis being a risk factor for atherosclerosis/CHD. This conclusion, however. is made with some qualifications. While the associations found across a wide variety of subjects are remarkably consistent, for the most part they are represented by incidence odds ratios around 2.0. While this level of association would result in oral conditions contributing to a large number of CHD cases, it is possible that associations of this magnitude are due to bias in the study designs. In addition, some studies report that periodontitis is associated with all-cause mortality and low birth weight infants. These multiple associations detract from the credibility of periodontitis as a risk factor, as specificity of association is more often related to causality. However, all-cause mortality may largely be driven by mortality from cardiovascular events: and some exposures, such as smoking. are indeed risk factors for multiple conditions. On the other hand, current findings regarding the associations between oral conditions and atherosclerosis/CHD imply that the criteria for causality may be met in the not-too-distant future.

  19. Kinking of internal carotid artery: is it a risk factor for cerebro-vascular damage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Borioni, R; Garofalo, M; Actis Dato, G M; Pierri, M D; Caprara, E; Albano, P; Chiariello, L

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of carotid artery kinking is reported from 4% to 25% in different studies. During cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) in cardiac surgery the hemodynamic effects related to the kinking could produce hypoperfusion especially if associated with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. We report our experience of 653 patients (538 males, 115 females, mean age 58.3 years) studied by coronaroangiography and internal carotid artery duplex scanning during the period January 1991-December 1992. Thirty-seven patients (22 males, 15 females, mean age 64.9 years), revealed anomalies of the internal carotid artery classificated as tortuosity (9 patients; 24.4%), and kinking (28 patients; 75.6%). All but 4 patients underwent cardiac surgery isolated or associated with carotid thrombo-endarterectomy (TEA) with Dacron patch arterioplasty. Three patients died (8.1%), one of them from cerebrovascular accident. He was a patient who had thromboembolism from the ascending aorta but without associated atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries. Asymptomatic isolated internal carotid artery kinking does not seem to be a risk factor for neurological complications during CPB. If carotid kinking is symptomatic and associated with atherosclerotic plaque producing internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 75%, we strongly suggest surgical treatment before cardiac operation.

  20. Rationale, Design, and Methodological Aspects of the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL Study (Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions).

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Tárnoki, Dávid L; Tárnoki, Ádám D; Horváth, Tamás; Jermendy, Ádám L; Kolossváry, Márton; Szilveszter, Bálint; Voros, Viktor; Kovács, Attila; Molnár, Andrea Á; Littvay, Levente; Lamb, Hildo J; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, György; Merkely, Béla

    2015-12-01

    The heritability of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, coronary geometry, and phenotypes associated with increased cardiometabolic risk are largely unknown. The primary aim of the Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions (BUDAPEST-GLOBAL) study is to evaluate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the burden of coronary artery disease. By design this is a prospective, single-center, classical twin study. In total, 202 twins (61 monozygotic pairs, 40 dizygotic same-sex pairs) were enrolled from the Hungarian Twin Registry database. All twins underwent non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the detection and quantification of coronary artery calcium and for the measurement of epicardial fat volumes. In addition, a single non-contrast-enhanced image slice was acquired at the level of L3-L4 to assess abdominal fat distribution. Coronary CT angiography was used for the detection and quantification of plaque, stenosis, and overall coronary artery disease burden. For the primary analysis, we will assess the presence and volume of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, the 3-dimensional coronary geometry will be assessed based on the coronary CT angiography datasets. Additional phenotypic analyses will include per-patient epicardial and abdominal fat quantity measurements. Measurements obtained from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs will be compared to evaluate the genetic or environmental effects of the given phenotype. The BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study provides a unique framework to shed some light on the genetic and environmental influences of cardiometabolic disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  2. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  3. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  4. Interleukin-17A Gene Haplotypes Are Associated with Risk of Premature Coronary Artery Disease in Mexican Patients from the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Fragoso, José Manuel; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Aim The role of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in the inflammatory process has caused interest in the potential significance of IL-17A as a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of IL-17A gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for CAD in the Mexican population. Methods Four IL-17A gene polymorphisms (rs8193036, rs3819024, rs2275913 and rs8193037) were genotyped by 5’ exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 900 patients with premature CAD and 667 healthy controls (with negative calcium score by computed tomography), seeking associations with CAD and other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Results No single IL-17A polymorphism was associated with premature CAD, however two haplotypes (CAGG and TAGA) were significantly associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00–1.84, P = 0.018 and OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.16–3.76, P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, rs3819024 was associated with increased levels of visceral abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and rs8193036 was significantly associated with risk of central obesity (P = 0.020), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.027), and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.027) in the premature CAD group, under dominant models adjusted by age, gender, BMI, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and treatment. Conclusion The results suggest that IL-17A haplotypes are involved in the risk of developing premature CAD and some IL-17A polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican individuals with premature CAD. PMID:25615631

  5. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  6. Persistent diarrhea: risk factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, B; Biswal, Niranjan; Adhisivam, B; Parija, S C; Srinivasan, S

    2010-08-01

    To identify risk factors associated with Persistent diarrhea (PD) and deaths due to PD. This prospective case control study included 60 children with PD (cases) and 60 children (controls) with acute diarrhoea (AD). Detailed history, examination and appropriate investigations were done for all children. Crude Odds ratio was calculated for each risk factor by univariate analysis and adjusted odds ratio was calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Prior antibiotic use, steroid use, anemia, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition, LRI, UTI, oral candidiasis, and hyponatremia, were statistically significant risk factors by univariate analysis. Prior antibiotic use, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and LRI were independently associated with PD by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for mortality were stool frequency more than 10 times per day, severe malnutrition, oral candidiasis, hypoalbuminemia and HIV positivity. The presence of these risk factors should alert the clinician to take appropriate measures, to decrease the mortality.

  7. Vorapaxar in atherosclerotic disease management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy W M; Colucci, Vincent; Howard, Patricia A; Nappi, Jean M; Spinler, Sarah A

    2015-05-01

    To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of vorapaxar, a protease activator receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonist, in the management of atherosclerotic diseases. Peer-reviewed clinical trials and review articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content database (both 1966 to December 31, 2014) using the search terms vorapaxar and protease activator receptor antagonist. A total of 30 clinical studies were identified (16 clinical trials, including subanalyses, 14 related to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics and drug interactions). Two phase III clinical trials with vorapaxar have been published. In patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), vorapaxar failed to significantly reduce the primary efficacy end point (composite of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, recurrent ischemia with hospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization). Conversely, in a study of secondary prevention for patients with cardiovascular disease, the composite end point of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was significantly reduced. In both trials, the safety end points of major/minor bleeding were increased compared with placebo. In the secondary prevention trial, an increased incidence of intracranial hemorrhage led to the exclusion of patients with a prior history of stroke. Vorapaxar is approved for use with aspirin and/or clopidogrel in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in stable patients with peripheral arterial disease or a history of MI. However, the addition of vorapaxar to other antiplatelets can significantly increase the risk of bleeding. It is, therefore, essential to balance the need for further reduction of risk of thrombotic event with patient's individual bleeding risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  9. n-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Tombesi, Massimo; Avanzini, Fausto; Barlera, Simona; Caimi, Vittorio; Longoni, Paolo; Marzona, Irene; Milani, Valentina; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Tognoni, Gianni; Marchioli, Roberto

    2013-05-09

    Trials have shown a beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with a previous myocardial infarction or heart failure. We evaluated the potential benefit of such therapy in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease who had not had a myocardial infarction. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled a cohort of patients who were followed by a network of 860 general practitioners in Italy. Eligible patients were men and women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or atherosclerotic vascular disease but not myocardial infarction. Patients were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo (olive oil). The initially specified primary end point was the cumulative rate of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. At 1 year, after the event rate was found to be lower than anticipated, the primary end point was revised as time to death from cardiovascular causes or admission to the hospital for cardiovascular causes. Of the 12,513 patients enrolled, 6244 were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids and 6269 to placebo. With a median of 5 years of follow-up, the primary end point occurred in 1478 of 12,505 patients included in the analysis (11.8%), of whom 733 of 6239 (11.7%) had received n-3 fatty acids and 745 of 6266 (11.9%) had received placebo (adjusted hazard ratio with n-3 fatty acids, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.08; P=0.58). The same null results were observed for all the secondary end points. In a large general-practice cohort of patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, daily treatment with n-3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (Funded by Società Prodotti Antibiotici and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00317707.).

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in the urban Mexican population: the FRIMEX study.

    PubMed

    Meaney, E; Lara-Esqueda, A; Ceballos-Reyes, G M; Asbun, J; Vela, A; Martínez-Marroquín, Y; López, V; Meaney, A; de la Cabada-Tamez, E; Velázquez-Monroy, O; Tapia-Conyer, R

    2007-05-01

    Atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease is the second leading cause of general mortality in Mexico due to the growing prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors in our society. The data of the FRIMEX study (Factores de Riesgo en México, Risk Factors in Mexico), considered together with those of other contemporary epidemiological surveys, will aid in our comprehension of the current state of cardiovascular epidemics in Mexico. Frequencies of obesity, hypertension and smoking, and total cholesterol and glucose in capillary blood were estimated in a non-probabilistic sample comprised of 140017 individuals (aged 44+/-13 years; 42% men and 58% women), from six Mexican cities (Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Leon and Tijuana). Obesity or overweight status was found in 71.9% of participants. Hypertension was found in 26.5%, and the proportions of awareness, treatment and control for this disease were 49.3, 73 and 36%, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age; while it was higher in men under 60 years of age, in the more aged individuals it was higher in women. Hypercholesterolaemia was found in 40% of the individuals and cholesterolaemia > or =240 mg/dl was significantly higher in women. Thirty-five and a half percent of men and 18.1% of women were smokers. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in 10.4% of participants. There was significant Pearson's correlation between body mass index and blood pressure, between hypertension and glucose levels, and between hypertension and total cholesterol concentrations. We conclude that this population has a high cardiovascular risk profile and a high probability of the occurrence of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  12. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  13. Cyclic Bending Contributes to High Stress in a Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque and Rupture Risk: In Vitro Experimental Modeling and Ex Vivo MRI-Based Computational Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N

    2008-01-01

    Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment.

  14. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care.

  15. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  16. Reduction in atherosclerotic events: a retrospective study in an outpatient cardiology practice

    PubMed Central

    Mercando, Anthony D.; Lai, Hoang M.; Kalen, Phoenix; Desai, Harit V.; Gandhi, Kaushang; Sharma, Mala; Amin, Harshad; Lai, Trung M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Although atherosclerotic disease cannot be cured, risk of recurrent events can be reduced by application of evidence-based treatment protocols involving aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statin medications. We studied atherosclerotic event rates in a patient population treated before and after the development of aggressive risk factor reduction treatment protocols. Material and methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting for follow-up treatment of coronary artery disease in a community cardiology practice, comparing atherosclerotic event rates and medication usage in a 2-year treatment period prior to 2002 and a 2-year period in 2005-2008. Care was provided in both the early and later eras by 7 board-certified cardiologists in a suburban cardiology practice. Medication usage was compared in both treatment eras. The primary outcome was a composite event rate of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, and coronary interventions. Results Three hundred and fifty-seven patients were studied, with a follow-up duration of 12.1 (±3.5) years. There were 132 composite events in 104 patients (29.1%) in the early era compared to 40 events in 33 patients (9.2%) in the later era (p < 0.0001). From the early to the later eras, there was an increase in use of β-blockers (66% to 83%, p < 0.0001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (34% to 80%, p < 0.0001), and statins (40% to 90%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Application of aggressive evidence-based medication protocols for treatment of atherosclerosis is associated with a significant decrease in atherosclerotic events or need for coronary intervention. PMID:22457676

