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Sample records for atis vallis rihards

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Scamander Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Scamander Vallis on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by the slightly sinuous gully of Scamander Vallis. The channel begins by dissecting a steep slope of an impact crater wall and abruptly ends about 180 km north of the crater.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 13 degrees N. to 19 degrees N. and from longitude 330 degrees to 332 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The lack of tributaries, fairly straight path, and steep walls of the channel suggest spring sapping as a mode of origin. The abrupt termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  3. Aquifers In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Jaumann, R.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with the Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the topo- graphic position of sapping pits and gully heads on the rim of Nirgal Vallis. Hence Nirgal Vallis is understood to be formed by groundwater sapping (1, 2, 3, 4) an aquifer is proposed as water supply. Gullies in the northern rim of Nirgal Vallis as discovered in Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images (5, 6) proof the existence of such an aquifer. Further evidence for sapping in Nirgal Vallis is demonstrated by short hanging tribu- taries with amphitheater-like heads. The basis of these sapping pits defines the con- tact of aquifer to aquiclude during the valley formation. The gully heads are much deeper under the local surface and the correlation of their topographic position with the valley depth indicate the subsidence of the groundwater level following the ver- tical erosion of the valley. This implies the existence of different groundwater tables over time confined by impermeable layers, whereas the gully head level is the most recent groundwater table which still may be erosional active under the conditions of increasing water pressure and ice barrier failure (5). The occurrence of more than one tilted sapping level at different topographic positions which are time-correlated with the erosional notching of the valley, either indicates different aquifers with litholog- ical aquicludes or a climate controlled subsidence of the permafrost layer acting as confining layer. References: (1) Baker et al., 1992, In: Mars, Univ. of Arizona Press. (2) Carr, 1995, JGR 100, 7479. (3) Malin and Carr, 1999, Icarus, 397, 589. (4) Jaumann and Reiss, 2002, LPSC. (5) Malin and Edgett, 2000, Science, 288, 2330. (6) Malin and Edgett, 2001, JGR 106, 23429.

  4. Sapping In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with Viking and Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the three-dimensional structure of the Nirgal Vallis drainage system in order to constrain the formation process. Based on precisely correlated Viking, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) cartographic data (1,2), we have measured morphometric and topologic parameters (3,4,5,6,7) of the valley network. Although there is no single parameter, which unambiguously distinguishes between run-off and sapping, the combination of parameters such as surface dip angle, longitudinal profile, width to depth ratio, drainage density, structural control, valley terminations and bifurcation ratio will constrain the formation process. All topographic based valley network parameters indicate an origin by groundwater sapping processes and headward erosion for Nirgal Vallis and confirms former geomorphologic analyses. The extremely low drainage density of Nirgal Vallis may either be caused by very slow erosion, due to low groundwater supply or arid conditions, or by sequential interruptions of the erosion process due to probable climate changes. (1) Zeitler and Oberst, 1999; JGR, 104, 14051. (2) Hauber et al., 2000, Int. Arch. Photogram. Rem. Sens. XXXIII, 360. (3) Horton, 1945, Geol. Sic. Amer. 56. 275. (4) Strahler, 1964, In: Handbook Appl. Hydrogeol. McGraw Hill. (5) Leopold et al, 1964, In: Fluvial Proc. Geomorph. Freeman (6) Summerfield, 1991, In: Global Geomorph. Longman, Burnt Mill.(7) Ritter et al. 1995, In: Processes Geomorph. Wm.C.Brown Publ..

  5. Mawrth Vallis Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1217 UTC (7:17 a.m. EST) on January 10, 2006, near 25.5 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees west longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Mawrth Vallis is located to the south of Acidalia Planitia and to the east of Tiu Valles. One of the oldest channels on Mars, Mawrth Vallis cuts through the ancient cratered terrain of western Arabia Terra and is part of the Chryse Planitia basin.

    Mawrth Vallis holds special interest to scientist studying Mars. In 2005 the OMEGA spectrometer on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter discovered phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis. Phyllosilicates are a family of hydroxyl (OH) bearing minerals that generally have a flaky or sheet-like structure. These OH-bearing minerals are often the products of water-related chemical alteration, making them good indicators for the presence of liquid water. Clay minerals are part of this family.

    OMEGA's discovery made Mawrth Vallis a prime target for CRISM's higher-resolution instrumentation. The upper left panel in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The gray-scale THEMIS image reveals a variety of light and dark materials shaped by erosion.

    The upper right image is an infrared false-color image taken by CRISM. It reveals the complex, layered nature of these deposits, while the lower three spectral images provide further detail of the region's distinct mineral layers.

    The lower left image reveals two discrete clay units as well as an overlying layer of the material rich in the volcanic mineral pyroxene. The bottom-center image reveals

  6. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Color image of Ma'adim Vallis region of Mars; north toward top. Image shows the 600-km-long channel that drained into impact crater Gusev. Crater Gusev is about 160 km in diameter. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 13 degrees S. to 29 degrees S. and from longitude 180 degrees to 188 degrees; Mercator projection. Ma'adim Vallis is cut into the degraded highlands of Mars and has morphologic characteristics of terrestrial river beds, including the well-developed dentritic tributaries that constitute an integrated river system. However, the junction angles between tributaries commonly show a wide variation, which gives the channel system a more random directional pattern than typical terrestrial drainage networks. Topographic contours suggest a large drainage basin once existed for this channel. Gradients for the channel are high, about 0.007, over the central 300 km of its length; this is about two times that of the upper 450 km of the Colorado River. In places, some tributaries are discontinuous, perhaps indicating burial by more recent material. After the channel breaches Gusev it appears to end within the crater. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flow percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  8. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  9. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  10. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all

  11. Phyllosilicate Deposits in Shalbatana Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Anne E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2011-01-01

    Shalbatana Vallis is an ancient river valley on Mars, the westernmost of the southern Chryse outflow channels. The geologic history of this area has significant implications for understanding Mars' hydrologic and climate history. The highland flood basalts are cut by large collapse depressions, multiple outflow channels, and chaotic terrain. An intravalley paleolake with a depth of over 400 m, in the 125 km diameter Orson Welles crater (Fig. 1) and the adjacent section of Shalbatana Vallis, was deduced from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, evidence of shorelines and the occurrence of fan-delta deposits, including Gilbert-style deltas [1]. A number of CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) images with strong phyllosilicate signatures have been identified throughout the channel and nearby highlands (Fig. 1). A majority of the signatures are concentrated in areas exposed by impact cratering. Since such minerals can form by a variety of different geological processes, such as weathering, burial diagenesis, and hydrothermal alteration [2], the nature of the phyllosilicate deposits in the Shalbatana Vallis region may provide insights into the formation processes that took place and help to place constraints on the early aqueous activity in the region.

  12. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  13. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  14. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  15. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  16. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  17. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  18. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water FLow?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris is found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 897A32, left), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  19. Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Mest, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Three major outflow channel systems (Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Vallis) extend through the cratered highlands and sedimentary plains of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. These valles represent a stage in regional geologic history intermediate to formation of channels and valleys within highland terrains in the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian Epochs and debris aprons and gullies in the Amazonian Period. Dao Vallis, along with its tributary Niger Vallis, extends for ~1200 km from the eastern margin of Hadriaca Patera into Hellas Planitia, where a depositional lobe is observed on the basin floor. The Dao Vallis system (~6-50 km wide) is characterized by two steep-walled source depressions, regions of subsided plains, and prominent central canyons whose walls display gullies with associated depositional aprons covering parts of canyon floors. The present study is designed to utilize MOC images, MOLA topographic data, and THEMIS daytime and nighttime images to evaluate and refine the geologic evolution of Dao Vallis as defined in earlier Viking-based studies. Dao Vallis has previously been interpreted to have formed by collapse of volcanic and sedimentary plains, potentially triggered by volcano-ice interactions in the Martian subsurface. Small channels and lineations parallel to canyon walls provide evidence for surface flow of fluids. Evidence for subsurface flow is present in zones of subsided plains that separate the central canyons of Dao and Niger Valles from their source depressions. Later stages of the geologic history were dominated by mass-wasting from canyon walls, which may have significantly increased canyon width in places. Comparison of MOC, THEMIS, and Viking images suggests a consistency of geologic processes across a range of spatial scales, as evidence for collapse, mass-wasting, and fluvial erosion and deposition is observed in all datasets. The higher spatial resolution of MOC and THEMIS permits a more detailed understanding of Dao Vallis

  20. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  1. Nirgal Vallis (Released 27 March 2002)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This THEMIS image shows a sinuous valley network channel with sharp bends cutting across the cratered highlands of the southern hemisphere of Mars. The channel is named Nirgal Vallis, which is from the Babylonian word for 'Mars.' Nirgal Vallis is a channel with a total length of approximately 500 km. It is approximately 6 km wide in this region. Gullies and alluvial deposits discovered by Mars Global Surveyor are clearly visible on the polar-facing (south) wall and floor of Nirgal Vallis. These gullies appear to emanate from a specific layer in the walls. There is a pronounced sparsity of gullies on the equator-ward facing slopes. The gullies have been proposed to have formed by the subsurface release of water. Patches of dunes are also seen on the channel floor, notably along the edges of the channel floor near the canyon walls. There is still debate within the scientific community as to how valley networks themselves form: surface runoff (rainfall/snowmelt) or headward erosion via groundwater sapping. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top.

  2. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be... integrated into the uplink transmitter chain in a method that cannot easily be defeated. (c) The ATIS...

  3. Discharge rates in Ma'adim Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A. C.; Muller, J-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of a small part of the Martian channel Ma'adim Vallis was produced using the Frankot and Chellappa shape-from-shading algorithm. Software developed by the Dept. of Photogrammetry and Surveying at University College London uses this technique to extract slope information from the grey levels of image pixels. This technique was applied to a Viking Orbiter image of part of Ma'adim Vallis, and measurements of the channel depth and bed-slope of a channel incised into the floor of Ma'adim Vallis were made. These results were used to calculate order of magnitude estimates for discharge rates through the channel. The maximum values calculated are three orders of magnitude less than those for N. Kasei Vallis and are similar to values cited for the Missoula floods. However, when more realistic values of the water depth are used, discharge rates comparable with those for the Mississippi River result.

  4. The Properties of Hrad Vallis are Consistent with Volcanic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The head of the system is marked by a complex set of elongate depressions oriented radially to the central peak of Elysium Mons. The system is relatively simple, consisting of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are mainly 50 to 430 m below adjacent plains, with local channel relief progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the ridged plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Though much of the channel region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or volcanic origin, local exposures of channel floors at Hrad Vallis show features including ridged and platy flows, shear zones, wake forms, and levees. The Hrad Vallis system is widely interpreted as having developed through large aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with the absence of clear deposits of fluvial or diluvial character, the relatively high elevation of the system head, mineralogical evidence that is suggestive of dry Martian conditions over much of the Hesperian and Amazonian, and the absence of realistic analog processes for development of large channel systems through aqueous outbursts from aquifers. Instead, the characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system are consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas of mafic composition. The system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses contextual and morphological properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon and Venus. Development of Hrad Valles is estimated to have involved eruption of approximately 100,000 cubic

  5. Biotransformation of 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene derivatives by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Gonzalez, Pedro; Gonzalez-Vallejo, Victoria; Guillermo, Ricardo; Diaz, Luz N

    2010-08-01

    The microbiological transformation of 7alpha,19-dihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi gave 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 7alpha,11beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene and 7alpha,16beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene, while the incubation of 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene afforded 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene and 16beta,17-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atisan-19-al. The biotransformation of 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid gave 6beta-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid, 6beta,16beta,17-trihydroxy-7-oxo-19-nor-ent-atis-4(18)-ene and 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-6-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid.

  6. Resurfacing history of the Harmakhis Vallis channel, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Soile; Kostama, Veli-Petri

    2016-10-01

    Harmakhis Vallis is one of the four major outflow channel systems (Dao, Niger, Harmakhis and Reull Valles) which cut the eastern rim region of the Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure of Mars. The structure of Harmakhis Vallis and the volume of its head depression, as well as the earlier dating studies suggest that the channel formed during the Hesperian period by collapsing when a large amount of subsurface fluids was released. Thus Harmakhis Vallis, as well as the other nearby outflow channels, represent a significant stage of the fluvial activity in the regional history. On the other hand, the channel lies on the Martian mid-latitude zone, where there are several geomorphologic indicators of past and possibly also contemporary ground ice. The floor of Harmakhis also displays evidence of a later-stage ice-related activity as the channel has been covered by lineated valley fill deposits and debris apron material.The eastern rim region of the Hellas impact basin has been the subject of numerous geologic mapping studies at various scales and using different imaging data sets. However, the Harmakhis Vallis channel itself has received less attention, or the studies on the channel have focused only on different geologic events as a separate subject. In this work, we present our mapping and dating results of the Harmakhis Vallis floor based on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's ConTeX camera imagery (CTX; ~5 m/pixel), which covers the entire Harmakhis channel system from its head depression to the beginning of the terminus. The purpose of the study is to outline how the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis channel has been modified after its formation, what kind of geologic processes have occurred on the channel and when, and by doing so, provide further understanding of the channel evolution and changes in the Martian climate. This work also gives information about the crater counting age determination method and its usability in the cases where only high

  7. Multi-static MIMO along track interferometry (ATI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) has the ability to generate high-quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and concurrently detect and estimate the positions of ground moving target indicators (GMTI) with moderate processing requirements. This paper focuses on several different ATI system configurations, with an emphasis on low-cost configurations employing no active electronic scanned array (AESA). The objective system has two transmit phase centers and four receive phase centers and supports agile adaptive radar behavior. The advantages of multistatic, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) ATI system configurations are explored. The two transmit phase centers can employ a ping-pong configuration to provide the multistatic behavior. For example, they can toggle between an up and down linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform every other pulse. The four receive apertures are considered in simple linear spatial configurations. Simulated examples are examined to understand the trade space and verify the expected results. Finally, actual results are collected with the Space Dynamics Laboratorys (SDL) FlexSAR system in diverse configurations. The theory, as well as the simulated and actual SAR results, are presented and discussed.

  8. ATI SAA Annex 3 Button Tensile Test Report I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out under Splace Act Agreement SAA-EA-10-004 between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Astro Technology Incorpporated (ATI). NASA and ATI have entered into this agreement to collaborate on the development of technologies that can benefit both the US government space programs and the oil and gas industry. The report documents the results of a test done on an adnesive system for attaching new monitoring sensor devices to pipelines under Annex III of SAA-EA-10-004: "Proof-of-Concept Design and Testing of a Post Installed Sensing Device on Subsea Risers and Pipelines". The tasks of Annex III are to design and test a proof-of-concept sensing device for in-situ installation on pipelines, risers, or other structures deployed in deep water. The function of the sensor device is to measure various signals such as strain, stress and temperature. This study complements the work done, in Annex I of the SAA, on attaching a fiber optic sensing device to pipe via adhesive bonding. Both Annex I and Annex III studies were conducted in the Crew and Thermal System Division (CTSD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with ATI.

  9. Simultaneous SAR and GMTI using ATI/DPCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Best, Matthew; Farrell, Sean

    2014-06-01

    In previous work, we presented GMTI detection and geo-location results from the AFRL Gotcha challenge data set, which was collected using a 3-channel, X-band, circular SAR system. These results were compared against GPS truth for a scripted vehicle target. The algorithm used for this analysis is known as ATI/DPCA, which is a hybrid of along-track interferometry (ATI) and the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technique. In the present paper the use of ATI/DPCA is extended in order to detect and geo-locate all observable moving targets in the Gotcha challenge data, including both the scripted movers and targets of opportunity. In addition, a computationally efficient SAR imaging technique is presented, appropriate for short integration times, which is used for computing an image of the scene of interest using the same pulses of data used for the GMTI processing. The GMTI detections are then overlaid on the SAR image to produce a simultaneous SAR/GMTI map.

  10. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  11. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, N. V. Fomenko, A. N. Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-17

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  12. Emplacement Scenarios for Vallis Schroteri, Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schr teri are not well understood. Vallis Schr teri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schr teri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from fl ows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu u O o in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet fl ow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet fl ow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overfl ow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overfl ow, and redirection of the lava fl ow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy.

  13. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  14. Aeromonas salmonicida Ati2 is an effector protein of the type three secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Barbeau, Xavier; Sarty, Darren; Tanaka, Katherine H; Denoncourt, Alix M; Lagüe, Patrick; Reith, Michael E; Charette, Steve J

    2013-09-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, uses the type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject effector proteins into host cells to promote the infection. The study of the genome of A. salmonicida has revealed the existence of Ati2, a potential TTSS effector protein. In the present study, a structure-function analysis of Ati2 has been done to determine its role in the virulence of A. salmonicida. Biochemical assays revealed that Ati2 is secreted into the medium in a TTSS-dependent manner. Protein sequence analyses, molecular modelling and biochemical assays demonstrated that Ati2 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in a way similar to VPA0450, a protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus having high sequence similarity with Ati2. Mutants of Ati2 with altered amino acids at two different locations in the catalytic site displayed no phosphatase activity. Wild-type and mutant forms of Ati2 were cloned into expression systems for Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil amoeba used as an alternative host to study A. salmonicida virulence. Expression tests allowed us to demonstrate that Ati2 is toxic for the host cell in a catalytic-dependent manner. Finally, this study demonstrated the existence of a new TTSS effector protein in A. salmonicida.

  15. Along Track Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ATI-SAR) Techniques for Ground Moving Target Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Conventional along track interferometric synthetic aperature radar , ATI-SAR, approaches can detect...House, Inc., Norwood, MA, 1995. [14] R. Bamler and P. Hartl, " Synthetic aperture radar interferometry," Inverse Problems, vol. 14, R1-R54, 1998. [15... SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (ATI-SAR) TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND MOVING TARGET DETECTION Stiefvater Consultants

  16. Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys).

    PubMed

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and 'jackpot'-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal-Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys.

  17. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold.

    The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green.

    The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  18. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  19. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  20. Phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis: Implications for a Past Aqueous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Parente, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Bibring, J.; Silver, E.

    2008-12-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains the largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars, as observed by OMEGA and CRISM. OMEGA identified nontronite and montmorillonite as the most common phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis region, and CRISM has confirmed and refined this observation with the further identification of kaolinite and hydrated silica [1-3]. In addition, saponite has been identified in one image within a crater. Two main phyllosilicate units occur in the Mawrth Vallis region: the lowermost unit is nontronite-bearing and is unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate-bearing unit composed of montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top. These two units are capped by a spectrally- unremarkable unit [4, 5]. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1-2 μm, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This component could be ferrous olivine, troilite/phyrrhotite, or glauconite, for example, and indicates either rapid deposition or reducing conditions, sometimes supplied on Earth by microorganisms. Each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified form only under hydrolytic conditions, indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian. It is likely the two units formed by separate events; however, the processes are similar so we address them together. The large areal extent, stratigraphy, mineralogy, and observed layering of the two primary units suggest that they may be formed in a manner similar to bentonite: volcanic ash of different composition deposited into a body of water and then altered. This suggests the presence of a stable ground water table and extensive volcanism near Mawrth Vallis in order to produce the volume of phyllosilicates observed here. Other potential formational processes include: i) sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin, ii) pedogenesis, or iii) hydrothermal alteration due to an overlying hot

  1. Polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, Rene A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of apparently genetically related landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars is examined. It is found that the outer valley of Hrad and the neighboring valley are composite features formed by karst or thermokarst processes and the growth and coalescence of smaller fault-aligned depressions. The materials in the vicinity may be soluble carbonates or sulfates or clay-rich sediment subject to thixotropic collapse. Water circulating within fault and fissure systems removed materials or altered the stability of materials to allow formation of steep-sided depressions. After the emplacement of surface materials in early Amazonian time, water was probably discharged to the surface. Isolate topographic depressions probably formed synchronously with the early release of water. Open lakes may have existed for a time.

  2. Phyllosilicate Stratigraphy near Mawrth Vallis, Mars: New Insights from Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James; Squyres, S. W.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Kirk, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals were first identified on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer on board Mars Express [1,2]. On Earth, these minerals form most commonly through prolonged interactions between rock and water, so their presence on Mars may have significant implications for the planet's aqueous history. In finely layered outcrops surrounding the ancient outflow channel Mawrth Vallis, OMEGA found two compositionally distinct types of phyllosilicates. With the higher-resolution view afforded by CRISM and HiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we find that these different minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable source of sediment for this location during the Noachian era. A layered unit containing Al-rich phyllosilicates overlies the most extensive of at least two units rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates; in places, these are separated by another unit containing hydrated material of unknown mineralogy. All units are fractured into blocks ranging from decimeters to over a hundred meters across, and the morphology and scale of fractures correlates with the compositional stratigraphy. The lateral continuity of these stratigraphic units over scales exceeding 100 km and the uniformity (at CRISM resolution) of hydrated mineral signatures within each unit suggest that alteration occurred prior to sedimentary emplacement at this site. We use topographic data from HiRISE and the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express to aid in regional stratigraphic correlations and improve our understanding of the three-dimensional geometries of the phyllosilicate-rich layers. The layer geometries provide constraints on the timing of sedimentary deposition in Mawrth Vallis. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F. et al. (2005) Nature 438, 623-627.

  3. Fluvial morphology of Naktong Vallis, Mars: A late activity with multiple processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.; Masson, Ph.; Neukum, G.

    2009-07-01

    The morphology of fluvial valleys on Mars provides insight into surface and subsurface hydrology, as well as to Mars' past climate. In this study, Naktong Vallis and its tributaries were examined from high-resolution stereoscopic camera (HRSC) images, thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) daytime IR images, and mars orbiter laser altimeter (MOLA) data. Naktong Vallis is the southern part of a very large fluvial basin composed by Mamers, Scamander, and Naktong Vallis with a total length of 4700 km, and is one of the largest fluvial system on Mars. Naktong Vallis incised along its path a series of smooth intercrater plains. Naktong's main valley cut smooth plains during the Early Hesperian period, estimated ˜3.6-3.7 Gyr, implying a young age for the valley when compared to usual Noachian-aged valley networks. Branching valleys located in degraded terrains south of the main Naktong valley have sources inside a large plateau located at more than 2000 m elevation. Connections between these valleys and Naktong Vallis have been erased by the superimposition of late intercrater plains of Early to Late Hesperian age, but it is likely that this plateau represents the main source of water. Small re-incisions of these late plains show that there was at least one local reactivation. In addition, valley heads are often amphitheatre-shaped. Despite the possibility of subsurface flows, the occurrence of many branching valleys upstream of Naktong's main valley indicate that runoff may have played an important role in Naktong Vallis network formation. The importance of erosional landforms in the Naktong Vallis network indicates that fluvial activity was important and not necessarily lower in the Early Hesperian epoch than during the Noachian period. The relationships between overland flows and sapping features suggest a strong link between the two processes, rather than a progressive shift from surface to subsurface flow.

  4. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. Supernovae candidates Gaia17aty, Gaia17atz and Gaia17aud confirmed by Euler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Saesen, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2017-04-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts supernovae candidates Gaia17aty, Gaia17atz and Gaia17aud. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2017 March 29th - 30th.

  7. Thermal and Mechanical Erosion by Low-Viscosity Lava Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northwestern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The system consists of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are typically 50 to 200 m below adjacent plains, with channel depths progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Problematically, much of the Hrad Vallis region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or other origin, concealing features of interest. Nevertheless, local exposures of channel floors show landforms including shear zones, longitudinal ridges, and wake forms. Adjacent upland plains show abundant evidence for the past emplacement of lobate-margined overflow deposits. The Hrad Vallis system has been previously interpreted as having developed through catastrophic aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with observations made in this study, including the absence of deposits of clear fluvial or diluvial character. Characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system appear instead to be most consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas. Specifically, the system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon, Venus, and Mercury. Crude thermal estimates suggest that Hrad Vallis could have been formed through effusion of as little as ~10,000 cubic kilometers of magma. Despite the widespread presence at Hrad Vallis of channel slopes of less than 0.1 degrees, daily incision rates of tens of centimeters to several meters are estimated for mechanical and thermal erosion processes

  8. Compositional stratigraphy of clay-bearing layered deposits at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Mustard, J.F.; Kirk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Phyllosilicates have previously been detected in layered outcrops in and around the Martian outflow channel Mawrth Vallis. CRISM spectra of these outcrops exhibit features diagnostic of kaolinite, montmorillonite, and Fe/Mg-rich smectites, along with crystalline ferric oxide minerals such as hematite. These minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable sediment source for these layered deposits. Similar stratigraphic sequences occur on both sides of the outflow channel and on its floor, with Al-clay-bearing layers typically overlying Fe/Mg-clay-bearing layers. This pattern, combined with layer geometries measured using topographic data from HiRISE and HRSC, suggests that the Al-clay-bearing horizons at Mawrth Vallis postdate the outflow channel and may represent a later sedimentary or altered pyroclastic deposit that drapes the topography. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Digital Elevation Models Aid the Analysis of Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C.; Garbeil, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars (33.0o - 35.5oN, 216o - 218oW), which suggest that this area was covered by an ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Using digital elevation models derived from High Resolution Imaging Science (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data, a reexamination of the area reveals a complex history including flow inflation and topographic control by transient topographic barriers. Among Amazonian-age outflow channels, Hrad Vallis is exceptional as it exhibits good evidence of magma/water interactions. It is inferred to have formed in association with a shallow igneous sill that melted part of the martian cryosphere and/or released water from an extensive aquifer to produce enormous lahar-like mud flows. Exposed ~30 m high dikes, 20 m high eroded mounds, and flow paths that are inconsistent with present-day topographic gradients, lead us to speculate that this area was covered by at least ~40 m of material (eolian deposits or ice) at the time of volcanic dike intrusion and flow emplacement. This material was subsequently removed leaving no clear morphologic signs (e.g., wind streaks, if eolian material; moraines, if ice). We favor the ice model because if this area was once ice-covered, it offers a plausible mode of formation (as pingoes) for some enigmatic 30 m high domes in the vicinity. At least one 120 km long flow from Hrad Vallis was emplaced as a pahoehoe-like flow that was confined by topographic obstacles and subsequently inflated to thickness of ~45 m. Although the direct relationship between this flow and Hrad Vallis remains to be determined, the inflated flow suggests a longer period of eruption/emplacement at a slower effusion rate than was previously believed.

  10. Geomorphological analysis of Ares Vallis (Mars) by using HRSC (MEX) data: catastrophic floods and glacial morphologies .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, A.; Ori, G. G.; Komatsu, G.; Pondrelli, M.

