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Sample records for atherosclerotic risk factors

  1. A focus on inflammation as a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Ida; Holm, Sverre; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a dynamic, pathogenic process in the artery wall, with potential adverse outcome for the host. Acute events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke often result from rupture of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. Understanding the underlying pathology of such lesions and why and when they rupture, is therefore of great interest for the development of new diagnostics and treatment. Inflammation is one of the key drivers of atherosclerotic plaque development and the interplay between inflammation and lipids constitutes the hallmark of atherosclerotic disease. This review summarizes the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and presents some of the latest discoveries as well as unmet needs regarding the role of inflammation as major risk factor in atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Frequency of physical activity, exercise capacity, and atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors in male police officers.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A; Petratis, M M; Baechle, T R; Ryschon, K L; Campain, J J; Sketch, M H

    1987-07-01

    A total of 171 male police officers volunteered to (1) assess risk factors for developing atherosclerotic heart disease and (2) evaluate the relationship of fitness to risk. Results revealed substantial numbers of officers with elevated risk: 22% were smokers, 76% had elevated cholesterol, 26% had elevated triglycerides, 16% had elevated BP, and 60% had elevated body fat. Increased fitness was associated with decreased risk. Compared with Group II (moderate fitness) or Group III (low fitness), Group I (high fitness) had significantly lower values of body fat, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, lipid ratios, triglycerides, and smoking incidence. Low fitness was associated with the highest prevalence of abnormal exercise tests. The results suggest (1) police officers have a high prevalence of risk and (2) increased fitness is associated with reduced risk.

  3. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  4. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of atherosclerosis in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not previously been addressed in population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and clinical atherosclerotic diseases with CTS. Methods In this cross sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 or over who had participated in the national Finnish Health Survey in 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4%) were included in our study. Carotid IMT was measured in a sub-sample of subjects aged 45 to 74 (N = 1353). Results Obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.4), high LDL cholesterol (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.1 for >190 vs. <129 mg/dL), high triglycerides (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1 for >200 vs. <150 mg/dL), hypertension (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.4) and cardiac arrhythmia (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.7-38.4) were associated with CTS in subjects aged 30-44. In the age group of 60 years or over, coronary artery disease (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), valvular heart disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0) and carotid IMT (1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.1 for each 0.23 mm increase) were associated with CTS. Carotid IMT was associated with CTS only in subjects with hypertension or clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease, or in those who were exposed to physical workload factors. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between CTS and cardiovascular risk factors in young people, and carotid IMT and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in older people. CTS may either be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share similar risk factors. PMID:21521493

  5. Obesity, Exercise, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Modifiable Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared D; Aronis, Konstantinos N; Chrispin, Jonathan; Patil, Kaustubha D; Marine, Joseph E; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Calkins, Hugh

    2015-12-29

    Classically, the 3 pillars of atrial fibrillation (AF) management have included anticoagulation for prevention of thromboembolism, rhythm control, and rate control. In both prevention and management of AF, a growing body of evidence supports an increased role for comprehensive cardiac risk factor modification (RFM), herein defined as management of traditional modifiable cardiac risk factors, weight loss, and exercise. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence demonstrating the importance of each facet of RFM in AF prevention and therapy. Additionally, we review emerging data on the importance of weight loss and cardiovascular exercise in prevention and management of AF. PMID:26718677

  6. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Their Association With Hospital Mortality Among Patients With First Myocardial Infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction)

    PubMed Central

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22840346

  7. Atherosclerotic risk factors and their association with hospital mortality among patients with first myocardial infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Canto, John G; Kiefe, Catarina I; Rogers, William J; Peterson, Eric D; Frederick, Paul D; French, William J; Gibson, C Michael; Pollack, Charles V; Ornato, Joseph P; Zalenski, Robert J; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J; Greenland, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22840346

  8. Atherosclerotic risk factors and their association with hospital mortality among patients with first myocardial infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Canto, John G; Kiefe, Catarina I; Rogers, William J; Peterson, Eric D; Frederick, Paul D; French, William J; Gibson, C Michael; Pollack, Charles V; Ornato, Joseph P; Zalenski, Robert J; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J; Greenland, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics.

  9. Aqueous extract of Yerba Mate tea lowers atherosclerotic risk factors in a rat hyperlipidemia model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongli; Liu, Zhaochun; Wan, Wenju; Qu, Xiaolan; Chen, Meihua

    2013-08-01

    Yerba Mate tea (Mate) is believed to be a natural source of cardioprotective lipid-lowering and antioxidant compounds. In this study, the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Mate tea in a rat hyperlipidemia model were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into five groups and fed varying diets: standard diet, hyperlipidemic diet, and hyperlipidemic diet supplemented with low, moderate, or high concentrations of Mate tea aqueous extract (1%, 2%, and 4% w/v, respectively). Compared to the hyperlipidemic control group, Mate tea reduced significantly the total body weight and lowered serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and caused the elevation of serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Moreover, activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in serum were elevated significantly, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde decreased. In addition, Mate tea treatment ameliorated significantly the severe fatty degeneration of liver cells that occurred in the hyperlipidemic groups. The relative levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and its target fatty acid synthase, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA transcripts were reduced, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mRNA transcripts were elevated in the Mate tea groups. Our results suggest that Mate tea exerts strong antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects, prevents hepatic fatty deposition, and regulates the expression of lipid metabolic regulators. It can therefore be used to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

  10. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  11. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Setorki, Mahbubeh; Asgary, Sedighe; Eidi, Akram; rohani, Ali Haeri; Esmaeil, Nafiseh

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol), 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose) and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose) for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC) and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups. Results Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations. Conclusion Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice. PMID:19804641

  12. From Lipids to Inflammation: New Approaches to Reducing Atherosclerotic Risk.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael D; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-02-19

    The introduction of statins ≈ 30 years ago ushered in the era of lipid lowering as the most effective way to reduce risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, residual risk remains high, and statin intolerance is frequently encountered in clinical practice. After a long dry period, the field of therapeutics targeted to lipids and atherosclerosis has entered a renaissance. Moreover, the demonstration of clinical benefits from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndromes has renewed the enthusiasm for the cholesterol hypothesis and the hope that additional agents that lower low-density lipoprotein will decrease risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Drugs in the orphan disease category are now available for patients with the most extreme hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, discovery and rapid translation of a novel biological pathway has given rise to a new class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 inhibitors. Trials of niacin added to statin have failed to demonstrate cardiac benefits, and 3 cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors have also failed to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, despite producing substantial increases in HDL levels. Although the utility of triglyceride-lowering therapies remains uncertain, 2 large clinical trials are testing the influence of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on atherosclerotic events in hypertriglyceridemia. Novel antisense therapies targeting apolipoprotein C-III (for triglyceride reduction) and apo(a) (for lipoprotein(a) reduction) are showing a promising trajectory. Finally, 2 large clinical trials are formally putting the inflammatory hypothesis of atherosclerosis to the test and may open a new avenue for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

  13. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; de la Aleja, Jesús González; Martínez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population. In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed. A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P < 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of cancer-specific mortality was decreased in participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55−0.98, P = 0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38−0.89; P = 0.01. This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  14. Atherosclerotic and Non-Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Koutelou, Maria; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic Coronary heart disease (CHD) and non-atherosclerotic CHD in individuals less than 50 years of age is considered a "men's case". Undoubtedly, premenopausal women develop atherosclerotic/non-atherosclerotic CHD relatively rarely compared with men. This is attributed mostly to the cardioprotective role of estrogens (mainly estradiol). Nevertheless, there are predisposing conditions, which also make young women vulnerable to develop atherosclerotic/non-atherosclerotic CHD. Women who have classical cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and dyslipidaemia, are more likely to develop cardiac events, even at a young age. Moreover, there are also other conditions that cause acute coronary syndromes, even in the absence of coronary atheromatic plaques such as myocardial bridge, coronary artery dissection, coronary artery spasm, coronary artery embolism and congenital anomalies of coronary arteries. Also, autoimmune diseases, some of which are more prevalent in women can cause atherosclerotic/ non-atherosclerotic CHD. In this narrative review we have summarized some of the causes that predispose young women to develop atherosclerotic/non-atherosclerotic CHD. PMID:26337108

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Kurl, Sudhir; Salonen, Jukka T

    2002-11-01

    Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Measurement of maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), defined with or without ventilatory gas analysis during exercise testing, can provide a good estimate for cardiorespiratory fitness, which is an independent marker of the early disease. Low VO(2max) has been shown to be comparable with elevated systolic blood pressure, smoking, obesity, and diabetes in importance as a risk factor for mortality, as well as a predictor of coronary artery disease and the progression of atherosclerosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness represents one of the strongest predictors of mortality, emphasizing the importance of exercise testing in everyday clinical practice. In the future, well-defined, disease-specific training programs for exercise prescriptions in different risk groups are needed as a clinical tool.

  16. Insulin resistance, small LDL particles, and risk for atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    There is a global epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance (IR) is etiologic for both metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. IR induces a broad range of toxic systemic effects, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, increased production of advanced glycosylation end products, increased inflammatory tone, as well as a prothrombotic and pro-oxidative state. Patients with IR are highly vulnerable to the development of accelerated atherosclerosis as well its clinical sequelae, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, carotid artery disease and ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and claudication/lower extremity amputation, and coronary mortality. Among the most important risk factors patients afflicted with IR develop is the so-called atherogenic lipid triad: large numbers of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, hypertriglyceridemia, and low serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Though controversial, much recent evidence suggests that the formation of sdLDL particles in the setting of IR is an important metabolic transition. Some studies suggest that these smaller particles are more atherogenic than their larger, more buoyant counterparts. At least part of the explanation for the apparent augmented atherogenicity of small LDL particles is their reduced systemic clearance by the LDL receptor, increased vulnerability to oxidation rendering them more apt for scavenging by macrophages, and possible increased flux into the subendothelial space of arterial walls. Numerous small studies suggest that sdLDL is highly correlated with cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular medicine is in need of a large prospective, randomized study that would more definitively investigate the impact of small, dense LDL (sdLDL) on risk for cardiovascular disease and whether therapeutic interventions designed to specifically reduce the burden of sdLDL are associated

  17. Polymorphisms in NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α Genes and Risk of Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Kazemi, Mahbobeh; Mahamed, Sahar; Malekzadeh, Pegah; Mirjalili, Massomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated the possible association between NOS3 (rs1799983), MTHFR (rs1801133), APOB (rs5742904) and TNF-α (rs361525) polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: In the case-control study, 108 patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease and 95 control subjects with no family history of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. Genotypes for NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: We specifically detected the NOS3 TT genotype in 12 patients (11.11%) and did not find the same genotype in any of the controls. The frequencies of T allele in patients and the controls were 24% and 17.8%, respectively. The prevalence of the MTHFR TT genotype was 16.7% in patients and 2.2% in control groups. The prevalence of the APOB-100 (R3500Q) mutation in this patient population was 0%. The frequency of the A allele in the TNF-α gene was 11.1% and 11% in patients and controls, respectively, and the AA genotype was undetected. Conclusions: Our results show a significant association of NOS3 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms with coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, these variants might influence the risk of coronary artery disease, specifically in the Iranian population. PMID:26878010

  18. Selepressin and Arginine Vasopressin Do Not Display Cardiovascular Risk in Atherosclerotic Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Boucheix, Olivier; Blakytny, Robert; Haroutunian, Gerard; Henriksson, Marie; Laporte, Regent; Milano, Stephane; Reinheimer, Torsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock remains associated with significant mortality rates. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and analogs with V1A receptor agonist activity are increasingly used to treat fluid-resistant vasodilatory hypotension, including catecholamine-refractory septic shock. Clinical studies have been restricted to healthy volunteers and catecholamine-refractory septic shock patients excluding subjects with cardiac co-morbidities because of presumed safety issues. The novel selective V1A receptor agonist selepressin, with short half-life, has been designed to avoid V2 receptor-related complications and long-term V1A receptor activation. Cardiovascular safety of selepressin, AVP, and the septic shock standard of care norepinephrine was investigated in a rabbit model of early-stage atherosclerosis. Methods Atherosclerosis was established in New Zealand White rabbits using a 1% cholesterol-containing diet. Selepressin, AVP, or norepinephrine was administered as cumulative intravenous infusion rates to atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals. Results Selepressin and AVP induced a slight dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure (AP) associated with a moderate decrease in heart rate, no change in stroke volume, and a moderate decrease in aortic blood flow (ABF). In contrast, norepinephrine induced a marked dose-dependent increase in AP associated with a lesser decrease in the heart rate, an increase in stroke volume, and a moderate increase in ABF. For all three vasopressors, there was no difference in responses between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals. Conclusion Further studies should be considered using more advanced atherosclerosis models, including with septic shock, before considering septic shock clinical trials of patients with comorbidities. Here, selepressin and AVP treatments did not display relevant cardiovascular risk in early-stage rabbit atherosclerosis. PMID:27788216

  19. Insights into cyclosporine A-induced atherosclerotic risk in transplant recipients: macrophage scavenger receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Mathis, A Scott; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Minko, Tamara; Friedman, Gary S; Gioia, Kevin; Serur, David S; Knipp, Gregory T

    2004-02-27

    Clinical monitoring of organ-transplant recipients suggests that administration of cyclosporine (CsA) may increase the risk of atherosclerosis when compared with the general population. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the utility of the in vitro Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-1 human monocyte cell culture model for determining drug-related atherosclerotic potential in macrophages. The effect of CsA on the mRNA expression of macrophage scavenger receptor genes including CD36, CD68, scavenger receptor (SR)-A, SR-BII, and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1); the nuclear hormone receptors, including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and liver-X-receptor (LXR)alpha; and the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1 were investigated as markers of atherosclerotic progression. The THP-1 cells were cultured and differentiated into macrophages. The macrophages were then treated with CsA to assess gene expression. Time- (1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours) and dose- (concentrations [mg/L] corresponding to the trough [0.5], peak [1.25] and 4x peak [5]) dependency of CsA was assessed. The treated macrophage mRNA gene expression of CD36, CD68, and PPARgamma were up-regulated in the presence of CsA. Interestingly, SR-A, SR-BII, LOX-1, and LXRalpha expression appeared to be slightly down-regulated, and ABCA1 was relatively unchanged. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated that the protein expression of CD36 was unchanged or increased, PPARgamma was unchanged, and ABCA1 was unchanged or decreased at 4 and 8 hours. The results document CsA-induced mRNA and protein changes in receptors relevant to lipid-laden foam cell formation and demonstrate the utility of THP-1 macrophages for screening of atherosclerotic risk potential. PMID:15084924

  20. Insights into cyclosporine A-induced atherosclerotic risk in transplant recipients: macrophage scavenger receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Mathis, A Scott; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Minko, Tamara; Friedman, Gary S; Gioia, Kevin; Serur, David S; Knipp, Gregory T

    2004-02-27

    Clinical monitoring of organ-transplant recipients suggests that administration of cyclosporine (CsA) may increase the risk of atherosclerosis when compared with the general population. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the utility of the in vitro Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-1 human monocyte cell culture model for determining drug-related atherosclerotic potential in macrophages. The effect of CsA on the mRNA expression of macrophage scavenger receptor genes including CD36, CD68, scavenger receptor (SR)-A, SR-BII, and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1); the nuclear hormone receptors, including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and liver-X-receptor (LXR)alpha; and the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1 were investigated as markers of atherosclerotic progression. The THP-1 cells were cultured and differentiated into macrophages. The macrophages were then treated with CsA to assess gene expression. Time- (1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours) and dose- (concentrations [mg/L] corresponding to the trough [0.5], peak [1.25] and 4x peak [5]) dependency of CsA was assessed. The treated macrophage mRNA gene expression of CD36, CD68, and PPARgamma were up-regulated in the presence of CsA. Interestingly, SR-A, SR-BII, LOX-1, and LXRalpha expression appeared to be slightly down-regulated, and ABCA1 was relatively unchanged. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated that the protein expression of CD36 was unchanged or increased, PPARgamma was unchanged, and ABCA1 was unchanged or decreased at 4 and 8 hours. The results document CsA-induced mRNA and protein changes in receptors relevant to lipid-laden foam cell formation and demonstrate the utility of THP-1 macrophages for screening of atherosclerotic risk potential.

  1. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  2. A controversial step forward: a commentary on the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol in adults is a major step forward in the field of preventive cardiology but it is not without controversy. It should be well accepted that in individuals with established atherosclerotic vascular disease, individuals with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of greater than 190 mg/dl and individuals with diabetes, treatment with an appropriate fixed dose of a statin, without titration to a specific low-density lipoprotein goal, will provide substantial protection against future atherosclerotic vascular disease events. More controversial is the utilization of a risk calculator in primary care to determine which individuals will require a statin. For as long as these risk calculators are in question, primary care practitioners will struggle to make treatment decisions. Factors such as cardiovascular fitness, measures of adiposity, and details of the family history will aid in treatment decisions. PMID:24518291

  3. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes Glodny, Bernhard

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III in 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.

  4. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease diagnosis update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease represents a cause of which little is known but not a cause to be neglected for hypertension and renal insufficiency. Even though its occurrence remains badly defined, atherosclerotic renal artery disease is constantly on the rise due to the aging population, the never prevailing hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review aims to give a clinical profile of patients presenting with atherosclerotic renal artery disease and to discuss, in the light of study results, which diagnostic evaluation should be used considering the sequence and the benefit and risk of each in order to initiate a personalized treatment. Patients affected by atherosclerotic renal artery disease are likely to have more complications and more extensive target-organ damage than patients without renal artery stenosis. The evolution of the atherosclerotic renal artery disease is in general slow and progressive. Nevertheless, certain clinical cases manifest themselves with the onset of acute renal failure bought upon by the administration of blockers of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or by some other causes responsible for a sudden drop in renal plasma flow (e.g., thrombosis of the renal artery). The relationship between atherosclerotic renal artery disease and atherosclerosis is complex, and mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of renovascular disease may also contribute to the progression of cardiovascular damage. An early assumption of the atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is warranted to determine the adapted treatment (i.e., medical treatment, revascularisation...) just as the assumption and the correction of the more general cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18809367

  5. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  6. Imaging of oxidation-specific epitopes with targeted nanoparticles to detect high-risk atherosclerotic lesions: progress and future directions.

    PubMed

    Briley-Saebo, Karen; Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2014-11-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) within developing atherosclerotic lesions are key antigens that drive innate and adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis, leading to chronic inflammation. Oxidized phospholipids and malondialdehyde-lysine epitopes are well-characterized OSE present in human atherosclerotic lesions, particularly in pathologically defined vulnerable plaques. Using murine and human OSE-specific antibodies as targeting agents, we have developed radionuclide and magnetic resonance based nanoparticles, containing gadolinium, manganese or lipid-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide, to non-invasively image OSE within experimental atherosclerotic lesions. These methods quantitate plaque burden, allow detection of lesion progression and regression, plaque stabilization, and accumulation of OSE within macrophage-rich areas of the artery wall, suggesting they detect the most active lesions. Future studies will focus on using "natural" antibodies, lipopeptides, and mimotopes for imaging applications. These approaches should enhance the clinical translation of this technique to image, monitor, evaluate efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, and guide optimal therapy of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25297940

  7. Detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy based on the Laguerre deconvolution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, J. A.; Fang, Q.; Papaioannou, T.; Qiao, J. H.; Fishbein, M. C.; Beseth, B.; Dorafshar, A. H.; Reil, T.; Baker, D.; Freischlag, J.; Marcu, L.

    2006-02-01

    This study introduces new methods of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) data analysis for tissue characterization. These analytical methods were applied for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. Upon pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1 ns) excitation, TR-LIFS measurements were obtained from carotid atherosclerotic plaque specimens (57 endarteroctomy patients) at 492 distinct areas. The emission was both spectrally- (360-600 nm range at 5 nm interval) and temporally- (0.3 ns resolution) resolved using a prototype clinically compatible fiber-optic catheter TR-LIFS apparatus. The TR-LIFS measurements were subsequently analyzed using a standard multiexponential deconvolution and a recently introduced Laguerre deconvolution technique. Based on their histopathology, the lesions were classified as early (thin intima), fibrotic (collagen-rich intima), and high-risk (thin cap over necrotic core and/or inflamed intima). Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was applied for lesion classification. Normalized spectral intensity values and Laguerre expansion coefficients (LEC) at discrete emission wavelengths (390, 450, 500 and 550 nm) were used as features for classification. The Laguerre based SLDA classifier provided discrimination of high-risk lesions with high sensitivity (SE>81%) and specificity (SP>95%). Based on these findings, we believe that TR-LIFS information derived from the Laguerre expansion coefficients can provide a valuable additional dimension for the diagnosis of high-risk vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.

  8. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-28

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques.

  9. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies. PMID:18815087

  10. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies.

  11. Impact of Replacing the Pooled Cohort Equation With Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores on Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Michos, Erin D; Flueckiger, Peter; Blaha, Michael; Sandfort, Veit; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory; Yeboah, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The increase in statin eligibility by the new cholesterol guidelines is mostly driven by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) criterion (≥7.5% 10-year PCE). The impact of replacing the PCE with either the modified Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) on assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment and statin eligibility remains unknown. We assessed the comparative benefits of using the PCE, FRS, and SCORE for ASCVD risk assessment in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Of 6,815 participants, 654 (mean age 61.4 ± 10.3; 47.1% men; 37.1% whites; 27.2% blacks; 22.3% Hispanics; 12.0% Chinese-Americans) were included in analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) and decision curve analysis were used to compare the 3 risk scores. Decision curve analysis is the plot of net benefit versus probability thresholds; net benefit = true positive rate - (false positive rate × weighting factor). Weighting factor = Threshold probability/1 - threshold probability. After a median of 8.6 years, 342 (6.0%) ASCVD events (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, fatal or nonfatal stroke) occurred. All 4 risk scores had acceptable discriminative ability for incident ASCVD events; (AUC [95% CI] PCE: 0.737 [0.713 to 0.762]; FRS: 0.717 [0.691 to 0.743], SCORE (high risk) 0.722 [0.696 to 0.747], and SCORE (low risk): 0.721 [0.696 to 0.746]. At the ASCVD risk threshold recommended for statin eligibility for primary prevention (≥7.5%), the PCE provides the best net benefit. Replacing the PCE with the SCORE (high), SCORE (low) and FRS results in a 2.9%, 8.9%, and 17.1% further increase in statin eligibility. The PCE has the best discrimination and net benefit for primary ASCVD risk assessment in a US-based multiethnic cohort compared with the SCORE or the FRS. PMID:27445216

  12. The myth of the "vulnerable plaque": transitioning from a focus on individual lesions to atherosclerotic disease burden for coronary artery disease risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    The cardiovascular science community has pursued the quest to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in patients for decades, hoping to prevent acute coronary events. However, despite major advancements in imaging technology that allow visualization of rupture-prone plaques, clinical studies have not demonstrated improved risk prediction compared with traditional approaches. Considering the complex relationship between plaque rupture and acute coronary event risk suggested by pathology studies and confirmed by clinical investigations, these results are not surprising. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a multifaceted hypothesis of the natural history of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Managing patients at risk of acute coronary events mandates a greater focus on the atherosclerotic disease burden rather than on features of individual plaques. PMID:25601032

  13. [Cardiovascular risk factors in young people].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Contreras, Mónica; Moreno-Gómez, Germán A; Marín-Grisales, Marta E; García-Ortiz, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves several disorders related to the formation and development of atherosclerotic processes. Several risk factors are involved in CVD aetiology; some of them (i.e. age, hypertension, obesity, dislipidemia and diabetes) have been clearly associated, whereas others have a variable level of association. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors has been recently reported in the young population; studies of cardiovascular risk factors in this population have shown that its cardiovascular risk profile could be different from that presented by older populations. This review presents a summary of reported cardiovascular risk factors in the young population and their causes which have been released and indexed in different databases. Most factors discussed are life-habit risk factors and represent direct targets for clinical intervention. We propose that primary CVD prevention should include a more detailed knowledge of the nature of the risk factors concerning the young population and could have a positive impact on CVD prevalence during the next few years.