  17. Ethnic-Specific Risks for Atherosclerotic Calcification of the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Matthew A.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Nasir, Khurram; Wong, Nathan D.; Detrano, Robert; Kronmal, Richard; Takasu, Junichiro; Criqui, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) determine the association between ethnicity and both thoracic and abdominal aortic calcium (TAC and AAC) and 2) investigate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and both TAC and AAC. Participants were 1,957 men and women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had computed tomography scans of both the chest and abdomen. These scans were obtained at the same clinic visit and calcium scores were computed using the Agatston method. Regression analyses were conducted using relative risk regression. The mean age was 65 years and 50% were female. Forty % were White, 26% Hispanic, 21% African American and 13% Chinese. Whites had the highest prevalence of AAC (80%), which was significantly higher than Hispanics (68%, p<0.001), African Americans (63%, p<0.001) and Chinese (74%, p=0.029). Similarly, Whites had the highest prevalence of TAC (42%), which was significantly higher than Hispanics (30%, p < 0.01) and African Americans (27%, p<0.001) but was not significantly different from that in Chinese (38%). Compared to Whites and after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and family history of CVD, Hispanics and African Americans, but not Chinese Americans, had a significantly lower risk for the presence of any AAC or any TAC. In these models, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidemia had stronger associations with AAC while hypertension was stronger for TAC. In conclusion, compared to Whites, African-Americans and Hispanics, but not Chinese, have evidence of less atherosclerosis in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta which does not appear to be accounted for by traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:19733716

  18. Dioxin exposure is an environmental risk factor for ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dalton, T P; Kerzee, J K; Wang, B; Miller, M; Dieter, M Z; Lorenz, J N; Shertzer, H G; Nerbert, D W; Puga, A

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked dioxin exposure to increased mortality caused by ischemic heart disease. To test the hypothesis that dioxin exposure may constitute an environmental risk factor for atherosclerosis, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 5 microg/kg of dioxin daily for 3 d, and measured various molecular and physiological markers of heart disease. Dioxin treatment led to an increase in the urinary excretion of vasoactive eicosanoids and an elevation in the mean tail-cuff blood pressure. In addition, dioxin exposure led to an increase in triglycerides, but not in high-density lipoproteins, in both Apoe(+/+) mice and in hyperlipidemic Apoe(-/- mice. Dioxin exposure also led to an increase in low-density lipoproteins in Apoe(-/-) mice. After treatment, dioxin was associated with low-density lipoprotein particles, which might serve as a vehicle to deliver the compound to atherosclerotic plaques. Dioxin treatment of vascular smooth-muscle cells taken from C57Bl/6J mice resulted in the deregulation of several genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Subchronic treatment of Apoe(-/-) mice with dioxin (150 ng/kg, three times weekly) for 7 or 26 wk caused a trend toward earlier onset and greater severity of atherosclerotic lesions compared to those of vehicle treated mice. These results suggest that dioxin may increase the incidence of ischemic heart disease by exacerbating its severity.

  19. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  20. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Biwer, B M; Butler, J P

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often be as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per-kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessments for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  1. Atherosclerotic Oxalosis in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Gregory A.; Micheletti, Robert G.; Currier, Judith S.; Singer, Elyse; Fishbein, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary There are many forms of oxalosis, with deposition of oxalate crystals in various organs, including arteries. In this retrospective study we describe deposition of calcium oxalate crystals within atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries of 4 patients, a site of oxalate deposition not previously reported. We suggest the phrase “atherosclerotic oxalosis” for this finding. Background Systemic oxalosis may be hereditary or acquired. In these cases, calcium oxalate deposits have been reported in numerous tissues, including the media of arteries. In any category, calcium oxalate deposition has not been described within atherosclerotic plaques in any arteries. Methods As part of a retrospective clinicopathologic study, 80 hearts were obtained from the National Neurologic AIDS Bank in an effort to study coronary atherosclerosis in patients infected with HIV. The population consisted of 66 HIV-positive and 14 HIV-negative patients with an average age of 47 years; 79% were males. Proximal coronary arteries were serially-sectioned and processed routinely. Sections were studied by H&E staining, and in selected cases, von Kossa stain, and alizarin red S under different conditions, including polarized light, to allow distinction of calcium phosphate from calcium oxalate. Medical histories, autopsy reports, and general autopsy slides were reviewed. Results In 4 patients (3 with AIDS) calcium oxalate crystals were observed within atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries. Similar deposits were seen in the thyroid gland and other organs, but not in the kidneys. None of the patients had chronic renal failure. Conclusion The calcium oxalate crystal deposits observed in the atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries of these 4 patients are unique in two ways: 1) these deposits have not previously been described in atherosclerotic plaques, 2) the patients did not demonstrate any of the recognized patterns of oxalosis. We suggest the phrase “atherosclerotic

  2. Relationship Satisfaction and Risk Factors for Suicide.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.

  3. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation.

  4. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  5. Atherosclerosis risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.

  6. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  7. Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and atherosclerotic vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2011-01-01

    Older women with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease) than older women with normal BMD. Three coronary angiographic studies have shown that low BMD is associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. Low BMD has been shown to be associated with stress test-induced myocardial ischemia, reduced exercise capacity, and with aortic valve calcification. Women with osteoporosis have an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Treatment of osteoporosis or osteopenia should include therapeutic measures to prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:22291728

  8. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  9. THE LEVEL OF GRAMMAR SCHOOL STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Jaraković, Milana; Mihajlović, Bojan; Ćemerlić, Snežana; Ađić, Filip; Sladojević, Miroslava; Mihajlović, Boaoliub

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (p<0.0005) and the overall knowledge level after lectures was increased by 29.4%. The lowest level of knowledge on the entrance tests was noted among the students of the third grade of grammar school and after the lectures, the student's knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005). Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  10. Stroke risk factors and outcomes among various Asian ethnic groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Teoh, Hock Luen; Ong, Benjamin K C; Chan, Bernard P L

    2012-05-01

    Data on interethnic differences in the Asian stroke population are limited. We evaluated the relationships among various cardiovascular risk factors, stroke subtypes, and outcomes in a multiethnic Singaporean population comprising consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting to our tertiary center over a 1-year period. Strokes were classified based on criteria used in the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). Functional independence at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. The ethnic distribution of the study population (n = 481; mean age, 64.1 ± 11.9 years) was 74% Chinese, 17% Malay, and 9% Indian. The prevalence of risk factors was similar in the 3 ethnic groups except for diabetes (Chinese, 39.8%; Malay, 67.5%; Indian, 52.3%; P < .001). Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Lacunar stroke was the most frequent stroke subtype (47.9%). Large-artery atherosclerotic infarctions were more prevalent in Indians (25.0%), whereas lacunar infarctions occured more frequently in Chinese (51.8%; P < .01). No differences in in-hospital mortality and functional independence at discharge were seen among the 3 ethnic groups. Despite the differences in risk factors and in stroke subtypes classified by location or underlying etiology, short-term outcome measures were similar in the 3 different Asian ethnicities in Singapore.

  11. [Risk factors for preterm encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Bargiel, Agata

    2009-08-01

    Encephalopathy in a common neonatological sense is a term referring to a complex of clinical symptoms occurring in term infants in the first days of their life as a result of hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, if we accept the encyclopedic definition of encephalopathy as a vast or multifocal brain lesions caused by a variety of factors, we may use the term to describe all patients with traumatic, hypoxic or toxic brain lesions, and therefore also newborns at different levels of maturity. Contrary to term newborns, in which case the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are mostly intrauterine, for preterm infants there is a number of factors which destroy neural tissue postnatally The occurrence of those factors is often influenced by elements of essential intensive care. The article describes the most common biochemical disturbances and clinical causes.

  12. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  13. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  14. A summary and critical assessment of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: filling the gaps.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Simha, Vinaya; Thomas, Randal J; Allison, Thomas G; Basu, Ananda; Fernandes, Regis; Hurst, R Todd; Kopecky, Stephen L; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Thompson, Warren G; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge F; Wright, R Scott

    2014-09-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Task Force on Practice Guidelines has recently released the new cholesterol treatment guideline. This update was based on a systematic review of the evidence and replaces the previous guidelines from 2002 that were widely accepted and implemented in clinical practice. The new cholesterol treatment guideline emphasizes matching the intensity of statin treatment to the level of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and replaces the old paradigm of pursuing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The new guideline also emphasizes the primacy of the evidence base for statin therapy for ASCVD risk reduction and lists several patient groups that will not benefit from statin treatment despite their high cardiovascular risk, such as those with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II-IV) and patients undergoing hemodialysis. The guideline has been received with mixed reviews and significant controversy. Because of the evidence-based nature of the guideline, there is room for several questions and uncertainties on when and how to use lipid-lowering therapy in clinical practice. The goal of the Mayo Clinic Task Force in the assessment, interpretation, and expansion of the ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline is to address gaps in information and some of the controversial aspects of the newly released cholesterol management guideline using additional sources of evidence and expert opinion as needed to guide clinicians on key aspects of ASCVD risk reduction.

  15. Developmental risk factors for sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph K P; Jackson, Henry J; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the general, common, and specific developmental risk factors for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, and multiple paraphilia, and to address five methodological issues observed in this area of research. This study involved 64 sex offenders and 33 nonsex, nondrug-related, and nonviolent property offenders. The group of 64 sex offenders was further divided into eight subgroups, some of which overlapped in memberships because of multiple diagnoses. To overcome the methodological problem associated with overlapping group memberships, a special approach involving comparisons of sets of logistic regression analyses was adopted. Offenders were clinically assessed for evidence of paraphilias, and their adverse childhood experiences were measured by a battery of tests. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Family Dysfunction, Childhood Behavior Problems, and Childhood Sexual Abuse were found to be general developmental risk factors for paraphilias. Furthermore, Childhood Emotional Abuse and Family Dysfunction was found to be a common developmental risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple paraphilia. Additional analyses revealed that childhood emotional abuse contributed significantly as a common developmental risk factor compared to family dysfunction. Besides, Childhood Sexual Abuse was found to be a specific developmental risk factor for pedophilia. The study has supported the value of conceptualizing certain childhood adversities as developmental risk factors for paraphilic behaviors. The role of childhood emotional abuse as an important developmental risk contributor, and the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and pedophilia are of theoretical significance. Furthermore, the results have significant implications for the prevention of childhood abuse and treatment of sex offenders.

  16. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  18. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  19. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  20. Childhood adiposity: being male is a potential cardiovascular risk factor.

    PubMed

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    As the earliest atherosclerotic lesions begin during childhood, our aim was to correlate gender-related adiposity to classical cardiovascular risk factors in a group of children.An observational and transversal analysis was carried out in a cohort consisting of 161 children of both sexes, aged 6 to 17 years of age. Waist circumference was correlated to leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma lipids, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and the left ventricular mass index. After adjusting for age, waist circumference in boys, compared to girls, correlated more strongly and directly to systolic (r = 0.538; p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.401; p < 0.01), ApoB/ApoA ratio (ρ = 0.515; p < 0.01), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.441; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ρ = 0.280; p < 0.01), triglycerides (ρ = 0.420; p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (ρ = 0.463; p < 0.001), and the left ventricular mass index (ρ = 0.286; p < 0.01). A similar pattern was observed regarding the correlations between leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the above parameters (except between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure), and also, particularly in boys. Although increased childhood adiposity is related to a more adverse metabolic and clinical profile in both genders, males appear to have a potentially greater cardiovascular risk. Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory process. Increased adiposity is related to a more pronounced pro-inflammatory response in boys. Childhood male adiposity is a potentially greater cardiovascular risk factor. Arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia is more strongly correlated to waist circumference in boys.