    Ares Vallis is one of the largest outflow channels of Mars. Aim of our work is a geomorphological analysis of the trough by using high-resolution images. We utilise principally the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, onboard Mars Express (ESA). Images have been processed in order to obtain stereo-derived Digital Terrain Models (DEMs). HRSC images and DEMs, together with high-resolution images of different Martian missions (MGS, and 2001 Odyssey) are successively visualised by using a GIS software, and a three-dimensional analysis have been performed.We analysed morphologies indicating catastrophic flood processes and others indicating glacial and periglacial processes. Geological properties and geometrical relationships of these features are here presented. Geomorphological analyses provide new constrains about Martian catastrophic flood processes and their possible minimum and maximum depths, and allow us to present more detailed hypotheses about the geological evolution of the investigated area. Catastrophic floods sculpting Ares Vallis appear to have been multiple and scattered in time: periods of time separating different floods could have been hundreds to thousands of years. Geomorphological evidences show that ice masses formed on top of catastrophic floods, and that successively grounded, forming dead-ice masses. Such dead-ice masses played a foundamental role on the evolution of the Ares Valls landscape, leading to the formation of prominent kame-like features. A few portions of the ice masses infilling Ares Vallis could have been buried and therefore preserved for long time (maybe until the present time).

  11. Hard-Object Feeding in Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and Interpretation of Early Hominin Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott; Ungar, Peter S.; Pampush, James D.; Vick, Anna E.; Bitty, E. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  12. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars,and Associated Paleolake Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually

  13. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, and associated paleolake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-12-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleolake located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gusev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis comes from the following characteristics: (1) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the ~1.1 M km2 enclosed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural control is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant ~5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tributary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of bends in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar ~200 m in height, and a step-pool sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 × 106 m3/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up longitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary development. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial divide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping, highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief (~1 km) and slope (~0.5-1.5°) among degraded Martian craters, which are usually flat-floored. Long-term, fluvial sediment transport appears to have been inhibited within these craters

  14. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  15. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  16. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, J.L.; Dobrea, E.Z.N.; McKeown, N.K.; Parente, M.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Michalski, J.R.; Milliken, R.E.; Poulet, F.; Swayze, G.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  17. Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-11-01

    Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris.

  18. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  19. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  20. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Janice L; Dobrea, Eldar Z Noe; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Michalski, Joseph R; Milliken, Ralph E; Poulet, Francois; Swayze, Gregg A; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2008-08-08

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  1. Evidence for a changing Martian climate from the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2016-08-01

    Layered outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars contain the greatest diversity of aqueous alteration products on the planet, and these materials are used to infer past aqueous environments. Orbital investigations indicate Al/Si-rich clay-bearing units overly an Fe/Mg-smectite-rich unit. Many different secondary minerals have been identified in the upper Al/Si-rich clay units, but the presence of poorly crystalline phases has not been previously investigated. Identification of ∼10-30% allophane and imogolite in the clay-bearing units resolves previous mineralogical discrepancies between TES and CRISM of clay-bearing units on Mars. We demonstrate here that the poorly crystalline aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite comprise a significant portion of the uppermost stratum of the Al/Si-clay-rich units. These phases are unique to immature soils derived from volcanic ash in well-drained, mildly acidic environments on Earth, and we hypothesize that the deposits discovered here originate from supervolcanic activity in nearby Arabia Terra. The transition through time from smectite-bearing units to the uppermost allophane/imogolite unit in Mawrth Vallis signifies a change in climate from a warm and wet environment to one where water was sporadic and likely depleted rapidly.

  2. Moon/Mars Landing Commemorative Release: Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.

    One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.

    At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.

    For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.

    Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.

    The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits

  3. Geologic map of MTM -45252 and-45257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -45252 and -45257 (latitude 42.5° S. to 47.5°S., longitude 250° W. to 260° W.) cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra east of Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials having moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous material, and extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains. Part of the ~1,500-km-long Reull Vallis outflow system is within the map area. The area also contains surficial deposits, such as the prominent large debris aprons that commonly surround highland massifs. Regional slopes are to the west, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by topographic maps of Mars. Approximately 60 percent of the surface of Mars is covered by rugged, heavily cratered terrains believed to represent the effects of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Much of this terrain, including that within the map area, records a long history of modification by tectonism, fluvial processes, mass wasting, and eolian activity. The presence of fluvial features to the east of Hellas basin, including Reull Vallis and other smaller channels, has significant implications for past environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas basin provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Current photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale (see also Mest and Crown, 2002) from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements previous geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, drainage networks, and highland debris aprons, as well as regional geologic mapping studies and geologic mapping of Hellas basin as a whole at 1:5,000,000 scale. Viking Orbiter image coverage of the map area generally ranges from 160 to 220 m/pixel; the central part of the map area is covered by higher resolution images of about 47 m/pixel. Crater size

  4. The 3ATI instrument: the first of a new breed of common display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Thomas, J.; James, M. R.; Tumilty, T.; Nguyen, K.

    2006-05-01

    This paper outlines how the convergence of: high resolution rugged AM-LCD; high reliability solid-state backlighting; low-power, high-performance microcircuits; and robust, reconfigurable software can be combined in a modular architecture, to provide a truly "one size fits all" multi-function instrument. The 3ATI form-factor has been selected for this demonstration, as it both represents a very significant population of legacy applications, and because of its compact nature, providing a significant technical challenge. The authors outline how these challenges were addressed and present one application example as applied to the Threat Warning Instrument (TWI), for the Canadian Forces CH-148 (derived from the Sikorsky H-92 platform) "Cyclone" Defensive Aids Suite.

  5. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examining young, presumably sedimentary plains along RV, and 4) determining the nature of the connection between the segments of RV.

  6. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  7. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  8. Kasei Vallis of Mars: Dating the Interplay of Tectonics and Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, D. U.

    1985-01-01

    Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.

  9. Multispectral Analysis of the Kasei Vallis-lanae Planum Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, R. B.; Cloutis, E.; Roush, T. L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Kasei Vallis - Lunae Planum region of Mars was investigated using the three color Viking Orbiter 1 data. Spatial resolution is 820m and Ls = 100 deg, a season of low atmospheric and and surface dustiness. This region was chosen for high quality color and thermal inertia data as well as for the diversity of volcanic plains and fluvial landform. The data was reformatted to Mercator projection and calibrated to normal reflectance using in flight calibration parameters and observed photometric properties. Color properties from this image are displayed in two forms: the Red Albedo vs. Violet Albedo two dimensional histogram, and representative 3 point spectra. Virtually the full range of regolith color properties known from prior research is represented, plus some new characteristics. Interpretations of the data are presented which address general composition and formation processes of channel and intracrater deposits.

  10. Detection of copiapite in the northern Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Evidence of acid sulfate alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, William H.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Horgan, Briony

    2014-10-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region on Mars is associated with extensive layered deposits containing a stratigraphic sequence of Fe/Mg smectites overlain by Al phyllosilicates. Earlier studies have reported restricted exposures of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite on top of the sequence. In this paper we have used CRISM data covering the northern portion of the Mawrth Vallis region to find a new jarosite exposure and multiple occurrences of the mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral copiapite (Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2·20(H2O)). HiRISE imagery indicate that the copiapite exposures lie on top of the Al phyllosilicates and thus post-date that unit either as a coating or as extensive veins. The presumed copiapite exposures are associated with high values of a “SINDX” parameter derived from CRISM data. Application of several spectral matching metrics over a spectral subsection indicated several candidates for the high SINDX phase including copiapite, ferricopiapite and metavoltine (another mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral). Visible and near infrared CRISM spectra of the high SINDX areas are most consistent with the phase being copiapite. On Earth copiapite generally occurs as efflorescent coatings in acid mine drainage environments or in association with acid sulfate soils. The presence of jarosite and copiapite indicates the presence of acidic waters. Such acid waters could have contributed to the formation of the underlying Al phyllosilicate minerals. A possible mode of origin for these minerals in this region would involve a fluctuating ground water table and the weathering of Fe sulfide minerals.

  11. Are sinuous ridges in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matt R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman

    2013-04-01

    A suite of elongate, branching positive relief landforms has been observed around Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. They are typically 10 to 150 metres across, and several to tens of kilometres in length. We have observed that these forms occur both individually and as part of complex systems incorporating various cross-cutting, anastomosing and branching patterns. This study forms part of a larger debate as to whether fluvioglacial processes, as opposed to igneous activity, shaped the landscapes in the Elysium Planitia region. The similarity of some of these positive relief branching forms to inverted channels, or perhaps even relict sub-glacial fluvial systems (eskers) suggests an alternative fluvioglacial hypothesis to formation by volcanic processes. Interestingly, if these are esker-like forms then glacial activity in this region was "wet-based", so there should be other characteristic landforms visible. To address this idea, we are conducting a new mapping study of sinuous ridges in the region around Rahway Vallis to assess whether they are more consistent in morphology with formation by igneous or fluvioglacial processes. The survey is being performed using orbital images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Our mapping has shown that many of the ridges form convergent, contributory networks. The ridges are spatially associated with kilometre-wide shallow channels and are found at a nearly constant elevation of -3000m above Mars Datum. Our preliminary interpretation is that these ridges are depositional landforms with multiple sources, and therefore could be sub-glacial (eskers), or inverted fluvial channels. The associated larger channels could be higher order fluvial channels, with the ridges and wide-channels together forming part of a larger drainage network.

  12. Geologic map of MTM -40252 and -40257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -40252 and -40257 cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra northeast of the Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials of moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains, and other surficial deposits. Reull Vallis, an approximately 1,500 km-long outflow channel system, cuts through the southeast corner of the map area. Regional slopes are to the southwest, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by Martian topographic maps and the orientations of channels along the northeast rim of the Hellas basin. The Martian highlands cover more than 60 percent of the planet's surface and are primarily in the southern hemisphere. Most of the highlands consist of rugged, densely cratered terrains believed to represent the final phase of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Parts of the Martian highlands show evidence of extensive degradation and modification. The map area shows landforms created by numerous geologic processes, including tectonism, fluvial activity, and mass wasting. The occurrence of fluvial features, such as outflow channels and valley networks, has significant implications for past Martian conditions. Determining the geology of the highlands northeast of the Hellas basin provides a better understanding of the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, of drainage networks, and of highland debris aprons and regional geologic mapping studies of the highlands at the 1:2,000,000 scale and 1:1,000,000 scale. Crater size-frequency distributions have been compiled to constrain the relative ages of geologic units and determine the timing and extents of the observed

  13. ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites: Aram Dorsum and the Hypanis Vallis Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Gupta, S.; Balme, M.; Grindrod, P.; Fawdon, P.; Davis, J.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Yershov, V.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    The search for life on Mars is a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars Rover to further this goal. The ExoMars Rover's key science objectives are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the subsurface; and 3) characterize the surface environment. ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a variety of techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers).The choice of landing site is vital if the objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for longterm, or frequently recurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is a few km, but ellipse size is ~104 by 19 km). Various engineering constraints also apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum; and (iii) few steep slopes within the ellipse.In 2014, two international workshops were held to discuss potential landing sites. The outcome of these workshops was a shortlist of four possible sites: Aram Dorsum, Hypanis Delta, Mawrth Vallis, and Oxia Planum. We proposed the Hypanis and Aram Dorsum sites and led the scientific presentations for these sites at the Workshops. Here, we present the science cases for Aram Dorsum and Hypanis Vallis.

  14. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hamilton, V.; Hardgrove, C.; Kah, L.; Leveille, R.; Mangold, N.; Rowland, S.; Williams, R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  15. The origin and evolution of the Peace Vallis fan system that drains to the Curiosity landing area, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Mangold, Nicholas; Newsom, Horton; Hardgrove, Craig; Calef, Fred; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2014-04-01

    The landing site for the Curiosity rover is located at the distal end of the Peace Vallis fan in Gale Crater. Peace Vallis fan covers 80 km2 and is fed by a 730 km2 catchment, which drains an upland plains area through a 15 km wide gap in the crater rim. Valley incision into accumulated debris delivered sediment through a relatively low density valley network to a main stem channel to the fan. An estimated total fan volume of 0.9 km3 matches the calculated volume of removal due to valley incision (0.8 km3) and indicates a mean thickness of 9 m. The fan profile is weakly concave up with a mean slope of 1.5% for the lower portion. Numerous inverted channels outcrop on the western surface of the fan, but on the eastern portion such channels are rare suggesting a change in process from distributary channel domination on the west to sheet flow on the eastern portion of the fan. Runoff (discharge/watershed area) to produce the fan is estimated to be more than 600 m, perhaps as much as 6000 m, indicating a hydrologic cycle that likely lasted at least thousands of years. Atmospheric precipitation (possibly snow) not seepage produced the runoff. Based on topographic data, Peace Vallis fan likely onlapped Bradbury Rise and spilled into a topographic low to the east of the rise. This argues that the light-toned fractured terrain within this topographic low corresponds to the distal deposits of Peace Vallis fan, and in such a setting, lacustrine deposits are expected.

  16. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  17. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  18. Hormonal correlates of ontogeny in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) and mangabeys (Cercocebus atys).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Leigh, Steven R; Donovan, Sharon M; Monaco, Marcia H

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between serum hormone levels and morphometrics during ontogeny in olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), to test hypotheses about the endocrine regulation of species size differences. First, we expect that levels of hormones and binding proteins predict size change during ontogeny in both species. Second, a high level of integration among the hormones and binding proteins analyzed is expected, with the implication that they act in combination to influence the development of body size and shape. Utilizing a mixed longitudinal sample, we compare change in 18 different measurements, which reflect overall size growth as well as growth in length and circumference, with levels of six growth-related hormones and binding proteins. We examine the relationship between hormone and binding protein levels and morphometrics, using multivariate analyses and "arithmetically-estimated" velocity curves of hormones, binding proteins, to characterize how the endocrine factors analyzed relate to growth. Results suggest that levels of these endocrine factors can be used to predict local and overall growth during ontogeny and that integration between multiple hormone axes is indicated. While important for growth in both species, ontogenetic changes in hormone and binding protein levels are more tightly correlated with changes in morphometric measurements in baboons than mangabeys. These results have important implications for understanding why some smaller-bodied species have higher absolute growth-related hormone levels than larger-bodied species.

  19. Detection of Ground Moving Targets for Two-Channel Spaceborne SAR-ATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Cai, Bin; Liang, Diannong

    2010-12-01

    Many present spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are constrained to only two channels for ground moving target indication (GMTI). Along-track interferometry (ATI) technique is currently exploited to detect slowly moving targets and measure their radial velocity and azimuth real position. In this paper, based on the joint probability density function (PDF) of interferogram's phase and amplitude and the two hypotheses "clutter" and "clutter plus signal", several constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criteria are analyzed for their capabilities and limitations under low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and low clutter-to-noise ratio (CNR) conditions. The CFAR detectors include one-step CFAR detector with interferometric phase, two-step CFAR detectors, and two-dimensional (2D) CFAR detector. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP) criterion is exploited as an upper bound for the performance of the other CFAR detectors. Performance analyses demonstrate the superiority of the 2D CFAR techniques to detect dim slowly moving targets for spaceborne system.

  20. Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

  1. Landing at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis: A potential 2020 Mars rover landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2014-04-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Mars rover mission we selected a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and associated hydrous mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km × 20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. In central delta cliff sections weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates are detected. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater, remnants of an approximately 1 m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from the adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terrain analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  2. Clay Bearing Units in the Region around Mawrth Vallis: Stratigraphy, Extent, and Possible Alteration Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrea, E. Z. Noe; Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Swayze, G.; Michalski, J. R.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R.; Morris, R. B.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2007-01-01

    The largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars occurs on the highland plains around Mawrth Vallis. This exposure extends for about 300 km southward from the edge of the dichotomy boundary, covering an area greater than 200 x 300 kilometers over an elevation range of approximately 2000 meters. At least two different types of hydrated phyllosilicates (Fe/Mg-rich and Al-rich phyllosilicates) have been identified in OMEGA data based on absorption bands near 2.3 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively. These clay-bearing units are associated with layered, indurated light-toned units with complex spatial and stratigraphic relationships, and are unconfomably overlain by a darker, indurated, more heavily cratered unit. Ongoing analysis of OMEGA (approximately 1 kilometer/pixel) and CRISM multi-spectral (MSP, 200 meters/pixel) data reveal hydrated minerals with absorptions at approximately 2.2 or 2.3 micrometers in locations up to 300 kilometers away from the borders of the previously identified extent of clay-bearing units. We seek to: 1) further constrain the mineralogy of the hydrated species identified in [5], and 2) understand spatial and stratigraphic relationships between the different hydrated minerals and the cratered plains units in which they are found. In this work we perform mineralogical and stratigraphic comparisons between units to test whether these extended units may be related, in order to establish a broad zone of alteration.

  3. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  5. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  6. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  7. A comparative study based on the first principles calculations of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Helal, M. A.; Ara, I. E.; Farid Ul Islam, A. K. M.; Rahaman, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic, thermodynamic, vibrational and optical properties of the cubic phase of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) crystals have been carried out based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters, band structures, elastic constants and the elastic moduli of ATiO3 are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. The ferroelectric phenomenon of the crystals has been analyzed based on the nature of their phonon spectra. The phonon frequencies and the Born effective charges have been calculated to elucidate the ferroelectric instability of the cubic phase of ATiO3 by calculating the interatomic forces for several small displacements consistent with the symmetry of modes.

  8. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  9. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  10. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  11. The sinuous ridge and channel network within Rahway Vallis and the wider contextual study of the surrounding Rahway Basin, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman

    2014-05-01

    Rahway Vallis is a previously identified shallow v-shaped valley network in the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, located at 10°N 175°E, within the Cerberus Plains in the Elysium Planitia region of Mars. Rahway Vallis is situated in low-lying terrain bounded to west, north and east by older highlands, and to the south by the flood-carved channel system Marte Vallis. Here we present a study of the low-lying area in which Rahway Vallis sits, which we refer to as the "Rahway basin". The floor of the Rahway basin is extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) and hosts a branching network of ridge and channel systems. The aim of this project is to determine the genesis of these branching forms, in particular to test the hypothesis that they are glaciofluvial in origin. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels that are identifiable in CTX 6 m/pixel images, we have found that they are set within broader v-shaped valley that has almost no morphological expression. These valleys have a convex-up, shallow (around 15 metres vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) V-shaped profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway Basin. Long profiles show the channels to deepen with respect to the bank height downslope. Both channels and valley show a consistent downhill gradient from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. If these are water-cut channels, they reach Strahler stream orders of 4, consistent with a contributory network with multiple sources. Associated with the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels but also form individually and parallel to the channels. Possible explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels and eskers. However despite looking through ca. 250 CTX images across the Rahway basin, no other glacial

  12. Volcano/Ice Interaction Origin of Thermally Distinct Craters in Hrad Vallis, Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence of volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars can provide important constraints on the timing and distribution of Martian volcanic processes and climate characteristics. We seek to constrain the presence of volatiles in close association with volcanic activity in the Elysium region of Mars. Northwest of the Elysium Rise is Hrad Vallis, a ~370 m deep, 800 km long sinuous valley that begins in a source region at 34oN, 218 oW. Flanking both sides of the source region is a lobate deposit that extends ~50 km perpendicular from the source and is an average of ~40 m thick. Within the lobate deposit 12 craters have been identified by thermal infrared signatures and morphologies that are distinct from any other craters or depressions in the region. The thermally distinct craters (TDCs) are 1100-1800 m in diameter, 30-40 m deep and are typically circular with central depressions surrounded by ~1 to >6 concentric fracture sets. In order to investigate the origin of the thermal anomalies, as well as scrutinize previous observations made using THEMIS and MOC data, the meter-scale morphology of the TDCs and the surrounding terrain was characterized using images from the CTX (~6 m/pix) and HiRISE (0.25-0.30 m/pix) cameras. Patches of the terrain appear smooth at the meter scale, while fields of cones populate other regions of the surface. The cones are ~30-50 m across at the summit, and ~60-80 m across at the base. Many of the cones have flat summits, while some have a summit crater. The larger cones exhibit channels extending radially away from the summit and decameter-scale pits are observed at the base of many of the cones. The cone morphology suggests they may be the result of the explosive interaction between hot material (lava? mudflow?) and volatiles (either frozen ground or ground ice). Morris and Mouginis-Mark (2006) noted the ejecta surrounding Crater 11 appeared to have a slight “rayed” appearance. HiRISE views of the proposed rays reveal that these are

  13. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  14. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  15. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  16. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  18. Application of Abreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (ATIES) Methodology to a Mars Orbit Basing (MOB) Solar Clipper Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Any envisioned future with ubiquitous space transportation systems as defined by NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) will rely on revolutionary improvements in the development and integration of technologies. Given the limitation of financial resources on both the government and industry, strategic decision makers need a method to assist them in the prioritization of advanced space transportation technological investment. The Abbreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, And Selection (ATIES) methodology described here is exercised to leap this gulf of evaluation through a systematic aggregation of decision-making techniques and sundry probabilistic methods. The process is applied to a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) based in-space transportation system with an atmospheric transfer vehicle called a Mars Reusable Excursion Vehicle (MREV) and transit/orbital and surface habitats (based upon the Mars Orbit Basing, MOB, concept developed at NASA Headquarters). The candidate architecture includes a crewed transport to Mars and surface landing using the MREV. Three potential enhancing technologies were used in this analysis: carbon nano-tube structures, triple junction photovoltaic arrays, and super-conducting Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems. Feasible technology portfolios (combinations of technologies) that met annual and cumulative program funding constraints were then assessed as to their impact upon the system and subsequent overall metrics. An analysis module for assessing programmatic and performance uncertainties associated with future transportation systems was developed by combining the approach of a spreadsheet-based meta-model with capability to perform Monte Carlo simulations to generate cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). The Reduced Order Simulation for Evaluation of Technologies and Transportation Architectures (ROSETTA) model is a spreadsheet-based meta-model which is a representation of the design process for a

  19. Multiple working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars: Insights from the Mawrth Vallis region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Niles, P. B.; Cuadros, J.; Baldridge, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    A unique aspect of martian geology is the presence of similar compositional stratigraphy observed in many locations throughout the surface. Where the Al-rich and Fe/Mg-rich clay minerals occur together, aluminous clays typically overly layered ferromagnesian clays, possibly indicating that precipitation-driven leaching occurred in a warmer, wetter climate. Sulfates generally occurring stratigraphically above clays could be relics of a global environmental shift between clay-forming and sulfate forming epochs. These compositional relationships speak to an important aspect of the martian geosystem that is yet poorly understood. We synthesized recent ideas to produce several working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars and tested the hypotheses on well-exposed sulfate- and clay-bearing rocks found in the Mawrth Vallis region. In the Mawrth Vallis area, interpretations of compositional stratigraphy are strongly constrained by the fact that the sulfates and clays occur within a friable unit (probably loessite or tephra) that was deposited unconformably onto cratered terrain of fundamentally different character. Within the friable unit, the presence of aluminous clays over ferromagnesian clays might represent evidence for leaching associated with rainfall, but the presence of montmorillonite, beidellite, and sulfates argue against intense leaching as a dominant process. We suggest that ice/snow-mediated chemical weathering of dust could produce a deposit consistent with the observations through hydrolysis reactions facilitated by acidic, briny solutions within the icy dust deposit. Slow downward transport of Mg2+ and possibly Fe2+ in these solutions could potentially have produced the crude compositional stratigraphy, but regional scale leaching of basaltic bedrock by rainfall is unlikely to explain the observations. Because both clays and sulfates are found within draping, friable sedimentary deposits that occur at a range of elevations

  20. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Homervergel G.; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  1. Social compatibility in a newly formed all-male group of white crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus atys lunulatus).

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María; Guillén-Salazar, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Surplus males in primate captive populations are a common problem for zoos. Some captive breeding programs promote all-male groups as an adequate option to house surplus males, but there have been few attempts to assess the feasibility of this management technique across primate species. The present study provides preliminary data regarding social compatibility within a newly formed all-male group of four white crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus atys lunulatus). The study was conducted at the Valencia Zoo (Spain), where data on social behavior were collected over 6 months using continuous focal animal sampling for a total of 87 hr of observation. Results show that low intensity aggressive behaviors (facial threats) were expressed at high rates, whereas physical aggression (fights) rarely occurred. Aggression was more frequent among individuals belonging to the same age-gender class. Regarding affiliative behaviors, every individual actively sought proximity to all other group members through positive approaches, and although not all males carried out social grooming, every male was groomed by at least one group member. Our results suggest that the group was compatible socially because social relationships among the individuals were not neutral, and physical aggression occurred at low rates. The present study provides preliminary data supporting the feasibility of all-male groups as a management option for surplus males in captive populations of white crowned mangabeys. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to be able to generalize both within and across species. Zoo Biol 0:1-7, 2007. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Origin and significance of decameter-scale polygons in the lower Peace Vallis fan of Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Fairén, Alberto G.; Deit, Laetitia Le; Williams, Amy J.; Sletten, Ronald S.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Decameter-scale polygons are extensively developed in the Bedded Fractured (BF) Unit of the lower Peace Vallis fan. The polygons occur in a likely extension of the Gillespie Lake Member, north of Yellowknife Bay, the section first drilled by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We examine hypotheses for the origin of these polygons to provide insight into the history of Gale crater. The polygons are ∼4-30 m across, square to rectangular, and defined by ∼0.5-4 m wide, generally straight troughs with orthogonal intersections. Polygon networks are typically oriented-orthogonal systems, with occasional nearly circular patterns, hundreds of meters across. Potential origins include cooling of lava, and for sedimentary units, syneresis, unloading, weathering, desiccation, impact processes, and cold-climate thermal contraction. Cold-climate thermal contraction is the hypothesis most consistent with the sedimentary nature of the BF Unit and the polygon morphology, geometry, networks, and apparent restriction to the coarse-grained Gillespie Lake Member. A periglacial setting further provides the best analogs for the circular networks and is consistent with geologic context and MSL data. Most of the decametric polygons appear to be ancient. They are confined to the Hesperian BF Unit, and only a few of their bounding fractures extend into younger or recently exposed units. In this regard, they differ from the majority of proposed thermal-contraction polygons on Mars, as those are generally thought to be young features, and, accordingly, the history of formation, preservation and reactivation of the decametric polygons is likely to be more complex than that of any proposed young polygons on Mars. The decametric polygons in the BF Unit may represent landforms developed in a cold but still comparatively wet interlude between a clement early Mars and the much drier and colder planet of today.