  14. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    PubMed

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p < 0.0001), location of anastomosis (p = 0.075), and preoperative cerebral blood flow (p = 0.0399). In our retrospective study, hyperperfusion and smoking after surgery may be risk factors for decreased bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  15. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Lee, Jonghwan; Jung, Jae Ho; Moon, Byung Seok; Kim, Soonhag; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-06-30

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe (123)I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization.

  16. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sun Yoo, Jung; Lee, Jonghwan; Ho Jung, Jae; Seok Moon, Byung; Kim, Soonhag; Chul Lee, Byung; Eun Kim, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe 123I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization. PMID:26123253

  17. Attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice using gene silencing of macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, XianJun; Zhao, Lei; Zhen, Xi; Huang, ShanYing; Wang, ShaSha; He, Hong; Liu, ZiMo; Xu, NaNa; Yang, FaLin; Qu, ZhongHua; Ma, ZhiYong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) involves the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) and increased plasma MIF levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with AS. Here, we have been suggested that MIF could be a critical contributor for the pathological process of diabetes-associated AS by using adenovirus-mediated RNA interference. First, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal model was constructed in 114 apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/− mice) fed on a regular chow diet. Then, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: Adenovirus-mediated MIF interference (Ad-MIFi), Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and normal saline (NS) group (n ≈ 33/group). Non-diabetic apoE−/− mice (n = 35) were served as controls. Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS were, respectively, injected into the tail vein of mice from Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS group, which were injected repeatedly 4 weeks later. Physical, biochemical, morphological and molecular parameters were measured. The results showed that diabetic apoE−/− mice had significantly aggravated atherosclerotic lesions. MIF gene interference attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and stabilized atheromatous plaque, accompanied by the decreased macrophages and lipids deposition and inflammatory cytokines production, improved glucose intolerance and plasma cholesterol level, the decreased ratio of matrix matalloproteinase-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plaque instability index. An increased expression of MIF and its ligand CD74 was also detected in the diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The results suggest that MIF gene interference is able to inhibit atherosclerotic lesions and increase plaque stability in diabetic apoE−/−mice. MIF inhibition could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of DM-associated AS. PMID:25661015

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Felipe Freire; Levy, Roger Abramino; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

    2014-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. PMID:25133195

  19. In-111 polyclonal HIG identifies patients but not atherosclerotic lesions at risk - a 5 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Granegger, Susanne; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need for non-invasive detection of human atherosclerotic lesions. One of the radioisotopic approaches using Indium-111-HIG has been shown to accumulate in oxidized LDL-rich foam cells and inflammatory vascular lesions. Earlier human studies in 200 patients, 100 with peripheral vascular disease and 100 with carotid artery disease comparing In-111-HIG scintigraphy with sonographic data revealed a high sensitivity (70%-77%) but a very low specificity (33%-41%). At this time we concluded the approach "not promising" for human studies. However, clinical follow-up over 5 years now shows that those patients with positive In-111-HIG scintigraphy exhibited a significantly higher vascular morbidity (P<0,01) and mortality (P<0,01), especially in the immediate follow-up period. Retrospective analysis discovered higher CRP and isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2α) levels in HIG-positive patients at the time of scintigraphy. These findings indicate that In-111-HIG reflecting vascular lesions with a high inflammatory component, probably more prone to rupture, may identify a population at high vascular risk rather than a lesion at risk. The clinical impact of this finding should be assessed in prospective studies.

  20. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  1. Detection of atherosclerotic vascular tissue from optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ammu; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Mike; Sherif, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease continues to be one of the major causes of mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease are dependent on the detection of high risk atherosclerotic plaque. As age is one of the most important risk factors, atherosclerosis worsens steadily with increasing age. Automatic characterization of atherosclerotic plaque using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images provides a powerful tool to classify patients with high risk plaque. In this study we develop an automatic classifier to detect atherosclerotic plaque in young and old Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, using OCT images without reliance on visual inspection. Our classifier based on texture analysis technique may provide an efficient tool for detecting invisible changes in tissue structure. We extracted a set of 22 statistical textural features for each image using the spatial gray level dependence matrix (SGLDM) method. An optimal scalar feature selection process was carried to select the best discriminating features that employ the Fisher discriminant ratio (FDR) criterion, and cross correlation measure between the pairs of features. Using these optimal features, we formed a combination of 5 best classification features using an exhaustive search method. A combined feature set was finally employed for the classification of plaque. We obtained correct classification rate and validation of 76.67% and 75% respectively.

  2. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  4. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  5. Discordance between Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcium: Implications for Guiding Treatment Strategies in Primary Prevention Settings.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Parag H; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Preventive efforts including smoking cessation campaigns, increased awareness of healthy lifestyle habits, risk factor modification, and the appropriate use of statins have been successful in reducing cardiovascular mortality over the last decade. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan has reliably been an additive predictor to traditional risk estimation methods, partly because of the heterogeneity between risk factor burden and atherosclerotic burden. The focus of this review is to highlight this heterogeneity by focusing on groups in which risk factor burden and subclinical atherosclerosis burden, as measured by CAC, are discordant. In high-risk groups with 0 CAC, the event rates are consistently low; in low-risk groups with elevated CAC (CAC>100), the event rates are consistently high. We conclude with our clinical perspective of the considerable heterogeneity between risk factors and atherosclerotic burden in the context of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment and risk assessment guidelines. PMID:25982215

  6. Discordance between Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcium: Implications for Guiding Treatment Strategies in Primary Prevention Settings.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Parag H; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Preventive efforts including smoking cessation campaigns, increased awareness of healthy lifestyle habits, risk factor modification, and the appropriate use of statins have been successful in reducing cardiovascular mortality over the last decade. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan has reliably been an additive predictor to traditional risk estimation methods, partly because of the heterogeneity between risk factor burden and atherosclerotic burden. The focus of this review is to highlight this heterogeneity by focusing on groups in which risk factor burden and subclinical atherosclerosis burden, as measured by CAC, are discordant. In high-risk groups with 0 CAC, the event rates are consistently low; in low-risk groups with elevated CAC (CAC>100), the event rates are consistently high. We conclude with our clinical perspective of the considerable heterogeneity between risk factors and atherosclerotic burden in the context of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment and risk assessment guidelines.

  7. The ABCA1 Gene R230C Variant Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Premature Coronary Artery Disease: The Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Antúnez-Argüelles, Erika; Bautista-Grande, Araceli; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aída; González-Salazar, María del Carmen; Martínez-Alvarado, Rocío; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Carnevale, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Background ABCA1 genetic variation is known to play a role in HDL-C levels and various studies have also implicated ABCA1 variation in cardiovascular risk. The functional ABCA1/R230C variant is frequent in the Mexican population and has been consistently associated with low HDL-C concentrations. Although it has been associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not known whether it is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the ABCA1/R230C variant is associated with premature CAD in a case-control association study (GEA or Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease), and to explore whether BMI modulates the effect of the C230 allele on other metabolic traits using a population-based design. Results The C230 allele was significantly associated with both lower HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD as compared to controls (OR = 0.566; Padd = 1.499×10−5). In addition, BMI modulated the effect of R230C on body fat distribution, as the correlation between BMI and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) was negative in RR homozygous individuals, but positive in premenopausal women bearing the C230 allele, with a statistically significant interaction (P = 0.005). BMI-R230C interaction was also significant for triglyceride levels in women regardless of their menopausal status (P = 0.036). Conclusion This is the first study assessing the effect of the R230C/ABCA1 variant in remature CAD. C230 was associated with both decreased HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD, and gender-specific BMI-R230C interactions were observed for different metabolic traits. These interactions may help explain inconsistencies in associations, and underscore the need to further analyze interactions of this functional and frequent variant with diet, exercise and other

  8. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  9. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  10. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque-depositions by infrared, Raman and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are mainly composed of proteoglycans, triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterolester and crystalline calcium. From histopathological characterizations it is known that the composition of these atherosclerotic plaques can vary to a great extent, due to different risk factors as smoking, hyperlipedemia, or genetic background ect. The individual plaque components can be spectroscopically easily identified. Furthermore, spectroscopic imaging technologies offer the possibility to study the plaque compositions in a more quantitative manner than traditional staining techniques. Here, we compare the potential of IR, Raman and CARS microscopy to characterize the constitution of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the structure of the surrounding tissue. For data analysis and image reconstruction spectral decomposition algorithms such as vertex component analysis (VCA) were introduced. The results are in good agreement with the histopathology. Aim of the study is to correlate the compositional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques with individual disease patterns.

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  13. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients.

  14. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  15. New Cholesterol Guidelines for the Management of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial. PMID:26892995

  16. [Causality: risk factors and interventions].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    A risk factor has a causal effect on a disease when the disease would not have occurred in the absence of the risk factor. Analogous reasoning applies to the effect of a particular therapy. Thinking in terms of contrasts is fundamental to causal reasoning in medicine. The contrast determines the content of the causal claim; the most important assumption here is that the prognosis between groups is comparable. Causal effects of risk factors are not always the same as the causal effect of an intervention: removal of a risk factor (e.g. smoking) for a disease does not necessarily mean that the risk will subsequently normalize. A second problem is that risk factors cannot always easily be translated into interventions. This applies to factors that cannot be changed (e.g. gender) or that can have multiple causes themselves (e.g. obesity).

  17. Noninvasive imaging modalities to visualize atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is becoming a major cause of death in the world due to global epidemic of diabetes and obesity. For the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to events. Recent technological advances enable to visualize atherosclerotic plaques noninvasively. This ability of noninvasive imaging helps to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in various individuals, select optimal therapeutic strategy and evaluate the efficacy of medical therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of the currently available imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Advantages and disadvantages of each noninvasive imaging modality will be also summarized. PMID:27500092

  18. The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not

  19. The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not

  20. Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Hsu, Lin-I; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2009-09-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values <0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p<0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

  1. Increased risk of QT prolongation associated with atherosclerotic diseases in arseniasis-endemic area in southwestern coast of Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsiao, C.K.; Chiang, F.-T.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Wu, M.-M.; Chen, C.-J.

    2009-09-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been documented to be associated with various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate 1) the increased risk of QT prolongation in chronic arsenic exposure, and 2) the relationships of cardiac repolarization (QT interval duration) with ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied 280 men and 355 women living in the endemic area of arseniasis in southwestern Taiwan. QT intervals in electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by ultrasonography were measured. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed by history or abnormal electrocardiogram. Significant associations of the corrected QT interval (QTc) duration with ischemic heart disease and carotid intima-medium thickness and plaque were observed after adjustment for various risk factors in the multiple linear regression analysis (all p values < 0.05). Three indices of chronic arsenic exposure were all significantly associated with the risk of QTc prolongation showing dose-response relationships (p < 0.001). Chronic arsenic exposure was dose-dependently associated with the risk of QTc prolongation. Ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis were significantly associated with QTc intervals in chronic arsenic exposure. QTc prolongation might be suggested as an early biomarker for ischemic heart disease or carotid atherosclerosis in population with previous exposure to arsenic.

  2. [Atypical risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Mykhaĭlenko, O Iu

    2013-09-01

    The non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions of the cardiovascular system (C-reactive protein, uric acid, fibrinogen, homocysteine) in blood plasma of patients with manifestative hypothyroidism at the age of 23 to 73 years were assessed in the study. An increase in the average values of C-reactive protein was revealed in patients with hypothyroidism without arterial hypertension (AH), as well as under its presence, and increased BMI. Uric acid level also was increased with the combination of hypothyroidism and hypertension. Average level of fibrinogen was within the values of the control group and increased only in 23.4% of patients with hypothyroidism. Homocysteine content was elevated in 32% of patients and was not associated with the presence of AH. Increased levels of these markers of cardiovascular lesions risk coincided with the increased diameter of the common carotid artery.

  3. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  4. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic therapy based on botanicals.

    PubMed

    Orekhov, Alexander N; Sobenin, Igor A; Korneev, Nikolay V; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Balcells, Mercedes; Edelman, Elazer R; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2013-04-01

    Natural products including botanicals for both therapy of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis and reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors are topics of recent patents. Only a few recent patents are relevant to the direct antiatherosclerotic therapy leading to regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Earlier, using a cellular model we have developed and patented several anti-atherosclerotic drugs. The AMAR (Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction) study was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with time-released garlic-based drug Allicor on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in 196 asymptomatic men aged 40-74 in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical study. The primary outcome was the rate of atherosclerosis progression, measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography as the increase in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of the far wall of common carotid arteries. The mean rate of IMT changes in Allicor-treated group (-0.022±0.007 mm per year) was significantly different (P = 0.002) from the placebo group in which there was a moderate progression of 0.015±0.008 mm at the overall mean baseline IMT of 0.931±0.009 mm. A significant correlation was found between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity (the ability of serum to induce cholesterol accumulation in cultured cells) during the study and the changes in intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (r = 0.144, P = 0.045). Thus, the results of AMAR study demonstrate that long-term treatment with Allicor has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis and this effect is likely to be due to serum atherogenicity inhibition. The beneficial effects of other botanicals including Inflaminat (calendula, elder and violet), phytoestrogen- rich Karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leafs, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) on atherosclerosis have also been revealed in clinical studies

  6. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role. PMID:8373546

  7. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  8. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  9. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  10. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Tan, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent findings demonstrate that genetics, comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include, variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. Summary CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors provide valuable information for possible designing therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS. PMID:25479315

  11. [Hemodynamic features assessment in submental and facial arteries in patients with early atherosclerotic disease of brachycephalic arteries].

    PubMed

    Nadtochiĭ, A G; Grudianov, A I; Avraamova, T V

    2014-01-01

    By ultrasonicduplex scanning nature estimated haemodynamics in the arteriessubmentalis and facial of patients with early signs of atherosclerotic changes in the brakhiotsefalarteries and periodontal pathology of different stages - for perfection of prophylaxis of periodontal diseases by the means of investigation of prophylaxis vascular diseases. It was established, that influence of risk factors is more important than the age of patients. PMID:25588335

  12. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  13. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  14. Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Gisele dos; Pegoraro, Marina; Sandrini, Fabiano; Macuco, Emílio César

    2008-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in developed countries as well as in developing countries. In general, the clinical manifestations of CVD, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, are caused by an atherosclerotic process with onset as from the middle age. However, current studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process starts to develop in childhood. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been studied as to its inflammatory aspect. Among the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been extensively studied in individuals with CVD, including those apparently healthy. High CRP levels have been related to risk factors for atherosclerosis: family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A great part of these risk factors may be influenced by lifestyle modifications, such as changes in eating habits and engagement in physical activities. The effects of physical activity on CRP levels in adulthood are documented in the literature, however little is known on the influence of an active or sedentary lifestyle of children and adolescents on CRP levels. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the impact of physical activity of children and adolescents on CRP levels and the risk factors for the development of CVD.

  15. Risk factors of transient ischemic attack: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Supreet

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused due to loss of blood flow to the brain or spinal cord without acute infarction. Depending on the area of the brain involved, symptoms of TIA vary widely from patient to patient. Since the blockage period in TIA is very short-lived, there is no permanent damage. Risk factors for TIA include family history of stroke or TIA, age above 55 years or older, higher risk of TIA in males than females, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco smoking. Genetics, race, and imbalance in lipid profile are other risk factors of TIA. TIA is usually diagnosed after taking a thorough history and a physical examination. Several radiological tests such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the evaluation of patients who have had a TIA. Ultrasound of the neck and an echocardiogram of the heart are other tests useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the attack. The treatment following acute recovery from a TIA depends on the underlying cause. Patients who have more than 70% stenosis of the carotid artery, removal of atherosclerotic plaque is usually done by carotid endarterectomy surgery. One-third of the people with TIA can later have recurrent TIAs and one-third can have a stroke because of permanent nerve cell loss. Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke. Educating the patients and inculcating lifestyle modifications in them are initial steps to minimize the prevalence of transient ischemic attack. PMID:27134474

  16. Risk factors of transient ischemic attack: An overview.

    PubMed

    Khare, Supreet

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused due to loss of blood flow to the brain or spinal cord without acute infarction. Depending on the area of the brain involved, symptoms of TIA vary widely from patient to patient. Since the blockage period in TIA is very short-lived, there is no permanent damage. Risk factors for TIA include family history of stroke or TIA, age above 55 years or older, higher risk of TIA in males than females, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco smoking. Genetics, race, and imbalance in lipid profile are other risk factors of TIA. TIA is usually diagnosed after taking a thorough history and a physical examination. Several radiological tests such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the evaluation of patients who have had a TIA. Ultrasound of the neck and an echocardiogram of the heart are other tests useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the attack. The treatment following acute recovery from a TIA depends on the underlying cause. Patients who have more than 70% stenosis of the carotid artery, removal of atherosclerotic plaque is usually done by carotid endarterectomy surgery. One-third of the people with TIA can later have recurrent TIAs and one-third can have a stroke because of permanent nerve cell loss. Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke. Educating the patients and inculcating lifestyle modifications in them are initial steps to minimize the prevalence of transient ischemic attack.

  17. Modifications of coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W; Orchard, Trevor J

    2006-06-19

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers.

  18. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  19. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: Synopsis of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading U.S. cause of death, lost quality of life and medical costs. Nearly one in three Americans die from heart disease and stroke. Most ASCVD is preventable through a healthy lifestyle and effective treatment of cholesterol and blood pressure...

  20. Risk factors for surgical infection.

    PubMed

    Leaper, D J

    1995-06-01

    In the last century remarkable advances have been made in surgery, associated with the lowest recorded rates of infection or sepsis. Many surgical practices are time honoured but have little scientific basis to prevent postoperative infection whereas some local and systemic factors are well recognized and can be modified to lower infection risks. Surgical skill is not easily measurable but shorter operations in experienced hands leaving the minimum of tissue damage, haematoma or dead space have the lowest infection rates in general surgery: < 2% in clean and < 10% in contaminated operations. Adequate surgical scrub, appropriate suture materials and antibiotic prophylaxis, perioperative correction of dehydration and poor nutrition are examples of effective therapy which can be conformed to by all surgeons. Other factors, such as the use of wound guards, drains and surgical dressings are less easy to estimate for effectiveness or be sure that they could be changed or left out of surgical ritual.

  1. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  2. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  3. Coronary risk factors in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J

    1993-02-01

    Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary fat intake. Using available criteria thresholds, 15-23% displayed increased blood pressure, 12-25% had unfavourable lipid profiles, and 18-34% were overfat. In 15 year old children, 16-21% admitted being regular smokers, 26-34% displayed poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and 24-29% reported little physical activity in the previous week. Dietary analysis revealed relatively low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios and high mean fat intakes, accounting for approximately 40% total daily energy. Despite the exclusion of family history from the analysis, 16% of the older children exhibited three or more risk factors. These results justify major concern about the level of potential coronary risk in Northern Ireland schoolchildren. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children are essential if future adult CHD mortality is to be reduced.

  4. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies.

  5. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  6. Citrullination within the atherosclerotic plaque: A potential target for the anti-citrullinated protein antibody response in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolove, Jeremy; Sharpe, Orr; Brennan, Matthew; Lahey, Lauren J.; Kao, Amy H.; Krishnan, Eswar; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Lepus, Christin M.; Wasko, Mary Chester; Robinson, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, an observation not explained by traditional cardiac risk factors and generally limited to those with RA-associated autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). We hypothesized that citrullinated proteins within the atherosclerotic plaque can be targeted by ACPA, forming stimulatory immune complexes which propagate the progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Protein lysates prepared from atherosclerotic segments of human aorta were investigated for the presence of citrulline-modified proteins and specifically citrullinated fibrinogen (cFb) by immunoprecipitation and/or immunoblotting followed by mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed in coronary artery plaques for the presence of citrullinated proteins and the PAD4 enzyme. Levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), anti-citrullinated vimentin (cVim), and anti-cFb antibodies were measured in 134 women with seropositive RA previously characterized for the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis by electron beam CT scan (EBCT). Western analysis of atherosclerotic plaque lysates demonstrated several citrullinated proteins and the presence of cFb was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, and mass spectroscopy. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-localization of citrullinated proteins and the PAD4 enzyme within the coronary artery plaque. In age-adjusted regression models, antibodies targeting cFb and cit-vimentin, but not CCP2, were associated with an increased aortic plaque burden. Conclusion Citrullinated proteins are prevalent within the atherosclerotic plaque, and certain ACPAs are associated with atherosclerotic burden. These observations suggest that targeting of citrullinated epitopes, specifically cFb, within the atherosclerotic plaque could provide a mechanism for accelerated atherosclerosis observed in patients with RA. PMID

  7. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  8. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique

  9. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  10. [Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia--an independent risk factor of stroke].

    PubMed

    Lalouschek, W; Aull, S; Deecke, L; Schnider, P; Uhl, F; Zeiler, K

    1996-07-01

    The total of free and protein-bound homocysteine including its derivatives is usually summarised as "homocyst(e)ine [H(e)]". Several congenital enzyme deficiencies may cause markedly elevated H(e) plasma levels, leading to the well-known clinical syndromes of homocystinuria. Recently, mild hyperhomocyst(e)inemia has been recognised as an independent risk factor for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and peripheral artery disease. H(e) levels are also related to the extent of atherosclerotic vessel wall alterations. The role of mild hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in venous thromboembolic disease, however, is not yet clear. A considerable proportion of patients with mild hyperhomocyst(e)inemia suffers from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B12, and/or vitamin B6. Supplementation of these agents--alone or combined with betain--leads to a decrease or even to a normalisation of elevated H(e) levels in the majority of such patients. Hitherto, no prospective randomised studies dealing with the clinical efficacy of such a--probably innocuous--supplementation have been performed. In the meantime, adequate alimentary intake of folate should be ensured. PMID:8765893

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood. PMID:26453070

  12. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  13. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  14. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiangyuan; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  15. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Ng, Fu Liang; Chan, Kenneth; Pu, Xiangyuan; Poston, Robin N; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Wu, Jingchun; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T; Caulfield, Mark J; Ye, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  16. Heat Shock Proteins: Mediators of Atherosclerotic Development.