  1. Atherosclerotic oxalosis in coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Micheletti, Robert G; Currier, Judith S; Singer, Elyse; Fishbein, Michael C

    2008-01-01

    Systemic oxalosis may be hereditary or acquired. In these cases, calcium oxalate deposits have been reported in numerous tissues, including the media of arteries. In any category, calcium oxalate deposition has not been described within atherosclerotic plaques in any arteries. As part of a retrospective clinicopathologic study, 80 hearts were obtained from the National Neurological AIDS Bank in an effort to study coronary atherosclerosis in patients infected with HIV. The population consisted of 66 HIV-positive and 14 HIV-negative patients with an average age of 47 years; 79% were males. Proximal coronary arteries were serially sectioned and processed routinely. Sections were studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining and, in selected cases, von Kossa stain and alizarin red S under different conditions, including polarized light, to allow distinction of calcium phosphate from calcium oxalate. Medical histories, autopsy reports, and general autopsy slides were reviewed. In four patients (three with AIDS), calcium oxalate crystals were observed within atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries. Similar deposits were seen in the thyroid gland and other organs but not in the kidneys. None of the patients had chronic renal failure. The calcium oxalate crystal deposits observed in the atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries of these four patients are unique in two ways: (a) these deposits have not previously been described in atherosclerotic plaques; (b) the patients did not demonstrate any of the recognized patterns of oxalosis. We suggest the phrase "atherosclerotic oxalosis" to describe this finding.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  3. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  4. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  5. Concurrent risk factors for adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Saner, H; Ellickson, P

    1996-08-01

    To examine the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in a sample of high school age adolescents drawn from the general population, illuminate the multiple and cumulative nature of the different risk factors, and characterize gender differences in explanatory variables that foster involvement in violent activities. Using data from a 6-year longitudinal self-report survey of over 4,500 high school seniors and high school dropouts from California and Oregon, we developed weighted estimates of the proportions of youth exhibiting different risk factors who are also involved in violent activities. We use risk scales to show the cumulative effects of multiple factors within substantive domains, and logistic regression techniques to pinpoint the effects of each risk factor relative to others included in the models. Major risk factors for violence include gender and deviant behaviors, such as using and selling drugs, committing nonviolent felonies, and engaging in other forms of nonviolent delinquency. Low academic orientation, lack of parental affection and support, and perceptions of parents' substance use also show strong links with violent behavior. As the number of risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of engaging in violent behavior. Boys and girls show somewhat different paths to violence, with girls being comparatively more susceptible to the effects of family problems or disruption and impaired relationships with parents. For boys, engaging in other deviant behaviors provides the most information about their propensity to commit violent acts. Weak bonds with school and family also have an impact on serious violence for boys. Risk factors from multiple domains--demographic, environmental, and behavioral--contribute to involvement in various types of violent behavior. The strong links between violence, drug use, and delinquency argue for prevention/intervention programs that take into account the clustering of these behaviors

  6. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  7. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  9. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  10. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  11. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  12. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  14. Application of infrared fiber optic imaging in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Casscells, S. W.; Bearman, Gregory H.; McNatt, Janice; Naghevi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A.; Gul, Khawar; Willerson, James T.

    1999-07-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques - the main cause of heart attach and stokes - is not predictable. Hence even treadmill stress tests fail to detect many persons at risk. Fatal plaques are found at autopsies to be associated with active inflammatory cells. Classically, inflammation is detected by its swelling, red color, pain and heat. We have found that heat accurately locates the dangerous plaques that are significantly warmer then atherosclerotic plaques without the same inflammation. In order to develop a non-surgical method of locating these plaques, an IR fiber optic imaging system has been developed in our laboratory to evalute the causes and effect of heat in atherosclerotic plaques. The fiber optical imagin bundle consists of 900 individual As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers which transmit IR radiation from 0.7 micrometers 7 micrometers with little energy loss. By combining that with a highly sensitive Indium Antimonide IR focal plane array detector, we are able to obtain thermal graphic images in situ. The temperature heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques developed in the arteral of the experimental animal models is under study with the new device. The preliminary experimental results from the animal model are encouraging. The potential of using this new technology in diagnostic evaluation of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is considerable.

  15. Erectile dysfunction and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and disease.

    PubMed

    Irekpita, Eshiobo; Salami, Taofik A

    2009-02-01

    Penile erection is a complex hydraulic process, in which the cardiovascular system (CVS) plays a central role. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve, and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse, and was previously regarded as part of aging. It is associated with certain diseases and life style habits with a cause-effect relationship, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cigarette smoking. Through atherosclerotic narrowing, these diseases may cause coronary artery disease (CAD) and ED, with ED featuring earlier due to the small size of the pudendal artery. The common denominator in ED and CAD is endothelial dysfunction. Men presenting with ED should be evaluated for CVS risk factors, as there is mounting evidence that ED is a sentinel event for CAD. The treatment of men with CAD and concomitant ED should be individualized, and undertaken jointly by the managing physician and urologist.

  16. Renal artery stenosis: prevalence of, risk factors for, and management of in-stent stenosis.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Frank K; Greco, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is common and is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. More frequent use of percutaneous renal artery stent placement for the treatment of renal artery stenosis during the past 2 decades has increased the number of patients with implanted stents. In-stent stenosis is a serious problem, occurring more frequently than earlier reports suggest and potentially resulting in late complications. Currently, there are no guidelines covering the approach to restenosis after renal artery stent placement. This article reviews data on the prevalence of and risk factors for the development of in-stent stenosis and the clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of in-stent stenosis and suggests a strategy for the management of patients after percutaneous renal artery stent placement. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients: risk factors, clinical history and prevention].

    PubMed

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in which there is a rapid evolution and widespread early atherosclerosis, whose causes are manifold. In the presence of hyperglycemia there is the activation of multiple signaling responses involving, first endothelial activation and later dysfunction, which are the first detectable step toward the atherosclerotic disease. A healthy lifestyle is the cornerstone for the prevention and control of CVD in patients with DM, in whom we must pursue the control, not only of blood sugar levels, but also of all risk factors for CVD. The choice for an antidiabetic agent is based not only on its effectiveness but also on its safety. The data obtained from the recent cardiovascular outcome studies such as the LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 for liraglutide and semaglutide, respectively, and the EMPA-REG OUTCOME for empagliflozin, testify the need for the diabetologist of new therapeutic approaches to control glucose levels.

  18. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  19. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  20. Management and Outcomes Among Chinese Hospitalized Patients With Established Cardiovascular Disease or Multiple Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingang; Yang, Yuejin; Gu, Hongqiu; Li, Wei; Hu, Dayi

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the management and outcomes among hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), or with multiple (≥ 2) cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (multiple risk factors [MRFs]). We retrospectively studied 3732 hospitalized patients of either CV disease or ≥ 2 risk factors for atherothrombosis from October 2004 to January 2005. Outcomes included CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hospitalization for atherothrombotic events. About one-third had disease involving ≥ 1 vascular bed. Medication was more intense in patients with CAD than in others. The lowest use of statins and antiplatelet treatment was in the PAD-only group. Patients with PAD experienced a higher CV mortality (5.1%) than the patients with CAD (3.73%) or stroke (4.1%), P < .001. Cardiovascular death ranged from 1.2% for patients with MRFs, 2.8% for patients with 1-bed disease, 4.7% for patients with 2-bed disease to 6.4% for patients with 3-bed disease (P for trend <.001). For hospitalized patients with established atherosclerotic arterial disease, a substantial increase in CV event rates occurs with increasing numbers of affected arterial beds. Patients with PAD were at an especially high risk.

  1. Vascular risk factors and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Debette, S

    2013-10-01

    Delaying the onset of dementia by just a few years could have a major impact on the prevalence of the disease at the population level. Vascular risk factors are modifiable and may offer an important opportunity for preventive approaches. Several studies have shown that diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and smoking are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, but other groups have not observed such a relation. Positive associations were observed mainly in studies where risk factors were assessed in midlife, suggesting that age is an important modulator in the relation between vascular risk factors and cognition. The population attributable risk of dementia is particularly high for hypertension. Associations of vascular risk factors with cognitive decline and dementia are probably mediated largely by cerebrovascular disease, including both stroke and covert vascular brain injury, which can have additive or synergistic effects with coexisting neurodegenerative lesions. To date, randomized trials have not convincingly demonstrated that treating vascular risk factors is associated with a reduction in cognitive decline or dementia risk. Of eight randomized trials testing the effect of antihypertensive agents on dementia risk, only one was positive, and another in a subgroup of individuals with recurrent stroke. In most trials, cognition and dementia were secondary outcomes, follow-up was short and treatment was initiated at an older age. No effect on cognitive decline or dementia could be demonstrated for statins and intensive glycemic control. Future areas of investigation could include differential class effects of antihypertensive drugs on cognitive outcomes and identification of high risk individuals as target population for clinical trials initiated in midlife. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  3. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  4. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  5. Failed subacromial decompression. Risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, A; Garret, J; Favard, L; Charles, H; Ollat, D

    2014-12-01

    Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (acromioplasty) is widely held to be effective, although pain may persist after the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with residual pain (i.e., the failure rate) after isolated subacromial decompression and to look for predictors of failure. We conducted a retrospective multicentre study of 108 patients managed with isolated arthroscopic subacromial decompression between 2007 and 2011, for any reason. We excluded patients in whom surgical procedures on the rotator cuff tendons were performed concomitantly. Data were collected from the medical records, a telephone questionnaire, and radiographs obtained before surgery and at last follow-up. Failure was defined as persistent pain (visual analogue scale score>3) more than 6 months after surgery and at last follow-up. The failure rate was 29% (31/108). Two factors significantly predicted failure, namely, receiving workers' compensation benefits for the shoulder condition and co-planing. Heterogeneous calcific tendinopathy and deep partial-thickness rotator cuff tears were also associated with poorer outcomes, but the effect was not statistically significant. Co-planing may predict failure of subacromial decompression, although whether this effect is due to an insufficient degree of co-planing or to the technique itself is unclear. Nevertheless, in patients with symptoms from the acromio-clavicular joint, acromio-clavicular resection is probably the best option. Receiving workers' compensation benefits was also associated with treatment failure, as a result of well-known parameters related to the social welfare system. Isolated arthroscopic subacromial decompression is effective in 70% of cases. We recommend the utmost caution if co-planing is considered and/or the patient receives workers' compensation benefits for the shoulder condition, as these two factors are associated with a significant increase in the failure rate. IV

  6. Environmental factors and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mimi C; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2004-11-01

    Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most important risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. HBV is the primary cause of HCC in high-risk areas including China and Africa, whereas in developed countries such as the United States, HCV plays a more prominent role and is at least partially responsible for the increase in HCC incidence in this country. Humans are exposed to hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins through ingestion of moldy foods, a consequence of poor storage of susceptible grains. Highly exposed populations are primarily in sub-Sahara Africa and Asia, where dietary aflatoxins significantly enhance the carcinogenic effects of viral hepatitis. Heavy, long-term alcohol use is a risk factor for HCC, whereas moderate use (1-3 drinks/day) is not. Constituents of cigarette smoke are hepatic carcinogens in animals, and there is mounting evidence that the liver is an organ susceptible to tobacco carcinogenicity. Diabetic patients are at risk for HCC probably as a result of the hepatic injury, fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis resulting from fatty liver disease. Given the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States, this risk factor will be increasingly important. Increased risk for HCC is evident in young noncirrhotic users of oral contraceptives in the United States and Europe. In summary, risk factors for HCC are identifiable in most patients and primarily are associated with chronic hepatic injury.

  7. Assessment of the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Takayasu's arteritis.

    PubMed

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Koster, Matthew J; Unal, Ali U; Yildirim, Hale G; Çikikçi, Ceylan; Schmidt, Jean; Crowson, Cynthia S; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R; Matteson, Eric L; Direskeneli, Haner; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors and disease in Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) has not been well defined. We aimed to assess the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the incidence of CV events (CVEs) in patients with TAK from two ethnically different populations. Patients with TAK followed at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA and Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey were included in this retrospective study. Patients with TAK were compared with age-, sex- and calendar year-matched controls from the same geographical region without TAK. The 2008 Framingham 10-year general CV risk score (FRS) was used for the evaluation of CV risk at the time of TAK incidence/index date. In total, 191 patients with TAK and 191 non-TAK controls were included. Hypertension and the prevalence of lipid-lowering treatments were significantly more frequent in TAK. Prior to the incidence/index date, occurrence of CVE was significantly higher in TAK. The FRS was significantly higher in TAK compared with non-TAK at incidence/index date. The cumulative incidence of CVE was 15.4% at 10 years in TAK vs 5.8% in non-TAK; the risk of CVE was increased among patients with TAK (hazard ratio = 4.36; 95% CI: 1.25, 15.13). CV risk factors are more common in patients with TAK, particularly hypertension. The FRS is higher in patients with TAK at the time of diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of CVE was also significantly higher during follow-up in TAK. Our results suggest that patients with TAK should undergo careful assessment of CV risk factors, and an aggressive risk modification approach is warranted.

  8. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  9. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Severud, R; Kerbeshian, J; Klug, M G

    1999-01-01

    To identify pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism. Case control study. We matched names of patients from North Dakota who met DSM criteria for autism, a pervasive developmental disorder, and autistic disorder with their birth certificates. Five matched controls were selected for each case. Univariate analysis of the 78 cases and 390 controls identified seven risk factors. Logistic modeling to control for confounding produced a five variable model. The model parameters were chi 2 = 36.6 and p < 0.001. The five variables in the model were decreased birth weight, low maternal education, later start of prenatal care, and having a previous termination of pregnancy. Increasing father's age was associated with increased risk of autism. This methodology may provide an inexpensive method for clinics and public health providers to identify risk factors and to identify maternal characteristics of patients with mental illness and developmental disorders.