  3. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  4. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  5. Ponding, draining and tilting of the Cerberus Plains; a cryolacustrine origin for the sinuous ridge and channel networks in Rahway Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2015-06-01

    Rahway Vallis sits within a shallow basin (the "Rahway basin") in the Cerberus Plains of Mars containing a branching network of channels converging on the basin floor. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels we have found that they are set within broader, subtly-expressed, valleys. These valleys are shallow (around 15 m vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) and have convex to rectilinear slope profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway basin. Both channels and valleys descend and deepen consistently from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. The morphology and topology of this channel system are consistent with formation by contributory fluid flow, generated from many distributed sources. The transition between the older heavily cratered terrain and the floor of the Rahway basin is bounded by near-horizontal continuous topographic terraces. Plotting the elevation of the terraces shows that they conform to a plane with a height difference of around 100 m east to west for the 300 km width of the Rahway basin. We calculate that the volume of material needed to fill the topography up to the level of the plane best fit by the terraces is ∼1500 km3. Bordering the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels, but also occur individually and parallel to the channels. The multiple tilted terraces, the channel/valley network with many fluvial-like characteristics, and the distributed source regions, suggest that the landforms within the Rahway basin are unlikely to have formed through purely volcanic processes. Rather, the channels within the Rahway basin are consistent with a genesis requiring the flow of liquid water, and the sinuous ridges with melting of a static ice body that occupied the basin. We suggest a hypothesis of rapid basin

  6. A new technique for identification of minerals in hyperspectral images. Application to robust characterization of phyllosilicate deposits at Mawrth Vallis using CRISM images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping of Mars by MRO has revealed the presence of numerous small phyllosilicate outcrops. These are typically identified in CRISM images using "summary products" (Pelkey, 2007) that consist of band ratios, depths and spectral slopes around diagnostic wavelengths. The summary products are designed to capture spectral features related to both surface mineralogy and atmospheric gases and aerosols. Such products, as an analysis tool to characterize composition as well as a targeting tool to identify areas of mineralogical interest, have been successful in capturing the known diversity of the Martian surface, and in highlighting locations with strong spectral signatures. Here we present alternative mineral mapping technique that 1) aims to increase the robustness of mineral detections with respect to the specific CRISM artifacts, 2) takes advantage of the spatial context of each pixel and 3) develops new parameters for the discrimination of species in the phyllosilicates family. We include spatial context by evaluating spectral shapes, band depths and spectral slopes for the current pixel based on its spatial neighbors within the same geological unit. Furthermore, the parameters are based on estimates that are more robust to CRISM speckling noise that might alter the parameters and potentially the mineral interpretation. As an effort to distinguish between phyllosilicates species, we are augmenting the suite of existent parameters with a set of mineral parameters that involve the position, number and shapes of diagnostic phyllosilicate absorptions. We are comparing the effectiveness of this new approach to the summary product procedure. The study shows that homogeneous mineral maps and diagnostic spectral identifications are possible as a result of the application of such new parameters. We applied the technique to the discrimination of kaolinite in Mawrth Vallis. The experiments show several small kaolinite outcrops dispersed within the more extensive Al

  7. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  8. Streamlined Hills of Maja Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 May 2003

    Classic catastrophic flood morphology (streamlined hills and longitudinal grooves) is captured in this image of Lunae Planum. Similar features (although much smaller in size) are seen in terrestrial catastrophic flood regions such as Channeled Scabland of Washington state and in Iceland.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.8, Longitude 301.8East (58.2). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pandech, Narasak; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Sarasamak, Kanoknan

    2015-05-07

    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO{sub 3} for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C{sub 11} elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C{sub 12} elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C{sub 44} elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  10. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  11. Asiago spectroscopic classification of SN 2017ati.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Terreran, G.

    2017-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic observation of Gaia17aiq. The target was supplied by Gaia Photometric Science Alerts programme . The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Survey name | IAU name | Host galaxy | Disc.

  12. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  13. Adaptation of ATI-R Scale to Turkish Samples: Validity and Reliability Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezci, Erdogan

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' teaching approaches have become an important issue in the search of quality in education and teaching because of their effect on students' learning. Improvements in teachers' knowledge and awareness of their own teaching approaches enable them to adopt teaching process in accordance with their students' learning styles. The Approaches to…

  14. Cognitive ATI Research: A Simulated Laboratory Environment in (PCE-)Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamsteeg, Paul A.; Bierman, Dick J.

    A study of 228 undergraduate psychology students examined the effectiveness of a prototype of "heatlab," a laboratory simulation written in PCE-PROLOG, intended for remedying misconceptions of the concepts "heat" and "temperature." The effect of varying the amount of structure on students' understanding and the…

  15. Geologic map of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) –30247, –35247, and –40247 quadrangles cover a portion of southern Hesperia Planum and the highlands of eastern Promethei Terra, east of the Hellas basin. The map area (lat 27.5–42.5° S., long 110–115° E.) consists of cratered ancient highland materials of moderate relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of plains, and surficial deposits. Waikato and Reull Valles extend through plains and highland terrains. Regional slopes are generally to the southwest toward the Hellas basin, but local slopes (for example, highlands to plains) dominate the landscape.

  16. Horizontal Tau air showers from mountains in deep vally :Traces of Ultrahigh neutrino tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    1999-08-01

    Ultra High Energy (UHE) Tau neutrino may lead to a very peculiar imprint in future underground K m3 detectors in water and ice as well as in air: rarest secondary tau tracks and decay which may exceed the muon ones. Indeed Bremsstrahlung at high energy lead to longer tracks for heavier leptons. Radiation lenght grows nearly with the square of the lepton mass. Indeed electrons are too light and their trace in matter is negligible (decimeters) muon are much better observed, while tau are too short life time and short range to be found. However, because relativistic time expansion, UHE tau traces in matter, above 1017 eV , are relativistically boosted overcoming the corresponding muon tracks, already bounded by bremsstrahlung logaritmic regime. The tau crossing for Kms in water or ice may be confused with common muon tracks; their tau decay may be missunderstood as muonic catastrophic brehmstrallung interactions. To economize UHE tau dicovery, we suggest to look the tau decay in air into the deep valleys montains, like Canyons or deep in escavation mines where horizontal air showers induce fluoresce or Cerenkov lights. The mountain valley width screens from horizontal secondary muons. The valley height increases the solid angle view. The horizontal air Kms-size gap offer a strong discriminator to filter UHE muons against tau. Tens event a year at PeV ( W resonance peak) energies in K m3 excavation gap should be observable . Hunting air shower in the night toward high mountains in Canyons or in a deep excavation may be the best and cheapest way to discover UHE neutrinos , either born by electron antineutrino scattering on electrons at PeV energies, or by direct tau neutrino possibly relic of muonic flavour oscillation even at EeV energies.

  17. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  18. The Efficacy of ATI Predictive Testing and Remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Alexandra Selman

    2013-01-01

    This project study sought to evaluate the effects of implementing quarterly predictive testing and remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) pass rates of an associate's degree nursing program at a small Midwestern community college. The college's pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has been below both the…

  19. Effects of changing housing conditions on mangabey behavior (Cercocebus atys): spatial density, housing quality, and novelty effects

    PubMed Central

    Crast, Jessica; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Jonesteller, Trina

    2015-01-01

    The separate influences of spatial density and housing quality on the behavior of captive animals are difficult to measure because the two factors are often intrinsically linked. Here, we recorded affiliative and agonistic behavior in adult sooty mangabeys in various housing situations, testing spatial density and housing quality changes separately (N=26 experienced spatial density changes; N=12 experienced housing quality changes). We varied spatial density by 50% while holding housing quality constant and we varied housing quality while holding spatial density constant (achieved by comparing two types of run-housing that varied in the amount of visual privacy and outdoor access). Each housing condition was one month in duration. Prior to collecting data in each housing condition, we evaluated the subjects’ initial responses to the change in housing environment during two-week novelty periods. Affiliative behavior did not change during the novelty periods. Agonistic behavior initially increased slightly when spatial density increased and it decreased significantly when spatial density decreased; it also decreased when subjects moved to housing that offered more visual privacy and outdoor space, indicating that the mangabeys were sensitive to these housing changes. After the novelty periods, affiliative behavior increased under higher spatial density, but remained unchanged across housing quality conditions; agonistic behavior remained unchanged across all conditions. Results suggest that a prolonged increase in spatial density led the mangabeys to adopt a tension-reduction coping strategy, in which the increase in affiliative behavior alleviates a presumed increase in social tension. Reducing visual privacy and choice did not affect the mangabeys’ behavior, post-novelty period. Thus, like many other primates, the mangabeys managed tension by flexibly adapting to changes in their housing environment in ways that reduce the risk of severe aggression. This study highlights the importance of controlled behavioral studies in facilitating data-driven management decisions that promote animal welfare. PMID:26111730

  20. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ATiO{sub 3}–Pr thin films prepared by a photochemical method (where A = Ba and Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, G.; Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Buono-Core, G.E.; Huentupil, Y.; Chornik, B.; Carrasco, C.; Rodríguez, C.A.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A method of photochemical deposition has been used to the preparation of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped Pr(III). • The (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}/Pr(III) films under 375 nm excitation shows emissions attributable to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr ion. • These PL signals decreased above 10 mol% of Pr(III). • Analysis suggests the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap influences in the PL processes. - Abstract: This article reports the characterization and optical properties of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped with Pr at different proportions (0–15 mol%). The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and quartz substrates using a photochemical method and post-annealed at 900 °C. The evaluation of photo-reactivity of the precursor complexes was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that Ba, Ca, Ti, O and Pr are present in the form of perovskite. Under UV light excitation (375 nm) the (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}–Pr films show the characteristic emissions ascribed to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr{sup 3+} ion. The optical measurements show the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap which influence the emission processes.

  1. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  2. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Topographic map of the western region of Dao Vallis in Hellas Planitia, Mars; MTM 500k -40/082E OMKT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosiek, Mark R.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. Contours were derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) compiled on a digital photogrammetric workstation using Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs with orientation parameters derived from an analytic aerotriangulation. The image base for this map employs Viking Orbiter images from orbits 406 and 363. An orthophotomosaic was created on the digital photogrammetric workstation using the DTM compiled from stereo models.

  4. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  5. Formation of orthopoxvirus cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and embedding of virions are dynamic processes requiring microtubules.

    PubMed

    Howard, Amanda R; Moss, Bernard

    2012-05-01

    In cells infected with some orthopoxviruses, numerous mature virions (MVs) become embedded within large, cytoplasmic A-type inclusions (ATIs) that can protect infectivity after cell lysis. ATIs are composed of an abundant viral protein called ATIp, which is truncated in orthopoxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) that do not form ATIs. To study ATI formation and occlusion of MVs within ATIs, we used recombinant VACVs that express the cowpox full-length ATIp or we transfected plasmids encoding ATIp into cells infected with VACV, enabling ATI formation. ATI enlargement and MV embedment required continued protein synthesis and an intact microtubular network. For live imaging of ATIs and MVs, plasmids expressing mCherry fluorescent protein fused to ATIp were transfected into cells infected with VACV expressing the viral core protein A4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein. ATIs appeared as dynamic, mobile bodies that enlarged by multiple coalescence events, which could be prevented by disrupting microtubules. Coalescence of ATIs was confirmed in cells infected with cowpox virus. MVs were predominantly at the periphery of ATIs early in infection. We determined that coalescence contributed to the distribution of MVs within ATIs and that microtubule-disrupting drugs abrogated coalescence-mediated MV embedment. In addition, MVs were shown to move from viral factories at speeds consistent with microtubular transport to the peripheries of ATIs, whereas disruption of microtubules prevented such trafficking. The data indicate an important role for microtubules in the coalescence of ATIs into larger structures, transport of MVs to ATIs, and embedment of MVs within the ATI matrix.

  6. A new type of compartment, defined by plant-specific Atg8-interacting proteins, is induced upon exposure of Arabidopsis plants to carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Honig, Arik; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Ufaz, Shai; Galili, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Atg8 is a central protein in bulk starvation-induced autophagy, but it is also specifically associated with multiple protein targets under various physiological conditions to regulate their selective turnover by the autophagy machinery. Here, we describe two new closely related Arabidopsis thaliana Atg8-interacting proteins (ATI1 and ATI2) that are unique to plants. We show that under favorable growth conditions, ATI1 and ATI2 are partially associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane network, whereas upon exposure to carbon starvation, they become mainly associated with newly identified spherical compartments that dynamically move along the ER network. These compartments are morphologically distinct from previously reported spindle-shaped ER bodies and, in contrast to them, do not contain ER-lumenal markers possessing a C-terminal HDEL sequence. Organelle and autophagosome-specific markers show that the bodies containing ATI1 are distinct from Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and classical autophagosomes. The final destination of the ATI1 bodies is the central vacuole, indicating that they may operate in selective turnover of specific proteins. ATI1 and ATI2 gene expression is elevated during late seed maturation and desiccation. We further demonstrate that ATI1 overexpression or suppression of both ATI1 and ATI2, respectively, stimulate or inhibit seed germination in the presence of the germination-inhibiting hormone abscisic acid.

  7. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  8. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses.

  9. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Landing Sites Under Consideration for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.; Kirk, R.; Fergason, R.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Milliken, R.; Sun, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Detailed scientific investigations of target materials and surface characteristics are focusing on four potential landing sites (Holden, Gale and Eberswalde craters and Mawrth Vallis) for the Mars Science Laboratory.

  11. Final Four Landing Sites for the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory will land at Mawrth Vallis, Holden, Gale, or Eberswalde Craters (locations important to the potential habitability of Mars) after 4 community workshops and the consideration of more than 50 candidates over the past 4 years.

  12. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val to Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13 to 32 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a Val deficient basal diet containing 0.60% L-Lys•HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed th...

  13. Automating a Government Research Library: The First Year’s Progress Report on the Defence Research Establishment Suffield’s Project CLIO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    library collection of books, documents and journals; to conduct a security classification/Access To Information (ATI) review of all documents published at DRES since 1941; to weed the document collection and to redesign and rearrange library facilities; and to provide expert and analytical advice to DRES management on matters of information security and dissemination, ATI, and theoretical and operational aspects of information

  14. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  15. Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2013-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Performance of Shipborne Fixed Crossed Loop H/F D/F Applied to Aircraft Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    19 Oct 2009 Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old...Haslemere, Surrey. 1%£. aMBBaBtt ABD BEMBBtt «wanauiw g in BBBBBBBB g MIPBORIS ?BB> CROSSED LOOP H/fr P/P jJVUSD TO AIBSRAW HAVICrtTll». Safrans

  17. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km per pixel observations of 4 major channel and valley systems: Shalbatana Vallis; Simud Vallis, Hydraotes Chaos, and the associated outflow channel connecting it with the eastern end of Vallis Marineris; Al-Qahira Vallis; and Ma'adim Vallis. Simultaneous broad band visible channel data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that all 4 valley systems have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies of Martian channels. We conclude that the higher inertia is likely due to some intrinsic difference associated with the channel floors, rather than due only to dark aeolian deposits as suggested by some previous studies. Our conclusion is based largely upon the localized nature of the dark deposits in contrast with the thermal homogeneity of the channel floors. Thus, these channels and valleys show an uncommon (for Mars) connection between morphology and inertia.

  18. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid.

  19. Strong-field ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules by a bicircular laser field: Rotational and reflection symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuladžić, M.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Milošević, D. B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate above-threshold ionization (ATI) of homonuclear diatomic molecules by the so-called bicircular field using the improved molecular strong-field approximation. Bicircular field is a two-color laser field having coplanar circularly polarized counter-rotating components of frequencies r ω and s ω , with r and s integers. Our analysis includes the high-energy part of the corresponding spectra, i.e., high-order ATI (HATI). The obtained molecular (H)ATI spectra are more complicated than the corresponding atomic spectra. We have identified four symmetries which are satisfied in (H)ATI of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Two of these symmetries are general rotational symmetries valid both for direct and rescattered HATI electrons. The remaining two symmetries are reflection symmetries valid only for the direct ATI electrons. Analytical proof of these symmetries is also given. These symmetries are illustrated using numerical examples of HATI spectra of the N2 molecule for various molecular orientations.

  20. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  1. Academic and nursing aptitude and the NCLEX-RN in baccalaureate programs.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary Ann; Harris, Debra; Tracz, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    Accurately predicting NCLEX-RN® success has a positive impact on all nursing education stakeholders. This study focused on the ability to predict NCLEX-RN pass rates on the basis of prenursing academic aptitude variables and the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) nursing aptitude program. The ATI predictors were the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) and fi ve ATI subject tests: Fundamentals, Medical Surgical, Nursing Care of Children, Mental Health, and Maternal Newborn. The prenursing variables comprised the prenursing grade point average, a prerequisite communication course, and the ATI TEAS composite subscores of TEAS Reading, TEAS Math, TEAS Science, and TEAS English. This study included participants from four baccalaureate nursing programs in the California State University system. Results of canonical correlation, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression revealed a significant correlation among prenursing, ATI scores, and NCLEXRN fi rst-try pass rates. Prediction of NCLEX-RN success rate using standardized testing data was supported, with the strongest predictors being the ATI Medical Surgical and ATI Mental Health tests.

  2. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  3. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [Everglades agricultural area and the west north central peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures derived from HCMM data were compared with to those obtained by GOES satellite and the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) calculated. For two dates, the HCMM temperatures appear to be about 5 C lower than the GOES temperatures. The ATI for excessively-drained to well-drained mineral soils was greater than for drained organic soils possibly because of long periods of low rainfall during late 1980 and early 1981. Organic soils cropped to sugar cane showed lower ATI after a severe killing freeze. With dead leaves, there was less transpiration and more solar radiation probably reached the dark soil surface. This would explain the larger diurnal temperature amplitude observed.

  4. Aerosol Characteristics in the Northern Territory of Australia During the Dry Season With an Emphasis on Biomass Burning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    eucalyptus ) in an open forest with an understorey of (sorghum) tussock grasses. The same eucalypt species were...pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP sea-salt smoke secondary June 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Mg nssK nssSO4 NO3 Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr...ati on in T SP PM10 to PM1 (coarse particles) PM1 (fine particles) sea-salt smoke secondary Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP

  5. Fast Sampling and Analysis of Offgas Dioxins/Furans Using a Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C. G.; Rees, R. T.; Reick, K. G.; Montgomery, J. L.; Battleson, D. M.; LeFever, J.; Sears, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    The United States Department of Energy is using or evaluating several Alternatives-to- Incineration (ATI) technologies for treating hazardous wastes and low-level mixed wastes. ATI treatment technologies may have the potential for generating gaseous or other emissions of polychlorinated dioxins/furans, a class of highly toxic compounds which are regulated to very low levels. At present, the emission limit for dioxins/furans from hazardous waste incinerators is 0.2 ng TEQ/dscm (0.4 ng TEQ/dscm w/TC). Emissions from ATI technologies are expected to be subject to similar restrictions.

  6. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, G S; Pereira, M O; Benarroz, M O; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M J; Fonseca, A S; Medeiros, A C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na(99m)TcO(4) and (99m)Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  7. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  8. Negative-Ion Formation from Surface Scattering and the Anderson Correlation Energy U.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    David Squire AFOSR/NC Amuy Research Office Bolltg AFB P.O. Box 12211 ! Washington, D.C. 20332 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Professor Roald Hoffmann Department of Chemistry Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 ATI

  9. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  10. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from Ascaris suum, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite, was tested for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in male mice. Dominant lethal effects of ATI for the main stages of germ cell development were analyzed by mating at specific time points after dosing. Three groups of adult BALB/c males received 50, 100 or 250mg/kg body weight (bw) single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ATI in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The control group received concurrent injection of PBS. After the administration of ATI or PBS, each male was mated with two untreated females. For fractionated examination with regard to successive germ cell stages (spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia), every second week two other untreated virgin females were placed with each male for mating. The uteri of the females were inspected on the 15th day of gestation, and preimplantation loss and postimplantation loss determined from dominant lethal parameters. Exposure of mice germ cells to ATI did not impair mating activity of males. Pregnancy rates were reduced ( approximately 5-10%) by treatment of males with higher doses of ATI, but differences between treatment and control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the females bred to ATI-treated males, significant increase in preimplantation loss was observed at post-injection week 1 (reflecting exposure to spermatozoa) and 3 (reflecting exposure to mid and early spermatids) for higher doses of the inhibitor (P<0.05 or P<0.01). During mating days 15-21 a statistically significant increase in postimplantation loss and dominant lethal effects were observed for all doses of ATI. At higher doses, dominant lethal effects were restricted to spermatozoa (P<0.01). These data suggest that ATI induces dominant lethal mutations at postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, but spermatids are the most sensitive cell stage to the effect of ATI. These preliminary findings show that ATI

  11. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-03

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  12. Anti-Tumor Effects of Atractylenolide-I on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, Fangyi; Wang, Ting; Jia, Ping; Wang, Huafei; Qing, Yi; Xiong, Tingting; He, Mengjie; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Atractylenolide-I (AT-I), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, on human ovarian cancer cells. Material/Methods The viability and anchorage-independent growth of ovarian cancer cells were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assay, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry analysis. The level of cyclin B1 and CDK1 was measured using qPCR and ELISA analysis. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, AIF, and Bcl-2, and phosphorylation level of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR were determined with Western blot analysis. Results AT-I decreased the cell viability and suppressed anchorage-independent growth of A2780 cells. Cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase transition by AT-I treatment, which was related to decreased expression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment induced apoptosis, as shown by up-regulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cytosolic release of cytochrome c and AIF, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, in a dose-dependent manner. Then, the effects of AT-I on PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were examined to further investigate the underlying anti-cancer mechanism of AT-I, and the results showed that treatment with AT-I significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AT-I induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that AT-I might be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:28141785

  13. Flight Investigation of NACA DS Cowlings on the XP-42 Airplane. 1 - High Inlet Velocity Cowling with Propeller Cuffs Tested in High-Speed Level Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-01-01

    Intelligence Deportment Air Materiel Command AIR TECHNICAL INDEX Wright Patterson Air Force Dnyton, Ohio TITLE: Investigation of Maximum...Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old and was...Do Not Return This Document To DTIC »•’ ,’ Reproduced by AIR DOCUMENTS DIVISION • 4 ."*!*• HEADQUARTERS AIR MATERIEL COMMAND WRIGHT FIELD

  14. Clinical correlations of infliximab trough levels and antibodies to infliximab in South Korean patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Hye; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Hyungil; Chang, Kiju; Kim, Gwang-Un; Song, Eun Mi; Seo, Myeongsook; Lee, Ho-Su; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Park, Sang Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical implications of infliximab trough levels (IFX-TLs) and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) levels in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in Asian countries. METHODS IFX-TL and ATI level were measured using prospectively collected samples obtained with informed consent from CD patients being treated at Asan Medical Center, South Korea. We analyzed the correlations between IFX-TLs/ATI levels and the clinical activity of CD (quiescent vs active disease) based on the CD activity index, C-reactive protein level, and physician’s judgment of patients’ clinical status at enrollment. The impact of concomitant immunomodulators was also investigated. RESULTS This study enrolled 138 patients with CD (84 with quiescent and 54 with active disease). In patients with quiescent and active diseases, the median IFX-TLs were 1.423 μg/mL and 0.163 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001) and the median ATI levels were 8.064 AU/mL and 11.209 AU/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In the ATI-negative and -positive groups, the median IFX-TLs were 1.415 μg/mL and 0.141 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with and without concomitant immunomodulator use, there were no differences in IFX-TLs (0.632 μg/mL and 1.150 μg/mL, respectively; P = 0.274) or ATI levels (8.655 AU/mL and 9.017 AU/mL, respectively; P = 0.083). CONCLUSION IFX-TL/ATI levels were well correlated with the clinical activity in South Korean CD patients. Our findings support the usefulness of IFX-TLs/ATI levels in treating CD patients receiving IFX in clinical practice. PMID:28293096

  15. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  16. Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-π, π], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

  17. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of a pyrrole containing arylthioindole in human Jurkat leukemia cell line and multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells

    PubMed Central

    Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Kuiava, Ludmila M; Blokhin, Dmitry Yu; Miura, Koh; Silvestri, Romano; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a series of novel arylthioindole compounds, potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, were synthesized. In the present study the effects of 2-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-3-((3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thio)-1H-indole (ATI5 compound) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human T-cell acute leukemia Jurkat cells and their multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 subline were investigated. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with the ATI5 compound for 48 hrs resulted in a strong G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-independent apoptotic cell death accompanied by the induction of the active form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage. ATI5 treatment also caused non-cell death related mitotic arrest in multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 cells after 48 hrs of treatment suggesting promising opportunities for the further design of pyrrole-containing ATI compounds as anticancer agents. Cell death resistance of Jurkat/A4 cells to ATI5 compound was associated with alterations in the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein-coding and microRNA genes. More importantly, findings showing that ATI5 treatment induced p53-independent apoptosis are of great importance from a therapeutic point of view since p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human neoplasms. PMID:26785947

  18. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  19. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of Mars - The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (about 30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented for the region 0-45 deg N, 0-90 deg W. In the region adjoining the Chryse basin there are two major channels, Kasei Vallis and Ares Vallis, whose floor materials have higher thermal inertia than the surrounding upland regions. Moreover, there are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor.

  20. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  2. Relationships Between the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), Fluvial Channels, and the Dichotomy Boundary Southeast of Nicholson Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, B. A.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) data to investigate the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and its relationship to fluvial channels southeast of Nicholson Crater. In this area the MFF shows small-scale layering and is draped over Labou Vallis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay

    1997-01-01

    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  4. Reproductive Ecology of Vallisneria americana Michaux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada, and the British Pos- sessions. Vol. 1, 2nd ed. New York: Charles...weeds. 103. Vallis- neria americana Michx. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 74: 883-897. Chapman, A. W. 1883. Flora of the southern United States. 2nd

  5. Developing a Reflective Practitioner through the Connection between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's ("Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques." State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; "Peabody J Educ" 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in…

  6. Aram Chaos: A Long Lived Subsurface Aqueous Environment with Strong Water Resource Potential for Human Missions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, L.; Mueller, R. P.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Aram Chaos is a 280-km-wide near-circular structure near the outflow channel Ares Vallis and Aureum Chaos. It is a compelling landing site for human explorers featuring multiple science ROIs with a compelling resource ROI with polyhydrated sulfates.

  7. Use of an AUV to Quantify Submesoscale Mixing Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    report for that latter progam . LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the driving mechanisms and pathways of dissipation...past several decades. These spectral formulations are based on a combination of nonlinear cascade physics and dimensional analysis (Vallis, 2006). In

  8. Clues to the Relative Timing of Lakes in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Parker, T.; Rubin, D.; Lewis, K.; Sumner, D.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2014-07-01

    In Gale Crater two higher deltas appear to record the deposition into lakes associated with the cutting of Farah Vallis. At the entrance canyon to Mt. Sharp a possible back stepping fan/delta sequence may record a later rising lake level.

  9. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows.

  10. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  11. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (Principal Investigator); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of a Lantana camara extract on the labeling of blood constituents of rats with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Maiworm, A I; Santos-Filho, S D; Presta, G A; Giani, T S; Paoli, S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-03-01

    Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24 +/- 2.59 to 11.95 +/- 3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane.