    PubMed

    Deniset, Justin F; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins play important housekeeping roles in a variety of cells within the body during normal control conditions. The many different functions for heat shock proteins in the cell depend upon the specific heat shock protein involved. Each protein is nominally differentiated based upon its molecular size. However, in addition to their role in normal cell function, heat shock proteins may play an even more important role as pro-survival proteins conserved through evolution to protect the cell from a variety of stresses. The ability of a cell to withstand these environmental stresses is critical to its capacity to adapt and remain viable. Loss of this ability may lead to pathological states. Abnormal localization, structure or function of the heat shock proteins has been associated with many pathologies, including those involving heart disease. Heat shock proteins like HSP60 and HSP70 in particular have been identified as playing important roles in inflammation and immune reactions. Inflammation has been identified recently as an important pathological risk factor for heart disease. It is perhaps not surprising therefore, that heat shock protein family has been increasingly identified as an important intracellular pathway associated with inflammatory-mediated heart conditions including atherosclerosis. This paper reviews the evidence in support of a role for heat shock proteins in cardiovascular disease and the potential to target these proteins to alter the progression of atherosclerotic disease.

  17. Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women.

    PubMed

    Gouni-Berthold, I; Berthold, H K

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death for both women and men. Common traditional risk factors for CVD, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking have a high prevalence in women and in some cases a greater health impact compared with men. Nevertheless, risk factors are treated less often and less aggressively in women than in men, partly due to decreased awareness on the part of public health opinion makers, patients and physicians. About seventy five percent of all coronary heart disease deaths among women could be avoided if CVD risk factors like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking are adequately treated. This narrative review discusses the treatment of the 4 CVD risk factors, namely hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. These risk factors were examined in the Framingham Heart study and years later they were found in the INTERHEART study to be the 4 most important risk factors for the development of CVD.

  18. The Relation Between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Risk Factors: An Angiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Ramin; Mostanfar, Baharak; Tavassoli, Aliakbar; Roghani, Farshad

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachial index (ABI) and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Isfahan. METHODS In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CAD were studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, past medical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measured in all studied patients. ABI≤0.9 (ABI+) was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI>0.9 (ABI-) was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary artery angiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+ and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis. RESULTS In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI≤0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%). The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P=0.01). The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABI- ones (P<0.05). ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean of occlusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA), right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), diagonal artery 1 (D1) and left circumflex artery (LCX) involvements (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method in assessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements in suspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method in diagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of general population. PMID

  19. Association of Plasma Viscosity with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obesity: As an old marker, a new insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltem, Ercan; Dildar, Konukoglu; Tijen, Yeşim Erdem

    2007-04-01

    Although obesity is related with cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of the relationship is not fully understood. We aim to examine the relationship between plasma viscosity and obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in obese and non-obese groups. We recruited 75 obese subjects who were admitted to the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Plasma viscosity and lipid profile were measured and atherogenic index was calculated as atherogenic risk factors. Plasma viscosity, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and atherogenic index were significantly increased in obese group compared to non-obese group for each. Plasma viscosity was weakly correlated with total cholesterol and atherogenic index only in the obese group. Plasma viscosity, an early atherosclerotic risk factor, might be helpful in the assessment of cardiovascular risk in obese subjects.

  20. Cystathionine γ-lyase is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaque microvessels and is involved in micro-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van den Born, J. C.; Mencke, R.; Conroy, S.; Zeebregts, C. J.; van Goor, H.; Hillebrands, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are classically divided into stable and vulnerable plaques. Vulnerable plaques are prone to rupture with a risk for infarction. High intraplaque microvessel density predisposes to plaque vulnerability. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a proangiogenic gasotransmitter which is endogenously produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and is believed to have vasculoprotective effects. However, due to its proangiogenic effects, H2S may result in pathological angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaques, thereby increasing plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to determine CSE expression pattern in atherosclerotic plaques, and investigate whether CSE is involved in micro-angiogenesis in vitro. Endarterectomy plaques were studied for CSE expression, and the role of CSE in micro-angiogenesis was studied in vitro. CSE is expressed in plaques with similar levels in both stable and vulnerable plaques. CSE co-localized with von Willebrand Factor-positive microvessel endothelial cells and alpha-smooth-muscle actin-positive SMCs. In vitro, inhibition of CSE in HMEC-1 reduced tube formation, cell viability/proliferation, and migration which was restored after culture in the presence of H2S donor GYY4137. CSE is expressed in intraplaque microvessels, and H2S is a stimulator of micro-angiogenesis in vitro. Due to this pro-angiogenic effect, high levels of CSE in atherosclerotic plaques may be a potential risk for plaque vulnerability. PMID:27708362

  1. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  2. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  3. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  4. Ovarian cancer: etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hunn, Jessica; Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2012-03-01

    Little is known regarding the early aspects of ovarian carcinogenesis. As a consequence, the identification of women at risk for the disease is based primarily on clinical grounds, with family history being the most important risk factor. In this review, we will discuss the various hypotheses regarding ovarian etiology and pathogenesis. In addition, we will discuss the epidemiology of ovarian cancer, including hereditary, reproductive, hormonal, inflammatory, dietary, surgical, and geographic factors that influence ovarian cancer risk.

  5. Biobanking in Atherosclerotic Disease, Opportunities and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, V.P.W; de Vries, J.P.P.M; Catanzariti, L.M; de Kleijn, D.P.V; Moll, F.L; de Borst, G.J; Pasterkamp, G

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western countries and current research is still focusing on optimizing therapeutic approaches in the battle against this multifactorial disease. Concepts regarding the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases originate from observations of human atherosclerotic tissue obtained from autopsies or during vascular surgery. These observations have helped us to disentangle the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. However, identifying vulnerable patients, those prone to developing cardiovascular complications, remains difficult. The search for predictive cardiovascular biomarkers continues and large, well organized biobanks are needed to discover or validate novel biomarkers. Biobanks are an extremely valuable resource that enables us to study the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on the development of multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis. This review will focus on the advantages and pitfalls in atherosclerotic biobanking. PMID:22294969

  6. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Treatment May Intervene The Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression by Inducing The Variations of Mechanical Factors: A 3D FSI Study Based on in vivo Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianhang; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidences suggest that long-term enhanced external counter-pulsation (EECP) treatment can inhibit the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion by improving the hemodynamic environment in aortas. However, whether this kind procedure will intervene the progression of advanced atherosclerotic plaque remains elusive and causes great concern in its clinical application presently. In the current paper, a pilot study combining animal experiment and numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the acute mechanical stress variations during EECP intervention, and then to assess the possible chronic effects. An experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic porcine model was developed and the basic hemodynamic measurement was performed in vivo before and during EECP treatment. Meanwhile, A 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of blood vessel with symmetric local stenosis was developed for the numerical calculation of some important mechanical factors. The results show that EECP augmented 12.21% of the plaque wall stress (PWS), 57.72% of the time average wall shear stress (AWSS) and 43.67% of the non-dimensional wall shear stress gradient (WSSGnd) at throat site of the stenosis. We suggest that long-term EECP treatment may intervene the advanced plaque progression by inducing the significant variations of some important mechanical factors, but its proper effects will need a further research combined follow-up observation in clinic. PMID:27263260

  7. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  8. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  9. Interleukin-17A Gene Haplotypes Are Associated with Risk of Premature Coronary Artery Disease in Mexican Patients from the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Fragoso, José Manuel; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Aim The role of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in the inflammatory process has caused interest in the potential significance of IL-17A as a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of IL-17A gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for CAD in the Mexican population. Methods Four IL-17A gene polymorphisms (rs8193036, rs3819024, rs2275913 and rs8193037) were genotyped by 5’ exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 900 patients with premature CAD and 667 healthy controls (with negative calcium score by computed tomography), seeking associations with CAD and other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Results No single IL-17A polymorphism was associated with premature CAD, however two haplotypes (CAGG and TAGA) were significantly associated with increased risk of premature CAD (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00–1.84, P = 0.018 and OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.16–3.76, P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, rs3819024 was associated with increased levels of visceral abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and rs8193036 was significantly associated with risk of central obesity (P = 0.020), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.027), and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.027) in the premature CAD group, under dominant models adjusted by age, gender, BMI, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and treatment. Conclusion The results suggest that IL-17A haplotypes are involved in the risk of developing premature CAD and some IL-17A polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican individuals with premature CAD. PMID:25615631

  10. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation. PMID:25486039

  11. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  12. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  13. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  14. [Psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice].

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Battimiello, Valentina; Veneziano, Mariagrazia; De Luca, Paolofabrizio; Cipollaro, Ilenia; Buonincontro, Maria; Vigorito, Carlo; Del Forno, Domenico

    2007-06-01

    A large number of studies investigated the link between psychosocial risk factors and atherosclerosis or cardiac events. They found that emotional factors and chronic stressors strongly influence the course of coronary artery disease, by promoting the same pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atherosclerosis. Thus, cardiologists often find in cardiac practice patients that presents psychosocial risk factors, needing the development of interventions aimed to management of these factors. Some of these interventions are the same that are traditionally used in clinical practice, such as exercise training and nutritional counselling, while others are more specific, and require the presence of psychologists (behavioral strategies, relaxation training, social support, etc.). Behavioral cardiology is an emerging field of clinical practice based on the recognition that psychosocial risk factors can promote atherosclerosis and adverse cardiac events. It requires the development of practical solutions aimed at the management of adverse lifestyle behaviours, emotional factors, and chronic stress.

  15. Vascular risk factors aggravate the progression of Parkinson’s disease: a five-year follow-up study in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai Jun; Yu, Ying; Chen, Ying; Liang, Hai Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have found that vascular risk factors were related to an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. In order to investigate the comorbidities of the vascular risk factors with PD and their impact on PD progression, we launched a five-year follow-up study in 247 outpatients with probable PD. Methods: The incidence of vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and carotid atherosclerotic plaque analyzed. The Hoen and Yahr score with and without vascular risk factors were compared at initial and at final evaluation. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that age, hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia were significant variables that are associated with the Hoen and Yahr scales. Younger patients with hypertension or hyperhomocysteinemia showed a greater increasing in the Hoen and Yahr score. There were no significant correlations among the Hoen and Yahr score with sex, initial of the Hoen and Yahr score, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia or carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusion: The vascular risk factors are common comorbidities of PD. Younger, more educated patients are more likely to have quicker dyskinesia decline. In addition, hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia may aggravate the progression of PD. The prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia are important for PD patients. PMID:26309021

  16. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  17. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  18. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  19. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  20. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  1. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  2. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  3. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  4. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  5. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  6. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  7. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  8. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of people who have diabetes die of some type of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic women are at especially high risk for dying ... aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart ... levels—you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. But you can take steps to ...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  10. Childhood myopia: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Recko, Matthew; Stahl, Erin Durrie

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye's growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular comorbidities associated with it. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression. PMID:25958656

  11. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  12. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  13. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  14. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  15. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  16. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  17. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment.

  18. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  19. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  20. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  1. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  2. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  3. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    PubMed

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Holmstrup, Palle

    2014-06-01

    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower levels of endotoxin were needed for TNF-α production equivalent to that of unprimed cells. The pro-inflammatory effect was selective as endotoxin-induced production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines was unaffected while production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 was diminished. These findings suggest that cholesterol matrix formation may play a pathogenic role in atherosclerotic inflammation, and they indicate a mechanism by which bacteria and/or bacterial products may play a role in processes leading to arteriosclerosis.

  4. Atrial fibrillation: relation between clinical risk factors and transoesophageal echocardiographic risk factors for thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Illien, S; Maroto-Järvinen, S; von der Recke, G; Hammerstingl, C; Schmidt, H; Kuntz-Hehner, S; Lüderitz, B; Omran, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To correlate clinical risk factors for thromboembolism with transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) markers of a thrombogenic milieu. Design: Clinical risk factors for thromboembolism and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu were assessed in consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The following TOE parameters were assessed: presence of spontaneous echo contrast, thrombi, and left atrial appendage blood flow velocities. A history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or thromboembolic events, patient age > 65 years, and chronic heart failure were considered to be clinical risk factors for thromboembolism. Setting: Tertiary cardiac care centre. Patients: 301 consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation scheduled for TOE. Results: 255 patients presented with clinical risk factors. 158 patients had reduced left atrial blood flow velocities, dense spontaneous echo contrast, or both. Logistic regression analysis showed that a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and age > 65 years were the only independent predictors of a thrombogenic milieu (both p < 0.0001). The probability of having a thrombogenic milieu increased with the number of clinical risk factors present (p < 0.0001). 17.4% of the patients without clinical risk factors had a thrombogenic milieu whereas 41.2% of the patients presenting one or more clinical risk factors had none. Conclusion: There is a close relation between clinical risk factors and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu. In addition, TOE examination allows for the identification of patients with a thrombogenic milieu without clinical risk factors. PMID:12527668

  5. Postoperative respiratory morbidity: identification and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Garrahy, P; Peake, P

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients admitted for general surgery were studied prospectively to evaluate the contribution of risk factors to postoperative respiratory morbidity (PORM). PORM was expressed both in terms of individual clinical features present on the second postoperative day (when the incidence was greatest), and as an aggregate score incorporating many clinical features. The importance of recognised risk factors, such as previous respiratory disease, cigarette smoking, upper abdominal procedures and the duration of surgery was confirmed, in that these factors were associated with some of the individual clinical features of PORM. The relative importance and independent contribution of these risk factors were assessed by their association with the aggregate score. A naso-gastric tube (NGT) present for 24 hours postoperatively was the factor more associated with PORM. The NGT identified patients at risk more clearly than, and independently of, the next most important factor, upper abdominal surgery. The duration of surgery did not contribute to PORM after the influence of NGT and site of surgery had been considered. Previous respiratory disease predisposed to PORM, and was best identified by, in order of importance, an observed productive cough, a reduced one second forced expiratory volume, and purulent sputum. After the incidence of these factors had been considered, cigarette smoking and a history of a chronic productive cough did not contribute further to PORM. PMID:6952867

  6. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity. PMID:26690853

  7. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  8. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  9. Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Pragmatism, Pitfalls, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bavishi, Chirag; de Leeuw, Peter W; Messerli, Franz H

    2016-06-01

    For many years and even decades, a diagnostic work-up to look for a secondary form of hypertension, particularly of renovascular origin, has been a central tenet in medicine. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is considered the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. However, advances in understanding the complex pathophysiology of this condition and the recently documented futility of renal revascularization bring into question whether atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis truly causes "renovascular hypertension." From a clinical point of view, a clear distinction should be made between hypertension associated with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and hypertension caused by renal artery stenosis-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Most patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis do not have a form of hypertension that is remediable or improved by angioplasty; to expose them to the cost, inconvenience, and risk of a diagnostic work-up add up to little more than a wild goose chase. However, with very few exceptions, medical therapy with antihypertensives and statins remains the cornerstone for the management of patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and hypertension.

  10. Application of infrared fiber optic imaging in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Casscells, S. W.; Bearman, Gregory H.; McNatt, Janice; Naghevi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A.; Gul, Khawar; Willerson, James T.

    1999-07-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques - the main cause of heart attach and stokes - is not predictable. Hence even treadmill stress tests fail to detect many persons at risk. Fatal plaques are found at autopsies to be associated with active inflammatory cells. Classically, inflammation is detected by its swelling, red color, pain and heat. We have found that heat accurately locates the dangerous plaques that are significantly warmer then atherosclerotic plaques without the same inflammation. In order to develop a non-surgical method of locating these plaques, an IR fiber optic imaging system has been developed in our laboratory to evalute the causes and effect of heat in atherosclerotic plaques. The fiber optical imagin bundle consists of 900 individual As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers which transmit IR radiation from 0.7 micrometers 7 micrometers with little energy loss. By combining that with a highly sensitive Indium Antimonide IR focal plane array detector, we are able to obtain thermal graphic images in situ. The temperature heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques developed in the arteral of the experimental animal models is under study with the new device. The preliminary experimental results from the animal model are encouraging. The potential of using this new technology in diagnostic evaluation of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is considerable.

  11. A Rabbit Model of Thrombosis on Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yujiro

    2011-01-01

    Thrombus formation on a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque is a key event that leads to atherothrombosis. Because thrombus is induced by chemical or physical injury of normal arteries in most animal models of thrombosis, the mechanisms of thrombogenesis and thrombus growth in atherosclerotic vessels should be investigated in diseased arteries of appropriate models. Pathological findings of human atherothrombosis suggest that tissue factor, an initiator of the coagulation cascade, significantly affects enhanced platelet aggregation and fibrin formation after plaque disruption. We established a rabbit model of atherothrombosis based on human pathology in which differences in thrombus formation between normal and atherosclerotic arteries, factors contributing to thrombus growth, and mechanisms of plaque erosion can be investigated. Emerging transgenic and stem cell technologies should also provide an invaluable rabbit experimental model in the near future. PMID:21253503

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  13. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  14. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  15. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  16. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  17. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  18. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:27376795

  19. Environmental risk factors for mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Yonit; Tur, Ethel

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence rates of mycosis fungoides (MF) call for an explanation. Thus, environmental and lifestyle factors were speculated to play a role in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. It is thought that continuous activation of skin T helper lymphocytes leads to malignant transformation of a specific clone. Possible risk factors that have been implicated are occupational chemical exposure, radiation, drugs and infections. The carcinogenic process is probably multifactorial and multistep, combining the genetic predisposition of the individual and his immune status with various exogenous factors. Using advanced and accurate exposure assessment tools, recent epidemiological data indicate that occupational exposure to chemicals, primarily to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a major risk factor to develop MF in men (odds ratio 4.6), while exposure to pesticides, a subgroup of the aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a risk factor in both genders (odds ratio 6.8 for men and 2.4 for women). Apparently, concomitant infection with Staphylococcus aureus or with Borrelia species and chronic exposure to UVR are minor risk factors for the development of MF. Further assessment of occupational and environmental exposures is essential for the evaluation of their contribution to the etiology of MF. This will allow the application of preventive and surveillance measures along with adjustment of existing health policies. PMID:17641490

  20. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  1. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  2. Risk factors for acquisition of endemic blastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Choptiany, Maxym; Wiebe, Lyle; Limerick, Bill; Sarsfield, Pete; Cheang, Mary; Light, Bruce; Hammond, Greg; MacDonald, Kerry; Trepman, Elly; Pappas, Peter; Embil, John M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is potentially fatal, but environmental risk factors for acquiring blastomycosis are not well established. METHOD: Matched cross-sectional questionnaire of 112 patients with history of blastomycosis and 118 control subjects in Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. RESULTS: The most common tissues involved with blastomycosis were pulmonary, skin and soft tissues, and bone. A significantly greater proportion of patients with blastomycosis than control subjects were involved in outdoor occupations. A significantly greater percentage of patients with blastomycosis were immunosuppressed either from collagen vascular disease or immunosuppressive therapy, or had hypothyroidism. A significant association between canine and human blastomycosis was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Independent risk factors for development of blastomycosis included immunosuppression for any reason (including drugs or disease), collagen vascular disease, being an outdoor worker, and having a coworker with blastomycosis. Canine blastomycosis was not a risk factor for human disease in dog owners. PMID:21119803

  3. Risk factors for infant developmental problems.

    PubMed

    Maria-Mengel, Margaret Rose Santa; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.

  4. Identifying risk factors for uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer G; Mertz, Heather L; Merrill, David C

    2008-03-01

    Uterine rupture, whether in the setting of a prior uterine incision or in an unscarred uterus, is an obstetric emergency with potentially catastrophic consequences for both mother and child. Numerous studies have been published regarding various risk factors associated with uterine rupture. Despite the mounting data regarding both antepartum and intrapartum factors, it currently is impossible to predict in whom a uterine rupture will occur. This article reviews the data regarding these antepartum and intrapartum predictors for uterine rupture. The author hopes that the information presented in this article will help clinicians assess an individual's risk for uterine rupture.

  5. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  6. Occupational Asthma: Etiologies and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the available evidence pertaining to occupational, environmental, and individual factors that can affect the development of occupational asthma (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that exploration of the intrinsic characteristics of OA-causing agents and associated structure-activity relationships offers promising avenues for quantifying the sensitizing potential of agents that are introduced in the workplace. The intensity of exposure to sensitizing agents has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for OA and should remain the cornerstone for primary prevention strategies. The role of other environmental co-factors (e.g., non-respiratory routes of exposure and concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants) remains to be further delineated. There is convincing evidence that atopy is an important individual risk factor for OA induced by high-molecular-weight agents. There is some evidence that genetic factors, such as leukocyte antigen class II alleles, are associated with an increased risk of OA; however, the role of genetic susceptibility factors is likely to be obscured by complex gene-environment interactions. OA, as well as asthma in general, is a complex disease that results from multiple interactions between environmental factors and host susceptibilities. Determining these interactions is a crucial step towards implementing optimal prevention policies. PMID:21738881

  7. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  9. Modifiable risk factors for erectile dysfunction: an assessment of the awareness of such factors in patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kałka, D; Domagała, Z; Rakowska, A; Womperski, K; Franke, R; Sylwina-Krauz, E; Stanisz, J; Piłot, M; Gebala, J; Rusiecki, L; Pilecki, W

    2016-01-01

    Up to 40% of cases of erectile dysfunction (ED) originate from vascular disturbances associated with atherosclerotic disease, leading to the previously proven concomitance between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and ED. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' knowledge about modifiable risk factors for ED. The evaluated group of patients was composed of 502 male patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation and receiving treatment for IHD. The patients' knowledge of risk factors for ED linked to IHD was assessed with an original survey. The presence of ED was assessed using an abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire. Increase in leisure-time physical activity was estimated using a leaflet based on the Framingham questionnaire. In all, 189 participants were unable to name any modifiable ED risk factors, and only 31 patients knew all 6 of them. The most frequently mentioned ED risk factor was smoking, whereas the least frequently mentioned was sedentary lifestyle. Awareness of smoking as an ED risk factor was closely related to the patients' level of education, place of residence, smoking and underlying ED in the individual patient. The ability to classify diabetes as a risk factor for ED was significantly related to the patients' level of education, place of residence, and the prevalence of diabetes in the evaluated group of respondents. The same relations were observed regarding hyperlipidaemia. Awareness of the negative impact a sedentary lifestyle has on the erectile process was found to be closely related to the patients' age, as well as their level of education. The performed study demonstrates the poor knowledge of IHD patients about the modifiable risk factors for ED. The factor that patients are the least aware of is sedentary lifestyle, which, simultaneously, is the risk factor that most frequently affects the respondents.