  10. Statin use and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients developing a first myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Bødtker; Kulenovic, Imra; Falk, Erling

    2016-05-27

    The risk for a first myocardial infarction (MI) in people with diabetes has been shown to be as high as the risk for a new MI in non-diabetic patients with a prior MI. Consequently, risk-reducing statin therapy is recommended for nearly all patients with diabetes 40 years of age or older, regardless of cholesterol level. The purpose of this study was to assess the recommended and real-life use of statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in diabetic patients who develop ASCVD. In a cross-sectional multicenter study of consecutive patients without previous ASCVD hospitalized with a first MI in 2010-2012, we obtained information on diabetic status, statin use, and cardiovascular risk factors prior to MI. The study population consisted of 1622 patients with first MI (63 % men), 228 of whom had known diabetes before MI. All but three of the diabetic patients were ≥40 years of age. Diabetic patients were older (70 vs 68, p = 0.006), were more often women (43 vs 36 %, p = 0.05) and had a higher prevalence of statin use (47 vs 11 %, p < 0.001) compared with non-diabetic patients. Despite a high risk factor burden, the majority (53 %) of patients with known diabetes was not treated with statins before MI, and there was no relationship between the number of high-risk markers and statin use. Nearly all diabetic patients not treated with statins before first MI had at least one marker of very high cardiovascular risk, including hypertension (71 %), current smoking (37 %), and nephropathy (33 %). Primary prevention with statins had been initiated in less than half of diabetic patients destined for a first MI, despite the presence of one or more markers of very high cardiovascular risk in nearly all. These results highlight an urgent need for optimizing statin therapy and global risk factor control in diabetic patients.

  11. Vascular risk factors in sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rudack, Claudia; Langer, Claus; Stoll, Wolfgang; Rust, Stephan; Walter, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen apheresis was recently reported to be an effective therapy in sudden hearing loss (SHL). In this study, we investigated whether lipoprotein and/or fibrinogen plasma concentrations, related gene polymorphisms and other cardiovascular risk factors are also risk factors for SHL. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol plasma concentrations, fibrinogen levels, and two functionally relevant fibrinogen polymorphisms were determined in 142 consecutive patients and in 84 age- and sex-matched control subjects of the same ethnic background, using routine laboratory methods and PCR analysis. In addition, we determined the platelet glycoprotein Ia (GPIa) C807T polymorphism, which was recently proposed to be a genetic risk factor for SHL, and we compared the patients' and controls' clinical characteristics. Total and LDL cholesterol concentrations were not different between patients and controls. Fibrinogen plasma levels were significantly increased in SHL patients (260+/-57 vs. 239+/-110 mg/dl, p=0.002). However, fibrinogen was not related to SHL in multivariate analysis, and none of the investigated fibrinogen polymorphisms was associated with SHL. By contrast, T allele carriers of the GPIa 807 polymorphic site had an increased risk to develop SHL (OR 1.81) and were more likely not to recover from SHL, compared to C allele carriers (OR 3.0). Moreover, significantly more SHL patients were current smokers (56.3% vs. 19.3% in the control group, p<0.0001). In conclusion, there is a partial overlap between classical coronary risk factors and risk factors for SHL. Hypercholesterolemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low HDL cholesterol levels) are apparently no major risk factors for SHL, whereas the GPIa C807T polymorphism, elevated fibrinogen levels, and smoking are associated with an increased risk for SHL. Altogether these findings suggest a vascular involvement in the pathogenesis of SHL and may have important implications for the

  12. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  13. [Risk factors associated to female infertility].

    PubMed

    Romero Ramos, Ricardo; Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Abortes Monroy, Ignacio; Medina Sánchez, Héctor Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Incidence of female infertility is growing worldwide and the its rate varies from 10 to 20%. It has been reported diverse risk factors associated with this medical complication. To identify the risk factors with significant association with female infertility. A case-control study was carried out. There were included 440 patients, divided into 220 women with primary or secondary female infertility (cases) and 220 women without infertility recruited at mediate postpartum (controls). Twenty sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for female infertility were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with percentages, arithmetic media, standard error, Student t test and chi squared. An alpha value was set at 0.05. There were 6 factors with statistical significance: advanced age (p < 0.001), elevated body mass index (p < 0.001), age of onset of sexual activity (p < 0.001), prior pelvic surgeries (p < 0.001), and presence of stress (p < 0.001). Other risk factors such as smoking, chemical and radiological treatments, pelvic inflammatory disease, exercise, contraceptive use, alcohol intake, drugs, coffee, solvents, glue and insecticides, were not significant. There are clinical and demographic risk factors associated with female infertility. Them identification in women at reproductive age could diminish the frequency of female infertility and, thus, avoid them consequences.

  14. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  15. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  16. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  17. The atherosclerotic risk profile is affected differently by fish flesh with a similar EPA and DHA content but different n-6/n-3 ratio.

    PubMed

    Sofi, Francesco; Giorgi, Gianluca; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Mannini, Lucia; Parisi, Giuliana; Casini, Alessandro; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Poli, Bianca Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consuming gilthead sea bream fillets, with different n-6/ n-3 ratios, on atherosclerotic biomarkers. Twenty healthy subjects were included in a randomised single-blinded cross-over trial. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, both of which received approximately 630 g per week of gilthead sea bream fed with either 100% fishmeal (FM) or partial replacement with plant proteins (PP) over two consecutive 10 week periods, respectively. Group A consumed firstly the FM fillets followed by the PP fillets, whereas the reverse order was adopted for group B. Group A reported a significant decrease of 29.3% (Δ = -26 mg/dL) in total cholesterol after the first phase of the intervention, before returning to baseline levels after the dietary intervention with fish fed with PP. Similarly, in group A, both LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly by 21.6% (Δ = -19 mg/dL) and 11.7% (Δ = -10.7 mg/dL), respectively, before increasing again after the intervention. Improvements in the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and -8 were also noted. Moreover, whole blood viscosity appeared significantly improved in group A, as seen by a significant increase of 7.59% (Δ = +4.59 mPA) for erythrocyte filtration rate. In conclusion, similar EPA+DHA content with different n- 6/n-3 ratio fish flesh intake was shown to have varied affects on lipid, inflammatory and haemorheological parameters in a group of healthy subjects.

  18. [The risk factors of endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Gerber, J; Sozański, L; Suchocki, S

    2001-12-01

    Authors presents the risk factors in endometrial cancer underlying such problems like hyperestrogenism, both external and internal caused by hormonally active ovarian masses, polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenocortical hyperfunction and role of obesity in this pathological state. Other factors have been also described diabetes mellitus and hypertension, oral contraception, genetics factors, patient's obstetric history and other diseases where the increase of aromatization activity of androstendion to estron has been noted.

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  20. Combined "pro-atherosclerotic" variants of the ACE and APOE genes increase the risk of the coronary artery disease associated with the presence of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Zak, Iwona; Niemiec, Pawel; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the synthesis of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) and induces oxidative modifications of the apolipoprotein E (apo E).Thus we explored the gene-environment interactions between APOE gene epsilon and ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We analysed 360 subjects: 171 CAD patients and 189 blood donors without a history of cardiovascular diseases. ACE and APOE polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, respectively. To determine gene-environment interactions, epidemiological methodology was used. The ACE DD genotype was a rather weak risk factor of CAD in the analysed population (OR = 1.87, P = 0.01).The differences in allele and genotype distribution of the APOE polymorphism were not statistically significant.The carriers of the combined genotype ACE(DD) + APOE(epsilon4epsilon4,epsilon3epsilon4,epsilon2epsilon4) were more frequent in patients, however, the differences were on the bound of statistical significance (P = 0.08). Logistic regression analysis showed that the ACE(DD) + apo E(epsilon4epsilon4,epsilon3epsilon4,epsilon2epsilon4) cigarette smokers were much more frequent in the CAD group (OR = 11.68, 95%CI; 1.52-246.43, P = 0.009).We confirmed these results using the 4 x 2 table approach and we found a synergistic effect of the ACE(DD) + APOE(epsilon4epsilon4,epsilon3epsilon4,epsilon2epsilon4) combined genotype and cigarette smoking (SI = 10.52, SIM = 6.09). We demonstrated the existence of the synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and the contemporaneous carrier-state of APOE epsilon4 and ACE D alleles which increased the risk of CAD to a large extent.

  1. Is ambient ethene a cancer risk factor?

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, M

    1994-01-01

    Ethene is, on a molar basis, a major urban air pollutant. It has been shown beyond doubt that a fraction of inhaled ethene is metabolized in mammals (including humans) via ethylene oxide, an electrophilic reagent that has been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. To the extent that the linearity hypothesis for dose-response relationships at low levels is accepted, exposure to ethene is therefore expected to lead to a risk increment. In order to judge whether ethene as a single compound should be considered a risk factor, it has to be evaluated whether this risk increment is negligibly small or of concern to individuals or societies. The magnitude of the cancer risk from ethene cannot be inferred from animal experiments. Because of saturation of the metabolism of ethene, sufficient statistical power cannot be attained in long-term animal tests with about 100 animals per dose. By application of the radiation-dose equivalent of the unit of target dose of ethylene oxide and using the best (although still uncertain) value for the conversion factor (about 5%), exposure to 10 ppb ethene--a level occurring in urban areas--is expected to lead to a lifetime risk of cancer death amounting to approximately 70 per 100,000. According to a recent estimate the average exposure in Sweden to ethene is some six times lower. These figures are uncertain by a factor of at least three. They indicate ethene to be a risk factor of concern. PMID:7821290

  2. [Association between carotid lesions evaluated by Doppler color echocardiography and cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, F; Fronteddu, P F; Putzu, V; Cannas, F; Pitzus, F

    1998-01-01

    The valuation of the extracranial carotid by echo color-Doppler takes on an extraordinary importance for the prevention of cerebral ictus at geriatric age. In this "naturalistic" study a population of old people (> 65 yrs) of Cagliari's province was considered in order to: 1) discriminate the lesions of the carotid that are imputed to atherosclerotic disease by anatomic changes of the arterial wall caused by aging; 2) study relations between lesions of the carotid and cardiovascular risk factors. The carotids of 50 old subjects were studied by echo color-Doppler and the lesion classified in different classes of severity, according to the hemodynamic standard, comparing them with the presence of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Hypercholesterolemia was the most frequent risk factor (76%), followed by hypertension (62%), over-weight (54%) and smoking (42%). Moreover a diffused intima-media thickening (IMT) was constant in all the subjects with values > 0.75 mm; athero-sclerotic plaques were even present in 39 subjects which only in 4 cases could be considered at risk of cerebral ischemia. A significant correlation between the severity of the lesions and levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol for the male sex emerged, while for smoking only a trend of correlation has been obtained. Considering this experience it is suggested that in old subjects the presence of a diffused IMT with values > 0.75 mm must be considered as a marker of aging of the arterial wall of the carotid and not as a cardiovascular risk factor as reported in the literature for the middleaged.

  3. [Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in university students].

    PubMed

    García-Gulfo, María H; García-Zea, Jerson A

    2012-10-01

    Determining cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in university students from Medellin. A descriptive study of 112 students determined their lipid profile and a survey was conducted to assess their life-style and family history. There results were analyzed by gender using Chi² test and simple binary logistic regression. 82.1 % of the sample was female. A modifiable risk factor was found for at least 99.1 % of the study population: sedentary life-style (79.5 %), smoking (17 %), alcohol consumption (75.0 %), atherogenic diet (78.6 %), hypertension (1.8 %), some form of dyslipidemia (48.3 % BMI >25 (4.5 %)) and stress (86.7 %). At least one non-modifiable risk factor was identified in 77.7 % of the students. New intervention strategies are needed given the significant percentage of the target population ± 19 mean age having cardiovascular disease risk factors and young people must be encouraged to develop healthy life-styles to reduce cardiovascular risk factor prevalence.