  13. Alternative translation initiation augments the human mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Lawrence; Reyes, Aurelio; Duncan, Anna L.; Rorbach, Joanna; Wood, Stuart R.; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Gammage, Payam A.; Robinson, Alan J.; Minczuk, Michal; Holt, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative translation initiation (ATI) is a mechanism of producing multiple proteins from a single transcript, which in some cases regulates trafficking of proteins to different cellular compartments, including mitochondria. Application of a genome-wide computational screen predicts a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal for 126 proteins in mouse and man that is revealed when an AUG codon located downstream from the canonical initiator methionine codon is used as a translation start site, which we term downstream ATI (dATI). Experimental evidence in support of dATI is provided by immunoblotting of endogenous truncated proteins enriched in mitochondrial cell fractions or of co-localization with mitochondria using immunocytochemistry. More detailed cellular localization studies establish mitochondrial targeting of a member of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein family, PABPC5, and of the RNA/DNA helicase PIF1α. The mitochondrial isoform of PABPC5 co-immunoprecipitates with the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase, and is markedly reduced in abundance when mitochondrial DNA and RNA are depleted, suggesting it plays a role in RNA metabolism in the organelle. Like PABPC5 and PIF1α, most of the candidates identified by the screen are not currently annotated as mitochondrial proteins, and so dATI expands the human mitochondrial proteome. PMID:23275553

  14. Salvianolic acid B improves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into alveolar epithelial cells type I via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yang, Jingxian; Gao, Xi; Xu, Dan; Niu, Dongge; Li, Jinglin; Wen, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is among the most common causes of mortality in intensive care units. Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may attenuate pulmonary edema. In addition, alveolar epithelial cells type I (ATI) are involved in reducing the alveolar edema in response to ALI. However, the mechanism involved in improving the efficiency of differentiation of MSCs into ATI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI and the activities of the Wnt signaling pathways were investigated. The BMSCs were supplemented with conditioned medium (CM). The groups were as follows: i) CM group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM; ii) lithium chloride (LiCl) group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 5 mM LiCl; iii) Sal B group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 10 mM Sal B. The samples were collected and assessed on days 7 and 14. It was revealed that aquaporin (AQP)-5 and T1α were expressed in BMSCs, and induction with LiCl or Sal B increased the expression of AQP-5 and T1α. Furthermore, the Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a signaling pathways were activated during the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI. In conclusion, it was suggested that the promotive effects of Sal B on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI occurred through the activation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  15. Methotrexate Reduced TNF Bioactivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Rinaudo-Gaujous, Mélanie; Thomas, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate methotrexate effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha bioactivity during infliximab (IFX) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to correlate TNF bioactivity with antibody towards IFX (ATI) development and RA clinical response. Materials and Methods. Thirty-nine active women RA patients despite conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) requiring IFX therapy were enrolled, and clinical data and blood samples were recorded at baseline (W0) and at 6 weeks (W6), W22, and W54 of IFX treatment. TNF bioactivity as well as IFX trough and ATI concentrations were assessed on blood samples. Results. TNF bioactivity decreased from W0 to W54 with a large range from W22 at the time of ATI detection. From W22, TNF bioactivity was lower in presence of methotrexate as csDMARD compared to other csDMARDs. IFX trough concentration increased from W0 to W54 with a large range from W22, similarly to TNF bioactivity. Methotrexate therapy prevented ATI presence at W22 and reduced TNF bioactivity compared to other csDMARDs (p = 0.002). Conclusion. This suggests that methotrexate plays a key role in TNF bioactivity and against ATI development. PMID:28352145

  16. Cationic aluminum alkyl complexes incorporating aminotroponiminate ligands.

    PubMed

    Korolev, A V; Ihara, E; Guzei, I A; Young, V G; Jordan, R F

    2001-08-29

    The synthesis, structures, and reactivity of cationic aluminum complexes containing the N,N'-diisopropylaminotroponiminate ligand ((i)Pr(2)-ATI(-)) are described. The reaction of ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(2) (1a-e,g,h; R = H (a), Me (b), Et (c), Pr (d), (i)Bu (e), Cy (g), CH(2)Ph (h)) with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] yields ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(+) species whose fate depends on the properties of the R ligand. 1a and 1b react with 0.5 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to produce dinuclear monocationic complexes [([(i)Pr(2)-ATI] AlR)(2)(mu-R)][(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2a,b). The cation of 2b contains two ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlMe(+) units linked by an almost linear Al-Me-Al bridge; 2a is presumed to have an analogous structure. 2b does not react further with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)]. However, 1a reacts with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to afford ((i Pr(2)-ATI)Al(C(6)F(5))(mu-H)(2)B(C(6)F(5))(2) (3) and other products, presumably via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer and ligand redistribution of a [((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlH][(C(6)F(5))(4)] intermediate. 1c-e react with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield stable base-free [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] complexes (4c-e). 4c crystallizes from chlorobenzene as 4c(ClPh).0.5PhCl, which has been characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state the PhCl ligand of 4c(ClPh) is coordinated by a dative PhCl-Al bond and an ATI/Ph pi-stacking interaction. 1g,h react with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5g,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][(BC(6)F(5))(4)] intermediates. 1c,h react with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5c,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][RB(C(6)F(5))(3)] intermediates. The reaction of 4c-e with MeCN or acetone yields [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(L)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] adducts (L = MeCN (8c-e), acetone (9c-e)), which undergo associative intermolecular L exchange. 9c-e undergo slow beta-H transfer to afford the dinuclear dicationic alkoxide complex [(((i

  17. Dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Tosa, V.; Nam, C.H.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) in left/right asymmetry of photoelectron energy spectra is analyzed. Based on a classical analysis of high-order ATI electrons produced by few-cycle laser pulses, calculated asymmetry maps of electron spectra reproduce very well the experimental results reported in Lindner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004)], utilized for determining the Guoy phase shift of few-cycle laser pulses. The anomalous behavior of the high-energy part of the ATI electron spectra is, then, fully understood in terms of earlier medium depletion occurring in the leading edge of the laser pulse. In order to correctly reproduce the experimental findings a physical temporal envelope of the laser pulse, which only vanishes at the infinity, plays a crucial role.

  18. Brief Report: Relationship Among Viral Load Outcomes in HIV Treatment Interruption Trials.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Graham C; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J; Mellors, John W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Jonathan Z

    2016-07-01

    Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ≤12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point.

  19. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process.

  20. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-11

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition.

  1. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880

  2. Design and Synthesis of 2-Heterocyclyl-3-arylthio-1H-indoles as Potent Tubulin Polymerization and Cell Growth Inhibitors with Improved Metabolic Stability

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Rensen, Willeke; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Gatti, Valerio; Bolognesi, Alessio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Granata, Ilaria; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Soriani, Alessandra; Iannitto, Maria Luisa; Mariani, Marisa; Santoni, Angela; Brancale, Andrea; Ferlini, Cristiano; Dondio, Giulio; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano

    2011-01-01

    New arylthioindoles (ATIs) were obtained by replacing the 2-alkoxycarbonyl group with a bioisosteric 5-membered heterocycle nucleus. The new ATIs 5, 8, and 10 inhibited tubulin polymerization, reduced cell growth of a panel of human transformed cell lines, and showed higher metabolic stability than the reference ester 3. These compounds induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis at a similar level as combretastatin A-4 and vinblastine and triggered caspase-3 expression in a significant fraction of cells in both p53-proficient and p53-defective cell lines. Importantly, ATIs 5, 8, and 10 were more effective than vinorelbine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel as growth inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Compound 5 was shown to have medium metabolic stability in both human and mouse liver microsomes, in contrast to the rapidly degraded reference ester 3, and a pharmacokinetic profile in the mouse characterized by a low systemic clearance and excellent oral bioavailability. PMID:22044164

  3. Predicting NCLEX-RN success in a diverse student population.

    PubMed

    Alameida, Marshall D; Prive, Alice; Davis, Harvey C; Landry, Lynette; Renwanz-Boyle, Andrea; Dunham, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Many schools of nursing have implemented standardized testing using platforms such as those developed by Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) to better prepare students for success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses® (NCLEX-RN). This study extends and replicates the research on standardized testing to predict first-time pass success in a diverse student population and across two prelicensure program types. The final sample consisted of 589 students who graduated between 2003 and 2009. Demographic data, as well as academic performance and scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor, were analyzed. The findings in this study indicate that scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor were positively, significantly associated with first-time pass success. Students in jeopardy of failing the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt can be identified prior to graduation and remediation efforts can be strengthened to improve their success.

  4. Blind phase calibration for along-track interferometry: application to Gotcha data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Faruk; Murthy, Vinay; Scarborough, Steven M.

    2014-06-01

    Along-Track Interferometry (ATI) has been widely used for ground moving target indication (GMTI) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. In ideal cases, the ATI phase obtained using two phase centers that are aligned in the along-track dimension yield clutter-only pixels with zero phase. However, the platform's motion may create a cross-track displacement between the two phase centers and in turn offset the phase centers' baseline from the along track dimension. This cross-track offset leads to non-zero phase for clutter-only pixels, necessitating calibration for accurate GMTI. This paper proposes a blind calibration method to correct the along-track baseline error in ATI-SAR systems. The success of the proposed method is shown on a set of measured data from the Gotcha sensor.

  5. The Size of the Expressed HIV Reservoir Predicts Timing of Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Etemad, Behzad; Ahmed, Hayat; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mellors, John W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lederman, Michael M.; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Therapies to achieve sustained antiretroviral therapy-free HIV remission will require validation in analytic treatment interruption (ATI) trials. Identifying biomarkers that predict time to viral rebound could accelerate the development of such therapeutics. Design A pooled analysis of participants from 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group ATI studies to identify predictors of viral rebound. Methods Cell-associated DNA (CA-DNA) and CA-RNA were quantified in pre-ATI PBMC samples, and residual plasma viremia (RV) was measured using the single-copy assay. Results Participants who initiated ART during acute/early HIV infection and those on an NNRTI-containing regimen had significantly delayed viral rebound. Participants who initiated ART during acute/early infection had lower levels of pre-ATI CA-RNA (acute/early vs. chronic-treated: median <92 vs. 156 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, P<0.01). Higher pre-ATI CA-RNA levels were significantly associated with shorter time to viral rebound (≤4 wks vs. 5–8 wks vs. >8 wks: median 182 vs. 107 vs. <92 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, Kruskal-Wallis P<0.01). The proportion of participants with detectable RV prior to ATI was significantly higher among those with shorter time to viral rebound. Conclusions Higher levels of HIV expression while on ART are associated with shorter time to HIV rebound after treatment interruption. Quantification of the active HIV reservoir may provide a biomarker of efficacy for therapies that aim to achieve ART-free HIV remission. PMID:26588174

  6. Anesthetic effects of a three-drugs mixture--comparison of administrative routes and antagonistic effects of atipamezole in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and butorphanol (BUT) produced anesthetic duration of around 40 minutes (min) in ICR mice. We reported that this anesthetic mixture produced almost the same anesthetic effects in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of drugs has been widely used in mice. However, various injectable routes of the anesthetic mixture may cause different anesthetic effects. First, we examined effects of the anesthetic mixture by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) injection compared to IP injection. After injection of the anesthetic mixture, administration of atipamezole (ATI) induced mice recovery from anesthesia. Secondly, we examined how different dosage and optimum injection timing of ATI affected mice recovery from anesthesia. We used an anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs under anesthesia. Usually, drugs from SC injection work more weakly than IP or IV injection. However, we found no significant differences of anesthetic duration among the three different injection routes. Antagonistic effects of ATI (0.3 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) worked equally when administered at 30 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. Antagonistic effects of ATI (1.5 mg/kg) were stronger than ATI (0.3 mg/kg) at 10 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. The anesthetic mixture is a useful drug to induce nearly the same anesthetic effects by different injection routes and has an antagonist of ATI which helps mice quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals.

  7. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R S; Moreno, S R F; Lima-Filho, G L; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  8. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  9. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  10. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  11. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8-1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  12. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    PubMed

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  13. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  14. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; Edgar, Lauren A.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  16. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  17. Week 2: Sojourner smorgasbord at the Hard Rock Cafe, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ARES VALLIS, MARS—While children on Earth scoured their local toy stores for the Mattel "Hot Wheels" models of Mars Pathfinder and rover Sojourner, the Pathfinder team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., settled down to the business of "doing science" on the Red Planet. To accomplish "science" this week, Sojourner was commanded to drive from Yogi rock through the granular patch known as the Cabbage Patch and on to Scooby Doo.

  18. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  19. MC-16 Memnonia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-16 quadrangle, Memnonia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands in the southern two-thirds are cut in the northeastern part by a large outflow channel, Mangala Vallis. The highlands are bounded to the north by undulating wind-eroded deposits and to the east by lava flows of the Tharsis region. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  20. Personnel Attrition Rates in Historical Land Combat Operations: A Catalog of Attrition and Casualty Data Bases on Diskettes Usable with Personal Computers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    labor intensive and therefore very time-consuming and costly. Accordingly, making repeated passes to collect a few additional facets of information, or to...and Labor Activities in France, 1830-1960 (ICPSR 8421). (23) Analysis of Arrests in Paris, June 1848 (ICPSR 0049). (24) Violent Events in France, 1830...Pelaez (ed) Public Law and Comparative Politics. Trabajos en Homenaje a Ferran Vallis i Taberner, Vol XVII, Barcelona, Spain; Facultad de Derecho de

  1. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Testing Interaction Effects without Discarding Variance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Kay A.

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression are two of the most commonly used methods of data analysis in behavioral science research. Although ANOVA was intended for use with experimental designs, educational researchers have used ANOVA extensively in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research. This practice tends to make researchers…

  3. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  4. Exploring the Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education System: A Study of Indian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of university and school teachers towards inclusive education system. One hundred teachers having equal number of male and female population was included in the study. Participants were administered an attitude scale namely--Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIE), developed by Wilczenski (1992) to…

  5. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analyses of Earth Penetration Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    Army ATTN; f . Lindsey (, Arn y Mobil)it lquli R&D (md AT IN : I’, IMI -X’ 115 Army Armament Material Readiness Command ATI: 1RIDMI. -W(. ATT N: MA...Force ATTN: Code U401, M. Kleinerman ATTN: INT, E. Jacobsen ATTN: Code X211 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Naval Surface Weapons Ctr ATTN: Tech Lib & Info Svcs Br

  6. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Central Bolivia: Relationships Between Reservoir Hosts, Habitats, and Viral Genotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    GAT GA-3 Anti-sense PPT716R 5-AAI CCI ATI ACI CCC AT-3 Rodent cytochrome b primers L1472419 5-CGA AGC TTG ATA TGA AAA ACC ATC GTT G-3 L1464821...Lee HW, 1996. Serological evidence of human hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 6. Johnson AM, de

  7. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely correspond to the General Soil Map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils. Areas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also correspond well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model shows both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  8. Motivational Factors and Predictors for Attending a Continuing Education Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachioni, Meire; Nascimento Ordonez, Tiago; Lima da Silva, Thais Bento; Tavares Batistoni, Samila Sathler; Sanches Yassuda, Mônica; Caldeira Melo, Ruth; Rodrigues da Costa Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Lopes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the stated motives of participants who enrolled in a program at the Open University for the Elderly (UnATI, in Portuguese), identify correlations between the stated motives and sociodemographic data, and find a set of predictors related to the listed motives. A total of 306 middle-aged and elderly adults aged 50 or…

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  10. Profiling Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education: A Cluster-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teaching approaches in higher education have already been the subject of a considerable body of research. An important contribution was Prosser and Trigwell's development of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI). The present study aims to map out the approaches to teaching profiles of teachers in higher education on the basis of their scores…

  11. Attitudes and Achievement in Biology: An Investigation of the Effects of Student Attributes and Teaching Styles on Attitudes and Achievement in Secondary School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, John Hamilton

    Using a specially-constructed category system (CATS), biology lessons are analyzed for attribute-treatment interaction (ATI) and the data submitted to analysis. Relationships between fifteen individual predictors (general ability, four personality factors, two cognitive preferences, treatment, and seven first-order attribute-treatment…

  12. It's the Little Things: Exploring the Importance of Commonplace Events for Early-Career Teachers' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl; Morgan, Mark; O'Leary, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a rationale for further researching the everyday events that keep teachers motivated or that discourage them. We put forward the idea that routine Affect Triggering Incidents (ATIs) are an important area for researchers to investigate in terms of how they impact teacher motivation and resilience. Two groups of…

  13. Aptitude-Treatment Interactions during Creativity Training in E-Learning: How Meaning-Making, Self-Regulation, and Knowledge Management Influence Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Lin, Chun Fu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs) is to find the interactions between treatments and learners' aptitudes and therefore to achieve optimal learning. This study aimed at understanding whether the aptitudes of meaning-making, self-regulation, and knowledge management (KM) would interact with the treatment of 17-week KM-based training…

  14. The Synthesis and Purification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 1 - Butylbenzene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    Synthesis (19440); Chemistry, Organic - Synthesis (23238); Hydrogenation firm, ^’bJ&JL fUdtOls DIVISION: Sciences, General W3J/3. SECTION: Chemistry...Chemistry (1) ATI SHEET NO.: R-33-1-7 SUBJECT HEADINGS: Butylbenzene - Synthesis (19440); Chemistry, Organic - Synthesis (23238); Hydrogenation (49915

  15. Adaptive Instructional Strategies for Teaching Rules in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research on an adaptation approach designed to extend the aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) concept by applying instructional variations to individuals as opposed to groups within the context of an introductory mathematics lesson adapted from the beginning module in an undergraduate statistics course. A 17-item reference list is…

  16. Vector Along-Track Interferometry for Ocean Current mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Imel, David; Madsen, Soren

    1996-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of measuring Along-Track Interferometric (ATI) vector ocean velocities using the azimuth beamwidth of the SAR antenna to obtain angular diversity, at the expense of spatial resolution. A simple model of the measurement is introduced for point targets and moving ocean surfaces to help interpret the velocity measurements.

  17. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  18. A Key to the Fishes of Mississippi Sound and Adjacent Waters,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    3.00) FREE ON REQUEST Marine Educational Leaflet No. i, Portu- guese manl-of-war (PIiysalia physalis ) Marine Educational Leaflet No. 2. Sting- rays (Ias ’al anericana. Ia)’atis sabina, Das.vafis sao’i) 31) ,-. ~,F~

  19. Confidence in Their Own Ability: Postgraduate Early Childhood Students Examining Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores reflections of a group of postgraduate early childhood students in relation to their self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education. Participant self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education were measured using an adapted version of the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) and an adapted version of the…

  20. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA.

  1. Community College Nursing Student Success on Professional Qualifying Examinations from Admission to Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lenora; Sandiford, Janice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate variables associated with learning and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), (2) to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and (3) to provide a model that could…

  2. Heuristic Models for the Generation of Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    Researchers in the field of instruction are exploring the theory that different instructional procedures may be used for students with varying aptitudes so as to individualize teaching, so-called aptitude-treatment interactions (ATI's). This paper reviews pertinent literature, then seeks to develop theoretical models for the generation of…

  3. The Interaction of Cognitive Styles with Varying Levels of Feedback in Multimedia Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe

    1996-01-01

    Study of 105 Brunei secondary school students investigating interactive effects of feedback levels using aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) approach and cognitive styles (field dependent-independent (FDI) in multimedia presentations found differences between no feedback (NF) and knowledge of results (KOR), NF and elaborated feedback (EF), none…

  4. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  5. Women Empowerment through Access to Information: The Strategic Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyelude, Adetoun A.; Bamigbola, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been steady increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to improve their socioeconomic status to be able to cope and also contribute effectively in this period of economic crisis. ATI (access to information) provision is a vital factor in empowerment, thus, many organizations, such as library,…

  6. A naturally occurring cowpox virus with an ectromelia virus A-type inclusion protein gene displays atypical A-type inclusions.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hansen, Hilde; Traavik, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Human orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe are usually caused by cowpox virus (CPXV). The genetic heterogeneity of CPXVs may in part be due to recombination with other OPV species. We describe the characterization of an atypical CPXV (CPXV-No-H2) isolated from a human patient in Norway. CPXV-No-H2 was characterized on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype as well as the DNA region containing the p4c and atip open reading frames. CPXV-No-H2 produced atypical V(+/) ATI, in which virions are on the surface of ATI but not within the ATI matrix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atip gene of CPXV-No-H2 clustered closely with that of ectromelia virus (ECTV) with a bootstrap support of 100% whereas its p4c gene is diverged compared to homologues in other OPV species. By recombination analysis we identified a putative crossover event at nucleotide 147, downstream the start of the atip gene. Our results suggest that CPXV-No-H2 originated from a recombination between CPXV and ECTV. Our findings are relevant to the evolution of OPVs.

  7. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  8. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  9. Access to Information and Freedom of Information Requests: Neglected Means of Data Production in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walby, Kevin; Larsen, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Access to information (ATI) and freedom of information (FOI) mechanisms are now relevant features of governments in many liberal democracies today. Citizens, organizations, and permanent residents in several countries across the globe can request unpublished information from federal, provincial, state, county, and municipal government agencies.…

  10. Cluster headache: potential options for medically refractory patients (when all else fails).

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J; Stillman, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The most evidence exists for mixed anesthetic/steroid occipital nerve blocks (which are also useful in non-refractory patients), deep brain stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blocks, SPG radiofrequency ablation, and SPG stimulation with the Autonomic Technologies, Inc (ATI) SPG Neurostimulator, the latter approved in the European Union and reimbursed in several countries.

  11. Determination of Transient Skin Temperature of Conical Bodies During Short-Time, High-Speed Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-04-06

    technology . ATI documents that are partially legible have been included in the DTIC collection due to their historical value. If you are dissatisfied with...Atmoaphere — Tablea and Data. HACA Rep. Ho. 218, 1925. (Reprint 19*0.) 11. Talen , Haue-Shen: Superaarodynamloa, Mechanics of Rarefied Oases. Jour. Aero. Sei

  12. Fundamental Role of Grain Boundaries: Meso-Scale Simulation and Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    REPORT DOCUMEi ATI(N PAGE AFRL-SR-AR-TR-08-0240 Puoic repoting burden for this collection of alataon is estnaled to average 1 hour per response, i g...understanding the behavior of nano- scale structures, where discrete dislocation properties govern the properties. These advances have had limited

  13. Interpersonal and Relational Orientation among Pre-Service Educators: Differential Effects on Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators' interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three…

  14. Gaia17aiq - Possible Supernova between two Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, D.

    2017-02-01

    New optical transient Gaia17aiq of magnitude 17.6 was observed by Gaia on 2017-02-06.43 and 06.50 UT. It was published on Feb. 14 (eight days after the detection) as hostless blue transient with Transient Name Server ID 2017ati.

  15. Using Personnel Distribution Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Re. toninAtiOn Reorieval by Manfied Koulten, 10 P_ Mandel, Marc. "Uniform Treeatment of Fluctuationsmpreael." Oct 1977, 36 otp.. ADOA0472M Mill 78...G.. "War and Peace in the Notts am Statietica Aaeociftiornf gome Piical fimplicatioins of the Changingf Military Situation in Northern Europe." I8 pp

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  17. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  18. Ashkenazi Jewish origin protects against formation of antibodies to infliximab and therapy failure.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Bella; Haj-Natour, Ola; Kopylov, Uri; Yavzori, Miri; Fudim, Ella; Picard, Orit; Loebstein, Ronen; Lahat, Adi; Maor, Yaakov; Avidan, Benjamin; Lang, Alon; Weiss, Batia; Chowers, Yehuda; Eliakim, Rami; Ben-Horin, Shomron

    2015-05-01

    Infliximab is an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. Antibodies to infliximab (ATI) develop in approximately 45% of infliximab-treated IBD patients and are correlated with loss of clinical response. Scarce data exist as to factors which predict infliximab immunogenicity.To investigate factors that may predict formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) and infliximab therapy failure an observational study of consecutive IBD patients treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Trough levels of ATI were measured. Patients were monitored for disease activity using clinical activity indexes and were classified according to ATI formation and clinical response. All clinical and demographic parameters were analyzed for association with the designated outcomes.One hundred fifty-nine patients were included and 1505 sera were tested. On multivariate analysis, Jewish Ashkenazi ethnicity was protective against both development of ATI (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.7, P = 0.005) and treatment failure (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.66, P = 0.003). Concomitant immunomodulator therapy was also negatively associated with immunogenicity and infliximab therapy failure (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.65, P = 0.002; OR 0.42 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic therapy was positively associated with both outcomes (OR 4.2 95% CI 1.07-16.1, p = 0.04, OR 4.45 95% CI 1.2-16.6, p = 0.026 respectively). All other variables, including IBD type, gender, weight, age, smoking status and disease duration, were not predictive of ATI formation or clinical failure. However, among Crohn's disease patients, a non-stricturing non-penetrating phenotype was protective against ATI formation (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.14-0.96, p = 0.04). P = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic/interrupted therapy was

  19. Ashkenazi Jewish Origin Protects Against Formation of Antibodies to Infliximab and Therapy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Bella; Haj-Natour, Ola; Kopylov, Uri; Yavzori, Miri; Fudim, Ella; Picard, Orit; Loebstein, Ronen; Lahat, Adi; Maor, Yaakov; Avidan, Benjamin; Lang, Alon; Weiss, Batia; Chowers, Yehuda; Eliakim, Rami; Ben-Horin, Shomron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infliximab is an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. Antibodies to infliximab (ATI) develop in approximately 45% of infliximab-treated IBD patients and are correlated with loss of clinical response. Scarce data exist as to factors which predict infliximab immunogenicity. To investigate factors that may predict formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) and infliximab therapy failure an observational study of consecutive IBD patients treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Trough levels of ATI were measured. Patients were monitored for disease activity using clinical activity indexes and were classified according to ATI formation and clinical response. All clinical and demographic parameters were analyzed for association with the designated outcomes. One hundred fifty-nine patients were included and 1505 sera were tested. On multivariate analysis, Jewish Ashkenazi ethnicity was protective against both development of ATI (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17–0.7, P = 0.005) and treatment failure (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13–0.66, P = 0.003). Concomitant immunomodulator therapy was also negatively associated with immunogenicity and infliximab therapy failure (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.65, P = 0.002; OR 0.42 95% CI 0.18−0.99, p = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic therapy was positively associated with both outcomes (OR 4.2 95% CI 1.07−16.1, p = 0.04, OR 4.45 95% CI 1.2−16.6, p = 0.026 respectively). All other variables, including IBD type, gender, weight, age, smoking status and disease duration, were not predictive of ATI formation or clinical failure. However, among Crohn's disease patients, a non-stricturing non-penetrating phenotype was protective against ATI formation (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.14−0.96, p = 0.04). P = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic

  20. Mineralogical characterization of Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites from THEMIS and TES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2009-10-01

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments are used to assess the mineralogic and dust cover characteristics of landing regions proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Candidate regions examined in this study are Eberswalde crater, Gale crater, Holden crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, Nili Fossae Trough, and south Meridiani Planum. Compositional units identified in each region from TES and THEMIS data are distinguished by variations in hematite, olivine, pyroxene and high-silica phase abundance, whereas no units are distinguished by elevated phyllosilicate or sulfate abundance. Though phyllosilicate minerals have been identified in all sites using near-infrared observations, these minerals are not unambiguously detected using either TES spectral index or deconvolution analysis methods. For some of the sites, small phyllosilicate outcrop sizes relative to the TES field of view likely hinder phyllosilicate mineral detection. Porous texture and/or small particle size (<˜60 μm) associated with the phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces may also contribute to non-detections in the thermal infrared data sets, in some areas. However, in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, low phyllosilicate abundance (<10-20 areal %, depending on the phyllosilicate composition) is the most likely explanation for non-detection. TES data over Mawrth Vallis indicate that phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces also contain significant concentrations (>15%, possibly up to ˜40%) of a high-silica phase such as amorphous silica or zeolite. High-silica phase abundance over phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces in Mawrth Vallis is higher than that of surrounding surfaces by 10-15%. With the exception of these high-silica surfaces in Mawrth Vallis, regions examined in this study exhibit similar bulk mineralogical compositions to that of most low-albedo regions on Mars; the MSL scientific payload

  1. Trickle Down Theories: A Comparison of Gullies in Three Regions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, E.; Gilmore, M.