  10. Interaction between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease--Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Ghazal; Eberhard, Jörg; Reissmann, Daniel R; Heydecke, Guido; Seedorf, Udo

    2015-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) level is associated with the 10-year risk of an atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD), suggesting presence of systemic inflammation probably long before ASVD is present. Where, however, does this systemic inflammation come from? One active area of research has been the study of dental infection and various forms of periodontal disease (PD), both of which are highly prevalent in populations at risk for ASVD. Recent data show that ASVD and PD interact with each other via systemic release of specific pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, small signal molecules and enzymes which modulate initiation and progression of the chronic inflammatory reaction involved in both diseases. In addition, periodontal pathogens were identified within atherosclerotic lesions and thrombi isolated from myocardial infarction patients. LDL cholesterol, a strong risk factor for ASVD, is also associated with PD; and statins, used to treat ASVD, are also active to prevent or reduce PD. Finally, there is growing evidence for common genetic susceptibility factors involved in both diseases. These findings support commonalities with respect to the pathogenic mechanisms involved in both inflammatory diseases. Conversely, a causative relationship cannot yet be concluded in the absence of data from large longitudinal cohort and randomized controlled intervention trials.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  12. Global Overview of the Epidemiology of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Medina, Catalina; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lozano, Rafael; Moran, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global burden of ACD and its risk factors and to discuss the main challenges and opportunities for prevention. Publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were analyzed for ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic stroke and ACD risk factors. Data from the WHO Global Health Observatory were used to describe prevalence of diverse cardiometabolic risk factors. World Bank Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPc) information was used to categorize countries according to income level. Cardiovascular mortality decreased globally from 1990-2010 with important differences by GDPc; during 1990 there was a positive association between IHD mortality and GDPc. Higher-income countries had higher rates compared to those of lower-income countries. High levels of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol have a differential contribution to mortality by income group over time; high-income countries have been able to reduce the contribution from these risk factors in the last 20 years, whereas lower/middle income countries show an increasing trend in mortality attributable to high BMI and glucose. Although age-adjusted ACD mortality rate trends decreased globally, the absolute number of ACD deaths is increasing in part due to the growth of the population and aging, as well as to important lifestyle and food-system changes that likely attenuate gains in prevention. Population and individual level preventable causes of ACD must be aggressively and efficiently targeted in countries of lower economic development in order to reduce the growing burden of disease due to ACD. PMID:26135634

  13. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  14. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  15. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  16. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  17. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  18. Epidemiology and risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Rameez, Mohammed H; Mayberry, John F

    2015-03-01

    The highest incidence and prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus is in western countries. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia, increasing age and use of oral bisphosphonates. This article discusses the significance of these findings. PMID:25761802

  19. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  1. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    PubMed

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population. PMID:8598255

  2. Adolescence: A "Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    This publication examines influences on the present and future physical activity levels of adolescents, noting that the adolescents' physical activity habits, as well as other risk factors, are likely to track into the adult years. Section 1 discusses physical activity in adolescence, noting that adolescence is a time when physical activity tends…

  3. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  4. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  5. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-01

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  7. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  8. Inflammatory and atherosclerotic interactions in the depleted uremic patient.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the improvements in dialysis technology, the cardiovascular mortality rate is still unacceptably high among dialysis patients. It is obvious that traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, chronic heart failure (CHF), dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, may account for a large part of the increased cardiovascular mortality rate in these patients. However, based on recent research it could be speculated that other, non-traditional risk factors might also contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality rate in dialysis patients. Chronic inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), is a common feature in dialysis patients and is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Indeed, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6) may cause malnutrition and progressive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by several pathogenetic mechanisms, which will be discussed in this review. Based on the strong associations observed between malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) we have proposed that these features constitute a specific syndrome (MIA), which carries a high mortality rate. As elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a central part in the vicious circle of malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis, further research is needed to investigate whether or not different anti-cytokine treatment strategies may improve survival in dialysis patients.

  9. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder. PMID:22646662

  10. Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  12. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  14. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  15. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  16. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  18. Assessing risk factors for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events during the perioperative period of carotid angioplasty with stenting patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Cui, Min; Li, Ling; Cheng, Yong; Zhou, Hua-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerotic stenosis is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. The rapid development of neuroimaging techniques had led to carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) becoming a useful, effective and minimally invasive method for the treatment of extracranial carotid artery stenosis. The aim of the present study was to identify independent risk factors to predict perioperative major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events for CAS patients and establish a risk evaluation model. Consecutive patients treated with a standardized CAS procedure were enrolled in the present study. The patients included underwent independent neurological evaluation prior to and after the procedure and at 30 days. The rates of transient ischemic attack, stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality were recorded. A relative regression model was established to evaluate risk factors of perioperative major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). In total, 403 subjects treated with CAS were enrolled into the study at a baseline MACCE rate of 8.19%, whereas the overall stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality rate at 30 days was 3.97%. The multiple regression analysis revealed that certain factors significantly predicted the 30-day risk of treatment-related MACCE. These factors included age of ≥70 years, ulcerative plaque, severe carotid stenosis, bilateral carotid artery stenting and hemodynamic depression following CAS. The MACCE risk prediction model and risk score system were subsequently established. In conclusion, factors that significantly predicted the 30-day risk of MACCE of CAS included, age of ≥70 years, ulcerative plaque, severe carotid stenosis, bilateral carotid artery stenting and hemodynamic depression, with hemodynamic depression being a controllable factor. The established risk score system is therefore a potentially useful tool that can be employed in the prediction of MACCE after CAS. PMID:27446318

  19. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  20. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Baron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects’ colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. Results The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62–1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66–1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.06). Conclusions Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids. PMID:26406337

  1. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  2. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  3. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  4. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  5. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  6. Fusobacterium nucleatum Alters Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Enhances Inflammatory Markers with an Atheroprotective Immune Response in ApoEnull Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes. F.; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R.; Lucas, Alexandra R.; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association supports an association between periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) but does not as of yet support a causal relationship. Recently, we have shown that major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are causally associated with acceleration of aortic atherosclerosis in ApoEnull hyperlipidemic mice. The aim of this study was to determine if oral infection with another significant periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum can accelerate aortic inflammation and atherosclerosis in the aortic artery of ApoEnull mice. ApoEnull mice (n = 23) were orally infected with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and euthanized at 12 and 24 weeks. Periodontal disease assessments including F. nucleatum oral colonization, gingival inflammation, immune response, intrabony defects, and alveolar bone resorption were evaluated. Systemic organs were evaluated for infection, aortic sections were examined for atherosclerosis, and inflammatory markers were measured. Chronic oral infection established F. nucleatum colonization in the oral cavity, induced significant humoral IgG (P=0.0001) and IgM (P=0.001) antibody response (12 and 24 weeks), and resulted in significant (P=0.0001) alveolar bone resorption and intrabony defects. F. nucleatum genomic DNA was detected in systemic organs (heart, aorta, liver, kidney, lung) indicating bacteremia. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque area was measured and showed a local inflammatory infiltrate revealed the presence of F4/80+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells. Vascular inflammation was detected by enhanced systemic cytokines (CD30L, IL-4, IL-12), oxidized LDL and serum amyloid A, as well as altered serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL), in infected mice and altered aortic gene expression in infected mice. Despite evidence for systemic infection in several organs and modulation of known atherosclerosis risk factors, aortic atherosclerotic

  7. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  8. Risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Zvrko, Elvir; Gledović, Zorana; Ljaljević, Agima

    2008-03-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (+/-3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.

  9. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  10. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  11. Panoramic Radiography in the Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Atheromas and the Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães Henriques, João César; Kreich, Eliane Maria; Helena Baldani, Márcia; Luciano, Mariely; Cezar de Melo Castilho, Julio; Cesar de Moraes, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a serious chronic disease, responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide and is characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls, associated with the presence of atheromatous plaques. Various risk factors act directly on predisposition to the disease, among which the following are pointed out: diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and inadequate diet and eating habits. More recent researches have elucidated new risk factors acting in the development of this disease, such as, for example: periodontitis, chronic renal disease and menopause. The panoramic radiograph, commonly used in dental practice, makes it possible to see calcified atherosclerotic plaques that are eventually deposited in the carotid arteries. The aim of this review article was to emphasize the dentist’s important role in the detection of carotid artery atheromas in panoramic radiographs and the immediate referral of patients affected by these calcifications to doctors. In addition, the study intended to guide the dentist, especially the dental radiologist, with regard to differential diagnosis, which should be made taking into consideration particularly the triticeal cartilage when it is calcified. PMID:21760860

  12. Associations and Risk Factors of Diabetic Maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27277354

  13. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML.

  14. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  15. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  16. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  17. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities.

  18. Erosion—diagnosis and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition: The interplay of chemical, biological and behavioural factors is crucial and helps explain why some individuals exhibit more erosion than others. The erosive potential of erosive agents like acidic drinks or foodstuffs depends on chemical factors, e.g. pH, titratable acidity, mineral content, clearance on tooth surface and on its calcium-chelation properties. Biological factors such as saliva, acquired pellicle, tooth structure and positioning in relation to soft tissues and tongue are related to the pathogenesis of dental erosion. Furthermore, behavioural factors like eating and drinking habits, regular exercise with dehydration and decrease of salivary flow, excessive oral hygiene and, on the other side, an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g. chronic alcoholism, are predisposing factors for dental erosion. There is some evidence that dental erosion is growing steadily. To prevent further progression, it is important to detect this condition as early as possible. Dentists have to know the clinical appearance and possible signs of progression of erosive lesions and their causes such that adequate preventive and, if necessary, therapeutic measures can be initiated. The clinical examination has to be done systematically, and a comprehensive case history should be undertaken such that all risk factors will be revealed. PMID:18228059

  19. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  20. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  1. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  2. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  3. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available.

  4. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available. PMID:27621236

  5. [Risk factors of ischemic heart disease in various occupational groups. II. Complex analysis of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Z; Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Salwińska-Ciećkiewicz, B; Szpak, D

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred four men aged 30 to 59 years, belonging to one of 4 occupational groups were investigated in a standard clinical conditions. Two from those groups were characteristic for steel mill professions: 121 blast furnace workers; exerting strenuous physical effort and working in hot microclimate. 131 operators (the second group) performed work in comfort microclimate conditions not demanding much effort. The third group comprised 73 executives of industry. The fourth group consisted of 79 monks. For all subjects of investigations 8 selected risk factors of ischemic heart disease were evaluated. They included: age, sex, family history, habit of smoking, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol level, obesity index and professional physical activity. The level of each risk factor had numerical value in a span from "0" to "8". The sum of all points was decisive to which of 3 groups of risk given man should be accounted. Those 3 groups were arbitrary divided into "low, intermediate and high risk". The highest risk was found for the executives group, and the lowest for blast furnace workers. From the risk factors under investigation highest overall influence on incidence of ischemic heart disease had habit of smoking and obesity. Described here point classification system seems to be very simple and useful for estimation of risk of ischemic heart disease in a given population. PMID:1845321

  6. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559

  7. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders.

  8. Childhood incontinence: risk factors and impact.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol

    Continence problems in children can persist into later childhood and have a serious effect on quality of life. Research into its causes and impact is scarce, and useful resources are limited. A Medical Research Council grant is funding a project at the University of Bristol, which aims to improve understanding of the risk factors and outcomes of continence problems in children and adolescents. This article outlines the initial findings, which could help in the production of resources for parents, children and young people. PMID:27386707

  9. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  10. Cardiometabolic risk factors and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Arthur R; Lavie, Carl J; Dinicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James; Morin, Daniel P; Khatib, Sammy; Abi-Samra, Freddy M; Messerli, Franz H; Milani, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide; it is a significant risk factor for stroke and embolization, and has an impact on cardiac function. Despite its impact on morbidity and mortality, our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease process is still incomplete. Over the past several decades, there has been evidence to suggest that AF has a significant correlation with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Furthermore, AF appears to be more closely related to specific components of MetS compared with others. This article provides an overview of the various components of MetS and their impact on AF. PMID:24448257

  11. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  12. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize Inflammatory Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Xiaohu; Beebe, Tyler; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Predicting metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions has remained an unmet clinical need. We hereby developed an electrochemical strategy to characterize the inflammatory states of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Using the concentric bipolar microelectrodes, we sought to demonstrate distinct Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements for unstable atherosclerotic plaques that harbored active lipids and inflammatory cells. Using equivalent circuits to simulate vessel impedance at the electrode-endoluminal tissue interface, we demonstrated specific electric elements to model working and counter electrode interfaces as well as the tissue impedance. Using explants of human coronary, carotid, and femoral arteries at various Stary stages of atherosclerotic lesions (n = 15), we performed endoluminal EIS measurements (n = 147) and validated with histology and immunohistochemistry. We computed the vascular tissue resistance using the equivalent circuit model and normalized the resistance to the lesion-free regions. Tissue resistance was significantly elevated in the oxLDL-rich thin-cap atheromas (1.57±0.40, n = 14, p < 0.001) and fatty streaks (1.36±0.28, n = 33, p < 0.001) as compared with lesion-free region (1.00±0.18, n = 82) or oxLDL-absent fibrous atheromas (0.86±0.30, n = 12). Tissue resistance was also elevated in the calcified core of fibrous atheroma (2.37±0.60, n = 6, p < 0.001). Despite presence of fibrous structures, tissue resistance between ox-LDL-absent fibroatheroma and the lesion-free regions was statistically insignificant (0.86±0.30, n = 12, p > 0.05). Hence, we demonstrate that the application of EIS strategy was sensitive to detect fibrous cap oxLDL-rich lesions and specific to distinguish oxLDL-absent fibroatheroma. PMID:21959227

  13. Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers.

  14. Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers. PMID:17454553

  15. The developmental 'risk factor' model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Murray, R M; Fearon, P

    1999-01-01

    There is no single cause for schizophrenia. We believe that, as with other common chronic diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the appropriate aetiological model is one involving multiple genes and environmental risk factors; the latter can be divided into (a) predisposing and (b) precipitating. Our model is that genetic and/or early environmental factors cause the development of anomalous neural networks. We postulate that these interact in the growing child with inherited schizotypal traits to establish a trajectory towards an increasingly solitary and deviant life style. This ultimately projects the individual across the threshold for expression of schizophrenia, sometimes by causing the drug abuse and social adversity that appear to precipitate the psychosis. PMID:10628525

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone cancer? What are the risk factors for bone cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Osteosarcomas Children with certain rare inherited syndromes have an ...

  18. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  19. Lipid lowering by hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus Caudatus L. induces regression of rabbits atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus L(A. caudatus). on regression of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol diet. Methods Twenty five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five each and treated 75 days as follows: Group I: normal diet(ND), Group II: Hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 days; Group III: Hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 75 days, Group IV and V: HCD for 45 days and then normal diet and normal diet + A. caudatus(150 mg·kg day) respectively for an additional 30 days(regression period). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and after 45 days and 75 days of experimental diets for measurement of biochemical factors. The aortas were removed at the end of the study for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results In regression period dietary use of A. caudatus in group V significantly decreased total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein while apolipoproteinA and HDL- cholesterol was significantly increased compared to group IV. The atherosclerotic area was significantly decreased in group V. Whereas, the animals that in regression period received only normal diet showed no regression but rather progression of atherosclerosis. Conclusion These results thus suggest that hydroalcoholic extracts of A. caudatus can reduce risk factors and cause regression of fatty lesons in aorta. PMID:21619685

  20. [Prevalence and influence of risk factors on coronary shunting operations in patients with aterosclerosis of abdominal aorta and peripheral vessels].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, B A; Bazylev, V V; Belov, Iu V; Kizyma, A G

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study analysis concerning the prevalence of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes after coronary operations in patients with peripheral arterial atherosclerosis is presented. Meta-analysis of individual risk factors was carried out. Frequency of complications after coronary shunting in patients with various concomitant diseases is evaluated. The multifactorial relative risk affecting hospital lethality is defined. The study includes 131 patients with generalized atherosclerosis, which have underwent myocardial revascularization at the first stage (the main group) and at the second stage have been operated on abdominal aorta and peripheral arteries. 1128 patients without peripheral arterial atherosclerosis have made the control group. They underwent only coronary shunting. All patients were treated from December of 1994 till June of 2006. Relying on the results of the study cumulative relative risk for unfavorable outcomes after revascularization is 1.8 times higher in patients from the main group than in patients from the control group, and the risk for primary complications is 2.03 times higher. Concomitant atherosclerotic arterial involvement among cardiosurgical patients is associated with high risk for stroke in postoperative period. In case of chronic renal failure risk factors are cumulated. In the main group lethality made 5% , which was higher as compared with the control group. Correlation of such risk factors as heart failure and renal failure (creatinine level more than 1.8 mg/dl) with lethality has been revealed among patients from the main group. Lethality risk raises in 5.30 times in the presence of heart failure in medical history, and raises in 13.15 times in case of initially elevated creatinine level. Age of patient didn't have any influence on lethality in early postoperative period.

  1. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care. PMID:27568314

  2. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  3. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  4. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care.

  5. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  6. Role of six single nucleotide polymorphisms, risk factors in coronary disease, in OLR1 alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, J. Ramón; Tilgner, Hagen; Iannone, Camilla; Guigó, Roderic; Valcárcel, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The OLR1 gene encodes the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1), which is responsible for the cellular uptake of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), foam cell formation in atheroma plaques and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Alternative splicing (AS) of OLR1 exon 5 generates two protein isoforms with antagonistic functions in Ox-LDL uptake. Previous work identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium that influence the inclusion levels of OLR1 exon 5 and correlate with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we use minigenes to recapitulate the effects of two allelic series (Low- and High-Risk) on OLR1 AS and identify one SNP in intron 4 (rs3736234) as the main contributor to the differences in exon 5 inclusion, while the other SNPs in the allelic series attenuate the drastic effects of this key SNP. Bioinformatic, proteomic, mutational and functional high-throughput analyses allowed us to define regulatory sequence motifs and identify SR protein family members (SRSF1, SRSF2) and HMGA1 as factors involved in the regulation of OLR1 AS. Our results suggest that antagonism between SRSF1 and SRSF2/HMGA1, and differential recognition of their regulatory motifs depending on the identity of the rs3736234 polymorphism, influence OLR1 exon 5 inclusion and the efficiency of Ox-LDL uptake, with potential implications for atherosclerosis and coronary disease. PMID:25904137

  7. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  8. Risk Factors for Drug Use in Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested relevance of risk-factor model for predicting drug use among rural seventh graders (n=235). Nineteen of 20 risk factors were significantly related to at least 1 category of drug use. Subset of 10 risk factors was significantly associated with prevalence and frequency of use of cigarettes, beer and wine, hard liquor, marijuana, and other…

  9. Endothelial cells and macrophages, partners in atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Antohe, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Heart disease and stroke, the main cardiovascular diseases (CVD), have become global epidemics in our days. High levels of cholesterol and other abnormal lipids are among the main risk factors of atherosclerosis, the number one killer in the world. However, recent advances in CVD treatment together with improvements in surgical techniques have increased the quality of life and reduced premature death rates and disabilities. Nevertheless, they still add a heavy burden to the rising global costs of health care. The medical priorities highlight not only the need for early recognition of the warning signs of a heart attack, but also the need for early biomarkers for prevention. Two active partners in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques are the macrophages and endothelial cells that influence each other and modify the microenvironment composition of the plaque leading to either rapid progression or regression of individual lesions in patients. In this review we address two specific aspects related to atherosclerosis: i) the way in which folic acid and folic acid conjugates may be helpful to identify activated macrophages and ii) the high potential of proteomic analysis to evidence and identify the multiple changes induced in activated vascular cells. PMID:17178598

  10. Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

  11. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  12. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a revisit.

    PubMed

    Njelekela, M; Negishi, H; Nara, Y; Tomohiro, M; Kuga, S; Noguchi, T; Kanda, T; Yamori, M; Mashalla, Y; Jian Liu, L; Mtabaji, J; Ikeda, K; Yamori, Y

    2001-06-22

    In this assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, we examined the prevalence of selected risk factors according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) CARDIAC Study protocol and compared them with a similar study conducted more than a decade ago. The survey was carried out in Dar es Salaam (D, urban), Handeni (H, rural) and Monduli (Mo, semi-nomadic area). Subjects aged 47-57 were recruited randomly for blood pressure and anthropometrical measurements, 24 h urine collection and blood sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain dietary information. The 1998 survey studied 446 subjects, while the 1987 survey included 496 men and women. The measured weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) increased significantly among women in the 1998 survey in rural Handeni and urban Dar. The overall prevalence of obesity was higher for women in the most recent survey (22.8%, P < 0.0001). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the most recent survey for women in Handeni. The overall prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > 160/95 mmHg, or antihypertensive drug use), rose to 41.1% in 1998, (P < 0.001) for men and to 38.7% (P < 0.05) for women. The mean total serum cholesterol and prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia increased significantly in the most recent survey in the three studied areas. The overall prevalence of hypercholestrolaemia (serum cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l) was higher in the 1998 survey for both men (21.8%, P < 0.0001) and women (54.0%, P < 0.0001). The mean HDL cholesterol increased significantly in the most recent survey, with a significant reduction in the mean atherogenic index, though these were still at higher levels (men 5.8, P < 0.0001; women 5.1, P < 0.0001 vs. 1987). A strong positive correlation was observed between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and body mass index, total serum cholesterol and sodium to potassium ratio. These data suggest that for the past decade there has been an increase in the

  14. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  15. Association between Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated an association between serum Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) level and cardiovascular risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A total of 107 participants were screened for T2D and divided into a T2D group and a control group (without diabetes). We used the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the New Pooled Cohort Equation score to estimate the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Serum GDF15 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between GDF15 level and cardiovascular risk scores. The mean serum GDF15 level was elevated in the T2D group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was evident between serum GDF15 level and age (r = 0.418, P = 0.001), the FRS (r = 0.457, P < 0.001), and the Pooled Cohort Equation score (r = 0.539, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, LDL-C level, and body mass index (BMI), the serum GDF15 level was positively correlated with the FRS and the New Pooled Cohort Equation score. The serum GDF15 level is independently associated with cardiovascular risk scores of newly diagnosed T2D patients. This suggests that the level of GDF15 may be a useful predictive biomarker of cardiovascular risk in newly diagnosed T2D patients. PMID:27510384

  16. Is hyperuricemia a risk factor for arteriosclerosis? Uric acid and arteriosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wakuda, Hirokazu; Uchida, Shinya; Ikeda, Masahiko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    Although hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes increase the risk of arteriosclerosis, it is not clear whether hyperuricemia increases the risk of arteriosclerosis or not. We examined the effects of uric acid and curative drugs for hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Male apoE(-/-) mice (age: 6 weeks) were fed a normal diet (normal diet group) or a uric acid-enriched diet. Mice fed the uric acid-enriched diet were divided into three groups and administered a drinking vehicle (high uric acid diet group), allopurinol (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), or benzbromarone (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 10 weeks. Serum uric acid concentrations were higher in the high uric acid diet group than in the normal diet group, and concentrations in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups were lower than in the high uric acid diet group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the allopurinol group than in the high uric acid diet group. Oxidative stress was lower in the benzbromarone group than in the high uric acid diet group. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were smaller in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups than in the high uric acid diet group. Thus, hyperuricemia may not be an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis; however, the administration of allopurinol and benzbromarone prevented the development of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice fed a uric acid-enriched diet. The anti-atherosclerotic effect was in part due to lower total cholesterol and oxidative stress in the serum. Other possible mechanisms underlying this effect should be investigated.