  4. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  5. Management and risk factor control of coronary artery disease in elderly versus nonelderly: a multicenter registry

    PubMed Central

    Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Boonyaratavej, Smonporn; Wongvipaporn, Chaiyasith; Tiyanon, Woraporn; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, Rapeephon; Tatsanavivat, Pyatat; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in elderly because aging is the important non-modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis and also a predictor of poor outcomes. Underuse of guideline directed therapy may contribute to suboptimal risk factor control and worse outcomes in the elderly. We aimed to explore the management of CAD, risk factors control as well as goal attainment in elderly compared to nonelderly CAD patients. Methods The CORE-Thailand is an ongoing multicenter, prospective, observational registry of patients with high atherosclerotic risk in Thailand. The data of 4120 CAD patients enrolled in this cohort was analyzed comparing between the elderly (age ≥ 65 years) vs. nonelderly (age < 65 years). Results There were 2172 elderly and 1948 nonelderly patients. The elderly CAD patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease. The proportion of patients who received coronary revascularization was not different between the elderly and nonelderly CAD patients. Antiplatelets were prescribed less in the elderly while statin was prescribed in the similar proportion. Goal attainments of risk factor control of glycemic control, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking cessation except the blood pressure goal were higher in the elderly CAD patients. Conclusions The CORE-Thailand registry showed the equity in the treatment of CAD between elderly and non-elderly. Elderly CAD patients had higher rate of goal attainment in risk factor control except blood pressure goal. The effects of goal attainment on cardiovascular outcomes will be demonstrated from ongoing cohort. PMID:28321237

  6. Fifty Men, 3510 Marathons, Cardiac Risk Factors, and Coronary Artery Calcium Scores.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William O; Schwartz, Robert S; Garberich, Ross F; Carlson, Samantha; Knickelbine, Thomas; Schwartz, Jonathan G; Peichel, Gretchen; Lesser, John R; Wickstrom, Kelly; Harris, Kevin M

    2017-07-17

    Many male marathon runners have elevated coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores despite high physical activity. We examined the association between CAC scores, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle habits in long term marathoners. We recruited men who had run ≥1 marathon annually for 25 consecutive years. CAC was assessed using coronary computed tomography angiography. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk factors were measured with a 12-lead ECG, serum lipid panel, height, weight, resting blood pressure and heart rate, and a risk factor questionnaire. Fifty males, mean age 59 ± 0.9 years with a combined total of 3,510 marathons (median 58.5; range 27-171), had a mean BMI of 22.44 m/kg ± 0.4, HDL and LDL cholesterols of 58 ± 1.6 and 112 ± 3.7 mg/dL, and CAC scores from 0 to 3,153. CAC scores varied from zero in 16 runners, to 1-100 in 12, 101-400 in 12, and >400 in 10. There was no statistical difference in the number of marathons run between the 4 groups. Compared to marathoners with no CAC, marathoners with moderate and extensive CAC were older (p=0.002), started running at an older age (p=0.003), were older when they ran their first marathon (p=0.006), and had more CAD risk factors (p=0.005); and marathoners with more CAC had higher rates of previous tobacco use (p=0.002) and prevalence of hyperlipidemia (p=0.01). Among experienced males who have run marathons for 26-34 years and completed between 27-171 marathons, CAC score is related to CAD risk factors and not the number of marathons run or years of running. This suggests that among long-term marathoners, more endurance exercise is not associated with an increased risk of CAC.

  7. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molodecky, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  8. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? A risk factor is anything that changes ... Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Be Prevented? More In Small Intestine Cancer About Small Intestine Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  13. Interaction between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease--Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Ghazal; Eberhard, Jörg; Reissmann, Daniel R; Heydecke, Guido; Seedorf, Udo

    2015-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) level is associated with the 10-year risk of an atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD), suggesting presence of systemic inflammation probably long before ASVD is present. Where, however, does this systemic inflammation come from? One active area of research has been the study of dental infection and various forms of periodontal disease (PD), both of which are highly prevalent in populations at risk for ASVD. Recent data show that ASVD and PD interact with each other via systemic release of specific pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, small signal molecules and enzymes which modulate initiation and progression of the chronic inflammatory reaction involved in both diseases. In addition, periodontal pathogens were identified within atherosclerotic lesions and thrombi isolated from myocardial infarction patients. LDL cholesterol, a strong risk factor for ASVD, is also associated with PD; and statins, used to treat ASVD, are also active to prevent or reduce PD. Finally, there is growing evidence for common genetic susceptibility factors involved in both diseases. These findings support commonalities with respect to the pathogenic mechanisms involved in both inflammatory diseases. Conversely, a causative relationship cannot yet be concluded in the absence of data from large longitudinal cohort and randomized controlled intervention trials.

  14. Perinatal risk factors and infantile autism.

    PubMed

    Maimburg, R D; Vaeth, M

    2006-10-01

    Suboptimal conditions during pregnancy and birth have been suggested as a cause of infantile autism. We have studied the association between obstetric factors and infantile autism. A population-based, matched case-control study of infantile autism. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The risk of infantile autism was increased for mothers aged >35 years, with foreign citizenship, and mothers who used medicine during pregnancy. A higher risk of infantile autism was seen among children with low birth weight and with congenital malformations. Birth interventions, pathological cardiotocography, green amnion fluid and acidosis during delivery were not associated with increased risk for infantile autism. Our findings suggest that suboptimal birth conditions are not an independent risk factor for infantile autism. A high prevalence of low birth weight and birth defects among autism cases seems to explain the suboptimal birth outcome.

  15. Inflammatory markers, rather than conventional risk factors, are different between carotid and MCA atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bang, O; Lee, P; Yoon, S; Lee, M; Joo, I; Huh, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: The apparent differences in risk factors for intra- and extracranial atherosclerosis are unclear and the mechanisms that underlie strokes in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis are not well known. We investigated the conventional vascular risk factors as well as other factors in stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis. Methods: Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and vascular and cardiologic studies, we selected patients with acute non-cardioembolic cerebral infarcts within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Patients were divided into two groups: those with atherosclerotic lesions on the carotid sinus (n = 112) and those with isolated lesions on the proximal MCA (n = 160). Clinical features, risk factors, and DWI patterns were compared between groups. Results: There were no differences in conventional risk factors, but markers for inflammation were significantly higher in patients with carotid atherosclerosis than in those with isolated MCA atherosclerosis (p<0.01 for both). After adjustments for age/sex and the severity of stroke, an inverse correlation was observed between C-reactive protein levels and MCA atherosclerosis (odds ratio 0.57 per 1 mg/dl increase; 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.92; p = 0.02). Internal borderzone infarcts suggestive of haemodynamic causes were the most frequent DWI pattern in patients with MCA occlusion, whereas territorial infarcts suggesting plaque ruptures were most common in those with carotid occlusion. Conclusions: Our results indicate that inflammatory markers, rather than conventional risk factors, reveal clinical and radiological differences between patients with carotid and MCA atherosclerosis. Plaques associated with MCA atherosclerosis may be more stable than those associated with carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:16024892

  16. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  17. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, G E

    1998-09-01

    A systematic review of the literature to identify risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection was conducted. Two main outcomes were considered: C. difficile diarrhoea and C. difficile carriage. A qualitative assessment, based on a set of defined and consistently applied criteria, appeared to be the best approach for risk factors other than antibiotic use, as an approach based on meta-analysis would have utilized only the information provided by a minority of the studies. Risk factors for which there was evidence suggestive or consistent with an association with C. difficile diarrhoea were: increasing age (excluding infancy), severity of underlying diseases, non-surgical gastrointestinal procedures, presence of a nasogastric tube, anti-ulcer medications, stay on ITU, duration of hospital stay, duration of antibiotic course, administration of multiple antibiotics. For malignant haematological disorders there was evidence of an association only with C. difficile carriage, but there were no suitable studies to explore a possible association of this risk factor with symptomatic infection. Antibiotic use lent itself to quantitative assessment with meta-analysis using logistic regression. Exposure to an antibiotic was shown to be statistically significantly associated with both C. difficile diarrhoea and C. difficile carriage. The meta-analysis approach enabled the ranking of individual antibiotics in relation to the risk of C. difficile infection, though the 95% confidence intervals were often wide and overlapping. Antibiotics associated with a lower risk of C. difficile diarrhoea should be considered, especially when attempting to control a C. difficile outbreak or when prescribing for a patient with other C. difficile risk factors. This systematic review of the literature enabled the identification of features it would be desirable to consider in future epidemiological studies.

  18. 2016 Consensus statement on prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Hong Kong population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B My; Cheng, C H; Lau, C P; Wong, C Ky; Ma, R Cw; Chu, D Ws; Ho, D Hk; Lee, K Lf; Tse, H F; Wong, A Sp; Yan, B Py; Yan, V Wt

    2017-04-01

    In Hong Kong, the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has increased markedly over the past few decades, and further increases are expected. In 2008, the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Task Force released a consensus statement on preventing cardiovascular disease in the Hong Kong population. The present article provides an update on these recommendations. A multidisciplinary group of clinicians comprising the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Task Force-10 cardiologists, an endocrinologist, and a family physician-met in September 2014 and June 2015 in Hong Kong. Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology, and the Eighth Joint National Committee for the Management of High Blood Pressure were reviewed. Group members reviewed the 2008 Consensus Statement and relevant international guidelines. At the meetings, each topical recommendation of the 2008 Statement was assessed against the pooled recommendations on that topic from the international guidelines. A final recommendation on each topic was generated by consensus after discussion. It is recommended that a formal risk scoring system should be used for risk assessment of all adults aged 40 years or older who have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Individuals can be classified as having a low, moderate, or high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and appropriate interventions selected accordingly. Recommended lifestyle modifications include adopting a healthy eating pattern; maintaining a low body mass index; quitting smoking; and undertaking regular, moderate-intensity physical activity. Pharmacological interventions should be selected as appropriate after lifestyle modification.

  19. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  20. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  1. Global Overview of the Epidemiology of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Medina, Catalina; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lozano, Rafael; Moran, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global burden of ACD and its risk factors and to discuss the main challenges and opportunities for prevention. Publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were analyzed for ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic stroke and ACD risk factors. Data from the WHO Global Health Observatory were used to describe prevalence of diverse cardiometabolic risk factors. World Bank Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPc) information was used to categorize countries according to income level. Cardiovascular mortality decreased globally from 1990-2010 with important differences by GDPc; during 1990 there was a positive association between IHD mortality and GDPc. Higher-income countries had higher rates compared to those of lower-income countries. High levels of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol have a differential contribution to mortality by income group over time; high-income countries have been able to reduce the contribution from these risk factors in the last 20 years, whereas lower/middle income countries show an increasing trend in mortality attributable to high BMI and glucose. Although age-adjusted ACD mortality rate trends decreased globally, the absolute number of ACD deaths is increasing in part due to the growth of the population and aging, as well as to important lifestyle and food-system changes that likely attenuate gains in prevention. Population and individual level preventable causes of ACD must be aggressively and efficiently targeted in countries of lower economic development in order to reduce the growing burden of disease due to ACD.

  2. Angioplasty and Stenting for Atherosclerotic Intracranial Stenosis: Rationale for a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Derdeyn, Colin P.; Chimowitz, Marc I.