    2001-12-01

    Gullies were identified in Mars Orbiting Camera (MOC) images, and have been attributed to flowing water (Malin&Edgett, Science 288). These gullies emanate directly from the ground and are visible in the walls of canyons and craters; thus the gullies are likely to be the result of groundwater. As on Earth, the depths of these gullies are likely controlled by the presence of an impermeable layer. Our goal is to examine the morphology and depth of the gullies to determine the nature of this controlling layer. Images from Hale Crater, Nirgal Vallis and Dao Vallis were compared, all of which contain gullies but are situated in different latitudes in the southern hemisphere and different geologic settings. The morphologies of these gullies were examined, especially the relationship between the alcove and the channel of the gullies to the surrounding rock layers exposed. Depths of the features in the images were calculated using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Once the MOLA profiles were identified and graphed, the profiles were mechanically manipulated using Photoshop to overlay the path the satellite would have scanned in the MOC image. If the small-scale features of the MOLA profile as well as the large-scale features could be correlated accurately, the match was considered a success. In the north wall of Nirgal Vallis, the majority of the gullies emanate consistently ~260+/-30 meters below the surface, with one image containing a gully with a depth of 640+/-10 meters. Dao Vallis shows a greater variation in gully depth than Nirgal Vallis, from as deep as 1131+/-63 meters below the surface to as shallow as 67+/-5 meters. Many of the Dao images contain multiple gullies with origins at different depths. Images from Hale Crater contain gullies both on the central peak and on the northern wall; the depths of these are variable and originate from near the surface to depths of 348+/-64 meters. In Nirgal Vallis, gullies that emanate from a consistent depth lie

  2. Elastic properties of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) and the effect of O incorporation on bonding, density and elasticity (T'  =  Ti, Zr).

    PubMed

    Hunold, Oliver; Keuter, Philipp; Bliem, Pascal; Music, Denis; Wittmers, Friederike; Ravensburg, Anna L; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Schneider, Jochen M

    2017-03-01

    We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally. A-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 thin films were synthesized by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Chemical composition analysis revealed the presence of up to 5 at.% impurities, with O being the largest fraction. The measured Young's modulus values for a-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 (301  ±  8 GPa) and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 (306  ±  9 GPa) are more than 20% smaller than the predicted ones. The influence of O incorporation on the elastic properties for these selected systems was theoretically studied, exemplarily in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Based on ab initio data, we suggest that a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 exhibits a very dense B network, which is partly severed in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Upon O incorporation, the average coordination number of B and the molar density decrease by 9% and 8%, respectively. Based on these data the more than 20% reduced Young's modulus obtained experimentally for films containing impurities compared to the calculated Young's modulus for a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 (without incorporated oxygen) can be rationalized. The presence of oxygen impurities disrupts the strong B network causing a concomitant decrease in molar density and Young's modulus. Very good agreement between the measured and calculated Young's modulus values is obtained if the presence of impurities is considered in the calculations. The implications of these findings are that prediction efforts regarding the

  3. Pharmacodynamic Impact of Carboxylesterase 1 Gene Variants in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Treated with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Peter; Ferrero, Laura; Bjerre, Ditte; Bruun, Niels E.; Egfjord, Martin; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in the carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) may contribute to the efficacy of ACEIs. Accordingly, we examined the impact of CES1 variants on plasma angiotensin II (ATII)/angiotensin I (ATI) ratio in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that underwent ACEI dose titrations. Five of these variants have previously been associated with drug response or increased CES1 expression, i.e., CES1 copy number variation, the variant of the duplicated CES1 gene with high transcriptional activity, rs71647871, rs2244613, and rs3815583. Additionally, nine variants, representatives of CES1Var, and three other CES1 variants were examined. Methods Patients with CHF, and clinical indication for ACEIs were categorized according to their CES1 genotype. Differences in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between genotype groups after ACEI dose titration, expressed as the least square mean (LSM) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were assessed by analysis of variance. Results A total of 200 patients were recruited and 127 patients (63.5%) completed the study. The mean duration of the CHF drug dose titration was 6.2 (SD 3.6) months. After ACEI dose titration, there was no difference in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between subjects with the investigated CES1 variants, and only one previously unexplored variation (rs2302722) qualified for further assessment. In the fully adjusted analysis of effects of rs2302722 on plasma ATII/ATI ratios, the difference in mean ATII/ATI ratio between the GG genotype and the minor allele carriers (GT and TT) was not significant, with a relative difference in LSMs of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43–1.07; P = 0.10). Results of analyses that only included enalapril-treated patients remained non-significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple parallel comparisons (difference in LSM 0.60 [95% CI 0.37–0.98], P = 0.045). Conclusion These findings indicate that the included single variants of CES1 do not significantly influence plasma ATII/ATI ratios in CHF

  4. Atomic processes in bicircular fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate laser-assisted electron-ion recombination (LAR), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of argon atoms by a bicircular laser field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies rω and sω. The energy of soft x rays generated in the LAR process is analyzed as a function of the incident electron angle and numerical results of direct recombination of electrons with Ar+ ions are presented. We also present the results of HHG by a bicircular field and confirm the selection rules derived earlier for inert-gas atoms in a p ground state. We show that the photoelectron spectra in the ATI process, presented in the momentum plane, as well as the LAR spectra exhibit the same discrete rotational symmetry as the applied field.

  5. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Stephen T.; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. As a pattern-recognition receptor capable of binding a diverse range of ligands, it is typically expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions in the majority of tissues. In contrast, the lung exhibits high basal level expression of RAGE localised primarily in alveolar type I (ATI) cells, suggesting a potentially important role for the receptor in maintaining lung homeostasis. Indeed, disruption of RAGE levels has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary disorders including cancer and fibrosis. Furthermore, its soluble isoforms, sRAGE, which act as decoy receptors, have been shown to be a useful marker of ATI cell injury. Whilst RAGE undoubtedly plays an important role in the biology of the lung, it remains unclear as to the exact nature of this contribution under both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:20145712

  6. Increased expression in vivo and in vitro of foreign genes directed by A-type inclusion body hybrid promoters in recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, S; Itamura, S; Iinuma, H; Nerome, K; Sugimoto, M; Shida, H

    1991-01-01

    We constructed A-type inclusion body (ATI) hybrid promoters, that is, late ATI promoters followed by tandemly repeated early regions of the promoter for the 7.5-kDa protein (the 7.5-kDa promoter). The repetition of the whole early promoter sequence of the 7.5-kDa gene, including the upstream consensus sequence and initiation region, efficiently increased the early expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in recombinant vaccinia virus. Recombinant vaccinia virus could express influenza virus hemagglutinin via the hybrid promoter more efficiently, induced higher levels of neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and consequently protected mice more efficiently against challenge with influenza virus than did recombinant vaccinia virus containing the widely used 7.5-kDa promoter. Images PMID:1654453

  7. Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.; Bucksbaum, P.H. Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa 02-668 Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics , Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 Physics Department and Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 )

    1995-02-01

    A generalized strong-field approximation is formulated to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. We apply it to determine angular distributions of electrons in above-threshold ionization (ATI). The theory treats the effects of an electron rescattering from its parent ion core in a systematic perturbation series. Probability amplitudes for ionization are interpreted in terms of quasiclassical electron trajectories. We demonstrate that contributions from the direct tunneling processes in the absence of rescattering are not sufficient to describe the observed ATI spectra. We show that the high-energy portion of the spectrum, including recently discovered rings (i.e., complex features in the angular distributions of outgoing electrons) are due to rescattering processes. We compare our quasiclassical results with exact numerical solutions.

  8. Intensity-resolved above-threshold ionization of xenon with short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, N. A.; Strohaber, J.; Kaya, G.; Kaya, N.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present intensity-resolved above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of xenon using an intensity scanning and deconvolution technique. Experimental data were obtained with laser pulses of 58 fs and a central wavelength of 800 nm from a chirped-pulse amplifier. Applying a deconvolution algorithm, we obtained spectra that have higher contrast and are in excellent agreement with characteristic two and ten Up cutoff energies contrary to that found for raw data. The retrieved electron-ionization probability is consistent with the presence of a second electron from double ionization. This recovered ionization probability is confirmed with a calculation based on the Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev tunneling ionization model [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)]. Thus, the measurements of the photoelectron yields and the developed deconvolution technique allowed retrieval of more accurate spectroscopic information from the ATI spectra and ionization probability features that usually are concealed by volume averaging.

  9. P-wave attenuation anisotropy in TI media and its application in fracture parameters inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi-Yuan; Hu, Tian-Yue; He, Chuan; Tan, Yu-Yang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of aligned fractures in fluid-saturated rocks leads to obvious attenuation anisotropy and velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy analysis can be applied to estimate fracture density and scale, which provide important information for reservoir identification. This paper derives P-wave attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media where the symmetry axis is in the arbitrary direction theoretically and modifies the spectral ratio method to measure attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media, thus avoiding a large measurement error when applied to wide azimuth or full azimuth data. Fracture dip and azimuth can be estimated through attenuation anisotropy analysis. For small-scale fractures, fracture scale and fracture density can be determined with enhanced convergence if velocity and attenuation information are both used. We also apply the modified spectralratio method to microseismic field data from an oilfield in East China and extract the fracture dip through attenuation anisotropy analysis. The result agrees with the microseismic monitoring.

  10. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  11. Hydrographs of a Martian flood from the breach of Galilaei Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Neil M.

    2015-05-01

    Spectacular floods were spawned on Mars when large craters filled to overtopping and catastrophically breached. The wealth of data now available permits quantitative analysis of these ancient floods. Galilaei Crater is examined here, along with the likely sources of its water and the processes that formed Tana Vallis, its 1-km-deep outflow channel. Laser altimetry data, stereo-photogrammetry, and scaled images are used to reconstruct the lake volume and the geometry of the preserved breach. It is theorized that surface flows from Hydaspis Chaos eroded the rim and floor of Galilaei Crater and partly filled the basin, leading to degradation of the underlying cryosphere. Groundwater released from a confined aquifer then slowly filled Galilaei Crater until the enclosed lake overtopped its rim. The resulting flood breached the crater wall, rapidly drained the lake, and eroded Tana Vallis. The drainable lake volume was ≥ 1.110 × 1013 m3, based on laser altimetry data from Mars Global Surveyor. This volume was 90% of the volume in Lake Superior in the Great Lakes. Using the reconstructed breach and channel geometry, methods used to analyze terrestrial dam breaches were applied to produce hydrographs of lake stage and discharge. Peak flood discharge in Tana Vallis likely ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 × 107 m3 s- 1. Mean channel incision rates are estimated at 0.333, 0.133, and 0.0667 m min- 1 for scenarios in which Tana Vallis formed in 2, 5, and 10 days. For the 5-day breach erosion scenario, stream power per unit streambed area at the time of peak discharge was estimated at > 3.5 × 105 W m- 2. The volume of material eroded to form the vallis was only ~ 3% of the lake volume that drained in 5 days. Open-channel calculations were performed to compare with the dam breach hydrographs for Tana Vallis. The channel as seen today never flowed bank full or even at three-fourths its maximum depth because the implied flows would have exceeded peak discharges from the crater breach. I

  12. Clinical role, optimal timing and frequency of serum infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody level measurements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Fábián, Anna; Bálint, Anita; Milassin, Ágnes; Rutka, Mariann; Matuz, Mária; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Molnár, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum infliximab (IFX) and antibody-to-infliximab (ATI) levels are objective parameters, that may have a great role in the therapeutic decisions during maintenance biological therapy. Research design and methods 48 inflammatory bowel disease patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy were prospectively enrolled and divided into adequate (complete remission N = 20) and inadequate responder (partial response, loss of response, dose escalation; N = 28) groups. Blood samples were collected just before (trough level, TL) and two (W2aTL) and six weeks (W6aTL) after the administration of IFX. Results Single measurement of ATI titer was insufficient for predicting therapeutic response due to transient expression of ATI, however, using the three points’ measurements, significant difference has been detected between the adequate and inadequate responder group (5.0% vs 35.7%; p = 0.016). The mean value of TL was significantly higher in the adequate responder group (3.11±1.64 vs.1.19±1.11; p<0.001) without further difference on the second and sixth week. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting the therapeutic response were 85.0% and 71.4% based on the cut-off value of TL 2.0 μg/ml. Conclusion Simultaneous measurement of serum IFX level prior to administration of regular IFX infusion and ATI titers significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy for the therapeutic decision in patients uncertainly responding to the therapy. The measurement of W2aTL and W6aTL levels did not result in further improvement in the prediction of therapeutic response. PMID:28362851

  13. Proceedings of the Portable Common Interface Set (PCIS) Workshop: Interface Technology Analyses (ITA2) (2nd) Held in Redondo Beach, California on 3-7 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Mappings 0 ESF 0 EAST 0 ATIS 0 Entreprise 2 o Softbench .. o c--rc MG/STDS/ 115 ECMA TC33 TGRM: - TIMETABLE 0 Next TGRM Meeting: 26th June 1991...Tax->comnputetax (salary); f += Finance ->compute benefit (salary); N=C Ix~rm~ antcAI Sr.st~af Ociabee 1990 -446" sm~tM amenywWTeohrapCOWpatim PCIS 2

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-22

    inch-diagonal TFT ( thin film transistor ) -LCD module with high resolution for use as an indicator in aircraft cockpits. The new module features...inch air transport indicator" (3ATI). The TFT -LCD is a liquid display in which a thin film transistor as an active element for a switch is set in each...JITSUYOKA E NO TENBO, 17Jan90].....................................76 Superconducting Thin Film Technology [Hideo Itozaki; KO ON CHODENDOTAI NO

  15. OPERATION BUSTER, Nevada Proving Grounds, October-November 1951. Project 3.8. Effects of an Atomic Detonation on Aircraft Structures on the Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-01-01

    A 2 4 Date ~ A I WASINGON DX...II 1 𔃼e2 I ",iI’PAED FORCES SPECIAL WEAPONS PROJECT.Ŗ .I ! . WASHINGTON, DC. nopy 20 of 297 copies, Series A OPERATION BUSTER PROJECT 3,8 EFFECTS...8217-’’:-.’""’ " -’ -- - -- . - . * -4 MJ- *~ -Avon -- NF - A * - A AV a FoI o* 1 E 1. -, :TLLIJ iLLU ,ATI(1i, S . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . vii±LL , "

  16. A Review of Water Characteristics of Grays Harbor 1938-1979 and an Evaluation of Possible Effects of the Widening and Deepening Project upon Present Water Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    hi. repat) _ UNCLASSIFIED I t~~IS& OECL. ASSI FIC€ATI ON/ DOWfN GRADING SCHEDULE IS. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT rothis. Report’ I Approved for Public...State Pollution Control Com- mission. 90 pp. BRIX , R., S. WRIGHT, and L. PHINNEY (1976) Salmon Bloassays. Appendix M in Maintenance Dredging and the...Press: Downey, California. 191 pp. DUNN, C. A., R. BRIX , and D. KIMURA (1975) Stamina Testing on Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) in Upper Grays

  17. Enhancements and Extensions of Formal Models for Risk Assessment in Software Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    The special case, alpha = 2, is called the Rayleigh Distribution with scale parameter beta, named after William Strutt , Lord Rayleigh . Table VI-2...curves, named after the 19th century physicist Lord Rayleigh (Putn96): 2 2 aty Kate−= where y = manpower rate at each point on the curve (such... Rayleigh curve, as documented by (Putn80) and (Boeh81) is a reasonably good fit for the manpower projections. Putnam observed that a strong

  18. Isolated and Cascade Airfoils with Prescribed Velocity Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    imaged from roll film. The collection has deteriorated over time and is in poor condition. DTIC has reproduced the best available copy utilizing the...most current imaging technology. ATI documents that are partially legible have been included in the DTIC collection due to their historical value...Ackeret, J.: The Design of Closely Spaced Blade Grids. British K.T.P. Trans. No. 2007, Ministry Aircraft Prod. (From Schweiz . Bauzeitung, vol. 120

  19. Nature of Inlet Turbulence and Strut Flow Disturbances and Their Effect on Turbomachinery Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-25

    i i oI ni ill Ii n et to t lie rot or loadinM v edge, as .is evident from Tiible 111. lI1 tile region upstream of thc centerbodV and downstream of tle...intens itv. .T0 cllnt it;atiVc rsults c n he dra-vll. Robbins and Lakshminarayana’s [ I ] data is simi hair to the present investigation, even though tile

  20. The Advice-Taker/Inquirer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    concepts and techniques to deal with the problem. 3.4.3 Methods of experientialization. If the AT/I’s strategy is composed of rules of the form "to...troubleshooting methods are: consulting the Advisor; simulation; credit assignment; aggression; diplo- macy. Reinforcement. When the strategy succeeds, the AT...AFOSR -TR 02-0 0 94 THE ADVICE-TAKER/INQUIRER*’** BY get GEORGE L. SICHERMAN GROUP FOR COMPUTER STUDIES OF STRATEGIES DECEMBER 1981 DEPARTMENTAL

  1. HUMAN ENGINEERING FOR AN EFFECTIVE AIR-NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC-CONTROL SYSTEM, AND APPENDIXES 1 THRU 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-14

    Henneman F. C.Frnick W. E. Kappauf WA R. Garner E. B. Newman F. C . Frick A. C . Williams, Jr.SW. R. Garner j.• JW. Gebhord W. F. Grether A report...Psychology Washington, D. C . UNCLASSIFIED ATI 133 954 (COPIES OSTAIMAULE FROM ASTIA-OSC) OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY RESECNH FOUNDATION, COLmUS HUMAN...Air Navigation Development Board, A-9 Civil Aeronautics Administration Washington 25, D. C . Dear Dr. Ewing: The attached report, entitled Human

  2. Life Prediction for a Structural Material under Cyclic Loads with Hold Times Using a Viscoplastic Constitutive Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    times. The six material parameters of the viscoplastic theory were S evaluated from a series of strain - controlled stabilized cyclic loading tests, and...fatigue. Two sets of low cycle :ati;ue life predictions were carried out and compared with experimental data. One in- Valved strain - controlled cyclic... strain for a strain -time 0e input that produces stress relaxation. Figures 2.22-2.30 illustrate the effects of strain controlled cyclic loading. For

  3. Algorithms for Real-Time Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    algorithm has been mapped on an application specific prototyping platform which contains four VLSI CORDIC ASICs and some FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate... makes less critical the implementation of a VLSI based systolic array. A practical application of systolic processing for classical ground based or ship...interferometry (ATI) - SAR to detect moving targets [ 18]. It can be shown that this approach offers a considerable computational advantage; FPGA technology has

  4. Marxist-Leninist Doctrine and Humanitarianism - Communist China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Massachusetts British Museum London, W.C. 1, England University of Hawaii Honolulu 14 , Hawaii Center for Chinese Studies University of California...Massachusetts Continued University of Minnesota Library Seton Hall University Minneapolis 14 , Minnesota University College South Orange, New Jersey Ohio...341iory to cy-pose prole-tarian ideox;, on Oe cirrtot lilue -ratur-o arad. atcto composeeuoetra literrturs- amd art.. In ord"er, to criAti:call1y inhor"’it

  5. A Real-Time Spoken-Language System for Interactive Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    fi 326-15512 *TPlex 3,3446() CONTENTS I INTRODUCTION ............................................. 1 2 S PEEC H R EC O G N ITIO N...used in this document are the properties of their respective owners. I that have led to improvements include corrective training algorithms, separate...using the SRI ATIS system. We have analyzed user satisfaction a~ i system performance as a function of system errors, user experience, and

  6. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  7. SAFE Journal. Volume 34, Number 1, Fall 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Hamlin and Randall D. Manteufel, PhD .................................................. 11 A Mathemal e Human ilatoyesponsed~riliga~Ati:dii e Chamber P ...Then and Now: Flight Research in the Second Half of the 2 0 th Century C urtis P eebles...4.8%, of the subjects’ acceleration responses are measured and respectively. All differences have p -values of< 0.05. With compared, and analytical

  8. An Evaluation of Marine Fog Forecast Concepts and a Preliminary Design for a Marine Obscuration Forecast System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    SNU 4n.aa 0.4 U - 4414 00 4414 410 1 *0 = .~ ~ 0 t 0 c~a- Cr, 0. _o 0 a.4 3-. a 20 M U- 0 m - c~4 0 ’a41 -A 0 - a0- -w >, I.> C. ad -I~u1 44- -1 01a a...tY A capping urine inversion has been demonstrated as being a necessary condition for the formation of marine fog along the California coast. A

  9. High Fracture Toughness Bearing Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AFWAL-TR-81-2042 C• ) HIGH FRACTURE TOUGHNESS BEARING DEVELOPMENT SKF Industries, Inc. King of Prussia, PA 19406 December 1981 Final Report for...withthe contractor SKF who wrote the report and found that the inclusion of the proprietary notice was ati oversight on their part. The con-tractor and...TASK SKF Industries, Inc . AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1100 First Avenue 3048 06 07 King of Prussia, PA 19406 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  10. Advanced Teleprocessing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    comunicate i;ith the single station. Denote by L the ’typical’ linear dimensica of ýhe region over which terminals are distributed, ati. assume a line...28-42, April 1975. [10; Schiff, L., "Random-Access Digital Communication for Mobile Radio in a Cellular Environ- menr," IEEE Transactions on Communications. Vol. COM-22, pp. 686-692, May 1974. I 4 Il

  11. SAR Product Improvements and Enhancements - SARprises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    in Germany, Steffen Grünler, published a paper on the potential of using spaceborne ATI systems to estimate mean river discharges [ D ]. RESULTS...directly involved, and to the River Inlet (RIVET) projects. 6 REFERENCES [1] Toporkov, J.V., D . Perkovic, G. Farquharson, M.A. Sletten, S.J. Frasier...2004JC002809, 17 pp., 2005. [3] Romeiser, R., A. Seibt-Winckler, M. Heineke, D . Eppel, Validation of current and bathymetry measurements in the German

  12. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1.

  13. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA4. These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  14. A Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG J. Franklin Bell in the Philippines, 1901-1902

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    to find them. I presume here, as elsewhere, they have a barrio hombre continually stationed on every prominent height who gives them ample warning of... hombre thus suddenly changes his attitude there can be no doubt he does it because he is ordered to do so. Assassination in broad daylight and at...is of greater importance and will exercise greater influence than the punishment of a hundred ignorant hombres for whose suffering no principale

  15. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from Visual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    3-6 Table 3-2. Recent Bird Strike History for Moody AFB Aircraft (2004 to 2013)a...APE Area of Potential Effects ATC air traffic control ATIS Automated Terminal Information Service BASH bird /wildlife-aircraft strike hazard BGEPA...Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act BWC bird watch condition C.F.R. Code of Federal Regulations CAA Clean Air Act CEQ Council on Environmental

  16. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  17. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    the National Climatic Data Center for the period from January 1986 to April 1993 for six cooperative weather stations that surround Fort Devens. These...A weather station was operated atI the Moore Army Airfield until February 1993. These precipitation readings were typically not over a full 24 hour...represent a till, and contained gravel-to cobble-size pieces of slightly weathered gneiss and phyllite. The unconsolidated overburden reaches a

  18. A Technique for Choosing Cost-Effective Instructional Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    over another can be measured with respect to the next most efficient alter- native . Relative or incremental costing of alternatives provides...INPLTl,27XP9Fl0.l) 26 702 FORr.’AT( I NOMMtSC~L’ikT90 AKNI-UAL FAC. CO05r,010xi9P1Al,ýl 27 701 F041,ATI I NONnl3Cf’P’TF ANWr )AL FQUIPMENT COST lv4i

  19. Aviation Human-in-the-Loop Simulation Studies: Experimental Planning, Design, and Data Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    three scenarios were constructed by one of the pilot subject matter experts ( SMEs ) and used for the later develop- ment of detailed task analyses of...the experimental scenarios, described below. ATC SMEs reviewed the scenarios to make sure that our routing and planned tasks were generally realistic...information developed for Automated Terminal Information System (ATIS) and Au- tomated Surface Observation System (ASOS) recordings. ATC SMEs reviewed all

  20. Comparison of two techniques for selection of master gutta-percha cone using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, João Manoel; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; De-Bem, Samuel Henrique Câmara; Alfredo, Edson; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2013-01-01

    This study used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the fit of the master gutta-percha cone at time of cone fit, gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and the filling material volume in relation to the canal at the apical limit of the working length. Root canals of 20 maxillary central incisors were prepared with rotary instruments and distributed into two groups (n=10). The gutta-percha cone tip was either plasticized (apical thermal impression technique - ATI) or not (conventional technique - CT), and its apical fit was checked. The apical 1 mm of working length was examined with a micro-CT, canals were filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and new micro-CT scans were obtained. In CT, gutta-percha filled 35.83 ± 15.05% of the canal at cone selection and 38.72 ± 11.64% after filling. In ATI, these values were 23.14 ± 7.74% and 26.98 ± 20.40%, respectively. Gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and filling material volume in relation to the canal were, respectively, 61.28 ± 11.64% and 87.76 ± 9.98% for CT, and 73.00 ± 20.41% and 89.96 ± 9.08% for ATI. No significant difference was found between cone selection and after canal filling, for either CT (p=0.593) or ATI (p=0.4975). The techniques did not differ significantly with respect to gutta-percha volume in the filling material (p=0.132) and filling material volume in relation to the canal (p=0.612). An ideal fit of the master gutta-percha cone at working length was not achieved regardless of the cone selection technique, and the material-filled area was similar for both techniques.

  1. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  2. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-10

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system under development by the Department of Defense (DoD...Happing Agency Los Angeles, California 90009 ABSTRACT The Navstar Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system ...TITLE llnclud* Security Clauiti.ati-n) NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview N/A PROJECT NO. N/A TASK NO. N/A WORK UNIT NO.