  17. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  18. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling. PMID:27625844

  19. [Prevention programs of risk factors for falls].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shuzo; Sakita, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls. Regarding the older people in hospitals and sanatoriums, it appeared that comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation could be effective in falls rather than exercises intervention only. However, the short period of the exercise intervention may affect ineffectiveness in preventing falls.

  20. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  1. Calciphylaxis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Kroshinsky, Daniela; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Goverman, Jeremy; Malhotra, Rajeev; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Kamdar, Mihir M; Steele, David J R; Thadhani, Ravi I

    2015-07-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is also described in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and with normal kidney function. In this review, we discuss the available medical literature regarding risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of both uremic and nonuremic calciphylaxis. High-quality evidence for the evaluation and management of calciphylaxis is lacking at this time due to its rare incidence and poorly understood pathogenesis and the relative paucity of collaborative research efforts. We hereby provide a summary of recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary team for patients with calciphylaxis. PMID:25960299

  2. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  3. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at <40 years of age is extremely rare (2 cases per million per year), but among 80-year-olds, the incidence is about 200 new cases per 100,000 population per year. In men, carcinoma of the pancreas is the fourth most common cause of cancer death after lung, prostate and colorectal cancer. In women, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  4. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  5. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. PMID:27302272

  6. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  8. Endovascular Versus Medical Therapy for Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mark Shipeng; Folt, David A.; Drummond, Christopher A.; Haller, Steven T.; Cooper, Emily L.; Brewster, Pamela; Evans, Kaleigh L.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS) has become increasingly common in part due to greater awareness of ischemic renal disease and increased use of diagnostic techniques. Over 90 % of RAS cases are caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). Patients with ARVD are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events. The mortality rate in patients with ARVD is high, especially with other cardiovascular or renal comorbidities. Recent clinical studies have provided substantial evidence concerning medical therapy and endovascular interventional therapeutic approaches for ARVD. Despite previous randomized clinical trials, the optimal therapy for ARVD remained uncertain until the results of the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial were released recently. CORAL demonstrated that optimal medical therapy was equally effective to endovascular therapy in the treatment of ARVD. Clinicians can now practice with more evidence-based medicine to treat ARVD and potentially decrease mortality in patients with ARVD using optimal medical therapy. PMID:25301353

  9. Cardiac risk factors: new cholesterol and blood pressure management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines depart from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) treatment targets and recommend treating four specific patient groups with statins. Statins are the only cholesterol-lowering drugs with randomized trial evidence of benefit for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The groups are patients with clinical ASCVD; patients ages 40 to 75 years with diabetes and LDL of 70 to 189 mg/dL but no clinical ASCVD; patients 21 years or older with LDL levels of 190 mg/dL or higher; and patients ages 40 to 75 years with LDL of 70 to 189 mg/dL without clinical ASCVD or diabetes but with 10-year ASCVD risk of 7.5% or higher. Ten-year ASCVD risk may be calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equations. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) guidelines for blood pressure management recommend a blood pressure goal of less than 140/90 mm Hg for all adults except those 60 years or older. For the latter group, the JNC 8 recommends a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 150 mm Hg. In another notable change from prior guidelines, the JNC 8 recommends relaxing the systolic blood pressure goal for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease to less than 140 mm Hg from less than 130 mm Hg. PMID:24936717

  10. Lifestyle and dietary risk factors for peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) usually refers to ischemia of the lower limb vessels. Currently, the estimated number of cases in the world is 202 million. PAD is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. The measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recommended as a first-line noninvasive test for screening and diagnosis of PAD. An ABI <0.90 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and this measurement is useful to identify patients at moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening for PAD with the ABI in asymptomatic adults. Lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, dietary changes and physical activity, are currently the most cost-effective interventions. Inverse associations with PAD have been reported for some subtypes of dietary fats, fiber, antioxidants (vitamins E and C), folate, vitamins B6, B12 and D, flavonoids, and fruits and vegetables. A possible inverse association between better adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of symptomatic PAD has also been reported in a large randomized clinical trial. Therefore, a Mediterranean-style diet could be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of PAD, although further experimental studies are needed to better clarify this association.  (Circ J 2014; 78: 553-559).

  11. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  12. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors.

  13. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  14. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  15. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; Rombetto, Luca; Matarazzo, Francesco; Carelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age) and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate.

  16. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  17. Lipofundin-Induced Hyperlipidemia Promotes Oxidative Stress and Atherosclerotic Lesions in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Roche, Livan; Acosta Medina, Emilio; Fraga Pérez, Ángela; Bécquer Viart, María A.; Soto López, Yosdel; Falcón Cama, Viviana; Vázquez López, Ana M.; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fernández-Sánchez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis represents a major cause of death in the world. It is known that Lipofundin 20% induces atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits, but its effects on serum lipids behaviour and redox environment have not been addressed. In this study, New Zealand rabbits were treated with 2 mL/kg of Lipofundin for 8 days. Then, redox biomarkers and serum lipids were determined spectrophotometrically. On the other hand, the development of atherosclerotic lesions was confirmed by eosin/hematoxylin staining and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol-LDL, and cholesterol-HDL levels were significantly increased. Also, a high index of biomolecules damage, a disruption of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic defenses, and a reduction of nitric oxide were observed. Our data demonstrated that Lipofundin 20% induces hyperlipidemia, which promotes an oxidative stress state. Due to the importance of these phenomena as risk factors for atherogenesis, we suggest that Lipofundin induces atherosclerosis mainly through these mechanisms. PMID:21977325

  18. [Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: second act "A rebirth of hope"].

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Antonio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2011-06-01

    Despite the clinical use of statins to reduce serum levels of LDL cholesterol and treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a high proportion of patients remain at significant residual cardiovascular risk. In this context, low HDL cholesterol levels are an additional risk factor and intervention studies suggest that a fraction of the cardiovascular protection achieved with pharmacotherapy is explained specifically by the increase in serum levels of HDL cholesterol. Pharmacological inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) can induce a significant elevation in HDL cholesterol and, potentially, lead to better control of residual cardiovascular risk beyond the benefit demonstrated by statins. While the use of torcetrapib had unexpected side effects, dalcetrapib and anacetrapib are new CETP inhibitors with a better safety profile and are currently under study to evaluate their effects on vascular lesions and clinical events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. If these studies show positive findings, we will witness a new biomedical advance as significant as was the clinical.

  19. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  20. Progression and regression of the atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    de Feyter, P J; Vos, J; Deckers, J W

    1995-08-01

    In animals in which atherosclerosis was induced experimentally (by a high cholesterol diet) regression of the atherosclerotic lesion was demonstrated after serum cholesterol was reduced by cholesterol- lowering drugs or a low-fat diet. Whether regression of advanced coronary arterly lesions also takes place in humans after a similar intervention remains conjectural. However, several randomized studies, primarily employing lipid-lowering intervention or comprehensive changes in lifestyle, have demonstrated, using serial angiograms, that it is possible to achieve less progression, arrest or even (small) regression of atherosclerotic lesions. The lipid-lowering trials (NHBLI, CLAS, POSCH, FATS, SCOR and STARS) studied 1240 symptomatic patients, mostly men, with moderately elevated cholesterol levels and moderately severe angiographic-proven coronary artery disease. A variety of lipid-lowering drugs, in addition to a diet, were used over an intervention period ranging from 2 to 3 years. In all but one study (NHBLI), the progression of coronary atherosclerosis was less in the treated group, but regression was induced in only a few patients. The overall relative risk of progression of coronary atherosclerosis was 0 x 62 and 2 x 13, respectively. The induced angiographic differences were small and did not produce any significant haemodynamic benefit. The most important result was tht the disease process could be stabilized in the majority of patients. Three comprehensive lifestyle change trials (the Lifestyle Heart study, STARS and the Heidelberg Study) studied 183 patients, who were subjected to stress management, and/or intensive exercise, in addition to a low fat diet, over a period ranging from 1 to 3 years. All three trials demonstrated less progression, and more regression with overall relative risks of 0 x 40 and 2 x 35 respectively, in the intervention groups. Angiographic trials demonstrated that retardation or arrest of coronary atherosclerosis was possible

  1. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment.

  2. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  3. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  4. Approach to atherosclerotic renovascular disease: 2016

    PubMed Central

    Daloul, Reem; Morrison, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in patients with hypertension or impaired renal function remains a clinical dilemma. The current general consensus, supported by the results of the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions and Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery Lesions trials, argues strongly against endovascular intervention in favor of optimal medical management. We discuss the limitations and implications of the contemporary clinical trials and present our approach and formulate clear recommendations to help with the management of patients with atherosclerotic narrowing of the renal artery. PMID:27679718

  5. Approach to atherosclerotic renovascular disease: 2016

    PubMed Central

    Daloul, Reem; Morrison, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in patients with hypertension or impaired renal function remains a clinical dilemma. The current general consensus, supported by the results of the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions and Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery Lesions trials, argues strongly against endovascular intervention in favor of optimal medical management. We discuss the limitations and implications of the contemporary clinical trials and present our approach and formulate clear recommendations to help with the management of patients with atherosclerotic narrowing of the renal artery.

  6. Approach to atherosclerotic renovascular disease: 2016.

    PubMed

    Daloul, Reem; Morrison, Aubrey R

    2016-10-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in patients with hypertension or impaired renal function remains a clinical dilemma. The current general consensus, supported by the results of the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions and Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery Lesions trials, argues strongly against endovascular intervention in favor of optimal medical management. We discuss the limitations and implications of the contemporary clinical trials and present our approach and formulate clear recommendations to help with the management of patients with atherosclerotic narrowing of the renal artery. PMID:27679718

  7. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  9. Impact of multiple cardiovascular risk factors on femoral artery intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young adults (the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Paul, Timir K; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Bond, M Gene; Tang, Rong; Berenson, Gerald S

    2005-02-15

    Femoral artery intima-media thickness (IMT), like carotid IMT, is a surrogate indicator of atherosclerotic coronary and peripheral vascular diseases in middle-aged and older adults. Although risk factors for coronary artery disease are also associated with increased IMT, especially as measured in carotid arteries, there is a paucity of information with respect to the femoral artery in this regard in the asymptomatic, younger adult population. This study examined the impact of multiple risk factors on the common femoral artery IMT as measured by B-mode ultrasonography in 1,080 black and white subjects aged 24 to 43 years (71% white and 43% men) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Femoral IMT showed gender difference (men more than women, p = 0.001), but no racial difference. In a multivariate model, systolic blood pressure, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios related independently, in that order, to IMT. Mean IMT increased with an increasing number of risk factors defined as values above the age-, race-, and gender-specific 75th percentile of systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and insulin along with smoking status (p for trend = 0.003), with respective mean IMT values of 0.66, 0.69, 0.73, and 0.79 mm for 0, 1 to 2, 3, and 4 to 5 risk factors. The odds ratio for patients with >/=3 risk factors versus no risk factors having IMT in the top fifth percentile was 4.7 (p = 0.01). The observed adverse trend of increasing femoral IMT with an increasing number of risk factors in free-living, asymptomatic young subjects underscores the need for multiple risk factors profiling in early life. Further, ultrasonography of the femoral artery in conjunction with multiple risk factor profiling can be helpful in risk stratification.

  10. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... surviving an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of developing MDS. Long-term ... Myelodysplastic Syndrome? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Myelodysplastic Syndrome Talking With ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of getting CML Age : The ... Myeloid (CML)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid (CML) ...

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  15. Small entities with large impact: microcalcifications and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Maldonado, Natalia; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent acute events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute to the majority of cardiovascular-related deaths. Calcification has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, challenging previously held notions that calcifications stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we address this discrepancy through recent findings that not all calcifications are equivalent in determining plaque stability. Recent findings The risk associated with calcification is inversely associated with calcification density. As opposed to large calcifications that potentially stabilize the plaque, biomechanical modeling indicates that small microcalcifications within the plaque fibrous cap can lead to sufficient stress accumulation to cause plaque rupture. Microcalcifications appear to derive from matrix vesicles enriched in calcium-binding proteins that are released by cells within the plaque. Clinical detection of microcalcifications has been hampered by the lack of imaging resolution required for in-vivo visualization; however, recent studies have demonstrated promising new techniques to predict the presence of microcalcifications. Summary Microcalcifications play a major role in destabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. The identification of critical characteristics that lead to instability along with new imaging modalities to detect their presence in vivo may allow early identification and prevention of acute cardiovascular events. PMID:25188916

  16. [Initial symptoms and risk factors in Alzheimer's dementia].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L

    1994-01-01

    The present paper summarizes recent data related to the risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type. More than 100 factors were reported in the literature but only two factors clearly implicated: age and family history of dementing illness. Among hypothesized environmental risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type, a previous head trauma was found significantly associated with the disease. Many other biological and psychosocial factors are discussed but the results are not consistent. PMID:8208865

  17. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  18. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  19. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset.

  20. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    PubMed

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  2. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients' EHRs, we are able to construct a patient's clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient's risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients' clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient's risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  3. Coronary electron beam computed tomography in 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and two or more cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Von Feldt, Joan M; Eisner, Elana R; Sawaires, Amal

    2002-12-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, the third leading cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are disproportionately common by age and gender. Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) cannot reliably predict subsets of patients at risk for events. Coronary electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), a noninvasive imaging technique that quantifies ASCVD by measuring calcium deposition in the walls of coronary arteries, has been demonstrated to be a marker of ASCVD in traditional populations. A pilot group of 13 SLE patients (ages, 33-48 years) with two or more traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease were studied by EBCT. Five of these SLE patients had calcification scores in the 70th percentile or higher, as compared with age-matched women without known coronary artery disease, and three had scores in the 90th percentile. Four of these five patients had antiphospholipid antibodies currently or in the past. These data suggest that EBCT may be able to detect premature ASCVD in SLE patients and may be a useful noninvasive tool as more attention is directed to ASCVD as a major complication of SLE. PMID:17041400

  4. Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: an inherited risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, S S; Wong, P W; Susmano, A; Sora, J; Norusis, M; Ruggie, N

    1991-01-01

    major risk factors. We conclude that thermolabile MTHFR is a variant(s) of MTHFR deficiency which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In addition, it is positively associated with the development of coronary artery disease. Determination of in vitro thermostability of lymphocyte MTHFR is a reliable method for identifying subjects with this abnormality. PMID:1998339

  5. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  6. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  7. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Patrick; Solitar, Bruce; Dubois, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal. Methods A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences. Results A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married. Discussion Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood experiences were correlated with the development of fibromyalgia. Data pertaining to disability, quality of life, life satisfaction, number of days of depression, emotional support, and marriage status illustrated the extent of subjective disability that these patients feel every day.

  9. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values < 0.9 were considered as peripheral arterial disease. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4), (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2), females 5.3% (4.6-6.0); p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44); inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68) for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16) for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58) for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58) for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65); diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83); previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15); hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18); hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19). Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87) and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94) were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight. PMID:20529387

  10. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  11. Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) and classical vascular risk factors in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Elena; García-Barreno, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Candidate molecules/autoantigens include heat shock proteins (HSPs); Hsp70 (HSPA1A) is one of the best studied HSPs. Various studies have shown a correlation between extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) and anti-Hsp70/anti-Hsp60 antibody concentration and development of atherosclerosis. A random sample of 456 people aged 40–60 (218 males, 234 females) was studied to investigate the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors and eHsp70 and anti-Hsp70/anti-Hsp60 antibodies levels, according to the risk of vascular disease. Task Force Chart was applied for classification. Subjects were divided into three groups: G0 (with no vascular risk factor or a risk lower than 5%), n = 239; G1 (moderated 10–20% risk, who do not have established disease) n = 161; and G2 (established atherosclerosis disease) n = 52. eHsp70 and anti-Hsp70 were significantly lower in the atherosclerosis group (group 2) with respect to the other groups. Disease-free people showed the highest anti-Hsp60 concentration compared with the other two groups. A correlation has not been demonstrated between the concentrations of circulating Hsp70 (HSPA1A), anti-Hsp70, and anti-Hsp60 and classical vascular risk factors and C-reactive protein. Low levels of eHsp70 and anti-Hsp70 antibodies should be considered as candidate FRV. Simultaneous decrease of eHsp70 and anti-Hsp70 antibodies would be explained by circulating immune complex formation, and both could be proposed as biomarkers for the progression of atherosclerotic disease. Levels of circulating anti-Hsp60 antibodies may constitute a marker of inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:20490736

  12. Quantitative analysis of the polarization characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Kirillin, Michail Y.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Fiks, Ilya I.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we demonstrate the capability of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) to assess collagen and elastin fibers condition in atherosclerotic plaques basing on ratio of the OCT signal levels in cross- and co- polarizations. We consider the depolarization factor (DF) and the effective birefringence (Δn) as quantitative characteristics of CP OCT images. We revealed that calculation of both DF and Δn in the region of interest (fibrous cap) yields a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable plaques (0.46+/-0.21 vs 0.09+/-0.04 for IDF; (4.7+/-1.0)•10-4 vs (2.5+/-0.7)•10-4 for Δn p<0.05). In parallel with CP OCT we used the nonlinear microscopy for analysis of thin cross-section of atherosclerotic plaque, revealing the different average isotropy index of collagen and elastin fibers for stable and unstable plaques (0.30 +/- 0.10 vs 0.70 +/- 0.08; p<0.001). The proposed approach for quantitative assessment of CP OCT images allows cross-scattering and birefringence characterization of stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

  13. Effect of Atherosclerosis on the Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery and Its Descending Branch: Comparative Study to Nonatherosclerotic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Nanasilp, Tirapat; Kunaphensaeng, Paiboon; Ruamthanthong, Anuchit

    2016-01-01

    Background: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been widely used for reconstructions. Nevertheless, the atherosclerotic risk factors that affect the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) are still inconclusive. The aim was to study the effect of atherosclerosis on the LCFA and descending branch (dLCFA) visualized by computer tomographic angiography (CTA) between nonatherosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Methods: Retrospective studies of CTA of lower extremity were reviewed. The patients were divided into 2 groups: nonatherosclerotic and atherosclerotic risk factors. The angiographic study of LCFA and dLCFA was analyzed, and atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic risk factors were compared. Results: Ninety-seven patients with 194 lower extremities were enrolled. Atherosclerotic risks comprised 76 patients. A total of 14, 16, and 46 patients had 1, 2, and 3 risk factors, respectively. Musculocutaneous perforator was 79.38%. The LCFA originated from deep femoral, common femoral, and superficial femoral artery was 97.42%, 2.06%, and 0.52%, respectively. The dLCFA was classified into 5 types depending on its origin. Diameters of LCFA in nonatherosclerotic and atherosclerotic patients were 4.03 ± 0.71 and 4.07 ± 0.97 mm, respectively. No statistical significance was found between both groups in diameters of LCFA. Diameters of dLCFA in nonatherosclerotic patients were 2.28 ± 0.28 mm and in atherosclerotic patients were 2.11 ± 0.28 mm. Statistical significance of diameters of dLCFA was found in patients having 3 risk factors and smoker groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: LCFA is not atherosclerosis resistant. Stenosis of the LCFA and dLCFA occurred in varying degrees in atherosclerosis-risk patients. Preoperative CTA should be considered to evaluate the patency in multiple risk factors patients. PMID:27757321

  14. Selected Risk Factors in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Anthony G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide among 3,803 eighth and tenth graders. Found females at greater risk of suicide attempts than males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than abstainers; such differences were more…

  15. David M. Hume memorial lecture. In situ vein bypass in the treatment of femoropopliteal atherosclerotic disease: a ten year study.

    PubMed

    Hall, K V; Rostad, H

    1978-08-01

    The in situ vein bypass technic for femoropopliteal atherosclerotic disease is described. Several factors influence the long-term results, the most important being a history of myocardial disease, the size of the vein graft, and sufficient runoff.

  16. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women

  17. Childhood risk factors in dually diagnosed homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, L E; Cnaan, R A; Freedman, E

    1993-09-01

    Although the negative long-term effects of specific childhood risk factors--sexual and physical abuse, parental mental illness and substance abuse, and out-of-home placement--have been recognized, most studies have focused on just one of these risks. This article examines the prevalence of these five childhood risk factors among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults in rehabilitation programs. It further assesses the impact of each risk factor individually and in combinations of two on the social functioning skills and rehabilitation progress of these multiply disadvantaged clients.

  18. Childhood risk factors in dually diagnosed homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, L E; Cnaan, R A; Freedman, E

    1993-09-01

    Although the negative long-term effects of specific childhood risk factors--sexual and physical abuse, parental mental illness and substance abuse, and out-of-home placement--have been recognized, most studies have focused on just one of these risks. This article examines the prevalence of these five childhood risk factors among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults in rehabilitation programs. It further assesses the impact of each risk factor individually and in combinations of two on the social functioning skills and rehabilitation progress of these multiply disadvantaged clients. PMID:8211318

  19. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  20. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  1. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  2. Risk Factors for Different Dimensions of Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes which risk factors in the family, school, and peer domains have an effect on the use of different types of drugs and on frequencies of drug use. Results of a study with adolescents (N=467) show that parental monitoring, time spent with friends, and peer deviance were the most important risk factors. (Author/MKA)

  3. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  4. Behaviour Problems and Adults with Down Syndrome: Childhood Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with intellectual disability suggest that several individual characteristics and environmental factors are associated with behaviour disorder. To date there are few studies looking at risk factors within specific syndromes and the relationship between early risk markers and later behaviour disorder. The key aim of the…

  5. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  7. Childhood Risk Factors in Dually Diagnosed Homeless Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankertz, Laura E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined prevalence of five childhood risk factors (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental mental illness, substance abuse, out-of-home placement) among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults (n=156) in rehabilitation programs. Findings suggest that childhood risk factors, whether single or multiple, are very…

  8. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tigen, Elif Tükenmez; Koltka, E. Nursen; Dogru, Arzu; Gura, Melek; Vahabaoglu, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40%) patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment. PMID:27390460

  9. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  10. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk ... whether certain children are more likely to develop tics following a group A ß-hemolytic streptococcal (“strep”) ...

  11. Iron loading: a risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E D

    2006-12-01

    Iron loaded persons are at increased risk for infection, neoplasia, arthropathy, cardiomyopathy and an array of endocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. This report summarizes evidence of increased risk of iron loading for osteoporosis. Iron suppresses bone remodeling apparently by decreasing osteoblast formation and new bone synthesis. Low molecular mass iron chelators as well as a natural protein iron chelator, lactoferrin, may be useful in prevention of osteoporosis.

  12. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerberg, Björn; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Borné, Yan; and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  13. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  14. Fusobacterium nucleatum Alters Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Enhances Inflammatory Markers with an Atheroprotective Immune Response in ApoE(null) Mice.