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Atherosclerotic disease of the major intracranial arteries is a frequent cause of stroke. In addition, many patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis are at very high risk for recurrent stroke. A recently completed medical treatment trial, the Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis (WASID) trial, showed that aspirin was as effective and safer than warfarin for preventing stroke or vascular death in these patients, and that patients with 70%-99% intracranial stenosis are at particularly high risk of stroke despite antithrombotic therapy and usual management of vascular risk factors. Preliminary studies suggest that angioplasty and stenting may reduce the risk of stroke in patients with severe stenosis of intracranial arteries. However, data for angioplasty and stenting consists of case series: no randomized studies have been completed to date. These data will be reviewed and the rationale for a randomized trial of angioplasty and stenting versus best medical management for patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis will be discussed. PMID:17826637

  3. Modifiable risk factors for erectile dysfunction: an assessment of the awareness of such factors in patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kałka, D; Domagała, Z; Rakowska, A; Womperski, K; Franke, R; Sylwina-Krauz, E; Stanisz, J; Piłot, M; Gebala, J; Rusiecki, L; Pilecki, W

    2016-01-01

    Up to 40% of cases of erectile dysfunction (ED) originate from vascular disturbances associated with atherosclerotic disease, leading to the previously proven concomitance between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and ED. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' knowledge about modifiable risk factors for ED. The evaluated group of patients was composed of 502 male patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation and receiving treatment for IHD. The patients' knowledge of risk factors for ED linked to IHD was assessed with an original survey. The presence of ED was assessed using an abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire. Increase in leisure-time physical activity was estimated using a leaflet based on the Framingham questionnaire. In all, 189 participants were unable to name any modifiable ED risk factors, and only 31 patients knew all 6 of them. The most frequently mentioned ED risk factor was smoking, whereas the least frequently mentioned was sedentary lifestyle. Awareness of smoking as an ED risk factor was closely related to the patients' level of education, place of residence, smoking and underlying ED in the individual patient. The ability to classify diabetes as a risk factor for ED was significantly related to the patients' level of education, place of residence, and the prevalence of diabetes in the evaluated group of respondents. The same relations were observed regarding hyperlipidaemia. Awareness of the negative impact a sedentary lifestyle has on the erectile process was found to be closely related to the patients' age, as well as their level of education. The performed study demonstrates the poor knowledge of IHD patients about the modifiable risk factors for ED. The factor that patients are the least aware of is sedentary lifestyle, which, simultaneously, is the risk factor that most frequently affects the respondents.

  4. Risk factors for osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, J R; Dennerstein, L; Wark, J D

    2000-01-01

    Skeletal fragility and falls are the 2 most potent factors leading to osteoporotic fractures. The aim of this article is to review factors associated with women's risk of developing skeletal fragility and subsequent osteoporosis. Many factors have been implicated, but the evidence for some is unsubstantial. Low premenopausal bone mineral density (BMD), a decrease in BMD, and an increase in bone fragility -- which occur as a result of both aging and the menopause -- are major determinants of subsequent risk for osteoporotic fracture. In addition, low body mass index (BMI), low calcium intake, low physical activity, and smoking can affect BMD. The relative importance of the effects these physical and lifestyle factors have on BMD in midlife women is not fully established. The impact of gynecologic history (parity, lactation, oral contraceptive use, age of menarche) on BMD is uncertain.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated to peripheral arterial disease in an adult population from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Lorena; Portilla, Eliana; Muñoz, Wilson; Hofman, Albert; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    2017-06-13

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of mortality in Latin America while peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. To establish the prevalence of PAD and the distribution of traditional CVD risk factors in a population from the Department of Cauca, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was performed in a total of 10,000 subjects aged ≥40 years from 36 municipalities. An ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤0.9 in either leg was used diagnostic criterion of PAD. Overall PAD prevalence was 4.4% (4.7% females vs. 4.0% males), with diabetes being the most prevalent risk factor (23%). Among individuals self-reporting a history of acute myocardial infarction or stroke, PAD prevalence was 31.0% and 8.1%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, PAD was significantly associated to hypertension (OR 4.6; 95% CI 3.42-6.20), diabetes (4.3; 3.17-5.75), dyslipidemia (3.1; 2.50-3.88), obesity (1.8; 1.37-2.30) and cigarette smoking (1.6; 1.26-1.94). Analysis for the interaction of risk factors showed that diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity accounted for 13.2 times the risk for PAD (6.9-25.4), and when adding hypertension to the model, the risk effect was the highest (17.2; 8.4-35.1). Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity but not smoking were strong predictors of PAD. ABI measurement should be routinely conducted as a screening test in intermediate and high-risk patients for CVD prevention. This will allow for early intervention and follow up on populations at risk, thus, contributing to improve strategies for reducing CVD burden. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  6. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  7. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Prospective Study of Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis in Neurologically Normal Volunteers in a Japanese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Ryukichi; Nakagawa, Tomonori; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic stenosis of major intracranial arteries is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in Asia. However, the long-term prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in healthy volunteers has not been fully examined. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the prognosis of healthy volunteers with asymptomatic ICAS and to determine the risk factors for ICAS, including asymptomatic brain parenchymal lesions. We studied 2,807 healthy Japanese volunteers with no history of stroke (mean age, 62.0 years). They were followed for a mean interval of 64.5 months. The degree of ICAS and the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 166 volunteers (5.9%) at the initial examination. Moderate and mild stenoses were observed in 1.5 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Significant risk factors for ICAS were older age and a history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. During follow-up, ischemic stroke developed in 32 volunteers. Seven strokes occurred in the ICAS group, whose stroke incidence rate was higher than that in the non-ICAS group (0.78 vs. 0.18% per year). According to a Cox regression analysis, asymptomatic ICAS was an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke after adjustment for age. Furthermore, after asymptomatic brain lesions were taken into account, ICAS was still a significant risk factor for stroke onset. In conclusion, even mild to moderate asymptomatic ICAS was a significant risk factor for future stroke, independent of asymptomatic brain lesions, in a healthy Japanese population. Mild to moderate ICAS might be a therapeutic target for stroke prevention. PMID:27047445

  9. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Conclusions Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE. PMID:27097772

  10. A novel approach to cardiovascular health by optimizing risk management (ANCHOR): a primary prevention initiative examining the impact of health risk factor assessment and management on cardiac wellness.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna L; Carr, Brendan; Vallis, T Michael; Szpilfogel, Claudine; O'Neill, Blair J

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents an increasing burden to health care systems. Modifiable risk factors figure prominently in the population-attributable risk for premature coronary artery disease. Primary care is well placed to facilitate CVD risk improvement. We plan to evaluate the ability of a novel primary care intervention providing systematic risk factor screening, risk-weighted behavioural counselling and pharmacological intervention to achieve 2 objectives: (1) optimized management of global CVD risk of patients and (2) increased patient adherence to lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions aimed at decreasing global CVD risk. A pre-post longitudinal prospective design with a nonrandomized comparison group is being undertaken in 2 geographically diverse primary care practices in Nova Scotia with differing reimbursement models. Participants will complete a readiness to change and pre-post health risk assessment (HRA), that will trigger a 1-year intervention individualized around risk and readiness. The primary outcome will be the proportion of participants with Framingham moderate and high-risk strata that reduce their absolute risk by 10% and 25%, respectively. The secondary outcome will be the proportion of moderate and high-risk participants who reduce their risk category. The impact of the intervention on clinical and behavioural variables will also be examined. Low risk participants will be separately analyzed. Data from participants unable to change from the high risk category because of diabetes mellitus or established atherosclerotic disease will also be analyzed separately, with changes in clinical measures from baseline being assessed. A health economic analysis is planned. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  12. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambinder, Alexander J.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Malik, Neha; Maggioncalda, Alison; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment. PMID:23028387

  13. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students].

    PubMed

    Chiang-Salgado, M T; Casanueva-Escobar, V; Cid-Cea, X; González-Rubilar, U; Olate-Mellado, P; Nickel-Paredes, F; Revello-Chiang, L

    1999-01-01

    To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using body mass index (BMI) measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson's chi-square test and multiple regression. We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for total cholesterol (CT), 16.2% for low-density lipoproteins (C-LDL) and 5% for high-density lipoproteins (C-HDL). The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1%) and sedentarism (60.8%). Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  15. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  16. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  17. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  18. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  19. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  20. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, J L

    1989-01-01

    Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol consumption. Factors probably or possibly associated with a decreased risk include ingestion of vitamin D and its metabolites, fluoride levels of 2 ppm or more in drinking water, moderate physical activity, pregnancies and breast feeding, use of thiazide diuretics, and progestogens. Some evidence suggests that calcium intake and physical activity at young ages may be important determinants of peak bone mass. Few studies have been undertaken in males and blacks, although at least some risk factors in males may be similar to those in females. Preventive efforts may be aimed at increasing peak bone mass at young ages, preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, and preventing fractures and their adverse consequences in older people with osteoporosis. PMID:2517695

  1. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  2. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  3. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  5. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  6. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  7. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  8. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  9. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  10. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  11. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  12. The risk factors of CVA in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Auais, Mohammad A; Alzyoud, Jehad M; Sbieh, Ziad; Abdulla, Fuad A

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the main risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in Jordan. Identification of risk factors may help to reduce the incidence of CVA. A form was prepared for data collection which consisted of two parts to gather biodata and the incidence of risk factors. A sample of 200 patients with CVA (60% men) were randomly selected from various areas of Jordan. An age, region distribution, and gender-matched sample were selected to serve as control. Hypertension in the experimental group (66%) was significantly higher than the control group (32%) p  <  0.001. Half of the subjects with stroke had diabetes compared to 22% of the control group (p  <  0.001). Cardiovascular diseases were found in 29% of subjects with CVA compared to 14% in the control group (p  <  0.001). About 27% of the CVA group had hyperlipidemia in comparison to 13% in the controls (p <  0.002). Smokers represented 54% of the experimental group compared to 30% of the control group (p <  0.05). An important finding in the present study was that about half of the selected subjects with strokes were under the age of 60 years. In conclusion, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are risk factors for CVA in Jordan.

  13. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  14. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-05

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  15. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    PubMed

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  17. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  18. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    PubMed

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  19. Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Padideh; Kamali, Elahe; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Karahmadi, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented. PMID:28413424

  20. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder.

  1. Is consanguinity a risk factor for keratoconus?

    PubMed

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Essa, Maron; Garth, Jeanne; Ghara, Mohammed; Shneor, Einat

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether consanguinity is a risk factor for keratoconus (KC). A questionnaire was distributed to all patients presenting to St. John Eye Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Questionnaire included data on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors. Patients were divided into two groups: cases with KC, in at least one eye, who were diagnosed by the attending ophthalmologist on the basis of abnormal corneal topography and at least one of the common signs of the disease; and controls presenting for problems other than KC and free of systemic and ocular conditions associated with KC. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify risk factors for KC. Seventy cases and 140 controls participated in the study. Groups were similar with respect to sex and age. Univariate analyses found a significant association between KC and parental first-cousin consanguinity, eye rubbing, allergy, positive family history, education (>12 years), and sunglass wear, whereas asthma, eczema, smoking, and second-cousin consanguinity were not. Multivariate analyses showed that total consanguinity (first-cousin and second-cousin) (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; p = 0.001), eye rubbing and absence of sunglass wear were significant risk factors. Education was also associated with KC, but family history was not so in the multivariate analysis. This study supports the hypothesis that consanguinity is a significant risk factor for KC and provides strong support for a genetic contribution to the disease. Wearing sunglasses in this environment is beneficial, and the study confirmed that eye rubbing, allergy, and education are also significantly associated with KC after adjusting for other predictors.

  2. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  3. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-09-01

    Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD.

  4. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  5. Susceptibility and risk factors in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a high prevalence of advanced destruction but also that relatively few individuals in each age group account for most of the advanced periodontal disease. The available data suggest that three quarters of advanced periodontal disease could be prevented by targeting an effective preventive strategy on the 28% of individuals especially at risk. Questions remain regarding: 1) whether an acceptable cost-effective preventive strategy can be devised; and 2) whether it is possible to establish a simple method of identifying the 'at risk' group. The various risk factors are numerous and include systemic diseases, smoking, drug therapy, hormonal disturbances and genetic factors as well as the more mundane factors such as plaque control and socio-economic and education and attitude factors. Aside from these factors, many patients present with periodontal disease and have no discernible predisposition other than possibly genetic, for which we can not currently test, and for the vast majority of patients there would appear to be no other alternative to periodic thorough examination for all patients, early treatment of all periodontal lesions and appropriate dental health education.

  6. [Risk factors associated with dystocic delivery].

    PubMed

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Ríos López, Juan Carlos; Cortés Salim, Patricia; Ponce Ponce de León, Ana Lilia

    2007-09-01

    the dystocic delivery is a frequent complication and its perinatal repercussions vary from minor lesions to severe brain damage. It has been reported diverse factors associated with this medical complication. to identify the risk factors with significant association with dystocic delivery. a case-control study was carried out. There were included 750 patients, divided into 250 women with dystocic deliveries (cases) and 500 women with eutocic deliveries (controls). Demographic and clinical variables were registered. The statistical analysis was performed with percentages, arithmetic media, standard deviation, Student t test, chi2 and logistic regression analysis. An alpha value was set at 0.05. the factors with statistical significance were: advanced age (p < 0.001), major patient's height (p < 0.001), major new born's weight (p = 0.009), lower parity (p < 0.001), and prolonged duration of labor (p = 0.04). Other variables such as number of pregnancies, previous cesarean sections, spontaneous abortions, weight of the patient, weight earned during pregnancy, number of medical appointments during antenatal care, previous dystocic delivery, and premature rupture of the membranes, were not significant. there are clinical and demographic risk factors associated with dystocic delivery. To identify this risk factors during the antenatal care could diminish the frequency of dystocic deliveries and therefore to avoid the associated maternal-fetal complications.