  3. Linking and Streamlining the Defense Requirements, Acquisition, and Budget Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Mr. William R. Phillips; Dr. Dov S. Zakheim; General Michael P.C. Carns , USAF (Ret); Admiral Vernon E. Clark, USN (Ret); and General Paul J. Kern... Carns , USAF (Ret) General Paul Kern, USA (Ret) Colonel Jack Curran, USA, DBB Military Assistant Task Group Overview 4  Analyzed Past Studies...Mvtlon An aty.ls Phn•- Technology Dev .. opm•nt Phno --- ---Engln .. rln g &. Manl.lfactvrlng Oovolopm.nt Ph •M--- ---:=:.:=::.:.:.==-==· r\\ DEFENSE

  4. Active Suppression of Aeroelastic Instabilities for Forward Swept Wings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    ballasted to create DD F 3 1473 £01TION OF I NOV 6S IS OBSOLTE UNCLASSIFIRn SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) UNCLASSIFIED...instabilities in lieu of conventional flutter prevention procedures (adding stiffness or ballast weights). The principles and procedures of applying... Waters " concluded that a:tie controls could prevent or delay the onset tat K: divergence using onIy displacement feedoack. and that body freedom

  5. Sequence and relative timing of large lakes in Gale crater (Mars) after the formation of Mount Sharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Parker, Tim; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Mangold, Nicolas; Lewis, Kevin; Newsom, Horton

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of lake levels in Gale crater is important to define the hydrologic and climatic history experienced by the sedimentary deposits found by Curiosity. We propose that there were at least three major lake stands within Gale, each persisted >1000 years, and all occurred after Mount Sharp reached close to its current topographic form. Deltaic deposits off the southern rim of Gale, derived from incision of Farah Vallis, and corresponding deposits off the southern flank of Mount Sharp define the highest lake level, which had a mean depth of 700 m. Canyons similar in form to Farah Vallis enter into craters and/or the crustal dichotomy near Gale from the south, suggesting that the highest lake was supplied by a large-scale flow system. The next lake level, established after a period of drying and rewetting, is defined by four deltaic features, three sourced from Mount Sharp and one from the western rim of Gale, as well as the termination of gullies around the northern rim of Gale. This second lake level had a mean depth of 300 m. The presence of the gullies suggests more locally sourced water. Lake levels then rose another 100 m, as evidenced by two deltaic deposits derived from the rim of Gale and the termination of a second set of gullies. Post-lake, reduced hydrologic activity continued, evidenced by a time of fan building (including Peace Vallis). The sequence of events suggests an episodic shift through time from relatively wet regional conditions to a drier environment with local runoff.

  6. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 and Protein Kinase C Phosphorylate the Distal C-Terminal Tail of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Mediate Recruitment of Beta-Arrestin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiansong; Busillo, John M; Stumm, Ralf; Benovic, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-22

    Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a key event for cell signaling and regulation of receptor function. Previously, using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified two phosphorylation sites at the distal C-terminal tail of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, but were unable to determine which specific residues were phosphorylated. Here, we demonstrate that serines 346 and/or 347 (Ser-346/7) of CXCR4 are phosphorylated upon stimulation with the agonist CXCL12 as well as a CXCR4 pepducin, ATI-2341. ATI-2341, a Gi-biased CXCR4 agonist, induced more robust phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 compared to CXCL12. Knockdown of GRK2, GRK3 or GRK6 reduced CXCL12-induced phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 with GRK3 knockdown having the strongest effect, while inhibition of the conventional PKC isoforms reduced phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 induced by either CXCL12 or ATI-2341. The loss of GRK3- or PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 impaired the recruitment of β-arrestin to CXCR4. We also found that a pseudo-substrate peptide inhibitor for PKCζ effectively inhibited CXCR4 phosphorylation and signaling, most likely by functioning as a non-specific CXCR4 antagonist. Together, these studies demonstrate the role Ser-346/7 plays in arrestin recruitment and initiation of the process of receptor desensitization and provide insight into the dysregulation of CXCR4 observed in patients with various forms of WHIM syndrome.

  7. [Acid phosphatase of leukocytes in patients with diffuse toxic goiter in evaluating the stage of the disease].

    PubMed

    Vaiuta, N P; Livshits, A Kh; Mendeleev, I M

    1987-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (AP) of lymphocytes and neutrophils was examined cytochemically in 23 patients with associated diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) and thyrotoxicosis during thiamazol treatment, in 20 persons with a DTG remission, and in 5 patients with postradiation and postoperative hypothyroses. AP activity with multiple-granule distribution of the enzyme was high in the majority of the patients with thyrotoxicosis, decreasing with thiamazol treatment. Thyrotoxicosis recurred in 4 out of 11 patients whose lymphocytes had an increased amount of AP during a DTG remission. In 9 patients with normal AP content, no relapses were noted during a DTG remission. Two patients with iatrogenic hypothyroses associated with high lymphocytic AP activity manifested elevated titres of antithyroglobulin immunoglobulins (ATI). In 3 patients with normal content of cellular AP, the ATI titre was low. Cellular AP, a non-specific marker of immunogenesis activity, makes it possible to presumably differentiate the stages of DTG and to evaluate to a definite degree the character of a remission. The preserved high activity of lymphocytic AP in patients with a DTG remission is a prognostically unfavourable factor as regards thyrotoxicosis relapses. The high titre of ATI and activity of lymphocytic AP attest to the predominant autoimmune component of such hypothyroses in part of DTG patients. The authors stress that such patients should receive combined thyroid and glucocorticoid therapy.

  8. Controlling high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization with an attosecond-pulse train

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Salieres, P.; Villain, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-11-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of how high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) can be controlled by a time-delayed attosecond-pulse train superposed to a strong, near-infrared laser field. In particular we show that the high-order harmonic and photoelectron intensities, the high-order harmonic plateau structure and cutoff energies, and the ATI angular distributions can be manipulated by changing this delay. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the attosecond pulse train can be employed as a tool for constraining the instant an electronic wave packet is ejected in the continuum. A change in such initial conditions strongly affects its subsequent motion in the laser field, and thus HHG and ATI. In our studies, we employ the strong-field approximation and explain the features observed in terms of interference effects between various electron quantum orbits. Our results are in agreement with recent experimental findings and theoretical studies employing purely numerical methods.

  9. Multiparameter radar study of rainfall: Potential application to area-time integral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparameter radars measure one or more additional parameters in addition to the coventional reflectivity factor. The combination of radar observations from a multiparameter radar is used to study the time evolution of rainstorms. A technique is presented to self-consistently compare the area-time integral (ATI) and rainfall volume estimates from convective storms, using two different measurements from a multiparameter radar. Rainfall volumes for the lifetime of individual storms are computed using the reflectivity at S band (10-cm wavelength) as well as one-way specific attenuation at X band (3-cm wavelength). Area-time integrals are computed by summing all areas in each radar snapshot having reflectivities (S band) in excess of a preselected threshold. The multiparameter radar data used in this study were acquired by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 radar during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) and the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE), respectively. ATI studies were accomplished in this work using multiparameter radar data acquired during the lifetime of six convective events that occurred in the COHMEX radar coverage area. A case study from the COMHEX field campaign (20 July 1986) was selected to depict the various stages in the evolution of a storm over which the ATI and rainfall volume computations were performed using multiparameter radar data. Another case study from the CaPE field campaign (12 August 1991) was used to demonstrate the evolution of a convective cell based on differential reflectivity observations.

  10. The isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation adopt similar conformation in the selectivity filter in TREK-2.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Zhuo; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2015-12-01

    TREK-2 (TWIK-related K(+) channel-2), a member of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, tunes cellular excitability via conducting leak or background currents. In TREK-2, the isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) mechanism exhibit large divergence in unitary conductance, but similar in selectivity to K(+). Up to now, the structural basis for this similarity in ion selectivity is unknown. Here, we report that externally applied Ba(2+) inhibits the currents of TREK-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The blocking effect is blunted by elevated extracellular K(+) or mutation of S4 K(+) binding site, which suggests that the inhibitory mechanism of Ba(2+) is due to its competitive docking properties within the selectivity filter (SF). Next, we demonstrate that all the ATI isoforms exhibit analogous behaviors upon the application of Ba(2+) and alteration of extracellular pH (pHo), which acts on the outer position of the SF. These results strongly support the notion that all the ATI isoforms of TREK-2 possess resembled SF conformation in S4 site and the position defined by pHo, which implicates that neither the role of N-terminus (Nt) nor the unitary conductance is associated with SF conformation. Our findings might help to understand the detail gating mechanism of TREK-2 and K2P channels.

  11. Serum-Infliximab Trough Levels in 45 Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease on  Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rolandsdotter, Helena; Marits, Per; Sundin, Ulf; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte; Fagerberg, Ulrika L.; Finkel, Yigael; Eberhardson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The role of trough serum infliximab (s-IFX) and antibodies toward IFX (ATI) during maintenance treatment remains unclear in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate trough s-IFX and ATI to identify any correlation with inflammatory activity and clinical response in a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort. We investigated the s-IFX trough levels in pediatric IBD patients (n = 45) on maintenance IFX treatment. Ninety-three blood samples were collected and demographics, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and albumin were recorded. The mean s-IFX trough level was 5.2 µg/mL. The mean trough s-IFX level was significantly higher in the samples taken during remission (7.2 µg/mL) compared to active disease (4.5 µg/mL, p < 0.05). The trough s-IFX levels correlated with ESR, CRP, and albumin. S-IFX was undetectable in eight of the patients, all with positive ATI and active disease. Surprisingly, clinical and biochemical remission was observed at only 26 of the 93 visits. The correlation between dose variations and changes in trough s-IFX was not evident. In line with studies in adults, the s-IFX trough levels correlated with response to infliximab. PMID:28272355

  12. Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2013-04-01

    Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salières et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)], 10.1126/science.108836. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

  13. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  14. Above-threshold ionization through Rydberg state population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei Pei; Yuan, Ming Hu; Wang, Han Mu; Yang, Hai Feng; Liu, Hong Ping

    2017-04-01

    We present a theoretical scenario for the atomic above-threshold ionization (ATI) in an intense laser field by investigating the Rydberg state population in real time. Rather than merely viewing the final distribution of photoelectron yield directly, we monitor the Rydberg state population by projecting the time-dependent wave function onto the bound eigen-states. The calculation shows that the population of resonant Rydberg states is closely related to the peaks in photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum (PKES). For a hydrogen atom, the highest populated Rydberg states are degenerated, exactly corresponding to the first ATI peak if one additional photon is absorbed. While for non-hydrogen atoms, e.g., Ar, the highest Rydberg states are mainly populated on specific states, e.g., 3 d (5 s) and 4f in our case, also giving exact peak positions in PKES, where the state identification is obtained by the angular momentum resolved distribution of excited Rydberg states. This method provides an easy to understand picture for the resonance-enhanced effects in ATI as well as the role of atomic core potential in strong-field ionization.

  15. Analysis of THz generation through the asymmetry of photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoyan; Wang, Xu; Lin, C. D.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the mechanism of THz generation in a gas medium with intense two-color infrared lasers pulses. The dependence of the amplitude of THz emission on the relative phase between the fundamental color (800 nm) and its second harmonic (400 nm) is shown to be identical to the residual current as well as to the asymmetry of the above-threshold-ionization (ATI) photoelectrons along the left versus the right side of the linear polarization axis of the laser, thus confirming the validity of the semiclassical photocurrent model for the THz emission. We further analyze the even vs odd angular momentum distributions of the ATI electrons. The degree of overlap between the even-parity dominant electrons and the odd-parity dominant electrons within each ATI peak determines the strength of the THz emission, thus favoring the model that THz is generated through free-free transitions in the laser field. A model is also provided to obtain the same phase dependence as the four-wave mixing model.

  16. Utility of Iron Staining in Identifying the Cause of Renal Allograft Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingchun; Khan, Salman; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ping L.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is associated with iron/heme deposition in proximal renal tubules and related acute tubular injury (ATI). Here we report the utility of iron staining in differentiating causes of renal allograft dysfunction in patients with a history of sickle cell disease. Case 1: the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction two years after renal transplant. Her renal biopsy showed ATI, supported by patchy loss of brush border and positive staining of kidney injury molecule-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells, where diffuse increase in iron staining (2+) was present. This indicated that ATI likely resulted from iron/heme toxicity to proximal tubules. Electron microscope confirmed aggregated sickle RBCs in glomeruli, indicating a recurrent SCN. Case 2: four years after renal transplant, the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction and became positive for serum donor-specific antibody. His renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and diffuse positive C4d stain in peritubular capillaries. Iron staining was negative in the renal tubules, implying that TMA was likely associated with acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR, type 2) rather than recurrent SCN. These case reports imply that iron staining is an inexpensive but effective method in distinguishing SCN-associated renal injury in allograft kidney from other etiologies. PMID:26697257

  17. Impaired and imbalanced cellular immunological status assessed in advanced cancer patients and restoration of the T cell immune status by adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Atsutaka; Kaneko, Toru; Naitoh, Keiko; Saito, Masashi; Iwai, Kazuro; Maekawa, Ryuji; Kamigaki, Takashi; Goto, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of antitumor immune responses, which may further clarify the immune status of cancer patients. In this study, we performed a detailed evaluation of the immunological status of 47 patients with advanced solid cancer, who had received no immunosuppressive treatment, and compared the results with 32 healthy subjects. Flow-cytometry data for peripheral blood were obtained using 19 monoclonal antibodies against various cell surface and intracellular molecules. Absolute numbers of T cells, several T cell subsets, B cells, and NK cells were significantly decreased in patients compared with healthy subjects. The percentage of CD27(+)CD45RA(+) T cells was lower and that of CD27(-)CD45RA(-) T cells was higher in patients compared with controls. Regulatory and type 2 helper T cells were elevated in patients relative to healthy subjects. The percentage of perforin(+) NK cells was significantly lower in patients than in controls. These results suggest a dysfunctional anti-tumor immune response in cancer patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood from 26 of 47 cancer patients was analyzed after adoptive T cell immunotherapy (ATI). ATI increased the number of T cell subsets, but not B and NK cells. The number and percentage of regulatory T cells decreased significantly. These results suggest that ATI can restore impaired and imbalanced T cell immune status.

  18. ACTG 5197: A Placebo Controlled Trial of Immunization of HIV-1 Infected Persons with a Replication Deficient Ad5 Vaccine Expressing the HIV-1 Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, Robert T.; Spritzler, John; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Pollard, Richard; Battaglia, Cathy; Robertson, Michael; Mehrotra, Devan; Casimiro, Danilo; Cox, Kara; Schock, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 specific cellular immunity contributes to control of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 infected volunteers on antiretroviral therapy received a replication defective Ad5 HIV-1 gag vaccine in a randomized, blinded therapeutic vaccination study. Methods HIV-1-infected vaccine or placebo recipients underwent a 16-wk analytical treatment interruption (ATI). The log10 HIV-1 RNA at the ATI set point and time averaged area under the curve (TA-AUC) served as co-primary endpoints. Immune responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and CFSE dye dilution. Results Vaccine benefit trends were seen for both primary endpoints, but did not reach a pre-specified p ≤ 0.025 level of significance. The estimated shift in TA-AUC and set point were 0.24 (unadjusted p=0.04) and 0.26 (unadjusted p=0.07) log10 copies lower in the vaccine than in the placebo arm. HIV-1 gag-specific CD4+ interferon-γ producing cells were an immunologic correlate of viral control. Conclusion The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated. Despite a trend favoring viral suppression among vaccine recipients, differences in HIV-1 RNA levels did not meet the pre-specified level of significance. Induction of HIV-1 gag-specific CD4 cells correlated with control of viral replication in vivo. Future immunogenicity studies should require a substantially higher immunogenicity threshold before an ATI is contemplated. PMID:20662716

  19. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  20. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  1. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  2. Granodiorite and alkaline suite at Gale crater: continental crust on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Fabre, C.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P.; Rapin, W.; Fisk, M.; Le Deit, L.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Stolper, E.; Beck, P.; Wray, J.; Bridges, J. C.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of felsic igneous float rocks ranging from granodiorite to trachy andesite and trachyte during the first part of the traverse up to sol 550. They are the first in-situ evidence of low density early Noachian crust on Mars, sampled by Peace Vallis river cross-cutting the crater wall over a 2-3km thick vertical section, below the basaltic regolite.

  3. The new Martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I. K.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Sagan, C.; Blunck, J.; Kuiper, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters generally of diameters greater than 100 km have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named feature are displayed.

  4. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  5. Atomic Layer Epitaxy Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and their Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Patent 4,058,430 (1977). 2. M . Ahonen, M . Pessa and T. Suntola, Thin Solid Films, 65, 301 (1980). 3. M . Pessa, R. Makela, and T. Suntola, Appl. Phys...1615 (1986). 6. T. Yao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 25, L544 (1986). 7. T. Yao and T. Takeda, J. Cryst. Growth, 81, 43 (1987). 8. M . Pessa, P. Huttunen and M.A...Herman, J. Appl. Phys., 54, 6047 (1983). 9. C.H.L. Goodman and M.V. Pessa, J. Appl. Phys., 60, R65 (1986). 10. M.A. Herman, M . Valli and M . Pessa, J

  6. Remote sensing of the mountain cryosphere using texture filters and apparent thermal inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenning, A.; Fieguth, P.; Long, S.; Peña, M. A.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers on Earth, and analog landforms on Mars, constitute hidden water resources and components of the cryosphere that are difficult to map or characterize using remote sensors. We utilize two innovative approaches in this field, (1) texture filters and (2) thermal features, in particular apparent thermal inertia (ATI), in order to investigate ice-debris landforms and in particular rock glaciers in the semi-arid Andes. Even though the ridge-and-furrow surface patterns are probably the most characteristic morphological features of rock glaciers, our study is the first to apply texture filters to the problem of remotely-sensed rock glacier detection. Gabor filters are designed to detect zebra-like patterns and are therefore an obvious choice for this study. Texture features derived from a Gabor filterbank were calculated from panchromatic IKONOS orthoimagery and used to discriminate rock glacier and other debris surfaces utilizing four classification methods of varying complexity: generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM), support vector machine (SVM), and tree ensembles (Bundling). Bundling outperformed the other methods in most situations studied, achieving an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 0.72-0.80 in different spatial cross-validation scenarios. This study focused on a narrow area of interest that cannot be easily identified as non-rock glacier area based on topographic criteria, and therefore significantly better results are expected in practical mapping situations in combination with terrain attributes as predictors. Thermal remote sensing has been of limited use in mountain cryospheric studies. In addition to land surface temperature (LST), ATI is of particular interest in this context. Thermal inertia is a single thermophysical material property that determines the amplitude of temperature variations at the surface of a periodically heated half-space, and shows promise in discriminating different

  7. Columbia Hills, Mars: aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Whelley, Patrick L.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Di, Kaichang; Foley, Daniel J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knudson, Amy; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Li, Ron; Michaels, Timothy; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Thompson, Shane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts.

  8. Columbia Hills, Mars: Aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Whelley, P.L.; Neakrase, L.D.V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bridges, N.T.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Di, K.; Foley, D.J.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K.; Knudson, A.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Li, R.; Michaels, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places, into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim. Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Geotourism, as a new approuch to expeloit geomorphical and geological attractions of mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, M.; Arezoo, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tourism is an industorial with cultural and social relationship beside minimal Enviromental contamination with income and economic scale that now is very important. Natural attractive places of each country have a famous role in absorbing & attracting the tourism. Iran is one of country with natural attractive & specific places that with historical civil that can use to attract the torism. Ecotouris is tourist that without damaging enviroment travels in nature. Some of tourist travel to see the science appearance and have scientific view. In adjacent of Hamdan and in SW of it there are place that in addiation to historical and cultural attractive has natural unique attractive so can absorb each Ecotourist. In Geologic & Geographic view this area is specific that can attract each Ecotourist that like natural science.This zone is reflecting of adjacent between,urban,rorul,tribial life & Metamophism,Magmatism , partial Melting , faulting and folding of layers. The new and famous researches carry out in thise area have suitable data with adjacent to Hamadan,Alvand Elevation,suitable way for claiming , security, Abundant water,agricultur greenvisage in this area that have cause to this place be a important &attractive place for Ecotourist & place for build a station,specially for Geotourism goals. valleys (case study Simin vally , south a Hamedan) Key words : Ecotourism , Geotourism , Simin Vally , igneous and Metamorphic Rocks , Migmati

  10. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  11. Sediment History Preserved in Gale Crater Central Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    While many of the layered outcrops in craters and chasms on Mars are seen as stair-stepped series of cliffs and benches composed of similar materials with similar thicknesses, other layer outcrops are expressed on relatively smooth, rounded slopes as alternating light and dark bands. The best example of this variety of layered sedimentary material is found in southern Holden Crater. Holden is located at 26.5oS, 33.9oW, and has a diameter of 141 km (88 mi). The context picture above, shows that a valley, Uzboi Vallis, enters the crater on its southwestern side. Not too far from where Uzboi Vallis meets Holden Crater, rounded slopes and buttes consisting of alternating light and dark bands are seen. The origin of these layers is not known, but like those found in other craters on Mars, they might have resulted from deposition of sediment in a lake that would have occupied Holden Crater. Alternatively, these are materials deposited by falling out of the air, the same way that volcanic ash is deposited on Earth. The Viking mosaic (above) images are illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The MOC image (top left) is illuminated from the upper left. North is up.

  12. Local and non-local correlations in nanoscopic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Valli, A.; Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.; Held, K.; Das, H.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.

    2012-02-01

    Tools for reliably treating nanoscopic systems, like coupled quantum-dots, ad-atoms on surfaces, macromolecules, etc., in the presence of electronic correlations are either missing or prohibitively expensive. We have implemented a new computational scheme based on a self-consistently defined set of local problems [1]. Our method scales linearly with the number of sites and allows us to perform large-scale sign-problem free Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. We have studied the behavior of a single-atom junction formed upon stretching a metallic wire and found that a metal-insulator crossover is induced when the wire is about to break up. The combination with ab-initio techniques allowed us to study size-dependent properties of Manganite nano-clusters [2]. The simplest implementation of our method includes only local self-energy effects. We recently went beyond this and applied the resulting more sophisticated version of our method to an exactly solvable model finding results in remarkable agreement with the exact solution. [1] A. Valli, G. Sangiovanni, O. Gunnarsson, A. Toschi and K. Held, PRL 104, 246402 (2010) [2] H. Das, G. Sangiovanni, A. Valli, K. Held and T. Saha-Dasgupta, PRL 107, 197202 (2011)

  13. Hadriaca Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Hadriaca Patera on the northeast rim of Hellas basin of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows a central circular depression surrounded by low radial ridges and, at the bottom of the image, the channel of Dao Vallis. A patera (Latin for shallow dish or saucer) is a volcano of broad areal extent with little vertical relief.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 27 degrees S. to 37 degrees S. and from longitude 263 degrees to 273 degrees; Mercator projection.

    Hadriaca Patera is less than 2 km high, has a 60-km-diameter caldera at its center, and is surrounded by a 300-km-wide ring of low ridges. The radial ridges may be lava flows with lava channels at their crests. South of Hadriaca, Dao Vallis begins at a steep-walled depression 40 km across but forms a much shallower channel that extends 800 km southwest into the floor of the Hellas basin. The channel is very likely fluvial in origin, with the release of water being triggered by volcanic activity.

  14. Mineral Mapping of High Priority Landing Sites for MSL and Beyond Using Mars Express OMEGA and HRSC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Bibring, J.; Poulet, F.; Mangold, N.; Loizeau, D.; Hauber, E.; Altieri, F.; Carrozzo, G.

    2008-12-01

    High priority candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission have been proposed by various researchers, their significance based largely on spectroscopic and geomorphic evidence for aqueous processes. Specifically, seven candidate landing sites are under consideration for MSL at the time of this writing: Mawrth Vallis, Nili Fossae, southern Meridiani Planum, Eberswalde Crater, Holden Crater, Gale Crater, and Miyamoto Crater. While only one of these sites can be visited by MSL, the other sites remain among the most compelling localities on Mars for future in-situ exploration by ESA's ExoMars mission or an international Mars sample return mission. We have produced regional scale mineral maps of these sites using data from the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA). Visible images from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) are used as a map base. OMEGA infrared band parameters are used to identify and map pyroxene, olivine, oxides, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and other hydrated phases. OMEGA visible channel data also provide color information, which gives an estimate of dust cover and additional insights into the mineralogy of altered deposits. The dustiest site is Gale Crater and the least dusty is Nili Fossae. The strongest signature of phyllosilicates occurs in Mawrth Vallis, followed by Nili Fossae. However, Nili Fossae also has some of the strongest olivine signatures on the planet. One fundamental difference between the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis sites is that in Mawrth Vallis, phyllosilicate-bearing, light-toned rocks contain no evidence for primary phases in OMEGA data, but in the Nili Fossae area, phyllosilicates, olivine, and pyroxene are mixed at the subpixel level. South Meridiani Planum shows hydrated plains in contact with ancient, pyroxene-bearing, slightly altered, older bedrock. Patchy deposits of phyllosilicates are found in Miyamoto Crater, but their geologic context is

  15. Elastic properties of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) and the effect of O incorporation on bonding, density and elasticity (T‧  =  Ti, Zr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunold, Oliver; Keuter, Philipp; Bliem, Pascal; Music, Denis; Wittmers, Friederike; Ravensburg, Anna L.; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2017-03-01

    We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T‧  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally. A-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 thin films were synthesized by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Chemical composition analysis revealed the presence of up to 5 at.% impurities, with O being the largest fraction. The measured Young’s modulus values for a-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 (301  ±  8 GPa) and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 (306  ±  9 GPa) are more than 20% smaller than the predicted ones. The influence of O incorporation on the elastic properties for these selected systems was theoretically studied, exemplarily in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Based on ab initio data, we suggest that a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 exhibits a very dense B network, which is partly severed in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Upon O incorporation, the average coordination number of B and the molar density decrease by 9% and 8%, respectively. Based on these data the more than 20% reduced Young’s modulus obtained experimentally for films containing impurities compared to the calculated Young’s modulus for a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 (without incorporated oxygen) can be rationalized. The presence of oxygen impurities disrupts the strong B network causing a concomitant decrease in molar density and Young’s modulus. Very good agreement between the measured and calculated Young’s modulus values is obtained if the presence of impurities is considered in the calculations. The implications of these findings are that prediction efforts

  16. Spark anodization of titanium-zirconium alloy: surface characterization and bioactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay; McQuillan, A James; Sharma, Lavanya A; Waddell, John Neil; Shibata, Yo; Duncan, Warwick John

    2015-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been popularly used as implant biomaterial for decades. Recently, titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloy has been developed as an alternative implant material with improved strength in load bearing areas. Surface modification is one of the key factors to alter the surface properties to hasten osseointegration. Spark anodic oxidation (anodization) is one such method that is reported to enhance the bone formation around implants. This study aims to anodize TiZr and study its surface characteristics and cytocompatibility by cell culture experiments using osteoblast-like cells. Titanium (Ti) and TiZr discs were anodized in an electrolyte containing DL-α-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate (CA) at 300 V. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy and goniometry. Using osteoblast-like cells viability, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization was assessed. The anodized surfaces demonstrated increased oxygen, entrapped calcium and phosphorous from the electrolyte used. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of anatase in the oxide layer. Average roughness increased and there was a significant decrease in contact angle (P < 0.01) following anodization. The anodized TiZr (aTiZr) surfaces were more nano-porous compared to anodized Ti (aTi). No significant difference was found in the viability of cells, but after 24 h the total number of cells was significantly higher (P < 0.01). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposits were significantly higher on anodized surfaces compared to machined surfaces (P < 0.05, ANOVA). Anodization of TiZr resulted in a more nanoporous and hydrophilic surface than aTi, and osteoblast biocompatibility appeared comparable to aTi.