    PubMed

    Velsko, Irina M; Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association supports an association between periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) but does not as of yet support a causal relationship. Recently, we have shown that major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are causally associated with acceleration of aortic atherosclerosis in ApoEnull hyperlipidemic mice. The aim of this study was to determine if oral infection with another significant periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum can accelerate aortic inflammation and atherosclerosis in the aortic artery of ApoEnull mice. ApoEnull mice (n = 23) were orally infected with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and euthanized at 12 and 24 weeks. Periodontal disease assessments including F. nucleatum oral colonization, gingival inflammation, immune response, intrabony defects, and alveolar bone resorption were evaluated. Systemic organs were evaluated for infection, aortic sections were examined for atherosclerosis, and inflammatory markers were measured. Chronic oral infection established F. nucleatum colonization in the oral cavity, induced significant humoral IgG (P=0.0001) and IgM (P=0.001) antibody response (12 and 24 weeks), and resulted in significant (P=0.0001) alveolar bone resorption and intrabony defects. F. nucleatum genomic DNA was detected in systemic organs (heart, aorta, liver, kidney, lung) indicating bacteremia. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque area was measured and showed a local inflammatory infiltrate revealed the presence of F4/80+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells. Vascular inflammation was detected by enhanced systemic cytokines (CD30L, IL-4, IL-12), oxidized LDL and serum amyloid A, as well as altered serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL), in infected mice and altered aortic gene expression in infected mice. Despite evidence for systemic infection in several organs and modulation of known atherosclerosis risk factors, aortic atherosclerotic

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  18. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  19. Risk factors for UK Plasmodium falciparum cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of malaria cases diagnosed in UK residents with a history of travel to malaria endemic areas are due to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods In order to identify travellers at most risk of acquiring malaria a proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of acquiring malaria stratified by purpose of travel and age whilst adjusting for entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and duration of stay in endemic countries. Results Travellers visiting friends and relatives and business travellers were found to have significantly higher hazard of acquiring malaria (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) relative to that of holiday makers 7.4, 95% CI 6.4–8.5, p < 0. 0001 and HR 3.4, 95% CI 2.9-3.8, p < 0. 0001, respectively). All age-groups were at lower risk than children aged 0–15 years. Conclusions These estimates of the increased risk for business travellers and those visiting friends and relatives should be used to inform programmes to improve awareness of the risks of malaria when travelling. PMID:25091803

  20. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (p<0.05), all of which remained statistically significant following an adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing except for depression. We also observed that the risk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  1. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  2. Immunolocalization of BMP-6, a novel TGF-beta-related cytokine, in normal and atherosclerotic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Schluesener, H J; Meyermann, R

    1995-03-01

    We have analyzed expression of a novel transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta)-related cytokine, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in normal and atherosclerotic brain arteries. BMP-6 immunoreactivity was detected in smooth muscle cells of normal cerebral blood vessels. It is also expressed by smooth muscle cells of intimal plaques in atherosclerotically changed blood vessels. The BMPs regulate tissue modeling and remodeling and aberrant expression of BMPs might contribute to smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, tissue reorganization and macrophage attraction, which are known mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:7605353

  3. An immunomodulating fatty acid analogue targeting mitochondria exerts anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond plasma cholesterol-lowering activity in apoe(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Vik, Rita; Busnelli, Marco; Parolini, Cinzia; Bjørndal, Bodil; Holm, Sverre; Bohov, Pavol; Halvorsen, Bente; Brattelid, Trond; Manzini, Stefano; Ganzetti, Giulia S; Dellera, Federica; Nygård, Ottar K; Aukrust, Pål; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo)-E(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS)-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function. PMID:24324736

  4. The Role of the Carotid Doppler Examination in the Evaluation of Atherosclerotic Changes in β-Thalassemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamei, Hoda A.; El-Sherif, Ashraf M.; Ismail, Ahlam M.; Abdel Hakeem, Gehan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron overload in patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) lead to alterations in the arterial structures and the thickness of the carotid arteries. Doppler ultrasound scanning of extra-cranial internal carotid arteries is non-invasive and relatively quick to perform and may identify children at increased risk of stroke that would otherwise be missed. Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT) is a structural marker for early atherosclerosis and correlates with the vascular risk factors and to the severity and extent of coronary artery disease. Objective To evaluate the role of carotid Doppler examination and CIMT measurement as a predictor of atherosclerotic changes in BTM children with iron overload. Patients and Methods Sixty two children with BTM and, thirty age and sex matched normal controls were included. Complete blood count, ferritin, serum cholesterol were done, as well as carotid Doppler ultrasonography to measure the CIMT in both patients and controls. Results CIMT of thalassemic patients was significantly increased compared to controls (p=0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between CIMT and patient’s age, the duration from first blood transfusion, serum cholesterol and, iron overload parameters as serum ferritin, frequency of blood transfusion, iron chelation. The length of the transfusion period was the highest risk factor, and an inadequate iron chelation was a further risk factor. Significant negative correlation was found between CIMT and hematocrit value while no significant correlation was found between CIMT and weight, height, BMI centiles and Hb level. Conclusion Carotid Doppler is very useful in measurement of CIMT that increased in thalassemic patients that shows a strong relationship with features of iron overload. Routine Doppler measurement of CIMT in these patients is recommended to predict early atherosclerotic changes as well as in follow-up. PMID:25745550

  5. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  6. The role of exogenous risk factors of antituberculosis treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    LESNIC, EVELINA; USTIAN, AURELIA; POP, CARMEN MONICA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The Republic of Moldova reports the highest incidence of tuberculosis and the lowest treatment success rate among European region countries. In most of the patients the antituberculosis treatment failure is correlated with social risk factors (low socio-economical state, epidemiological danger characteristics) and biological factors (young age, male sex, physiological conditions, associated diseases). Clinical factors (advanced forms of tuberculosis, chronic evolution, immune disturbances), therapeutic factors (treatment errors and interruptions, individualized regimens) and administrative factors (drug interruption in supply, suboptimal treatment quality) prevail in regions with defficient in health care delivery. The association of risk factors has a higher impact than the severity of one risk factor. The risk factor assessment is very important before initiation of the treatment, for establishing the plan of risk reduction measures for increasing the success rate. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of exogenous risk factors on antituberculosis treatment failure. Methods The study was conducted on 201 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment failure and 105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who successfully finished the antituberculosis treatment. Selected cases were investigated according national standards. Results The treatment failure occurred in patients belonging to socially disadvantaged groups, patients with harmful habits (alcohol abuse, drug use, active smoking), patients from infectious clusters. Migration, homelessness and detention releasing imperil the quality of treatment, thus predisposing to the treatment failure. Social, educational support and the substitutive therapy and withdrawal techniques (tobacco, alcohol, psycho-active substances) must be implemented in the high risk groups in order to diminish the risk of treatment failure and to increase the treatment success rate. Conclusions The study of

  7. Natural history of atherosclerotic disease progression as assessed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hetterich, Holger; Rominger, Axel; Walter, Lisa; Habs, Maximilian; Volpers, Sarah; Hacker, Marcus; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bartenstein, Peter; Saam, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and plaque inflammation on the progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with (18)F-radiolabled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Patients who received a (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan and follow-up scan 9-24 months later without systemic inflammation or steroid medication were eligible for the study. (18)F-FDG PET/CT included a full diagnostic contrast enhanced CT scan. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were documented. Calcified plaque volume, lumen area and (18)F-FDG uptake, quantified by the target-to-background ratio (TBR), were measured in the carotid arteries, aorta and iliac arteries. Influence of cardiovascular risk factors and vessel wall inflammation on atherosclerotic disease progression was analyzed. Ninety-four patients underwent baseline and follow-up whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT (mean follow-up time 14.5 ± 3.5 months). Annualized calcified plaque volume increased by 15.4 % (p < 0.0001), carotid and aortic lumen area decreased by 10.5 % (p < 0.0001) and 1.7 % (p = 0.045). There was no significant difference in (18)F-FDG uptake at baseline and follow-up (mean TBR 1.44 ± 0.18 vs. 1.42 ± 0.19, p = 0.18). Multiple linear regression analysis identified hypertension as an independent predictor for total, aortic and iliac calcified plaque volume progression (all p < 0.04). Carotid lumen reduction was predicted by hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.008) while aortic lumen reduction was associated with BMI and mean (18)F-FDG uptake (p ≤ 0.005). Furthermore we observed a dose response relationship between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and calcified plaque volume progression in the aorta (p = 0.03). Findings from this study provide data on the natural history of atherosclerotic disease burden in multiple vascular beds and emphasize the value of

  8. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  9. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  10. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  11. Brain health and shared risk factors for dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-11-01

    Impaired brain health encompasses a range of clinical outcomes, including stroke, dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, cognitive ageing, and vascular functional impairment. Conditions associated with poor brain health represent leading causes of global morbidity and mortality, with projected increases in public health burden as the population ages. Many vascular risk factors are shared predictors for poor brain health. Moreover, subclinical brain MRI markers of vascular damage are risk factors shared between stroke and dementia, and can be used for risk stratification and early intervention. The broad concept of brain health has resulted in a conceptual shift from vascular risk factors to determinants of brain health. Global campaigns to reduce cardiovascular diseases by targeting modifiable risk factors are necessary and will have a broad impact on brain health. Research is needed on the distinct and overlapping aetiologies of brain health conditions, and to define MRI markers to help clinicians identify patients who will benefit from aggressive prevention measures.

  12. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women.

  13. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis. PMID:25593453

  14. Ischemic Heart Disease in Women: A Focus on Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985

  15. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  16. Intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic disease: casting a new light on emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Wang, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of secondary stroke mortality. Advances in invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities have improved analysis of hemodynamic changes and allowed better delineation of the integrity of intracranial collateralization and plague morphology in patients with artery stenosis. This review focuses on new imaging modalities and clinical applications of currently available techniques, and provides significant insight into future directions in comprehensive analysis of intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. PMID:27367590

  17. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  18. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  19. Stability across cohorts in divorce risk factors.

    PubMed

    Teachman, Jay D

    2002-05-01

    Over the past quarter-century, many covariates of divorce have been identified. However, the extent to which the effects of these covariates remain constant across time is not known. In this article, I examine the stability of the effects of a wide range of divorce covariates using a pooled sample of data taken from five rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth. This sample includes consistent measures of important predictors of divorce, covers marriages formed over 35 years (1950-1984), and spans substantial historical variation in the overall risk of marital dissolution. For the most part, the effects of the major sociodemographic predictors of divorce do not vary by historical period. The one exception is race. These results suggest that the effects associated with historical period have been pervasive, simultaneously altering the risk of divorce for most marriages.

  20. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  1. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313880

  2. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Beral, V; Smith, P

    1989-10-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infertility and late age at menopause were associated with an increase in risk. While these factors were related, they were each found to be independently associated with ovarian cancer risk after adjusting for the effect of the other factors.

  3. Behavioral risk factor surveillance of aged Medicare beneficiaries, 1995.

    PubMed

    Arday, D R; Arday, S L; Bolen, J; Rhodes, L; Chin, J; Minor, P

    1997-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing State-based telephone survey of adults, administered through State health departments. The survey estimates health status and the prevalence of various risk factors among respondents, who include both fee-for-service and managed care Medicare beneficiaries. In this article the authors present an overview of the BRFSS and report 1995 regional results among respondents who were 65 years of age or over and who had health insurance. The advantages and disadvantages of using the BRFSS as a tool to monitor beneficiary health status and risk factors are also discussed.

  4. Suicide in peacekeepers: risk factors for suicide versus accidental death.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-08-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to suicide risk, even when controlling for mental health problems. No peacekeeping-related factor was associated with suicide. Preventive measures should focus on firearms control, improved detection systems for mental health problems in the military, and peer support through veterans' associations. PMID:16978097

  5. Statin-centric versus low-density lipoprotein-centric approach for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention: a Singapore perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Peter; Tan, Eng Kiat Kevin; Choo, Jason Chon Jun; Liew, Choon Fong Stanley; Lau, Titus; Waters, David D

    2016-01-01

    The link between cholesterol levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well-established. In Singapore, there is an increasing prevalence of risk factors for ASCVD. Like many Asian countries, Singapore’s population is rapidly ageing and increasingly sedentary, which predisposes individuals to chronic health problems. Current international and local guidelines recommend statin therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite the effectiveness of statin therapy, some studies have highlighted that Asian patients with cardiovascular disease are not achieving target lipid goals. Furthermore, it is widely believed that the responses of Asians (both patients and physicians) to statin therapy are different from those of their Western counterparts. Experts convened in 2014 to determine the impact of current guidelines on clinical practice in Singapore. This review summarises the key findings and recommendations of these guidelines, and presents key principles to aid clinicians to manage the cardiovascular risk of their patients more effectively. PMID:27439304

  6. Comparison between coronary plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and risk factors of coronary artery disease patients in Chinese Han population and Mongolian

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Xiaodong; Dong, Peide; Liu, Aishi

    2013-01-01

    Objective : To compare the coronary atherosclerotic plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and the risk factors of Han (in Inner Mongolia) and Mongolian coronary artery disease patients. Metho d s: The plaques of 126 Mongolian and 269 Han patients were analyzed by 64-slice spiral CT coronary angiography. Their gender, age, height, body mass, the history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family diseases, the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were compared. Results: The incidence of plaques (P <0.05), the proportion of plaques in the circumflex branch (P <0.05), the proportion of medium-severe lumen stenosis induced by plaques (P <0.05), and the proportion of obstructive plaque involved multi-branch (P <0.05) of the Mongolian patients were higher. The plaque compositions of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). The body mass index of the Mongolian patients was higher (P <0.05). The hypertension, diabetes, smoking history, TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The higher incidence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and the more severe lesions of the Mongolian patients may be related to their higher body mass index. PMID:24353662

  7. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Joshua D; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque's collagen content-two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability-are interlinked. PMID:26752654

  8. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content--two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability--are interlinked.

  9. Genesis and growth of extracellular vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification zones. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content – two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability - are interlinked. PMID:26752654

  10. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1 year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  11. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  12. Military risk factors for cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Dallas P; Friedl, Karl E; Weiner, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Delayed neurological health consequences of environmental exposures during military service have been generally underappreciated. The rapidly expanding understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis now makes it possible to quantitate some of the likely long-term health risks associated with military service. Military risk factors for AD include both factors elevated in military personnel such as tobacco use, traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other nonspecific risk factors for AD including, vascular risk factors such as obesity and obesity-related diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome), education and physical fitness. The degree of combat exposure, Vietnam era Agent Orange exposure and Gulf War Illness may also influence risk for AD. Using available data on the association of AD and specific exposures and risk factors, the authors have conservatively estimated 423,000 new cases of AD in veterans by 2020, including 140,000 excess cases associated with specific military exposures. The cost associated with these excess cases is approximately $5.8 billion to $7.8 billion. Mitigation of the potential impact of military exposures on the cognitive function of veterans and management of modifiable risk factors through specifically designed programs will be instrumental in minimizing the impact of AD in veterans in the future decades. PMID:23906002

  13. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  14. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  15. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  16. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Katherine P; Solomon, Daniel H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with RA compared with the general population. While part of this risk appears to be mediated by RA-specific factors, such as long-term inflammation, traditional CV comorbidities also play an important role. We review evidence from previous studies of the relationship between RA and traditional CV comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity. We examine the prevalence and consider the effect of inflammation and RA treatments on these risk factors. Finally, we discuss three widely used CV risk estimators, the Framingham Risk Score, Reynolds Risk Score and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, and their performance in patients with RA. The traditional CV risk factors that appear to differ significantly between RA cases and controls include insulin resistance, abnormal fat distribution, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity. Dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension may also be elevated in RA; however, the evidence is conflicting. Overall, we found that the majority of information regarding CV risk factors in RA stems from data collected as covariates for studies on CV disease. A gap in knowledge exists regarding detailed information on individual risk factors in RA, their prevalence and modifications that occur as a result of inflammation or treatment. More studies are needed to develop methods for accurate CV risk estimation in RA. PMID:22986289

  17. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  18. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  19. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk. PMID:27565403

  20. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk.

  1. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke.

  2. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  3. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  4. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study. PMID:8844044

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  6. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study.

  7. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: an overview with emphasis on hormonal factors.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fariba; Dunfield, Lesley; Phillips, Karen P; Krewski, Daniel; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2008-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequently occurring cancer among women and leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths in North America. Although the etiology of ovarian cancer is not clear, certain factors are implicated in the etiology of this disease, such as ovulation, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, germ cell depletion, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, growth factors, cytokines, and environmental agents. Family history of breast or ovarian cancer is a prominent risk factor for ovarian cancer, with 5-10% of ovarian cancers due to heritable risk. Reproductive factors such as age at menopause and infertility contribute to greater risk of ovarian cancer, whereas pregnancy, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy reduce risk. Oral contraceptive (OC) use has clearly been shown to be protective against ovarian cancer. In contrast, large epidemiologic studies found hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to be a greater risk factor for ovarian cancer. The marked influence of hormones and reproductive factors on ovarian cancer suggests that endocrine disrupters may impact risk; however, there is a notable lack of research in this area. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diet may affect ovarian cancer risk. Exposure to certain environmental agents such as talc, pesticides, and herbicides may increase risk of ovarian cancer; however, these studies are limited. Further research is needed to strengthen the database of information from which an assessment of environmental and toxicological risk factors for ovarian cancer can be made.

  8. Assessing risk for sexual recidivism: some proposals on the nature of psychologically meaningful risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mann, Ruth E; Hanson, R Karl; Thornton, David

    2010-06-01

    Risk assessment and treatment for sexual offenders should focus on individual characteristics associated with recidivism risk. Although it is possible to conduct risk assessments based purely on empirical correlates, the most useful evaluations also explain the source of the risk. In this review, the authors propose that the basic requirements for a psychologically meaningful risk factor are (a) a plausible rationale that the factor is a cause of sexual offending and (b) strong evidence that it predicts sexual recidivism. Based on the second of these criteria, the authors categorize potential risk factors according to the strength of the evidence for their relationship with offending. The most strongly supported variables should be emphasized in both assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. Further research is required, however, to establish causal connections between these variables and recidivism and to examine the extent to which changes in these factors leads to reductions in recidivism potential. PMID:20363981

  9. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  10. Risk factor assessment of endoscopically removed malignant colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, P; Forster, C; Biral, R; Ruchti, C; Neuweiler, J; Stauffer, E; Schonegg, R; Maurer, C; Husler, J; Halter, F; Schmassmann, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—Malignant colorectal polyps are defined as endoscopically removed polyps with cancerous tissue which has invaded the submucosa. Various histological criteria exist for managing these patients. 
Aims—To determine the significance of histological findings of patients with malignant polyps. 
Methods—Five pathologists reviewed the specimens of 85 patients initially diagnosed with malignant polyps. High risk malignant polyps were defined as having one of the following: incomplete polypectomy, a margin not clearly cancer-free, lymphatic or venous invasion, or grade III carcinoma. Adverse outcome was defined as residual cancer in a resection specimen and local or metastatic recurrence in the follow up period (mean 67months). 
Results—Malignant polyps were confirmed in 70 cases. In the 32 low risk malignant polyps, no adverse outcomes occurred; 16(42%) of the 38 patients with high risk polyps had adverse outcomes (p<0.001). Independent adverse risk factors were incomplete polypectomy and a resected margin not clearly cancer-free; all other risk factors were only associated with adverse outcome when in combination. 
Conclusion—As no patients with low risk malignant polyps had adverse outcomes, polypectomy alone seems sufficient for these cases. In the high risk group, surgery is recommended when either of the two independent risk factors, incomplete polypectomy or a resection margin not clearly cancer-free, is present or if there is a combination of other risk factors. As lymphatic or venous invasion or grade III cancer did not have an adverse outcome when the sole risk factor, operations in such cases should be individually assessed on the basis of surgical risk. 

 Keywords: malignant polyps; colon cancer; colonoscopy; polypectomy; histology PMID:9824349

  11. Risk factors for hookah smoking among arabs and chaldeans.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Geeso, Sanabil G; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32%) than Chaldeans (26%, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52%, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  12. Workplace violence in healthcare settings: risk factors and protective strategies.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Gates, Donna M; Miller, Margaret; Howard, Patricia Kunz

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the risk factors and protective strategies associated with workplace violence perpetrated by patients and visitors against healthcare workers. Perpetrator risk factors for patients and visitors in healthcare settings include mental health disorders, drug or alcohol use, inability to deal with situational crises, possession of weapons, and being a victim of violence. Worker risk factors are gender, age, years of experience, hours worked, marital status, and previous workplace violence training. Setting and environmental risk factors for experiencing workplace violence include time of day and presence of security cameras. Protective strategies for combating the negative consequences of workplace violence include carrying a telephone, practicing self-defense, instructing perpetrators to stop being violent, self- and social support, and limiting interactions with potential or known perpetrators of violence. Workplace violence is a serious and growing problem that affects all healthcare professionals. Strategies are needed to prevent workplace violence and manage the negative consequences experienced by healthcare workers following violent events.

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hodgkin disease, or some combination of these factors. Socioeconomic status The risk of Hodgkin disease is greater in people with a higher socioeconomic background. The reason for this is not clear. ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  15. Prenatal Factors May Raise Child's Risk for OCD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the researchers found. The study findings held after accounting for other family conditions, such as socioeconomic status ... believes a genetic risk for OCD coupled with environmental factors may trigger the condition. "Some of these ...

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  17. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  18. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  19. Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... three times more likely to develop CHD than people who are not. Depression is twice as common in women as in men. Risk Factors You Can't Control Age and Menopause —As you get older, your risk for CHD and heart attack rises. ...

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  1. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  2. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  3. Risk Factors for Bereavement Outcome: A Multivariate Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; van den Bout, Jan; Wijngaards-De Meij, Leoniek

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement increases the risk of ill health, but only a minority of bereaved suffers lasting health impairment. Because only this group is likely to profit from bereavement intervention, early identification is important. Previous research is limited, because of cross sectional designs, small numbers of risk factors, and use of a single measure…

  4. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  6. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small. PMID:23725070

  7. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  8. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  9. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  10. Risk Factors for Increased Severity of Paediatric Medication Administration Errors

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian paediatric centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential errors that occurred. Three hundred seventy-two errors were reported, with outcome severities ranging from time delays up to fatalities. Four factors correlated significantly with increased risk for more severe outcomes: insufficient training; overtime; precepting a student; and off-service patient. Factors' impacts on severity also vary with error class: for wrong-time errors, the factors precepting a student or working overtime significantly increase severe-outcomes risk. For other types, caring for an off-service patient has greatest severity risk. To expand such research, better standardization is needed for categorizing outcome severities. PMID:23968607

  11. Tortuosity of coronary bifurcation as a potential local risk factor for atherosclerosis: CFD steady state study based on in vivo dynamic CT measurements.

    PubMed

    Malvè, M; Gharib, A M; Yazdani, S K; Finet, G; Martínez, M A; Pettigrew, R; Ohayon, J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether in vivo bifurcation geometric factors would permit prediction of the risk of atherosclerosis. It is worldwide accepted that low or oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is a robust hemodynamic factor in the development of atherosclerotic plaque and has a strong correlation with the local site of plaque deposition. However, it still remains unclear how coronary bifurcation geometries are correlated with such hemodynamic forces. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed on left main (LM) coronary bifurcation geometries derived from CT of eight patients without significant atherosclerosis. WSS amplitudes were accurately quantified at two high risk zones of atherosclerosis, namely at proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and at proximal left circumflex artery (LCx), and also at three high WSS concentration sites near the bifurcation. Statistical analysis was used to highlight relationships between WSS amplitudes calculated at these five zones of interest and various geometric factors. The tortuosity index of the LM-LAD segment appears to be an emergent geometric factor in determining the low WSS amplitude at proximal LAD. Strong correlations were found between the high WSS amplitudes calculated at the endothelial regions close to the flow divider. This study not only demonstrated that CT imaging studies of local risk factor for atherosclerosis could be clinically performed, but also showed that tortuosity of LM-LAD coronary branch could be used as a surrogate marker for the onset of atherosclerosis.