  7. Environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zhang, D; Rodzinka-Pasko, J K; Li, Y-M

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromes that are predominantly defined by behavioral features such as impaired social interactions, restricted verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive or stereotyped behavior. In the past few decades, the reported prevalence of ASD has increased dramatically. This growth can be partially explained by an increased level of awareness of the problem among professionals and better diagnostic methods. Nevertheless, underpinning causes of ASD have not yet been detailed and explained. It is suggested that rather than having a single causative factor, ASD pathogenesis is influenced by environmental or genetic factors, or a combination of both. The aims of this review are to describe the environmental risk factors associated with ASD so as to provide a reference basis for current and future clinical and experimental work. On the basis of a PubMed search, we review the existing knowledge on environmental factors associated with ASD. A series of environmental factors have been repeatedly reported as risk factors for ASD in existing studies. Air pollution, organic toxicants, seasonal factors, psychological stress, migration, birth order, and nutrition may have a close relationship with the incidence of ASD.

  8. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  9. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13-15 years .

    PubMed

    Michalska, Agnieszka; Bylina, Dorota; Czeczuk, Anna; Sołtan, Jarosław; Wiciński, Michał; Grześk, Elżbieta; Malinowski, Bartosz

    2012-09-11

    The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects. The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School 1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13-15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency. Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1%) whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6%) had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels. Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  10. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  11. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in young women with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Icin, Tijana; Pletikosic, Ivana; Bajkin, Ivana; Novakovic-Paro, Jovanka; Stokic, Edita; Spasic, Dragan T; Kovacev-Zavisic, Branka; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin is a metabolic hormone. The hypothesis is that hyperprolactinemia can cause metabolic and inflammatory changes which are associated with accelerated atherosclerotic process, but the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists, leads to reversibility of these processes. The first aim of this study was to determine whether hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women is accompanied with the increase in body mass index (BMI), changes in body composition, lipid disturbances, the presence of inflammation and changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as risk factors for the development of early atherosclerosis. The second aim was to know whether the therapy of hyperprolactinemia and prolactin normalization lead to improvement of the observed parameters. Twenty female patients with prolactinomas, before and during treatment with dopamine agonists and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Prolactin, BMI, total body fat, free fat mass, total body water, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during the therapy. Hyperprolactinemic patients had pathologic and significantly higher levels of prolactin (PRL) than the controls (p=0.000). The BMI, body fat, total body water (TBW), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL were in normal range and higher in the patients than in the controls. HDL was lower in hyperprolactinemic females than controls. The difference was significant only for body fat (fat % p=0.006; fat kg p=0.009). Fibrinogen was slightly increased in patients compared with the controls. Hyperprolactinemic patients had normal, but increased levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the controls. The difference with border significance was found in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.065). The correlation of PRL with all the observed parameters was positive apart from HDL, but relatively

  12. Risk factor paradox in wasting diseases.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Horwich, Tamara B; Oreopoulos, Antigone; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Younessi, Houman; Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2007-07-01

    Emerging data indicate that conventional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia and obesity) are paradoxically associated with better survival in distinct populations with wasting. We identify these populations and review survival paradoxes and common pathophysiologic mechanisms. A 'reverse epidemiology' of cardiovascular risk is observed in chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, AIDS and rheumatoid arthritis, and in the elderly. These populations apparently have slowly progressive to full-blown wasting and significantly greater short-term mortality than the general population. The survival paradoxes may result from the time differential between the two competing risk factors [i.e. over-nutrition (long-term killer but short-term protective) versus undernutrition (short-term killer)]. Hemodynamic stability of obesity, protective adipokine profile, endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction, toxin sequestration of fat, antioxidation of muscle, reverse causation, and survival selection may also contribute. The seemingly counterintuitive risk factor paradox is the hallmark of chronic disease states or conditions associated with wasting disease at the population level. Studying similarities among these populations may help reveal common pathophysiologic mechanisms of wasting disease, leading to a major shift in clinical medicine and public health beyond the conventional Framingham paradigm and to novel therapeutic approaches related to wasting and short-term mortality.

  13. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Paul P.; Keane, Pearse A.; O'Neill, Evelyn C.; Altaie, Rasha W.; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M.; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:20339564

  14. Risk Factors Of Heart Disease in Nurses.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Mahdi K; Hojat, Mohsen; Koshkaki, Saiede R; Nazari, Faride; Ragibnejad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and correcting the modifiable risk factors reduces the prevalence of coronary artery disorders (CAD). Nurses, with regards to their employment conditions, can be prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among nurses. In this cross-sectional study, census sampling was conducted among nurses of Jahrom, Iran, in 2014. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters, and blood sample collection. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical analysis, and comparative (independent t-test) and correlation (Pearson) tests were used; the significance level was considered to be P < 0.05. In this study, 263 (89.76%) nurses participated, 79.8% of whom were women. The mean age of the participants was 31.04 (6.97). In terms of body mass index, 41.7% was the waist-to-hip ratio, 16.7% was the waist-to-height ratio, and 63.1% were in the range of obesity. In addition, 5.7% had abnormal triglyceride, 4.9% had high cholesterol, and 15.1% had high blood pressure. The mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the participants was 1.07 (1.84). In this study, the total mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the nurses was 1.07, which showed a low risk of CAD in the study population over the next decade.

  15. Risk Factors Of Heart Disease in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Mahdi K.; Hojat, Mohsen; Koshkaki, Saiede R.; Nazari, Faride; Ragibnejad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying and correcting the modifiable risk factors reduces the prevalence of coronary artery disorders (CAD). Nurses, with regards to their employment conditions, can be prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among nurses. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, census sampling was conducted among nurses of Jahrom, Iran, in 2014. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters, and blood sample collection. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical analysis, and comparative (independent t-test) and correlation (Pearson) tests were used; the significance level was considered to be P < 0.05. Results: In this study, 263 (89.76%) nurses participated, 79.8% of whom were women. The mean age of the participants was 31.04 (6.97). In terms of body mass index, 41.7% was the waist-to-hip ratio, 16.7% was the waist-to-height ratio, and 63.1% were in the range of obesity. In addition, 5.7% had abnormal triglyceride, 4.9% had high cholesterol, and 15.1% had high blood pressure. The mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the participants was 1.07 (1.84). Conclusions: In this study, the total mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the nurses was 1.07, which showed a low risk of CAD in the study population over the next decade. PMID:28904549

  16. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  17. Predictors of new atherosclerotic carotid plaque development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality attributed to both classical risk factors and chronic inflammation. We assessed longitudinally the factors associated with new carotid plaques in nondiabetic RA patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods In our present prospective observational study, carotid plaques were identified by ultrasonography at baseline and follow-up end, separated by an average of 3.6 ± 0.2 years, in 64 patients (mean age 59.2 ± 12.0 and disease duration at baseline 7.8 ± 6.2 years, 83% women, clinical and laboratory evaluation every 3 to 6 months). In a substudy, 35 of the patients were matched 1:1 for traditional cardiovascular risk factors with 'healthy' controls and were studied in parallel. Results New atherosclerotic plaques formed in 30% of patients (first plaque in 9%) who were significantly older than the remaining patients. Tobacco use, blood pressure, body mass index, average cumulative low-density lipoprotein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate level, RA stage, functional class, disease duration and treatment modalities during follow-up did not differ significantly between subgroups after application of the Bonferroni correction. RA was in clinical remission, on average, for approximately 70% of the follow-up time and was not different between subgroups. Multivariate analysis including all the above parameters revealed that age (P = 0.006), smoking (P = 0.009) and duration of low-dose corticosteroid use (P = 0.016) associated independently with new plaque formation. RA patients displayed similar numbers of newly formed carotid plaques to the tightly matched for traditional cardiovascular risk factors 'healthy' controls, although more patients than controls had carotid plaques at baseline. Conclusions Formation of new atherosclerotic plaques in this small cohort of patients with well-controlled RA depended mainly on

  18. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

  19. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  20. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early.

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors? A risk factor is anything that ... Can Lung Carcinoid Tumors Be Prevented? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  3. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes.

  4. Recurrent Shoulder Dystocia: Risk Factors and Counseling.

    PubMed

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D

    2016-12-01

    A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.

  5. Socioeconomic factors and the risk for sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma.

  6. Clinical Risk Factors for Portopulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kawut, Steven M.; Krowka, Michael J.; Trotter, James F.; Roberts, Kari E.; Benza, Raymond L.; Badesch, David B.; Taichman, Darren B.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Zacks, Steven; Kaplowitz, Neil; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension affects up to 6% of patients with advanced liver disease, but the predictors and biologic mechanism for the development of this complication are unknown. We sought to determine the clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. We performed a multicenter case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of patients with portal hypertension recruited from tertiary care centers. Cases had a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes · second · cm−5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mm Hg. Controls had a right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg (if estimable) and normal right-sided cardiac morphology by transthoracic echocardiography. The study sample included 34 cases and 141 controls. Female sex was associated with a higher risk of portopulmonary hypertension than male sex (adjusted odds ratio =2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20-7.01, P = 0.018). Autoimmune hepatitis was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 4.02, 95% confidence interval 1.14-14.23, P = 0.031), and hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted odds ratio =0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.65, P =0.005) of portopulmonary hypertension. The severity of liver disease was not related to the risk of portopulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Female sex and autoimmune hepatitis were associated with an increased risk of portopulmonary hypertension, whereas hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk in patients with advanced liver disease. Hormonal and immunologic factors may therefore be integral to the development of portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:18537192

  7. [Risk factors for Alzheimer: towards prevention?].

    PubMed

    Vogel, Thomas; Benetos, Athanase; Verreault, René; Kaltenbach, Georges; Kiesmann, Michèle; Berthel, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Recent longitudinal studies have highlighted associations between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several factors, especially some cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, diet, obesity, and elevated levels of homocysteine and lipids in the blood. The strongest associations are with hypertension and diabetes. Moderate alcohol consumption also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of incident AD. Studies of the effect of interventions to control these risk factors on the onset and course of dementia report encouraging results about antihypertensive agents and statins. Benefits from other drug therapies such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and antioxidants remain uncertain, and initial hopes for hormonal replacement therapy for postmenopausal women have not been confirmed. Physical, cognitive and leisure activities seem to provide protection against incident AD. Cautious interpretation is necessary in view of the possible biases in these studies (confounding factors as well as survival, regression dilution, and indication biases). These epidemiologic data raise questions about the diagnostic boundaries between AD and vascular dementia. Additional studies are needed to validate these concepts and to confirm the possible benefits of preventive measures.

  8. [Risk factors for anorexia in children].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (P<0.05). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that late addition of supplementary food (OR=5.408), high frequency of taking snacks and/or drinks (OR=11.813), and eating while playing (OR=6.654) were major risk factors for anorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.

  9. Juvenile respiratory papillomatosis: risk factors for severity.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Caroline; Lapointe, Annie; Coutlée, François; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Roger, Michel; Trottier, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused mainly by human papillomavirus genotypes 6 or 11, acquired at birth or during pregnancy from an infected mother. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is characterized by recurring warts growing most commonly in the larynx. Multiple surgical procedures and the risk of airway obstruction contribute to the devastating impact of this disease. Some children will go into remission after a few surgeries whereas others will require repeated interventions over several years. Further understanding of the risk factors associated with severity may contribute to tailored treatments. A retrospective study of cases diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2008 was conducted to study determinants of severe forms of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from children's medical charts and mothers' delivery charts. Viral factors (HPV genotyping and viral load) were studied from archived biopsies. Specific HLA class II alleles and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes were tested from saliva samples. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for severity. Overall, 31 pediatric cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were identified. The only significant factor associated with severe forms of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was the maternal history of condylomas during pregnancy (OR: 12.05 [P=0.05]). The analysis failed to identify risk factors that could be used clinically to identify recurrent respiratory papillomatosis cases likely to take a severe course. Although too early to determine, vaccination against the HPV types involved most commonly in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may provide the best hope to prevent severe forms of this disease.