  17. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  18. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal

  19. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique.

  20. A 10-Year, Single Tertiary Care Center Experience on the Durability of Infliximab in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vahabnezhad, Elaheh; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Dubinsky, Marla C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing use of infliximab (IFX) in children with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), long-term durability and safety of IFX beyond 1 year is limited in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Methods We performed a 10-year single-center retrospective cohort study of 188 patients initiating IFX at <21 years of age with 1-year minimum follow-up. Data were retrieved from medical records. IFX outcomes were defined as sustained remission in the absence of dose modification (sustained durable remission), recaptured response, and treatment failure. Adverse events, anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI), and role of concomitant low-dose oral methotrexate (<10 mg/wk) on IFX durability were analyzed. Univariate associations and survival analysis were performed. Results As of the last follow-up, 39% of patients with CD and 29% of patients with UC achieved sustained durable remission and another 60% recaptured and maintained response. For CD, 88% remained on IFX at 1 year, 80% at 2 years, and 82% at 5 years. In UC, 70% avoided colectomy at 1 year. Of IFX failures, 25% with CD and 11% with UC developed ATI. The most common adverse event causing cessation of therapy was infusion reactions. Treatment limiting recurrent infections occurred in <1%, and 1 patient developed lymphoproliferative disease. Low-dose methotrexate did not influence any IFX outcomes. Conclusions IFX is safe and effective for long-term maintenance therapy in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. IFX dose intensification can optimize durability and overcome loss of response. Loss of response is likely affected by development of ATI. Higher doses of oral methotrexate may be needed to optimize IFX. PMID:24552827

  1. Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Impaired Fibrinolytic Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Nondiabetics with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jotic, Aleksandra; Milicic, Tanja; Covickovic Sternic, Nadezda; Kostic, Vladimir S.; Lalic, Katarina; Lukic, Ljiljana; Rajkovic, Natasa; Civcic, Milorad; Macesic, Marija; Seferovic, Jelena P.; Stanarcic, Jelena; Lalic, Nebojsa M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS), (b) plasma insulin (PI), and (c) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with (group A) and without (group B) atherothrombotic ischemic stroke (ATIS), nondiabetics with ATIS (group C), and healthy controls (group D). IS was determined by minimal model (Si). Si was lower in A versus B (1.18 ± 0.67 versus 2.82 ± 0.61 min−1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (3.18 ± 0.93 versus 6.13 ± 1.69 min−1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001). PI and PAI-1 were higher in A versus B (PI: 19.61 ± 4.08 versus 14.91 ± 1.66 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 7.75 ± 1.04 versus 4.57 ± 0.72 mU/L; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (PI: 15.14 ± 2.20 versus 7.58 ± 2.05 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 4.78 ± 0.98 versus 3.49 ± 1.04 mU/L; P < 0.001). Si correlated with PAI-1 in T2D patients and nondiabetics, albeit stronger in T2D. Binary logistic regression identified insulin, PAI-1, and Si as independent predictors for ATIS in T2D patients and nondiabetics. The results imply that insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia might exert their atherogenic impact through the impaired fibrinolysis. PMID:26089903

  2. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  3. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  4. Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

  5. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  6. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  7. Studying the binding interactions of allosteric agonists and antagonists of the CXCR4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Planesas, Jesús M; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Borrell, José I; Teixidó, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Several examples of allosteric modulators of GPCRs have been reported recently in the literature, but understanding their molecular mechanism presents a new challenge for medicinal chemistry. For the specific case of the cellular receptor CXCR4, it is known that pepducins (lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops) such as ATI-2341 modulate CXCR4 activity agonistically via an allosteric mechanism. Moreover, there are also examples of small organic molecules such as AMD11070 and GSK812397 which may also act as allosteric antagonists. However, incomplete knowledge of the ligand-binding sites has hampered a detailed molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. Here, we attempt to answer this question by analysing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose two different allosteric binding sites, one located in the intracellular loops 1, 2 and 3 (ICL1, ICL2 and ICL3) which binds the pepducin agonist ATI-2341, and the other at a subsite of the main extracellular orthosteric binding pocket between extracellular loops 1 and 2 and the N-terminus, which binds the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397. Allosteric interactions between the CXCR4 and ATI-2341 were predicted by combining different modeling approaches. First, a rotational blind docking search was applied and the best poses were subsequently refined using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamic simulations. For the AMD11070 and GSK812397 antagonists, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking in order to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites was then performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 allosteric modulators.

  8. A Primer for the Act-1 Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    34 Programming Language System" 20. ABSTRACT (Contie on reverse side It nee...aty ad Identeay by block n..b.) This paper/describes the current design for the Act...step consisted of a partial modification to a global machine state. Data "types" and "structures" were merely templates with which I, interpret parts of...the global state. In a machine -oriented model, computation proceeds by sequentially modifying portions of the machine’s state. Although languages

  9. Metastable Phases of Rapidly Solidified Al-Rich Al-Fe Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    same contrast. 20 FIGURE 9. Convergent beam diffraction pattern taken from a single crystal globular "S" phase. 21 FIGURE 10. The flower -like phase. 21...FIGURE 11. Convergent beam diffraction pattern obtained from the flower -like phase. 21 iii "- "’., % i ’ % " PAGE FIGURE 12. At-i wt.% Fe. Cellular...any of the previously reported aluminum-rich phases (Al3Fe, AlxFe, AI6Fe, A19Fe2, or AlmFe) [2,3]. An additional flower - shaped phase was detected in

  10. Metastatic Regulation of Differential Splicing of CD44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Ft. Detrick, MD 21702-5012. AUTHORITY USAMRMC ltr, 8 Jan 2003 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD Award Number: DAMD17-96- 1 -6084 TITLE: Metastatic Regulation...MANUFACTURE, USE, OR SELL ANY PATENTED INVENTION THAT MAY RELATE TO THEM. LIMITED RIGHTS LEGEND Award Number: DAMD17-96- 1 -6084 Organization: Baylor...HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION. Nt At~Y-. ""-0- 1 " tV~Lt~- __________________ Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OIMB No. 074

  11. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    quite robust to input noise. Wang and Acero (2003) propose an extended HMMmodel for the ATIS do- main, where a multiple-word segment is generated from...tational Natural Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL-2007), pp. 22–32. Prague, Czech Republic. Ye-Yi Wang and Alex Acero (2003). Combination of CFG and n-gram...2809–2812. Geneva, Switzerland. Ye-Yi Wang, Li Deng and Alex Acero (2005). Spoken language understanding. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 22(5):16–31

  12. Armor: Metallurgical Examination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-05-17

    thick cast armor plates to Aberdeen Proving Ground for ballistic testin?. Thesp plates represent sections of gun shield castings. Sev^rpl of ths...1+6 UNCLASSIFIED May 17. 19^3 ABhOR Metallurgical Exajnination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness •le. ■ ■ r/^OBJECT 1...T^TTT 1 ::t^’*jom ATiEIALS ülT3 TEST PROCEM] Cast Armor Sections Sections cut from 10 test plates representing gun shield castings were examined

  13. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

  14. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-01

    c -taioing the ’o. ’tO nieve for the natural sani an-i 0 a~nd 15 per ’ r~t .*or i-rv, lirnestonc an.I trciprock saa’sz. The gra’ati’rw c-" the 0 -n...nrio𔃾 ant the grout, r-,.A1ThgZ in tho riyxer nallowe- to slowly by- pais throu".1 tl-o 1,Ump =Jt -ixer. A.’tor the I-iminuto periol wa.: over, the

  15. A Comparison of the Ship System Acquisition Process of the Greek Navy and US Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    wishes to express his gratitude as well as his personal - - sincere appreciation to LCDR Jeffrey E. Ferris SC USN and to Professor Dan C. Boger ...STAFF OF NATION~AL ~ Dl .SrG1T1 -O STAFF OF AJ~Y o ~vy OF AIR FORCE VICE =413TIE ZA Lp SCOM VICE: G=EAL RPJT-A, t7 or I" IATO, OFOImH /a-~tI h A...Financial Invasion of the U.S.A., New York, Fuller, Dl ., Ianaqe 21 Be NanaAed? Boston Mass, 1973. Harris, L C, §overnment Spnig and Land Values

  16. Optical Detection and Probing of Single Dopant Molecules of Pentacene in a p-Terphenyl Crystal by Means of Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-31

    8217\\ bsorption SpectroscopY hV L. Kador, 1). F. I lorne. and WV. F. Mo ernier Prepared For Plublication cesllIFJ in JIournal of’ Physical Chemistrx’ IBM...Pentacene in a p-Terphenyl Host Crystal bY !eT=s of bsorotion Spectroscopy 12 PERSONAl AU- OR(S) L. Kador, W.E. Moerner & D.E. Horne 1 3a 7 P; OF REPORT...G(OP SUB-GROUP Single Molecule Detection FM Spectroscopy Pentacene in p-terphenyl 19 AtiSTRACT {Continue on reverse it necessary and identity Oy block

  17. Methods for Improving Seismic Event Location Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-22

    and testing of a 3D DD tomography code, starting from the DD location code hypoDD. We applied our new DD tomography algorithm, tomoDD , to a dataset from...initial application (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We also submitted the DD tomography code ( tomoDD ) to our Product Integrator. An additional version of the... tomoDD , are: r+-rdi At _uJsAtJ k • axI 1=1 J I k! aT’ i k~f d (5) - xAxi +Ati + 8u ds Our tomography algorithm incorporates first-difference smoothing

  18. Notes on the Operations of 21 Army Group. 6 June 1944 - 5 May 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-09-01

    FALA.ISE gap, tho number of divs destroyed since D a:ty ,1. mounted to fifteen 1,vi th another four ano. a half cut off in BRITTAI’n. Very heavy losses...those at FLUSHIN’G. Beaches ani d.unos’ ana. their exits Yvere tho,_ oughly mino:l. On the islan:i there wore 25 active c()ast btys mounting four or...RSPITE and the monitors ROBERTS and .. EREBUS ~ opened fire. Shortly before 0900 hours, the close support squadpon deployed, and at 0900 h0urs battle

  19. Proceedings of the TRADOC/Training Developments Institute Chiefs of Anlaysis Seminar (4th) Held in Hampton, Virginia, 16-18 July 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    NOTES .1 ’ ; R CT A!tI AA IGIUFI 2" T 19. KEY WORDS (Cowntinuw on revereo side. it nriwa!*1W. I ,.&nab~ Basic Skills Education Program Critical Task...Analysis Seminar held at the Hampton Holiday Inn, VA; 16-18 July 1980. The major ,i themes of this seminar were the TRAnOC Basic Skills Education Program...VA was held at the HIpton Holiday Inn, Hampton, Virginia, 16 thru 18 July 1980. The major thes of this seminar was the TRADxC Basic Skills Education

  20. Extension of Storage Stability in Energy-Dense Encapsulated Systems by Minimization of Lipid Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    of compounds like gallic 8 and chlorogenic acids . There are, of course, modifying circumstances. BHA and BHT are quite volatile and may be partially...GROUP FLUORE-SCEI-NCEI AIITox I l)ATI ON ASCORBIC ACID MA LLARI) REIA’IION ANT lOX I DANTs SOLID SAMPLE FLUORESCENCE ICALI.ATEI) IIYDROP1I 11 1. A...By contrast, ascorbic acid produced little to no effect in the compressed system. ....DG, a lipophile, was mcre than twic.Pas effective as propyl

  1. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  2. Alternative Methods and Procedures for the Management of Financial Information to Naval Activities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Repmst does not kIdI atI I mruMg by the Oepmtment of the Navy . nor SIUM t C IS iotes be calued as refscth the Afcld Iposilln Of thW Depayrthu - pme for...Inc. 62760N 2150 Fields Road RF 60511002 Rockville, Maryland 20850 NR 367-011 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO AOQRESS 12. REPORT DATE Operations...remain unchanged. The concept also visualizes that all text now contained in NAFC-232 controlled publications would be electronically transferred on a

  3. Advanced Organic Solid States Materials. Volume 173. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-08

    3371 (1986). 7. J.P. Ulmet, A. khmou, P. Auban and L . Bachere, Sol . State Commun. 5U, 753 (1986). 8. T. Osada, N. Miura and G. Saito, Physica 143R, 403...B. Movaghar and L . Schweitzer, J. Phys. C, It 125 (1978) 10. A. Kurobe and H. Kamimura, J. Non-Cryst. Sol ., 59 41-44 (1983). 11 . T. Datta, Applied...DOCUMoiTATION PAGE m S 1sos86 oEletral Optial, andagetic operties of Organi I. ATI0e,,Ualw L REPORT 230E AU3ATE I 8-August 1990 IFinal 26 Nov 89 - 25 Nov 90 4. Mi

  4. The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2007 – 10 Nov 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited...magnitude [B] had a floor of ≈ 4.6 nT in yearly averages, a value which the interplanetary magnetic - field [IMF] strength returned to, or approached, at...is implicit in the work of Owens and Crooker (2006, 2007) who simulated the interplanetary magnetic - field strength in terms of a constant open-flux

  5. Camp Laguardia, Korea. Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    FATPER SEQVEE/PAC S3ATI7, NUM2EL: 4 136 ST ATICN NAME: CAMP LAEJAPDIA KOALA PEVIOJ bF 16CO0D: 77-6B MONTH: NOV HOUR8SLSTI: J--I ,"[ C E IL Ilib VItPL...TEMFEVATUPES USAFEC7A C FRTOM SUMMARY OF DAY DATA8 AIR 6987ŚCR SERV ICE/MAC STATION NUMBER: 4𔃻,𔄀C STATION NAME: CAMP LAGUARDIA KOALA PERIOD OF RCCORD: 71-b7

  6. Investigation of Rotating Stall Phenomena in Axial Flow Compressors. Volume I. Basic Studies of Rotating Stall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    as a function inlet swirl still controls the stability of a given flow configuration. The three- dimensional theory has not been completed at this time ...A. STIBIH Project Engineer FUR T1E CCKW Tech Area Manager , Con:re drs Copies of this report should not be returned unless return isrequired by...York 14221 30660334 I CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO ADORESS I’ RFPORT nATI U.S. Air Force Aero-Propilsion Laboratory June 1976 Air Force Systems Cofr

  7. The Dynamics of Solid Propellant Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    gases of average molecular weight ’F. 3. One-phase, laminar, nonviscous, strongly subsonic flow. 4. Adiabatic, except at the burning surface. 5. No...Comosite Solid Rocket !i ropellantl", XXXIV Congresso Nazionalc Associaziono Term-a tecnica italiana (ATI) , Palcrino, 8-12 October 1979. Proceed- * i-ngs...1.000 E-04 cal/cm K s Average product molecular weight, 2.600 E+01 g/mole Optical surface reflectivity, rX 3.800 % Optical volumetric scattering, sX 0 an

  8. Photoelectron interference fringes by super intense x-ray laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2009-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra of H- produced by circularly polarized strong high-frequency laser pulses are theoretically studied. An oscillating substructure in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) peaks is observed, which extends the validity of the earlier findings in the 1D calculations [K. Toyota et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 043418 (2007)] and 3D calculations for linear polarization [O. I. Tolstikhin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032712 (2008)]. Its origin is due to an interference between a pair of photoelectron wave packets created in the rising and falling part of the pulse, which appears clearly in the stabilization regime.

  9. N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Biodegradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND AODRESS 10. PROGRAM OLEMN T.-PROJECT’ TASK &!V WORK UNIT NUNSERSr-. US Arvy Natick R&D Center AH68 1)’IZ .02 W-61.: ATTN: STRNC-YEP...UNCLASSIF lED IS&. OECL ASSI FI C ATI ONDOWMGRADING SCHEDOULE Is. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of ft Nt Report) Approved for public release, distribution ...unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (o. the abstract entor.d In Block 20, It diffirent fom Reporf) • 1 -- IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue

  10. Computer-Aided System Needs for the Technical Design Section of the Base Level Civil Engineering Squadron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    would not need the 3D , since they -mostly deal with two dimensional schematic drawings, and for civil engineers, the * possibility axist8 th-at...use 3D . The possibility seems to exist that civil engineers do not want to use 3D later, since they have not been doing design while looking at...I *. . ° ., -. - *. . -": - 00 0 F’OR THE TECHITICAL DESIGil SSCTIOU[ OF THE~ A’’L VEL CIVIL EGI4Ei’NG S3QUADRO-Li First Li_--ut.enant, USAF AFIT/G

  11. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 6 - Southern Plains.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    reqecta Britton Roosevelt weed rAC 3. saLicina T. & G. Willow baccharis FAG 3accva caroZcIin-*ara (Walter) Robins. Lemon bacopa OBL r."onnieri (L.) Wettst...Coast hacopa O8L rotundi .,oZi (Michx.) Wettst. Roundleaf bacopa ()BL ?a~’~ ’a~’~t (ihx)MuI Panicled bartonia OBL texana Correll Texas bartonia ORL...zola spp. Azolla OBL 3accharis haZimifolia Eastern baccharis FACW- Bacopa spp. Bacopa OBL Bartonia panicu~ata Screw-stem OBL 3atis martrma Saltwort OBL

  12. Materials Research for Superconducting Machinery-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    0.187 5 1.495 5 0.188 42 63 j TABLE 31. THERMAL EXPANSION BEHAVIOR OF ROWLAND POLY- SULFONE IN THE LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE DIRECTION...Miscellaneous Composites GlassPnlyimide o,u (24, 67, 68), ofu(89), o^m.l.Bg). At/i(67) Glass- Melamine otu(65). 6* (65). X(90) Glass-Viton olu{68...Glass-Phenyl Formaldehyde o’d 10), X (72), Cp (72) SiOi-Epoxy o,u(31), AL/L »28) Gra(J)it^-Aluminiun a,u (thermal cyclinQ effects 6-6.2

  13. Mississippi River Study of Alternatives for Rehabilitation of Lock and Dam Number 1. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Supporting Data for Appendix C. Structural Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    6 Q t FOR USE ON US, GOVERNMENT WORK ONLY 6c i ~ ~ENGINEERING ••; 7 ,/Z , N- CHICA GO co mp~ t 1112 " 0 ATI • w _ P t 7oha 7’ VP A/yv’vVo’Z7V...8217 PRtojgc TAy INGINtERING ~F~ o ___ COMPANY~ /M/k~I CHICA O A opus /, Tb ICI’A)10A947,1V1 PAT //,so~’’z 11-?7rro at 2.30’ /t ± F-Sb FORt UBE ON U-6

  14. Three Dimensional Printing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    next. EPRI funded. Medical Applications; Therics , Inc. Princeton, NJ • Drug delivery devices. • Scaffolds for tissue engineering. • Direct printing...e r a t u r e ( C ) Conformal Cooling Condition T ime [se c] Tem p erature [degC] si mul ati on d ata experi men tal dat a 25 20 15 10 5 0 300 60...100 200 300 400 500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Strain (%) S t r e s s ( M P a ) Infiltrated Skeleton Cast Ingot Inf before heat treat Inf before heat treat

  15. Flood Plain Information, Oneida Creek, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-07-01

    0 of 1 voi t NA willI alo W seimet anII)Xd debr~lis ,car iled a lon1g, atI hig-her ellit I t ICS, I) set Ic’ ( It Most (i tire 2 1 hr1 Ilges," wiric...NOTES 1~ N MAP ’o SPEE SYLV, ,.-- w I- A~iL CL 2 LIMII I w FPFpvMz EXPL- AREA I- susj 4 VERA ~ CONT SYLV NTE BUF rI LEGEND OVERFzOW LIMiTS FINTERMEDIATE

  16. Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke: Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Are Related to Different Stroke Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Covickovic Sternic, Nadezda; Kostic, Vladimir S.; Lalic, Katarina; Lukic, Ljiljana; Civcic, Milorad; Colak, Emina; Macesic, Marija; Seferovic, Jelena P.; Lalic, Nebojsa M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS) and (b) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with atherothrombotic infarction (ATI) (group A), lacunar infarction (LI) (B), or without stroke (C) and in nondiabetics with ATI (D), LI (E), or without stroke (F). ATI and LI were confirmed by brain imaging IS levels were determined by minimal model (Si index), and the enzyme activity by spectrophotometry. In T2D patients, Si was lower in A and B versus C (1.14 ± 0.58, 1.00 ± 0.26 versus 3.14 ± 0.62 min−1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001) and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38 ± 0.77, 3.03 ± 0.72 versus 6.03 ± 1.69 min−1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001). Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96 ± 3.56, 22.51 ± 1.23 versus 25.12 ± 1.67; GR: 44.37 ± 3.58, 43.50 ± 2.39 versus 48.58 ± 3.67 U/gHb; P < 0.001) and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75 ± 3.02, 25.57 ± 1.92 versus 28.56 ± 3.91; GR: 48.27 ± 6.81, 49.17 ± 6.24 versus 53.67 ± 3.96 U/gHb; P < 0.001). Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23843789

  17. Safety analysis of the advanced thermionic initiative reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsing H.; Klein, Andrew C.

    1995-01-01

    Previously, detailed analysis was conducted to assess the technology developed for the Advanced Thermionic Initiative reactor. This analysis included the development of an overall system design code capability and the improvement of analytical models necessary for the assessment of the use of single cell thermionic fuel elements in a low power space nuclear reactor. The present analysis extends this effort to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the ATI reactor for various different scenarios. The analysis discusses the efficacy of different methods of reactor control such as control rods, and control drums.

  18. Developing the Mid-Level Civilian Logistician: An Empirical Study of United States Air Force GS-12 to GM-13 Professional Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    last categorDie1s in the educat ioh ancat tra iihg dlimension are Froressional x .,’ntinuinw Eruucati-n (1--LI) :u-1, Protessional Military Edluccation...scoredj dichotomously aS in the other categories. Instead . h rsndent re7e vedci redit oran elmn a x - v:.-- themselvies equal to orhigher than the...used to answer research ques t ion three Cnmparative St atisV ics. To:, s ee ho- x ~t. p ~ofssion I dee lepnentpro:gramys we-re t --. sv- weaknesse

  19. Zero Length Intrastation Fiber Optics Links Test and Evaluation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    WOirCS (Continue on, ev- icb. it r .~53r’Od Idern~f b’ lock r-urmher) Fiber Optics Digital Transmissic-, Analoo Transmission 20. AtiSTRACT (Cowfou. am...typified Defcnse Communications Systems (DCS) transmission node between DCS digital multir!exers and radios. The intent being to evaluate fiber optics...1920 under the technical dircction of the US Army Comunication Electronics Engi’-Vring In*’allation h\\keN)J (USACJEIA). Supplei.,ental testing ’.ws

  20. Comparative in Vitro Analysis of Proliferation, Ig Secretion, and Ig Class Switching by Murine Marginal Zone and Follicular B Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    FL). IgG2a, IgE, and IgA ) found in the culture supernatants. and sorted cells were immediately reanalyzed to confirm their stai oDetermination of...the Bnh ouL.EPA.Czae.nd.Snou190Ati isotspe switch of murine B cells.. J, Evp. Aed. 155:734. immunogilobulins induce death by apoptosis in WEHI -21S1 8...J. A. Boersma. and E. Claassen. 1992. Complement- Tcells in the development of an IgG and IgA antibody re- meiae folclrlclzto TidpnettPC- n sponse. J

  1. Source of Individual Differences in Digit Span

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    University of Oregon Eugene , Oiigon 97403 " CONTROLLING orriCC N AMI AND ADONKM Personnel and Training Research Programs Office of Naval...the Graduate School, University of Oregon Eugene , Oregon tS. RIV WORDS ’ConKnu» on r»y»’t* iltt :I ntcftf ■»<< UtnAty .y Sleek numbt...0004 1 April 1974 - 30 Sept. 1975 Principal Investigator: Steven W. Keele Department of Psychology University of Oregon Eugene , Oregon (503

  2. An Evaluation of an All Commuted Ration Ashore/a La Carte System for the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    34 -- o ca 4) cr -~ > - L NOCz~ fD ~ D ~ ~ . m _3 -D(JoLlf-)fCO 4- 0 00 m 0L 0* w~0) -- - N - N C % CO ’ 0 𔃺 < 2 E < > C 11> wo wC q P( LPnr- qocq 4U...IG..ATiTUft( of illS’ UA 4I.kIG[IIT S~fC[(Al. ST Id.,..kG p.IICC C..JMIG& $, fd .*UMi OF #oo0 SIIVlCa off CCI SDINST 11103.1 14

  3. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 9. Living Cationic Polymerization of 5-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl) oxy)pentyl Vinyl Ethers and 7-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl)oxy)heptyl Vinyl Ether, and the Mesomorphic Behavior of the Resulting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-16

    REPRODUCEDO A"? GOVERPNME14T EXPENSE AD 2979 T.pOCUMENTATION PiA,4j -* L E is RkEPoRT SC-R-Y CLA i.ATiO It lb RESTRiCTovE MARKiNGS 26 SECURITYr C...PROCuREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OGN IZAT7ION If picb & L . AZORE SS (Ciay, Sr, arad ZIP Coot) 10 SOURCE OF ’UNDING NUMBERS office of Naval...mesomorphic behavior of poly( L .-.) and poly(6-_7) is discussed and compared to that of 5-[(4-cyano-4’- biphenyl)oxy]pentyl ethyl ether (8)and 7-f (4-cyano

  4. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    dentition was not evident. 56 *) Polyi.rbOnylatC em ! A Zinc ph--,1 24 0 Intermedlete RntorAtie Matriul A Zinc oxids tuigno cemen 20 16 X 12 ± 8-- 4- 0...16, 21, 24, 36, 41, 44) identified as representative of the whole dentition (Ramfjord 1959). To insure that the teeth were free of plaque prior to...All decayed, filled and missing surfaces In the permanent dentition were recorded excluding third molars. Incipient smooth surface lesions, not Included

  5. Psychological and Physical Performance Factors Associated with Attrition in Explosive Ordnance Disposal Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-10

    S55aI61t;YCSGFICATIO" of "Igs P#.G! (Man VMS. antopao__________ REPOT DOUMETATIN P E AD INSýUCTIOKSREPOR OOCM~l4ATI~4 PAE UgORK COMPLSIT01 PORN 1...public events (rock concerts, sports events) are very exciting. 2. As a child , I was always reading. 3. Happirass Is more important than fame. 4. I e...to talk to people. 21. As a child , school was easy for me. 22. 1 enjoy working crossword puzzles. 23. 1 was a slow learner in school. 24. 1 have a

  6. Stochastic Adaptive Control and Estimation Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    ilM(k-S)1.izt-) (p. 1 and then the time after which the jump n’-* ’𔃻 takes place (i.e.. the sojourn time) is chosen 11 flp~ij) gil "’(n s~i,.k 39...Asilmar ant. pp 61-5. 184.Control or High Performance Aircraft using Adaptive ( Gil N.H. Ghalson and R.L. Moose. "Maneuverirng Target Aerstim ati nd...N It Dec. 1988. [ Gil N.H. Gholson and R.L. Moose, "Maneuveringl1(k.1) Is known, thus Target Tracking Using Adaptive State Estimation.- IEEE

  7. WIYN's New Unique Multi-size Fiber IFUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Wolf, M. J.; Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A. D.; Wood, C. M.; Buckley, S. A.; Smith, M. P.; Corson, C.; Zhu, G. Y.; Vang, A.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Sheinis, A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Two new integral field units (IFUs) were installed recently on the WIYN Observatory's 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. These unique IFUs contain fibers of different sizes in the same head. This design allows smaller fibers to sample regions of higher surface brightness, providing higher spatial resolution while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise (S/N). Conversely, larger fibers maintain S/N at the expense of spatial resolution in the lower surface brightness regions of galaxies. The new IFUs were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.