  12. Behavioral risk factors among women presenting for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Emmons, K M; Kalkbrenner, K J; Klar, N; Light, T; Schneider, K A; Garber, J E

    2000-01-01

    Considerable research attention has been given to the impact of genetic testing on psychological outcomes. Participation in genetic testing also may impact on health behaviors that increase the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe behavioral cancer risk factors of women who requested genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1, BRCA2). Before participation in a genetic testing program, 119 women completed a series of questionnaires designed to assess their health behaviors, perception of risk, and depressive symptomatology. Eight percent of participants were current smokers, 27% did not engage in at least moderate exercise, 46% did not regularly protect themselves from the sun, 39% did not consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and 9% drank at least one alcoholic beverage per day. Poisson regression analysis revealed that age was the only predictor of behavioral risk profiles, with older women having fewer cancer risk behaviors. These patients who presented for genetic testing generally had better health behaviors than the general population. However, given their possible high-risk status, these patients should consider further improving their preventable cancer risk factors and, in particular, their diet, sun protection, and physical activity levels. Inclusion of behavioral risk factor counseling in the context of the genetic testing process may be an important opportunity to reach this at-risk population.

  13. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Myrowitz, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1–2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors. PMID:23961008

  14. [Anemia as a surgical risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moral García, Victoria; Ángeles Gil de Bernabé Sala, M; Nadia Diana, Kinast; Pericas, Bartolomé Cantallops; Nebot, Alexia Galindo

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative anemia is common in patients undergoing surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased quality of life. The main causes of anemia in the perioperative context are iron deficiency and chronic inflammation. Anemia can be aggravated by blood loss during surgery, and is most commonly treated with allogeneic transfusion. Moreover, blood transfusions are not without risks, once again increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Given these concerns, we propose to review the pathophysiology of anemia in the surgical environment, as well as its treatment through the consumption of iron-rich foods and by oral or intravenous iron therapy (iron sucrose and iron carboxymaltose). In chronic inflammatory anemia, we use erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (erythropoietin alpha) and, in cases of mixed anemia, the combination of both treatments. The objective is always to reduce the need for perioperative transfusions and speed the recovery from postoperative anemia, as well as decrease the patient morbidity and mortality rate.

  15. The major risk factors for delirium in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Harin; Chung, Seockhoon; Joo, Yeon Ho; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the major risk factors for the development of delirium in patients at a single general hospital by comparison with a control group. Subjects and methods We reviewed the medical records of 260 delirium patients and 77 control patients. We investigated age, sex, and risk factors for delirium in the total delirium group (n=260), the delirium medical subgroup (n=142), and the delirium surgical subgroup (n=118). Logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex was performed to identify the odds ratio. Results The mean age and the percentage of males were significantly higher in the delirium group compared with the control group (68.9 vs 54.3 years and 70% vs 41.6%, respectively). Risk factors for the delirium group were lower plasma albumin, hypertension, mechanical ventilation, and antipsychotic drug use. Plasma sodium level and hypertension were important risk factors for the delirium medical subgroup. Stroke history, hypertension, ICU care, and medication were important risk factors for the delirium surgical subgroup. Conclusion Lower plasma albumin, hypertension, mechanical ventilation, and antipsychotic drug use are important risk factors for delirium. PMID:27499625

  16. RISK FACTORS OF THYROID PATHOLOGY FORMATION IN OUTPATIENT PREGNANT POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Morchiladze, N; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D; Gagua, T

    2016-06-01

    Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology. Study of risk factors was performed by initial interviewing and specialized questionnaire recording process (so-called two-stage model of interviewing). Characteristics of diet, sleep, physical activity, including harmful habits, socio-economic and hereditary factors were studied; quantitative indices of risk for each component were calculated: odds ratio (OR) and attributable risk (AR), taking into account 95% confidence interval (CI). The Pearson's criterion χ2 with respective P value and the calculator developed by International Society of Evidence-based Medicine were used to obtain the final results. Statistically significant risk factors for development of thyroid pathology were identified, which included: Thyroid gland diseases and hereditary history of diabetes mellitus; low economic income, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy dietary habits. Despite of the difficulty of assessment of causative relationship between above mentioned components, their strong correlation should be taken into account when defining the strategy of preventive measures, moreover the most part of identified risk factors are manageable. PMID:27441534

  17. Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Brett A; Hastings, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Extinction risk in natural populations depends on stochastic factors that affect individuals, and is estimated by incorporating such factors into stochastic models. Stochasticity can be divided into four categories, which include the probabilistic nature of birth and death at the level of individuals (demographic stochasticity), variation in population-level birth and death rates among times or locations (environmental stochasticity), the sex of individuals and variation in vital rates among individuals within a population (demographic heterogeneity). Mechanistic stochastic models that include all of these factors have not previously been developed to examine their combined effects on extinction risk. Here we derive a family of stochastic Ricker models using different combinations of all these stochastic factors, and show that extinction risk depends strongly on the combination of factors that contribute to stochasticity. Furthermore, we show that only with the full stochastic model can the relative importance of environmental and demographic variability, and therefore extinction risk, be correctly determined. Using the full model, we find that demographic sources of stochasticity are the prominent cause of variability in a laboratory population of Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle), whereas using only the standard simpler models would lead to the erroneous conclusion that environmental variability dominates. Our results demonstrate that current estimates of extinction risk for natural populations could be greatly underestimated because variability has been mistakenly attributed to the environment rather than the demographic factors described here that entail much higher extinction risk for the same variability level.

  18. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  19. Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Amy; Wong, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Provides an overview of the identified risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression emphasizing the pediatric population. Recent findings Over the past ten years, there have been significant changes to our understanding and study of pre-terminal kidney failure. Recent refinements in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR estimating equations are important tools for identification and association of risk factors for CKD progression in children. In pediatric CKD, lower level of kidney function at presentation, higher levels of proteinuria, and hypertension are known markers for a more rapid decline in GFR. Anemia and other reported risk factors from the pre-genomic era have need for further study and validation. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci which have provided novel genetic risk factors for CKD progression. Summary With cohort studies of children with CKD becoming mature, they have started to yield important refinements to the assessment of CKD progression. While many of the traditional risk factors for renal progression will certainly be assessed, such cohorts will be important for evaluating novel risk factors identified by genome-wide studies. PMID:20090523

  20. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  1. Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

    2014-12-15

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  2. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  3. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  4. Risk Factors for Endometritis Following Low Transverse Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    OLSEN, Margaret A.; BUTLER, Anne M.; WILLERS, Denise M.; GROSS, Gilad A.; DEVKOTA, Preetishma; FRASER, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine independent risk factors for endometritis (EMM) following low transverse cesarean section (LTCS). Study design We performed a retrospective case-control study from July 1999 to June 2001 in a large tertiary-care academic hospital. EMM was defined as fever beginning > 24 hours or continuing for ≥ 24 hours after delivery plus fundal tenderness in the absence of other causes for fever. Independent risk factors for EMM were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A fractional polynomial method was used to examine risk of EMM associated with the continuous variable, duration of rupture of membranes. Results EMM was identified in 124/1605 (7.7%) women within 30 days after LTCS. Independent risk factors for EMM included age (odds ratio (OR) for each additional year 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.97) and anemia/perioperative blood transfusion (OR 2.18; CI:1.30-3.68). Risk of EMM was marginally associated with a proxy for low socioeconomic status, lack of private health insurance (OR 1.72; CI: 0.99-3.00), amniotomy (OR 1.69; CI:0.97-2.95), and longer duration of rupture of membranes. Conclusion Risk of EMM was independently associated with younger age and anemia, and was marginally associated with lack of private health insurance, and amniotomy. Although duration of rupture of membranes was only marginally associated with increased risk of EMM, increased risk was observed very soon after rupture of membranes. Knowledge of these risk factors is important to guide selective use of prophylactic antibiotics during labor and heighten awareness of the risk in subgroups at highest risk of infection. PMID:19951198

  5. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  6. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Marian; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen considerably in the past 30 years due to changes in the environment that have been only partially identified. In this Series paper, we critically discuss candidate triggers of islet autoimmunity and factors thought to promote progression from autoimmunity to overt type 1 diabetes. We revisit previously proposed hypotheses to explain the growth in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in light of current data. Finally, we suggest a unified model in which immune tolerance to β cells can be broken by several environmental exposures that induce generation of hybrid peptides acting as neoautoantigens. PMID:27302273

  7. DEPRESSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Primma, Svetlana; Csako, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health threat. Multiple studies have reported an association between depression and low bone mineral density, but a causal link between these two conditions is disputed. Here we review the endocrine and immune alterations secondary to depression that might affect bone mass. We also discuss the possible role of poor lifestyle in the etiology of osteoporosis in subjects with depression and the potential effect of antidepressants on bone loss. We propose that depression induces bone loss and osteoporotic fractures, primarily via specific immune and endocrine mechanisms, with poor lifestyle habits and use of specific antidepressants also potential contributory factors. PMID:19747841

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  9. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Pisters, Peter W.; Evans, Douglas B.; Khan, Rabia; Chou, Ta-Hsu; Lenzi, Renato; Jiao, Li; Li, Donghui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although cigarette smoking is the most well-established environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the interaction between smoking and other risk factors has not been assessed. We evaluated the independent effects of multiple risk factors for pancreatic cancer and determined whether the magnitude of cigarette smoking was modified by other risk factors in men and women. METHODS We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 808 patients with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 808 healthy frequency-matched controls. Information on risk factors was collected by personal interview, and unconditional logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios (AORs) by the maximum-likelihood method. RESULTS Cigarette smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, heavy alcohol consumption (>60 mL ethanol/day), diabetes mellitus, and history of pancreatitis were significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We found synergistic interactions between cigarette smoking and family history of pancreatic cancer (AOR 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–108.9) and diabetes mellitus (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 2.0–44.1) in women, according to an additive model. Approximately 23%, 9%, 3%, and 5% of pancreatic cancer cases in this study were related to cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol consumption, and family history of pancreatic cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The significant synergy between these risk factors suggests a common pathway for carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determining the underlying mechanisms for such synergies may lead to the development of pancreatic cancer prevention strategies for high-risk individuals. PMID:17764494

  10. Poor maternal nutrition programmes a pro-atherosclerotic phenotype in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Heather L; Piekarz, Ana V; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Mercer, John R; Figg, Nichola; Bennett, Martin; Ozanne, Susan E

    2012-08-01

    Numerous animal studies have consistently shown that early life exposure to LP (low-protein) diet programmes risk factors for CVD (cardiovascular disease) such as dyslipidaemia, high BP (blood pressure) and cardiac dysfunction in the offspring. However, studies on the effect of maternal under-nutrition on offspring development of atherosclerosis are scarce. Applying our LP model to the ApoE(-/-) atherosclerosis-prone mouse model, we investigated the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root of 6-month-old offspring. In addition, markers of plaque progression including SMA (smooth muscle actin) and Mac3 (macrophage marker 3) were studied. Pregnant dams were fed on a control (20% protein) or on an isocaloric LP diet (8% protein) throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring were maintained on 20% normal laboratory chow. At 6 months of age, LP offspring showed a significantly greater plaque area (P<0.05) with increased cholesterol clefts and significantly higher indices of DNA damage compared with controls (P<0.05). The expression of HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) (P<0.05) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor in the liver of LP offspring were increased. Furthermore, LP offspring had higher LDL-cholesterol levels (P<0.05) and a trend towards elevated insulin. There were no differences in other lipid measurements and fasting glucose between groups. These observations suggest that early exposure to an LP diet accelerates the development and increases the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in young adult offspring. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms linking in utero exposure to a diet low in protein to the development of atherosclerosis.

  11. [Occupational risk factors and medical prevention in corrections officers].

    PubMed

    Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding.

  12. [Deep vein thrombosis: epidemiology, risk factors and natural history].

    PubMed

    Coiteux, I; Mazzolai, L

    2006-03-22

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are major sources of morbidity and mortality. In young individuals the incidence of DVT is of 1/100,000 people; at middle age it is approximately 1/1000, which is also the overall incidence; thereafter, it increases steeply and in old age approaches 1%/year. DVT is a multifactorial disease involving a variety of risk factors, many of which are common. It is nowadays accepted that the interaction of multiple risk factors over time determines the risk of thrombosis.

  13. Domestic Environmental Risk Factors Associated with Falling in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    LÖK, Neslihan; AKIN, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming at analyzing the relation between falling and domestic environmental –risk factors in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The study consisted of 243 randomly chosen community-dwelling elderly over 65 years of age living around a health care center in Central Selcuklu, Konya. Data were collected with a questionnaire form including socio-demographic and other characteristics, with the Rivermead Mobility Index for evaluating mobility condition and an Evaluation Form of Domestic Environmental Risk Factors of Falling (EFDERF), which is developed by the researcher to assess domestic environmental risk factors of falling. Results: Based on (EFDERF) high number of problems lived in bathroom/restroom, kitchen, bedroom, sitting room/saloon and in all other areas was a risk factor in terms of domestic falling characteristics while the number of problems lived in hall and stairs was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion: EFDERF may be used by the nurses and health professionals to evaluate risk of falling and collecting data after visits in primary-care of elderly. PMID:23515204

  14. Developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Mortimer, James A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; McCormick, Wayne C; Bowen, James D; McCurry, Susan; Larson, Eric B

    2005-03-01

    To investigate developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 90 incident cases of probable AD in a cohort of 1859 individuals followed prospectively for six years. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele was the strongest risk factor, and with increasing survival age, the effect of epsilon4 diminished. Among epsilon4 positives, developmental risk factors such as smaller head circumference (< or =54.4 cm) and having more than four children in the household at age 2-3 were independently associated with incident AD (hazard ratio (HR)=2.6 (95% CI 1.04-6.3) and 3.3 (1.2-9.2), respectively). Among epsilon4 negatives, vascular risk factors were related to AD risk (self-reported diagnoses of transient ischemic attack and diabetes (HR=5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.5; HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.1)). These findings indicate that clinical AD is a result of early life as well as later life risk factors, and that genetic predisposition to the disease may modify the constellation of predictors.

  15. Risk factors for neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Elizabeth F; Ang, Yeng S

    2011-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) confers a significant increased risk for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), with the pathogenesis appearing to progress through a “metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma” (MDC) sequence. Many of the genetic insults driving this MDC sequence have recently been characterized, providing targets for candidate biomarkers with potential clinical utility to stratify risk in individual patients. Many clinical risk factors have been investigated, and associations with a variety of genetic, specific gastrointestinal and other modifiable factors have been proposed in the literature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in neoplastic progression of BE to EAC and critically appraises the relative roles and contributions of these putative risk factors from the published evidence currently available. PMID:21990948

  16. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence.

    PubMed

    Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel; Testa, Silvia; Bina, Manuela; Calandri, Emanuela

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14-16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends' models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. PMID:25448830

  17. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  19. [Genetic risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ikari, Katsunori

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common autoimmune diseases, is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disease, which is primarily involves the joints affecting up to 1% of the population. RA is believed to be a complex, multifarious disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Disease susceptibility has been estimated to have a genetic component of 60% by data from twin studies. To date, more than 100 RA susceptibility loci, including HLA-DRB1, have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and GWAS meta-analyses. Through a big data approach using large amounts of comprehensive biologic data included GWAS, we identified important information, such as susceptible genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis. PMID:27311175

  20. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  1. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  2. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  3. Risk factors for ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Ikawa, Kazuro; Kanazawa, Naoko; Fujisaki, Yuko; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ganciclovir is a nucleoside guanosine analogue that exhibits therapeutic activity against human cytomegalovirus infection, and is primarily excreted via glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. The adverse effects induced by ganciclovir therapy are generally of a hematological nature and include thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Low marrow cellularity and elevated serum creatinine have been identified as risk factors for ganciclovir-induced neutropenia. However, the risk factors for thrombocytopenia have yet to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated patients administered ganciclovir to determine the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 41 of these patients (30.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia: cancer chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR)=3.1), creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) (OR=12.8), and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=15.1). Leukopenia occurred in 36 patients (28.6%), and white blood cell count (<6000 cells/mm(3)) (OR=3.7) and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=7.8) were identified as risk factors. These results demonstrated that several factors influenced the occurrence of ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and suggest that special attention should be paid to patients receiving cancer chemotherapy with a low creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) and high dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) in order to avoid ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:25747982

  4. Established and Suspected Risk Factors in Breast Cancer Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although a current decline in breast cancer incidence and mortality is being observed, the disease continues to be the most common malignancy among women. Breast cancer is a worldwide public health problem that causes substantial personal and social burdens. While we do not yet know exactly what causes the disease, we know a large number of risk factors that are linked to breast cancer. In particular, hormonal factors seem to play a key role in the causation of the disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of established and suspected risk factors of breast cancer from an epidemiologic point of view. PMID:20847884

  5. [Role of hormonal risk factors in oral cancer development].

    PubMed

    Suba, Zsuzsanna; Maksa, Györgyi; Mihályi, Szilvia; Takács, Dániel

    2009-04-26

    Male: female ratio of oral cancer cases (OC) is fairly high. Lower rate of female cases as compared with males suggests that some endocrine factors may play role in the development of tumors. The aim of the present study was to clarify the differences of risk factors for OC among male and female cases. In the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Semmelweis University 2660 OC (2130 males and 530 females) patients were included into the study. Ratio of smoking, alcohol consumption, elevated serum glucose level and menopausal data of the female patients were registered. Concordant to the literary data, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption proved to be an important risk factor for OC both among male and female patients. However, moderate alcohol consumption was a weak risk factor among male and no risk factor among female cases. Elevated serum glucose level was not significant OC risk among male cases, but was a high risk factor among female patients, especially in gingival cancer cases. The female OC cases were near exclusively postmenopausal, and the term between the time of menopause and clinical OC diagnosis was fairly long (average: 17 year). These results suggest that estrogen-deficiency may play an important role in the initiation of OC. In the female OC cases menopause appeared in significantly younger age, and the rate of hysterectomy was also significantly higher as compared with the tumor-free control cases. These data also support the estrogen-deficiency theory of cancer initiation. In postmenopausal female patients both estrogen-deficiency and elevated fasting glucose proved to be risk factors for OC. These results reveal new aspects concerning the etiology of OC and give a possible explanation how smoking-associated tumors may develop even without smoking. PMID:19362935

  6. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  7. Mapping elasticity moduli of atherosclerotic plaque in situ via atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tracqui, Philippe; Broisat, Alexis; Toczek, Jackub; Mesnier, Nicolas; Ohayon, Jacques; Riou, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that evolving mechanical stresses and strains drive atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability. Especially, stress distribution in the plaque fibrous capsule is an important determinant for the risk of vulnerable plaque rupture. Knowledge of the stiffness of atherosclerotic plaque components is therefore of critical importance. In this work, force mapping experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were conducted in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse, which represents the most widely used experimental model for studying mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerotic lesions. To obtain the elastic material properties of fibrous caps and lipidic cores of atherosclerotic plaques, serial cross-sections of aortic arch lesions were probed at different sites. Atherosclerotic plaque sub-structures were subdivided into cellular fibrotic, hypocellular fibrotic and lipidic rich areas according to histological staining. Hertz's contact mechanics were used to determine elasticity (Young's) moduli that were related to the underlying histological plaque structure. Cellular fibrotic regions exhibit a mean Young modulus of 10.4±5.7kPa. Hypocellular fibrous caps were almost six-times stiffer, with average modulus value of 59.4±47.4kPa, locally rising up to ∼250kPa. Lipid rich areas exhibit a rather large range of Young's moduli, with average value of 5.5±3.5kPa. Such precise quantification of plaque stiffness heterogeneity will allow investigators to have prospectively a better monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution, including arterial wall remodeling and plaque rupture, in response to mechanical constraints imposed by vascular shear stress and blood pressure.

  8. Mental illness, criminal risk factors and parole release decisions.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Draine, Jeffrey; Solomon, Phyllis; Salzer, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Research has not examined whether higher rates of parole denial among inmates with mental illness (MI) are the result of the increased presence of criminal risk factors among this population. Employing a representative sample of inmates with (n  =  219) and without (n  =  184) MI receiving parole release decisions in 2007, this study tested whether the central eight risk factors for recidivism considered in parole release decisions intervened in the relationship between MI and parole release. MI was associated with possession of a substance use disorder, antisocial personality disorder and violent charges while incarcerated; however, these factors were not related to release decisions. MI was found to have neither a direct nor an indirect effect on release decisions. While results indicate that release decisions appear, to some extent, to be evidence-based, they also suggest considerable discretion is being implemented by parole board members in release decisions above and beyond consideration of criminal risk factors.

  9. Immigration disparities in cardiovascular disease risk factor awareness.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael L; Brookmeyer, Ron; Roberts, Christian K; Peters, Anne; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-12-01

    The association between immigration status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor awareness is unknown. Using physical examination-based data and participants' self-report of prior diagnosis, we assessed immigration-based disparities in awareness of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight among 12,124 participants in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Unawareness of CVD risk factors is high among all groups, but tends to be higher among foreign-born English and non-English speaking participants than among US-born participants. After adjusting for demographic factors and access to health care, foreign-born participants appear more likely to be unaware of their hypertension and overweight than US-born participants. Immigrants are more likely than those born in the US to be unaware of their CVD risk factors, and therefore may be less motivated to seek treatment and modify their behavior to prevent negative CVD outcomes.

  10. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children.

  11. Musculoskeletal symptoms, postural disorders and occupational risk factors: correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Comper, Maria Luiza C; Macedo, Felipe; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) include a list of inflammatory and degenerative diseases characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms, compensatory posture changes and functional disabilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetic/functional characteristics of textile plant workers, their level of exposure to risk factors and the contribution these make to musculoskeletal symptoms. The sample of 42 workers answered the Nordic Questionnaire and the Job Factors Questionnaire. The kinetic/functional characteristics of each worker were verified by a blinded evaluator. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were more prevalent in the spinal region and upper limbs. The exposure levels to risk factors were identified as a serious problem. Postural disorders, musculoskeletal symptoms and risk factors were correlated (P ≤ 0.05).

  12. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children. PMID:21923226

  13. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  14. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  15. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors.