  10. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  11. Risk factors for complete uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Al-Zirqi, Iqbal; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Forsén, Lisa; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Vangen, Siri

    2017-02-01

    Complete uterine rupture is a rare peripartum complication associated with a catastrophic outcome. Because of its rarity, knowledge about its risk factors is not very accurate. Most previous studies were small and over a limited time interval. Moreover, international diagnostic coding was used in most studies. These codes are not able to differentiate between the catastrophic complete type and less catastrophic partial type. Complete uterine rupture is expected to increase as the rate of cesarean delivery increases. Thus, we need more accurate knowledge about the risk factors for this complication. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for complete uterine rupture during childbirth in Norway. This population-based study included women that gave birth after starting labor in 1967-2008. Data were from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Patient Administration System, complemented with information from medical records. We included 1,317,967 women without previous cesarean delivery and 57,859 with previous cesarean delivery. The outcome was complete uterine rupture (tearing of all uterine wall layers, including serosa and membranes). Risk factors were parameters related to demographics, pregnancy, and labor. Odds ratios for complete uterine rupture were computed with crude logistic regressions for each risk factor. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Complete uterine rupture occurred in 51 cases without previous cesarean delivery (0.38 per 10,000) and 122 with previous cesarean delivery (21.1 per 10,000). The strongest risk factor was sequential labor induction with prostaglandins and oxytocin, compared with spontaneous labor, in those without previous cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 48.0, 95% confidence interval, 20.5-112.3) and those with previous cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 16.1, 95% confidence interval, 8

  12. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed. PMID:26861359

  13. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-02-05

    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed.

  14. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Anupriya; Alexander, Anika; Bal, Simerpreet; Sivadasan, Ajith; Aaron, Sanjith

    2014-01-01

    Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome). These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient's presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease. PMID:24817748

  15. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Brian C.; Garvan, Gerard J.; Garvan, Cynthia S.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:28138493

  16. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  17. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  18. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    PubMed

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  19. [Risk factors for hysterectomy among Brazilian women].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Thália V Barreto; Aquino, Estela M L

    2003-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for hysterectomy among women using the public health system in Northeast Brazil. The cases were 373 women aged 30-54 years that had undergone elective hysterectomy for benign pelvic conditions. Controls were 742 women with preserved uterus selected from public health clinics. Data were collected through a review of medical records and a personal interview using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was applied in the analysis. Women at greater risk for hysterectomy were those with a higher per capita family income, zero to three children, a history of medical consultation for menstrual problems, hospitalization for gynecological problems, or tubal ligation before age 30 years. Menopause and a history of stillbirth appeared as protective factors in the statistical analysis.

  20. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  1. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  2. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Misra, A

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerosis starts in childhood, and is accelerated in some individuals. A cluster of clinical and biochemical factors constitute the risk profile for many of them, perhaps most important being metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance and its components for children and adolescents, especially obesity and dyslipidemia, are generators of hypertension, glucose intolerance and complications of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Some individuals are genetically predisposed, particularly those with the family history of such disorders. For many subjects, there is 'tracking' of metabolic and lifestyle factors from early age to adulthood. Several new risk factors of atherosclerosis (e.g. level of lipoprotein (a), procoagulant state, hyperhomocysteinemia, low birth weight and adverse in-utero environment, and possibly inflammatory markers) are current and potentially future areas of research concerning children and young individuals. Definition of and research on new and hitherto not investigated factors and formulation of strategies to neutralize the known factors are of paramount importance for primary prevention of atherosclerosis. Simple and effective measures for prevention include increasing awareness of the diseases, maintenance of ideal body weight, regular physical exercise, avoidance of smoking and chewing of tobacco, eating a balanced diet, and early periodic monitoring of blood pressure and metabolic status. These measures, starting from childhood, should be applied to all and in particular to the susceptible offspring, predisposed individuals, and populations.

  3. [Risk factors of fatal outcome in pancreatonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Romanov, É I; Zubeev, P S; Ryzhov, M K; Bodrov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzed risk factors after operations for pancreatonecrosis in order to predict a course of the disease and carefully plan the treatment. It was revealed that the lethality level depended on different factors: the sex, age, a period of admission to the hospital, prevalence of necrotic suppurative process and severity of operative trauma. The authors made a conclusion of radical change to treatment approach. The open operations should be reduced at the expense of introduction of low-invasive methods of treatment in the case of pancreatonecrosis.

  4. Gastric cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Martel, Catherine; Forman, David; Plummer, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the major malignancies in the world. This article summarizes the current understanding of the worldwide burden of this disease, its geographic variation, and temporal trends. An overview is presented of known risk factors, including genetic, dietary, and behavioral, but focuses on Helicobacter pylori infection as the most important factor in noncardia gastric cancer. When the data and the literature allow, we distinguish between cardia and noncardia sub-sites, as it is now clear that these two anatomic locations present distinct and sometimes opposite epidemiological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Baron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects’ colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. Results The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62–1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66–1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.06). Conclusions Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids. PMID:26406337

  6. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Peery, Anne F; Sandler, Robert S; Galanko, Joseph A; Bresalier, Robert S; Figueiredo, Jane C; Ahnen, Dennis J; Barry, Elizabeth L; Baron, John A

    2015-01-01

    Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06). Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.

  7. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  8. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  9. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  10. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  11. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  12. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk factor improvement achieved. Additionally, on an eligible subset of these patients, we asked physicians to actively refer to population management programs those patients they determined could benefit from nurse or health coach interventions, advising us as to which components of their treatment plan they wished us to address. The 6-month intervention period exhibited a 10-fold improvement in the trend rate of risk factor management success when compared to the prior 6-month period for the same patients. A net of 96 distinct risk factor improvements were achieved by the 546 patients during the intervention period, whereas 9 net risk factor improvements occurred in the comparison period. This difference in improvement trends was statistically significant at P < 0.01. Of the 546 study participants, a subset of 187 members was eligible for participation in OptumHealth care management programs. Physicians identified 80 of these 187 eligible members as appropriate targets for program intervention. Representing ourselves as “calling on behalf” of the physician practices, we established contact with 50 referred members; 43 members (86%) actively enrolled in our programs. This enrollment rate is 2 to 3 times the rate of enrollment through our standard program outreach methods. We conclude that physician-directed population management with aligned incentives offers promise as a method of achieving important health and wellness goals. (Population Health Management 2010

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. PMID:21480948

  14. Risk factors associated with Barrett's epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mikiko; Nakamura, Yuri; Kasashima, Saeko; Furukawa, Maiko; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagahara, Hikaru

    2014-04-21

    To elucidate risk factors associated with dysplasia of short-segment Barrett's esophagus (BE). A total of 151 BE patients who underwent endoscopic examination from 2004 to 2008 in Aoyama Hospital, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan and whose diagnosis was confirmed from biopsy specimens were enrolled in the study. BE was diagnosed based on endoscopic findings of gastric-appearing mucosa or apparent columnar-lined esophagus proximal to the esophagogastric junction. Dysplasia was classified into three grades - mild, moderate and severe - according to the guidelines of the Vienna Classification System for gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. Anthropometric and biochemical data were analyzed to identify risk factors for BE dysplasia. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the expression of p53 by immunohistological staining were also investigated. Histological examination classified patients into three types: specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) (n = 65); junctional (n = 38); and gastric fundic (n = 48). The incidence of dysplasia or adenocarcinoma from BE of the SCE type was significantly higher than that of the other two types (P < 0.01). The univariate analysis revealed that sex, H. pylori infection, body weight, p53 overexpression, and low diastolic blood pressure (BP) were associated with BE dysplasia. In contrast, body mass index, waist circumference, metabolic syndrome complications, and variables related to glucose or lipid metabolism were not associated with dysplasia. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that overexpression of p53 [odds ratio (OR) = 13.1, P = 0.004], H. pylori infection (OR = 0.19, P = 0.066), and diastolic BP (OR = 0.87, P = 0.021) were independent risk factors for epithelial dysplasia in BE patients with the SCE type. Overexpression of p53 is a risk factor for dysplasia of BE, however, H. pylori infection and diastolic BP inversely associated with BE dysplasia might be protective.

  15. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  16. [Junior secondary and secondary school students' knowledge level about atherosclerosis risk factors and prevention].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases cause about 50% of deaths in Poland. These disorders most frequently result from atherosclerotic changes in arteries. Knowledge on the prevention and elimination of risk factors is vital in reducing the development of atherosclerosis and other non-infectious chronic diseases. The aim of the study was the assessment of junior secondary and secondary school students knowledge pertaining to atherosclerosis risk factors and prevention. 197 students participated in the project, with 97 attending junior secondary and 100--secondary school in the voivodship of Malopolskie. The junior and upper secondary level pupils originated from small towns (86.6%, 51%) and villages (13.4%, 49%) of the Bochnia and Tuchow districts. The study was conducted in May 2010 by means of a diagnostic survey including an anonymous questionnaire. As risk factors encouraging the development of atherosclerosis to the greatest extent the junior secondary school students selected overweight and obesity, high cholesterol levels, fast food consumption and smoking. The majority of the junior secondary school pupils (61%) and those from the upper secondary level (85%) stated that what should be undertaken in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis is the reduction or elimination of food products rich in cholesterol, such as egg yolks, cream, butter, fatty meat. More than half of the junior and upper secondary school level pupils (57%) knew that the consumption of saturated fatty acids should be reduced as a preventive means against cardiovascular diseases. More than 73% of the junior and 85% of the upper secondary school pupils indicated the important role played by physical activity and maintaining a proper body mass in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The youth's knowledge ofatherosclerosis development risk factors was insufficient. Secondary school students displayed a higher level of knowledge with regard to prophylaxis and dangers pertaining to non

  17. [Aortic valve calcification prevalence and association with coronary risk factors and atherosclerosis in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Macias-Garrido, Enrico; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Joge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    The prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC), strongly influenced by ethnicity, is unknown in Mexican population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AVC and its associations with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC), in Mexican subjects. In 1,267 subjects (53% women) without known coronary heart disease, aged 35 to 75 years, AVC and CAC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography using the Agatston score. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented in all participants. The associations of AVC with CAC and risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. The overall prevalence of AVC and CAC was 19.89% and 26.5%, respectively. AVC and CAC increased with age and were found more frequently in men (25.5% and 37.1%, respectively) than in women (14.9% and 13.0%, respectively). AVC was observed in only 8.5% of subjects without CAC, while those with CAC 1-99, 100-399, and >400 Agatston units had AVC prevalences of 36.8%, 56.8%, and 84.0%, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and high insulin levels, showed that the presence of CAC (OR [CI95%]: 3.23 [2.26-4.60]), obesity (1.94 [1.35-2.79]), male gender (1.44 [1.01-2.05]) and age (1.08 [1.03-1.10]), were significant independent predictors of AVC. Prevalence of AVC is high and significantly associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and CAC in this Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  19. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures.

  20. Striae gravidarum: Risk factors, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Farahnik, B; Park, K; Kroumpouzos, G; Murase, J

    2017-06-01

    Striae gravidarum (SG) are atrophic linear scars that represent one of the most common connective tissue changes during pregnancy. SG can cause emotional and psychological distress for many women. Research on risk factors, prevention, and management of SG has been often inconclusive. We conducted a literature search using textbooks, PubMed, and Medline databases to assess research performed on the risk factors, prevention, and management of SG. The search included the following key words: striae gravidarum, pregnancy stretch marks, and pregnancy stretch. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify relevant sources. Younger age, maternal and family history of SG, increased pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery weight, and increased birth weight were the most significant risk factors identified for SG. Although few studies have confirmed effective prevention methods, Centella asiatica extract, hyaluronic acid, and daily massages showed some promise. Treatment for general striae has greatly improved over the last few years. Topical tretinoin ≥ 0.05% has demonstrated up to 47% improvement of SG and non-ablative fractional lasers have consistently demonstrated 50 to 75% improvement in treated lesions of striae distensae. Overall, SG has seen a resurgence in research over the last few years with promising data being released. Results of recent studies provide dermatologists with new options for the many women who are affected by these disfiguring marks of pregnancy.

  1. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    PubMed

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01