  16. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09–1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13–1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias—cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40–5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01–1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  17. Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Bouma, Brett E; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2008-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

  18. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  19. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  20. Relative risk factors in the treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Cummings, B J

    1980-01-01

    The potentially fatal complications associated with surgery and radiation therapy in the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are analyzed. Quantitative risk factors established from review of the literature suggest a risk of potentially fatal complications of 1 in 3,000 from general anesthesia, 1 in 1,600 from arteriography, 1 in 160 from blood transfusion, and 1 in 500 from the surgical procedure itself. The total of these risks is comparable to the 1% lifetime risk of developing a radiation-induced tumor after radiation therapy. The time pattern of these complications differs in that fatal radiation-induced complications are delayed, whereas the risks associated with surgery, general anesthesia, and blood transfusion are more immediate. However, it is suggested that treatment-related risks of fatal complications are of a similar order of magnitude for surgery and for radiation therapy in the management of JNA.

  1. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Amin, N; Abel, R; Sampathkumar, V

    1993-01-01

    Maternal factors comprising of social, obstetric and anthropometric are found to influence LBW. The present study had found association between obstetric risk factors like age of the mother, parity and gravida with LBW. Similar association was also observed between maternal height, and maternal weight with LBW. However, social factors were not found to be associated with LBW. This could probably be due to RUHSA's intervention which requires a further inquiry. PMID:8244503

  2. Atherosclerosis risk factors in pigeon squabs

    SciTech Connect

    Klumpp, S.A.; Clarkson, T.B.

    1986-03-01

    The basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility of White Carneau (WC) and resistance of Show Racer (SR) pigeons is not known. Body weight (BW), total serum cholesterol (TSC), growth of the aorta and replication of endothelial cells of the distal thoracic aorta (lesion prone site) of 1, 2 and 4 week old squabs were studied. Aortic measurements were determined morphometrically, and endothelial cell replication was quantitated by 24-hour /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling and whole-mount SEM autoradiography. From hatching to 4 weeks, BW increased more in WC than SR (22 to 473 gm in WC vs 19 to 416 gm in SR, p < 0.05) in WC than SR (197, 243 and 338 mg/dl in WC and 125, 194 and 282 mg/dl in SR). Surface area of the aorta between 1 and 4 weeks increased by 63% (109, 154 and 178 mm/sup 2/) in WC and 44% (101, 140 and 146 mm/sup 2/) in SR. Aortic surface area was significantly larger (0 = 0.002) in the 4 week WC than 4 week SR. /sup 3/H-thymidine labeled endothelial cells at 1, 2 and 4 weeks were 783, 387 and 53 in WC and 674, 283 and 27 cells/mm/sup 2/ in SR. Endothelial replication in the 4 week WC was twice that of the SR and significantly different between breeds at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). Higher TSC, endothelial cell replication and larger aortic surface area in the WC may be contributing factors to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  3. Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.

    2009-10-01

    This study examines flood risk perceptions of individuals in the Netherlands using a survey of approximately 1000 homeowners. Perceptions of a range of aspects of flood risk are elicited. Various statistical models are used to estimate the influence of socioeconomic and geographical characteristics, personal experience with flooding, knowledge of flood threats, and individual risk attitudes on shaping risk belief. The study shows that in general, perceptions of flood risk are low. An analysis of the factors determining risk perceptions provides four main insights relevant for policy makers and insurers. First, differences in expected risk are consistently related to actual risk levels, since individuals in the vicinity of a main river and low-lying areas generally have elevated risk perceptions. Second, individuals in areas unprotected by dikes tend to underestimate their risk of flooding. Third, individuals with little knowledge of the causes of flood events have lower perceptions of flood risk. Fourth, there is some evidence that older and more highly educated individuals have a lower flood risk perception. The findings indicate that increasing knowledge of citizens about the causes of flooding may increase flood risk awareness. It is especially important to target individuals who live in areas unprotected by dike infrastructure, since they tend to be unaware of or ignore the high risk exposure faced.

  4. Risk factors for heatstroke. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, E M; Choi, K; Jones, T S; Thacker, S B

    1982-06-25

    To identify risk factors associated with heatstroke, a case-control study in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo, was conducted during July and August 1980. Questionnaire data were gathered for 156 persons with heatstroke (severe heat illness with documented hyperthermia) and 462 control subjects matched by age, sex, and neighborhood of residence. A stepwise linear logistic regression procedure was used to identify factors significantly associated with heatstroke. Alcoholism, living on the higher floors of multistory buildings, and using major tranquilizers (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, or thioxanthenes) were factors associated with increased risk. Factors associated with decreased risk were using home air conditioning, spending more time in air-conditioned places, and living in a residence well shaded by trees and shrubs. Being able to care for oneself, characteristically undertaking vigorous physical activity, but reducing such activity during the heat, and taking extra liquid were also associated with decreased risk. Our findings also suggest effective preventive measures. During a heat wave, the greatest attention should be directed toward high-risk groups, and relief efforts should include measures shown to be associated with reduced risk. PMID:7087076

  5. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Raymond Y.; Figueroa, Karla P.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Lin, Chi-Ying; Perlman, Susan; Wilmot, George; Gomez, Christopher M.; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Paulson, Henry; Shakkottai, Vikram G.; Ying, Sarah H.; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Bushara, Khalaf; Geschwind, Michael; Xia, Guangbin; Subramony, S. H.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2015-01-01

    Background The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) are not known. Methods We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account. Results Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression. PMID:25713748

  6. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  7. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    With the booming of healthcare industry and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we take advantage of EHR data to develop an effective disease risk management model that not only models the progression of the disease, but also predicts the risk of the disease for early disease control or prevention. Existing models for answering these questions usually fall into two categories: the expert knowledge based model or the handcrafted feature set based model. To fully utilize the whole EHR data, we will build a framework to construct an integrated representation of features from all available risk factors in the EHR data and use these integrated features to effectively predict osteoporosis and bone fractures. We will also develop a framework for informative risk factor selection of bone diseases. A pair of models for two contrast cohorts (e.g., diseased patients versus non-diseased patients) will be established to discriminate their characteristics and find the most informative risk factors. Several empirical results on a real bone disease data set show that the proposed framework can successfully predict bone diseases and select informative risk factors that are beneficial and useful to guide clinical decisions.

  8. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations.

  9. The global distribution of risk factors by poverty level.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Hales, Simon; Kieft, Charlotte; Wilson, Nick; Woodward, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the individual-level association of income poverty with being underweight, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, being exposed to indoor air pollution and being obese. METHODS: Using survey data for as many countries as possible, we estimated the relative risk association between income or assets and risk factors at the individual level within 11 medium- and low-income subregions of WHO. WHO and The World Bank data on the prevalence of risk factors and income poverty (defined as living on < US$ 1.00 per day, US$ 1-2.00 per day and > US$ 2.00 per day) were analysed to impute the association between poverty and risk factors for each subregion. The possible effect of poverty reduction on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated using population-attributable risk percentages. FINDINGS: There were strong associations between poverty and malnutrition among children, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, and being exposed to indoor air pollution within each subregion (relative risks were twofold to threefold greater for those living on < US$ 1.00 per day compared with those living on > US$ 2.00 per day). Associations between poverty and obesity, tobacco use and alcohol use varied across subregions. If everyone living on < US$ 2.00 per day had the risk factor profile of those living on > US$ 2.00 per day, 51% of exposures to unimproved water and sanitation could be avoided as could 37% of malnutrition among children and 38% of exposure to indoor air pollution. The more realistic, but still challenging, Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of people living on < US$ 1.00 per day would achieve much smaller reductions. CONCLUSION: To achieve large gains in global health requires both poverty eradication and public health action. The methods used in this study may be useful for monitoring pro-equity progress towards Millennium Development Goals. PMID:15744404

  10. Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum hyperparasitaemia in malarious children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperparasitaemia is a feature of childhood severe malaria but there is little information on the risk factors for hyperparasitaemia in malarious children Methods The risk factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum hyperparasitaemia, defined as asexual parasitaemia > 250,000/μl, at presentation were evaluated in 3338 malarious children enrolled prospectively between 2008 and 2010 in an endemic area of southwestern Nigeria. Results At enrolment, 97 (3%) of 3338 malarious children had hyperparasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, 3 factors were found to be independent risk factors for the presence of hyperparasitaemia at enrolment: an age ≤ 11 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-6.61, P = 0.014), fever (AOR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.23-3.29, P = 0.005), and enrolment after year 2008 (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.73, P = 0.002). Duration of illness ≤ 3 d was associated with increased risk of hyperparasitaemia. There was no association between season and hyperparasitaemia. Compared to non-hyperparasitaemia, hyperparasitaemia was associated with an increased risk of progression to cerebral malaria (P < 0.0001). The risk of progression in hyperparasitaemic children was higher in < 5-year olds (P = 0.02). Conclusion Young age and presence of fever are independent risk factors for hyperparasitaemia which is associated with an increased risk of progression to cerebral malaria. The findings have implications for case and community management of childhood hyperparasitaemia and for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa where severe malaria is relatively common. PMID:21982211

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiely, J L; McNicholas, W T

    2000-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but there is debate as to whether OSAS is an independent risk factor for their development, since OSAS may be associated with other disorders and risk factors that predispose to cardiovascular disease. In an effort to quantify the risk of OSAS patients for cardiovascular disease arising from these other factors, the authors assessed the future risk for cardiovascular disease among a group of 114 consecutive patients with established OSAS prior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy, using an established method of risk prediction employed in the Framingham studies. Patients were 100 males, aged (mean+/-SD) 52+/-9.0 yrs, and 14 females, aged 51+/-10.4 yrs, with an apnoea/hypopnoea index of 45+/-22 x h(-1). Based on either a prior diagnosis, or a mean of three resting blood pressure recordings >140 mmHg systolic and/or 90 diastolic, 68% of patients were hypertensive. Only 18% were current smokers, while 16% had either diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, and 63% had elevated fasting cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. The estimated 10-yr risk of a coronary heart disease (CHD) event in males was (mean+/-SEM) 13.9+/-0.9%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.1-16.0, and for a stroke was 12.3+/-1.4%; 95% CI 9.4-15.1, with a combined 10 yr risk for stroke and CHD events of 32.9+/-2.7%; 95% CI 27.8-38.5 in males aged >53 yrs. These findings indicate that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients are at high risk of future cardiovascular disease from factors other than obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and may help explain the difficulties in identifying a potential independent risk from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. PMID:10933098

  12. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  13. Risk Versus Direct Protective Factors and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. Purpose This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in fifth grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Methods Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10–12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Results Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10–12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10–12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Conclusions Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the

  14. Point-prevalence of depression and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Sanabria, Alicia Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to assess levels of depressive symptoms and associated risk factors in a sample of students in Bogotá, Colombia. A convenient sample (N = 254) of students at the University Antonio Nariño, Bogotá was invited to complete an online survey that contained questions associated with common risk factors for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Chi-square was used to analyze comparisons between demographic and risk factors and severity of depression, and comparisons between those depressed and not depressed. Odds Ratios and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were computed through logistic regression model developed for each independent variable. The point-prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 36.2%; women 47.3% and men 21.3%. Risk factors associated with depression included being a woman, having a previous diagnosis, suicidal ideation and (or) intent, sleep problems, a recent loss, and a history of family depression and alcoholism. The study confirms the high incidence of depression and associated risk factors in students. The results demonstrate a need for prevention measures, early detection and early intervention. PMID:24839729

  15. Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke. Part One: Modeling Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Hermann, Dirk M.

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability and death in developed and developing countries. As emerging disease, stroke related mortality and morbidity is going to step up in the next decades. This is both due to the poor identification of risk factors and persistence of unhealthy habits, as well as to the aging of the population. To counteract the estimated increase in stroke incidence, it is of primary importance to identify risk factors, study their effects, to promote primary and secondary prevention, and to extend the therapeutic repertoire that is currently limited to the very first hours after stroke. While epidemiologic studies in the human population are essential to identify emerging risk factors, adequate animal models represent a fundamental tool to dissect stroke risk factors to their molecular mechanism and to find efficacious therapeutic strategies for this complex multi- factorial disorder. The present review is organized into two parts: the first part deals with the animal models that have been developed to study stroke and its related risk factors and the second part analyzes the specific stroke models. These models represent an indispensable tool to investigate the mechanisms of cerebral injury and to develop novel therapies. PMID:20802809

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullatif D; Mehrass, Amat Al-Khaleq O; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Al-Shammakh, Abdulqawi A; Amran, Adel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen. Patients and methods A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM. Results The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors. Conclusion This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. PMID:26869814

  17. Effects of Lifestyle Modification Programs on Cardiac Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S.; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K.; Stason, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  18. Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    López-González, A A; Grases, F; Roca, P; Mari, B; Vicente-Herrero, M T; Costa-Bauzá, A

    2008-12-01

    Several risk factors seem to play a role in the development of osteoporosis. Phytate is a naturally occurring compound that is ingested in significant amounts by those with diets rich in whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytate consumption as a risk factor in osteoporosis. In a first group of 1,473 volunteer subjects, bone mineral density was determined by means of dual radiological absorptiometry in the calcaneus. In a second group of 433 subjects (used for validation of results obtained for the first group), bone mineral density was determined in the lumbar column and the neck of the femur. Subjects were individually interviewed about selected osteoporosis risk factors. Dietary information related to phytate consumption was acquired by questionnaires conducted on two different occasions, the second between 2 and 3 months after performing the first one. One-way analysis of variance or Student's t test was used to determine statistical differences between groups. Bone mineral density increased with increasing phytate consumption. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that body weight and low phytate consumption were the risk factors with greatest influence on bone mineral density. Phytate consumption had a protective effect against osteoporosis, suggesting that low phytate consumption should be considered an osteoporosis risk factor. PMID:19053869

  19. Alcohol as a primary risk factor in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Garfinkel, L; Harris, S

    1981-01-01

    This case-control study investigates the role of alcohol as a primary risk factor in the development of oral cancer. A total of 181 patients diagnosed as having squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity were interviewed, and 497 controls. The relative risk for drinkers adjusted for smoking was 3.3, 15.2, and 10.6 for those who drank less than six, six to nine, and 10 or more whiskey equivalents (WEs) a day, respectively. The relative risk for smokers adjusted for drinking rose only from 3.2 to 4.5 to 5.0 for smokers of 10 to 19, 20 to 39, and 40 or more cigarettes a day, respectively. Beer/wine drinkers had much higher relative risks than the whiskey drinkers. The adjusted relative risk for whiskey drinkers consuming 10 or more WEs a day was 7.3; the adjusted relative risk for beer/wine drinkers consuming 10 or more WEs a day was 20.4. These results indicate that drinkers of six or more WEs a day may be at greater risk than smokers of 40 or more cigarettes a day, and that beer and wine may be greater risk factors than whiskey in the development of oral cancer.

  20. Examining Protective Factors and Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Head Start Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stacy L.; Fedor, Megan C.; Carlson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined a comprehensive screening model within children attending Head Start programs from urban (n = 232) and rural (n = 231) communities. The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA; LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) was used to measure social-emotional protective factors (i.e., Total Protective Factors [TPF]) and risk factors (i.e.,…

  1. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  2. Proteinuria: an underappreciated risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Campo, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis M

    2002-11-01

    Changes in renal function produced by hypertension appear to be associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Indices of altered renal function (eg, microalbuminuria, increased serum creatinine concentrations, decrease in estimated creatinine clearance, or overt proteinuria) are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Framingham Heart Study documented the relevance of proteinuria for cardiovascular prognosis in the community. The International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study assessed the role of proteinuria as a very powerful risk factor. Several studies demonstrated that microalbuminuria is a predictor of cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that the presence of microalbuminuria in primary hypertension carries an elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, recent data indicate that even minor derangements of renal function are associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors, and promote progression of atherosclerosis. All these parameters should routinely be evaluated in clinical practice, and in the future must be considered in any stratification of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.

  3. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  4. Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Huang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among Taiwanese adults, we evaluated 579 healthy participants who underwent health examinations between May and December 2007. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine risk factor clustering. Smoking, alcohol intake, exercise habits, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, serum hepatic enzymes, and mean arterial pressure were assessed. Separate factor analyses assessed total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Principal components analysis identified five factors for a model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and four factors for a model without total cholesterol. Four common factors in both models explained between 51.1 and 51.8% of variance in the original 14 factors. Metabolic factors, hematological factors (white blood cells and platelets), lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and exercise habits and fasting blood glucose explained about 20, 11, 10, 10% of total variance, respectively. In the model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol factor explained 8.83% of variance. This study confirmed clustering of established metabolic syndrome components and revealed additional associated cardiovascular disease risk factors, including lifestyle factors, exercise and total cholesterol, which should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  5. Risk Factors Predictive of the Problem Behavior of Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Stage, Scott; Duppong-Hurley, Kristin; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to establish the most robust set of risk factors that would best predict borderline/clinical levels of problem behavior (i.e., a t score at or above 60 on the Child Behavior Checklist Total Problem scale) of kindergarten and first-grade children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Results showed…

  6. Multi-Domain Risk and Protective Factor Predictors of Violent Behavior among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2011-01-01

    This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…

  7. Coronary Risk Factor Scoring as a Guide for Counseling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A risk factor scoring system for early detection, possible prediction, and counseling to coronary heart disease patients is discussed. Scoring data include dynamic EKG, cholesterol levels, triglycerine content, total lipid level, total phospolipid levels, and electrophoretic patterns. Results indicate such a system is effective in identifying high risk subjects, but that the ability to predict exceeds the ability to prevent heart disease or its complications.

  8. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

  9. Suggested Connections between Risk Factors of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan R.; Raschi, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review studies of aneurysm risk factors and the suggested hypotheses that connect the different risk factors and the underlying mechanisms governing the aneurysm natural history. The result of this work suggests that at the center of aneurysm evolution there is a cycle of wall degeneration and weakening in response to changing hemodynamic loading and biomechanic stress. This progressive wall degradation drives the geometrical evolution of the aneurysm until it stabilizes or ruptures. Risk factors such as location, genetics, smoking, co-morbidities, and hypertension seem to affect different components of this cycle. However, details of these interactions or their relative importance are still not clearly understood. PMID:23242844

  10. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Harmony, Thalía; Porras-Kattz, Eneida; Colmenero-Batallán, Miguel J.; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús E.; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Cruz-Rivero, Erika

    2012-01-01

    In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:22957240

  11. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Griffin, L Y; Agel, J; Albohm, M J; Arendt, E A; Dick, R W; Garrett, W E; Garrick, J G; Hewett, T E; Huston, L; Ireland, M L; Johnson, R J; Kibler, W B; Lephart, S; Lewis, J L; Lindenfeld, T N; Mandelbaum, B R; Marchak, P; Teitz, C C; Wojtys, E M

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 80,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur annually in the United States. The highest incidence is in individuals 15 to 25 years old who participate in pivoting sports. With an estimated cost for these injuries of almost a billion dollars per year, the ability to identify risk factors and develop prevention strategies has widespread health and fiscal importance. Seventy percent of ACL injuries occur in noncontact situations. The risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries fall into four distinct categories: environmental, anatomic, hormonal, and biomechanical. Early data on existing neuromuscular training programs suggest that enhancing body control may decrease ACL injuries in women. Further investigation is needed prior to instituting prevention programs related to the other risk factors.

  12. Risk factors and early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dirkje S; Bush, Andrew; van den Berge, Maarten

    2015-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a smoking-related disorder and affects millions of people worldwide, with a large effect on individual patients and society as a whole. Although the disease becomes clinically apparent around the age of 40-50 years, its origins can begin very early in life. Different risk factors in very early life--ie, in utero and during early childhood--drive the development of clinically apparent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in later life. In discussions of which risk factors drive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is important to realise that the disease is very heterogeneous and at present is largely diagnosed by lung function only. In this Review, we will discuss the evidence for risk factors for the various phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during different stages of life.

  13. Is adiponectin a risk factor for transient ischaemic attacks?

    PubMed

    Sener, Ufuk; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Kose, Sukran; Ozcelik, Murat; Zorlu, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, and it plays a role in atherosclerosis. The role of adiponectin in the development of ischaemic stroke is controversial. Up to now, adiponectin was not evaluated in transient ischaemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin and transient ischaemic attack. Forty patients with transient ischaemic attack were included into the study. In all patients, traditional risk factors of ischaemic stroke and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were determined. Also, the relationship between these parameters and adiponectin levels were examined. No difference was found in terms of adiponectin levels between patients and healthy subjects. In addition, there was no association between adiponectin levels and traditional risk factors. Our results suggest that adiponectin may not be a predictive risk factor of transient ischaemic attack.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  15. Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.

    PubMed

    Brower, K J; Blow, F C; Hill, E M

    1994-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids to enhance athletic performance and physical appearance can cause numerous psychiatric and other adverse effects. In order to prevent steroid use and its negative consequences, knowledge of risk factors is needed. We conducted an anonymous survey of 404 male weight lifters from community gymnasiums who completed a 20-min, self-administered questionnaire. The sample for this study included all 35 men who were thinking about using steroids ("high-risk" nonusers), 50 randomly selected nonusers who were not thinking about using steroids ("low-risk" nonusers) and all 49 steroid users. The three groups differed in age, training characteristics, other performance-enhancers tried, body image, acquaintance with steroid users, and perception of negative consequences. When groups were compared along a continuum from low risk to high risk and from high risk to actual use, we found increasing amounts of competitive bodybuilding, performance-enhancers tried, and steroid-using acquaintances. Groups did not differ in their use of addictive substances. Nearly three-fourths of the high-risk group felt "not big enough," compared to 21% of the low-risk group and 38% of the steroid users (p < .001). These data suggest that steroids do work to increase satisfaction with body size, and that dissatisfaction with body size may contribute to the risk of using steroids.

  16. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

  17. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Agricultural Risk Factors Among Korean Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Lee, Myeong-Jun; Chung, HweeMin; Shin, Dong-Hee; Youn, Kan-Woo; Im, Sang-Hyuk; Chae, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Farming is a strenuous occupation with various health risks, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being some of the most common. The risk factors for MSDs among Korean farmers are not well understood. Data were obtained from the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (2012), which interviewed 16,113 participants regarding their demographic profiles, self-reported MSDs, and agricultural characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Subjects reported MSDs in the neck or upper extremities (5.89%), lower extremities (19.62%), and back (26.9%). Working in animal husbandry significantly increased the risk of MSDs in the neck/upper extremities, compared with irrigation farming (odds ratio: 1.837, 95% confidence interval: 1.130-2.987). The risk of MSDs increased significantly with number of years of farming, after adjusting for age and sex (neck/upper extremities, P for trend = .0002; lower extremities, <.001; back, <.001). Agriculture type, years of farming, and ergonomic factors increased the risk of MSDs among Korean farmers.

  18. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Agricultural Risk Factors Among Korean Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Lee, Myeong-Jun; Chung, HweeMin; Shin, Dong-Hee; Youn, Kan-Woo; Im, Sang-Hyuk; Chae, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Farming is a strenuous occupation with various health risks, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being some of the most common. The risk factors for MSDs among Korean farmers are not well understood. Data were obtained from the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (2012), which interviewed 16,113 participants regarding their demographic profiles, self-reported MSDs, and agricultural characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Subjects reported MSDs in the neck or upper extremities (5.89%), lower extremities (19.62%), and back (26.9%). Working in animal husbandry significantly increased the risk of MSDs in the neck/upper extremities, compared with irrigation farming (odds ratio: 1.837, 95% confidence interval: 1.130-2.987). The