  8. Status of Knowledge of Radiation Embrittlement in USA Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    NRC-FIN-5528 UNCLASSIFIED NRL-R-,737 NUREG -CR-2511 Ni." EEEIIEIIIEI mEE/hhhE AD ~ NUREG /CR-251 1 0 AD A I INRL Memo Rpt 4737 Status of Knowledge of...J2.75 ti a Tec nica for ati Irv Ce Spr ~~~ Sid 1 NUREG /CR-2511 NRL Memo Rpt 4737 R5 Status of Knowledge of Radiation Embrittlement in USA Reactor...vendor reports and correspondence; Commission papers; and applicant and licensee documents and correspondence. The following documents in the NUREG

  9. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, Missouri River, Fort Peck Lake, Montana. Volume I. Text Appendix A, Appendix B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    lt I i I I . .. . . . , . . . . . . TABULATION AND I ,. L RF DR =2. MLE LM P R 1MMAIOM IM=IGATIONS P0R F0N PECK DAM - Contd Peld . ;% Role Book ’ook...I EllIhlllIhl!Il EIIIIIIIIIiil IIIIIIIEEIIIIE IIIIIIIE--EEI 11111j8 13 2 L11L11 2.2IIIIII 1111.25 IlI41. 6IIIII l llt IIl’ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION...AM, MNTAN EMBANKENT CITERI AND PEFORMACE REORT PAT1 son& I IS L ’It K,4 FORT T0 -, DA.MOTN WflAtiK*f NT* CRTE IAN t-i RMNEREOTPLT -- - - --- FORT PECK

  10. The value of needle renal allograft biopsy. I. A retrospective study of biopsies performed during putative rejection episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1983-01-01

    infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:6297416

  11. Development of Qualitative Theories of the Fundamental Electronic Structure of Pure and, Impure Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    electron. The four-vector xi denotes both the spatial coordinates and the spin of the ith electron. The Schr ~ dinger equation is simplified by employing the...ba to the true problem. Let A=G- F, so that L F’,A? G. 0 (3.6) We can now Mlnimize.kand solve equation 3.5 at the same time , and so ray pic111e1t o... times . The Fartrae-Fock equation can be rewritten in terms of the Fock-Dirsc density ratrix( )t / j s)f-cos t est ati sa behn equatton 2.2 need onlxv be

  12. Comparison of Wood Preservatives in Stake Tests (1983 Progress Report).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AD-R148 276 COMPARISON OF WOOD PRESER ATI VES*IN STAKE TESTS (1983 1/1 PROGRESS REPORT)(U) FOREST PRODUCTS LAS MADI ON WI1 L R GJOVIK ET AL...Service Forest Preservatives in ,Products Laboratory’ I Research tiSe.. - Note S a,: DeebrM (1983 Progress Report) December 1983 ;.OO:.-I:,fl IJ II L . R...34- • ..’.;.- L C..,’• A...- ,?- .,,, ., ., ,.,. • ,,, ’ ,- , . : . ,,’ ,°. ,".,’.’, ,’, ,.’.’,’. ,. . , cooperation with others, treated test stakes of

  13. Sand Flux Results for Aeolian Dunes at Current and Candidate Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, M.; Urso, A.; Yingling, W.

    2015-12-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on Mars today. It has also been demonstrated the rapid aeolian abrasion of sedimentary deposits that potentially host ancient habitable environments may provide the best mechanism for exposing samples containing relatively undegraded organics (Farley et al. 2014). Thus, current processes operating on the surface of Mars are highly relevant to our understanding of the past. Here, we discuss new sand flux results of active dune across Mars, including several current and candidate landing sites with Meridiani Planum, Gale crater, Valles Marineris, and Mawrth Vallis. For this task, we have utilized multi-temporal images acquired annually by the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pixel) along with co-located HiRISE Digital Terrain Models. Falling dunes in Coprates Chasma (Mars 2020 candidate landing site) measuring 6-10 meters in height were detected migrating on average 0.5 m per Earth year, yielding crest fluxes of 3.1 m3 m-1 yr-1 (units hereafter assumed). Barchans near the MSL rover at Gale crater have slightly lower fluxes of 1.2, while earlier work in Endeavour crater, the current site of the Opportunity Rover, showed dome dunes with fluxes as high as 13 (average of 6.8; Chojnacki et al. 2015). New results of Mawrth Vallis (Mars 2020 candidate) dunes suggest these high rates are not uncommon, as barchans there possess average fluxes of 11.5. Assuming ripple reptation rates are 1/10th that of crest fluxes, total flux (saltation plus reptation) would range 3.2 to 12.7 m3 m-1 yr-1 for all sites studied herein. Active dunes and the abrasion susceptibility (Sa) of local rocks are relevant to assess how sand fluxes modify the landscape. Using the methodology and assumptions (Sa for basalt, mean trajectory height etc.) described in Bridges et al. (2012), we estimated abrasion rates of local basaltic bedrock. For example, sand blasting at Mawrth Vallis is estimated to produce 2-8 μm/yr for flat ground and 15

  14. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  15. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  16. [Paleopathology of the natural mummies of the inner Abruzzo region (XVIII-XIX century)].

    PubMed

    Ventura, Luca; Miranda, Gaetano; Mercurio, Cinzia; Ciocca, Francesca; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-01-01

    The inner Abruzzo region is a land of mountains and highlands with cold, dry climate, in which we started a systematic search of human remains. The five natural mummies found in the friary of San Giorgio degli Osservanti in Goriano Valli showed excellent preservation. Paleopathologic investigations demonstrated goiter, prostatic hyperplasia, arteriosclerosis, pneumonia, pulmonary silicoanthracosis, and two neoplasms. The series from the church of the Santissima Trinità in Popoli includes at least eight mummified bodies buried in a crypt. During a preliminary investigation we studied a 35-40 year old nobleman with poor dental status, costal fractures and a renal stone. The recovery of mummified human remains in the church of San Sebastiano in Navelli yielded 206 individuals. The initial paleopathologic analysis identified parodontal disease, fractures, tumors, degenerative joint diseases and traces of post-mortem examination. The presence of so many subjects represents a rich cultural heritage, confirming the great paleopathologic interest of the region.

  17. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Solomon, S C; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-03-13

    The first 18 tracks of laser altimeter data across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft show that the planet at latitudes north of 50 degrees is exceptionally flat; slopes and surface roughness increase toward the equator. The polar layered terrain appears to be a thick ice-rich formation with a non-equilibrium planform indicative of ablation near the periphery. Slope relations suggest that the northern Tharsis province was uplifted in the past. A profile across Ares Vallis channel suggests that the discharge through the channel was much greater than previously estimated. The martian atmosphere shows significant 1-micrometer atmospheric opacities, particularly in low-lying areas such as Valles Marineris.

  18. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  20. Mineralogy of the MSL Curiosity landing site in Gale crater as observed by MRO/CRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, Kimberly D.; Seelos, Frank P.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Fraeman, Abigail A.

    2014-07-01

    Orbital data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a synoptic view of compositional stratigraphy on the floor of Gale crater surrounding the area where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity landed. Fractured, light-toned material exhibits a 2.2 µm absorption consistent with enrichment in hydroxylated silica. This material may be distal sediment from the Peace Vallis fan, with cement and fracture fill containing the silica. This unit is overlain by more basaltic material, which has 1 µm and 2 µm absorptions due to pyroxene that are typical of Martian basaltic materials. Both materials are partially obscured by aeolian dust and basaltic sand. Dunes to the southeast exhibit differences in mafic mineral signatures, with barchan dunes enhanced in olivine relative to pyroxene-containing longitudinal dunes. This compositional difference may be related to aeolian grain sorting.

  1. Martian Channels and their Geomorphologic Development as Revealed by MOLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, J. K.; Hebenstreit, R.; Jaumann, R.

    2000-08-01

    One of the most striking features of Mars are enormous channels and channel systems that shape its surface. Outflow channels more than 2000 km long and several 100 km wide reveal a vast amount of erosional landforms resembling terrestrial flood features. Runoff channels with dendritic networks and fretted channels with features resembling terrestrial rock glaciers show the variety of processes that shaped the landscape. Newly released Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) tracks give a detailed insight in the development of the shape of cross sections along those Martian channels. We have studied numerous such cross sections (sometimes more than 100 per channel!) looking for the processes involved in the evolution of the channels. The MOLA data also allowed the generation of longitudinal profiles, by extracting the deepest points of all cross sections as given by the MOLA tracks.Cross sections of runoff channels (e.g. Nirgal Vallis) showed a striking similarity with terrestrial channel networks that were formed by sapping. They are U-shaped in the upper parts of the channels and box-shaped in the lower parts. They generally increase in width and depth downstream but often stagnate over long distances. No inner channels were found, possibly because of the limited vertical resolution of the MOLA tracks. The longitudinal profile of Nirgal Vallis shows a continuous downstream slope as one would expect from a channel formed by sapping as well as by surface runoff. These observations currently are compared with MOLA tracks of the more dendritic type of runoff channels hoping to find similarities or differences that might reveal more about the evolution of those channels and the processes involved.

  2. General geology and geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, A.W.; Gaddis, L.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Soderblom, L.A.; Tanaka, K.L.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) spacecraft landed on relatively young (late Hesperian-early Amazonian; 3.1-0.7 Ga) plains in Chryse Planitia near the mouth of Ares Vallis. Images returned from the spacecraft reveal a complex landscape of ridges and troughs, large hills and crater rims, rocks and boulders of various sizes and shapes, and surficial deposits, indicating a complex, multistage geologic history of the landing site. After the deposition of one or more bedrock units, depositional and erosional fluvial processes shaped much of the present landscape. Multiple erosional events are inferred on the basis of observations of numerous channels, different orientations of many streamlined tails from their associated knobs and hills, and superposition of lineations and streamlines. Medium- and small-scale features, interpreted to be related to late-stage drainage of floodwaters, are recognized in several areas at the landing site. Streamlined knobs and hills seen in Viking orbiter images support this inference, as they seem to be complex forms, partly erosional and partly depositional, and may also indicate a series of scouring and depositional events that, in some cases, further eroded or partially buried these landforms. Although features such as these are cited as evidence for catastrophic flooding at Ares Vallis, some of these features may also be ascribed to alternative primary or secondary depositional processes, such as glacial or mass-wasting processes. Close inspection of the landing site reveals rocks that are interpreted to be volcanic in origin and others that may be conglomeratic. If such sedimentary rocks are confirmed, fluvial processes have had a greater significance on Mars than previously thought. For the last several hundred million to few billion years, eolian processes have been dominant. Dunes and dune-like features, ventifacts, and deflation and exhumation features around several rocks probably are the most recent landforms. The relatively pristine

  3. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  4. Surface Properties of the Mars Science Laboratory Candidate Landing Sites: Characterization from Orbit and Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Golombek, M. P.; Parker, T. J.

    2012-09-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  5. Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  6. [Aero-transport of a MDR-TB affected patient with bio-containment systems].

    PubMed

    Lastilla, M; Bisetti, R; Autore, A; Aragonese, F; Di Stefano, M; Sarlo, O

    2007-01-01

    The Italian Air Force medical service, in order to attend to its duty, has to deal with the search, rescue and aero-medical evacuation of the wounded and sick. Due to the increase of air transportation, the likelihood of contracting disease, such as haemorrhagic fevers has risen and it is necessary to know how to treat a patient abroad suffering from severe infectious disease without running any risk either for the medical personnel or for the air crew. The military sanitary service of the Air Force has been preparing for this purpose through a meticulous preparation in Italy and in the USA in order to satisfy these need and through the use of stretchers specifically designed to transport highly contagious patients: Aircraft Transit Isolators (ATIs) and Stretcher Transit Isolators (STIs). These particular medical tools are provided by filter HEPA and they are completely insulated in a PVC envelope. The former (ATI) is used to transport the patient by airplane, the latter is used for road travel. Last January 24th the first real mission was performed transporting a severe TBC-MDR (case) from Alghero to Milan. All went well and the patient left the hospital of Sondalo two months later.

  7. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures With Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  8. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  9. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  10. An empirical assessment of the Above the Influence advertising campaign.

    PubMed

    Scheier, Lawrence M; Grenard, Jerry L; Holtz, Kristen D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Above the Influence (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall intercepts from geographically dispersed regions of the country. Theoretical impetus for the campaign combines elements of the theory of reasoned action (TRA), persuasion theory, and the health belief model. A series of structural equation models were tested with four randomly drawn cross-validation samples (N = 3,000). Findings suggest that awareness of ATI is associated with greater anti-drug beliefs, fewer drug use intentions, and less marijuana use. Congruent with the TRA, changes in beliefs and intentions are intermediate steps linking campaign awareness with behavior. This study provides further evidence of positive campaign effects and may strengthen reliance on mass media health persuasion campaigns as a useful adjunct to other programs targeting youth.

  11. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE.

  12. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Benarroz, M O; Fonseca, A S; Rocha, G S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M O; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-02-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1 hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  13. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  14. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  15. Resonancelike enhancement in high-order above-threshold ionization of polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Okunishi, M.; Hao, X.; Ito, Y.; Chen, J.; Yang, Y.; Lucchese, R. R.; Zhang, M.; Yan, B.; Li, W. D.; Ding, D.; Ueda, K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the resonance-like enhancement (RLE) in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of the polyatomic molecules C2H4 and C2H6 . In the spectrum-intensity maps, strong and weak RLE areas emerge alternatively for both C2H4 and C2H6 but in different sequences. Theoretical calculations using the strong-field approximation reproduce the experimental observation and analysis shows that the different characteristics of the two molecules can be attributed to interference effects of molecular orbitals with different symmetries. For C2H4 , the RLE structures are attributed to C-C centers of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) orbital. For C2H6 , in contrast, the C-C centers of the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals do not contribute to the RLE due to destructive interference but the hydrogen centers of the bonding HOMO-1 orbital give rise to the multiple RLE regions. In addition, clear experimental evidence of the existence of two types of the RLE and their dependence on the parity of ground state is shown. Our result, which strongly supports the channel-closing mechanism of the RLE, for the first time reveals the important role of low-lying orbitals and the differing roles of different atomic centers in the high-order ATI spectrum of molecules.

  16. Ethnographic Assessment of an Alternative to Incarceration for Women with Minor Children

    PubMed Central

    Goshin, Lorie S.

    2015-01-01

    Allowing criminal justice-involved women to remain with their children in the community may decrease some of the negative intergenerational effects of incarceration. Little is known about potential program models to safely support community co-residence in this population. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the historical development of and life within a supportive housing alternative to incarceration (ATI) program for women with minor children and how they impact the health and social needs of resident families. Participants included 8 current and former adult tenant, 12 of the their resident children, 3 program staff, the program administrator, and 5 prosecutors who originally conceptualized it. Women also reported information about their 8 non-resident children. Analysis revealed three major themes: “The Cycle,” “This is My Home,” and “This Doesn’t Go With That.” While the program built on a core value of family preservation, results illustrate that keeping families together is only the beginning. Clinical and research implications for co-residence ATI programs are discussed in relation to the uniqueness of this context and population. PMID:26460706

  17. The effects of a Web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Neset

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts. During the fall of 1999, a total 125 students (54.4% female and 45.6% male) from two public high schools in Brevard County, Florida, were selected by a sample of convenience to participate in this quasi-experimental study. The MANCOVA analysis yielded a significant interaction for pretest (covariate = priory physics knowledge) and gender for each dependent variable (Y 1 = Achievement, and Y2 = Misconception). Thus, the test for homogeneity of regression failed rendering an invalid MANCOVA model. As a result, separate ATI's were performed for each dependent variable. ATI interaction between pretest and gender relative to achievement and misconception was significant. Of the six initial hypotheses, only hypothesis 2, which examined differences in-group misconception scores, was rejected. Specifically, group membership contributed 12.6% additional knowledge of posttest misconception score variability, which was statistically significant (F1,9 = 20.03, p < .05). Based on this result, it can be concluded that incorporating the web-based physics program with traditional lecturing did have a significant effect on dispelling students' physics misconceptions about force and motion concepts. Thus, only the test for this hypothesis and the two interactions, which were not initially considered as research hypotheses, were significant. All other tests of hypotheses were not statistically significant and hence were not rejected.

  18. High-performance 4x4-inch AMLCD for avionic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syroid, Daniel D.; Hansen, Glenn A.; Boling, Ed

    1996-05-01

    There is a need for high performance flat panel displays to replace and upgrade the electromechanical flight indicators and CRT based displays used in the cockpits of many older aircraft that are in active service today. The need for replacement of these older generation instruments is well known in the industry and was discussed in a previous paper by Duane Grave of Rockwell Collins. Furthermore, because of the limited activity in new aircraft development today, the need to upgrade existing aircraft avionics is accelerating. Many of the electromechanical instruments currently provide flight indications to the pilot and include horizontal situation (HSI) and attitude director indicators (ADI). These instruments are used on both military and commercial aircraft. The indicators are typically housed in a 5ATI case that slides into a 5 inch square opening in the cockpit. Image Quest has developed a 4 by 4 inch active area, flight quality, high resolution, full color, high luminance, wide temperature range display module based on active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology that has excellent contrast in full sunlight. The display module is well suited for use in electronic instruments to replace or upgrade the electro-mechanical 5ATI flight indicators. THe AMLCD based display offers greatly improved display format flexibility, operating reliability and display contrast in all ambient lighting conditions as well as significant short and long term cost of ownership advantages.

  19. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2006-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  20. Observation of Planetary Oceans with Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Wooil M.

    waves observed in the western part of the East Sea test area were also estimated from more than 140 SAR images. On the other hand, very long wave patterns (13-10 km) were observed in two successively acquired ENVISAT ASAR images and interpreted as near-inertial internal waves based on the hydrographic data. The Along Track Interferometric SAR (ATI-SAR), utilizing two SAR antennas separated along the platform flight direction and combined interferometrically, was also tested and validated to derive ocean surface current and wave information. The phase of ATI-SAR is related to the line-of-sight velocity of the water scatterers. The surface current extraction from the ATI-SAR velocity is still an open question, because the Doppler shift is not simply proportional to the component of the mean surface current. It also includes other types of contributions associated with the phase velocity of the Bragg waves and orbital motions of all ocean waves that are longer than Bragg waves. For accurate current estimation, a new and practically useful method was developed using simultaneously measured L- and C-band ATI-SAR data. The influence of Bragg resonant waves and long ocean wave motions on the ATI-SAR velocity according to the radar-frequency was analyzed and effectively eliminated. The method was applied to NASA(JPL) L- and C-band ATI-SAR measurements. The resulting ocean surface current vectors were compared with in situ measurements collected by an RCM (Recording Current Meter). Furthermore, ocean surface wave information was extracted from the ATI-SAR data using a quasi-linear transform. The limitations of the transform were also discussed. The basic principles and the results of these multi-disciplinary observation approaches on the Earth's ocean may be extended to investigate other terrestrial planetary surface observation in the solar system. With recent launching of several fully polarimetric SAR systems such as ALOS, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2, we now have the real

  1. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan O; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  2. Occurrence of PSP-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii in Bingo-Nada, the central coastal water of the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Rieko; Nojima, Kanako; Tsuruda, Shintaro; Gomez-Delan, Gloria; Barte-Quilantang, Mercy; Taniyama, Shigeto; Sagara, Takefumi; Nishio, Sachio; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Asakawa, Manabu

    2008-04-01

    During surveillance of the distribution of the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate in 2003, 2004 and 2005 along the coastlines of the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, some species of toxic phytoplankton were isolated from the eastern coasts, Bingo-Nada, the central regions of the Seto Inland Sea. It was rather unexpectedly revealed from the basis of the morphological characteristics that they were unambiguously identified as Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Alexandrium catenella. Two strains (ATY041106, ATY051018) of A. tamiyavanichii showed a specific toxicity of 38.7 x 10(-6) and 111.5 x 10(-6)MU/cell, respectively. These values seemed to be several times or much higher than that of A. catenella (AC030816, AC040614), having a specific toxicity of 4.5 x 10(-6) and 4.1 x 10(-6)MU/cell, respectively, isolated in the same area. From the results of HPLC-furuorometric analysis, it revealed that the toxins in ATY041106 exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (C2, GTX3, GTX4), which accounted for 72.7 mol%. The toxin profiles of this strain are featured by the presence of a large amount of GTX3 (59.1 mol%) and a small amount (20.6%) of C1 and 2 in comparison with the PSP compositions of A. tamarense, which is isolated as the main responsible species in Hiroshima Bay, a western part of coastal sea in Hiroshima Prefecture. On the other hand, it revealed that the toxin profiles of two strains (AC030816, AC040614) of A. catenella exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (C2, GTX3, GTX4), which accounted for 81.8 and 56.5 mol%, as the same manner. The toxin profiles of these two strains are featured by the presence of a large amount of C2 (80.5 and 46.3 mol%) in comparison with the PSP compositions of A. tamiyavanichii. To our knowledge, this is the first record to show the distribution and harmful influence of A. tamiyavanichii and A. catenella in Bingo-Nada in Hiroshima Prefecture. Though contamination of bivalves with these PSP

  3. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  4. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost

  5. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  6. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  7. Autologous Tenocyte Injection for the Treatment of Chronic Recalcitrant Gluteal Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Thomas A.; Ebert, Jay R.; Smith, Anne; Breidahl, William; Fallon, Michael; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Ming-Hao; Janes, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is a common cause of lateral hip pain, and existing conservative treatment modalities demonstrate high symptom recurrence rates. Autologous tenocyte injection (ATI) is a promising cell therapy that may be useful for the treatment of gluteal tendinopathy. Purpose: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of ATI, specifically in patients with chronic recalcitrant gluteal tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Twelve female patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of gluteal tendinopathy were recruited. Patients demonstrated a mean duration of symptoms of 33 months (range, 6-144 months), had undergone a mean 3.2 prior corticosteroid injections (range, 2-5), and had failed to respond to existing conservative treatments including physiotherapy and injections. In an initial procedure, tendon cells were harvested from a needle biopsy of the patella tendon and propagated in a certified Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratory. In a secondary procedure, a single injection of 2 mL autologous tenocytes (2-5 × 106 cells/mL) suspended in patient serum was injected into the site of the pathological gluteal tendons under ultrasound guidance. Patients were assessed pre- and postinjection (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), a visual analog pain scale (VAS), the Short Form–36 (SF-36), and a satisfaction scale. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken at 8.7 months (range, 6-12 months) postinjection. Results: Molecular characterization of autologous tendon cells showed a profile of growth factor production in all cases, including platelet-derived growth factor α, fibroblast growth factor β, and transforming growth factor β. The OHS (mean, 24.0 preinjection to 38.9 at 12 months [14.9-point improvement]; 95% CI, 10.6-19.2; P < .001), VAS (mean, 7.2 preinjection to 3.1 at 12 months [4.1-point improvement]; 95% CI, 2.6-5.6; P < .001), and SF-36 (mean, 28.1 preinjection

  8. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1) Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Mimura, Reo; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Uetoko, Yuka; Komori, Hisakazu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  9. Atomic scale structure of amorphous aluminum oxyhydroxide, oxide and oxycarbide films probed by very high field (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L; Sarou-Kanian, V; Florian, P; Gleizes, A N; Massiot, D; Vahlas, C

    2017-03-15

    The atomic scale structure of aluminum in amorphous alumina films processed by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition from aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) and dimethyl isopropoxide (DMAI) is investigated by solid-state (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) using a very high magnetic field of 20.0 T. This study is performed as a function of the deposition temperature in the range 300-560 °C, 150-450 °C, and 500-700 °C, for the films processed from ATI, DMAI (+H2O), and DMAI (+O2), respectively. While the majority of the films are composed of stoichiometric aluminum oxide, other samples are partially or fully hydroxylated at low temperature, or contain carbidic carbon when processed from DMAI above 500 °C. The quantitative analysis of the SSNMR experiments reveals that the local structure of these films is built from AlO4, AlO5, AlO6 and Al(O,C)4 units with minor proportions of the 6-fold aluminum coordination and significant amounts of oxycarbides in the films processed from DMAI (+O2). The aluminum coordination distribution as well as the chemical shift distribution indicate that the films processed from DMAI present a higher degree of structural disorder compared to the films processed from ATI. Hydroxylation leads to an increase of the 6-fold coordination resulting from the trend of OH groups to integrate into AlO6 units. The evidence of an additional environment in films processed from DMAI (+O2) by (27)Al SSNMR and first-principle NMR calculations on Al4C3 and Al4O4C crystal structures supports that carbon is located in Al(O,C)4 units. The concentration of this coordination environment strongly increases with increasing process temperature from 600 to 700 °C favoring a highly disordered structure and preventing from crystallizing into γ-alumina. The obtained results are a valuable guide to the selection of process conditions for the CVD of amorphous alumina films with regard to targeted applications.

  10. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  11. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  12. Voluntary Self-Control of Sleep to Facilitate Quasi-Continuous Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    aippotiIi vo on p porn , L It U 1pm’IflII 1 I) C(O1)mld(’ theil thIy nc((Wx- 1 m 11r 01 ti i’p Ati Reohtolint-tw vn (1 p’t) i ill’ ud (.11 ":111w i t...Service, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1968. I1 Reynolds, M. M., & Mallay, H. The mleep of children in a 24-houw nursery school. o 1933, j3, 322-351...order to go to sleep or nap, do you prefer to put the television or radio on before doing so? 14. Q= you go to sleep or take a nap in a movie (or play or

  13. NERF - A Computer Program for the Numerical Evaluation of Reliability Functions - Reliability Modelling, Numerical Methods and Program Documentation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    no.t, tl J)’HS( ( (%-no)t/tl j +nO-,d )tij/ Ais (nO+(,&-no)tij/t). ...... (2.52) For given no, all structures with _no1-(td-no)t/til have been removed by...the reliability functions is that the inverse crack growth function is available, i.e., t - a’ 1 (a) (3.21) for at, a&af, where ai -a(Ti) and afb- a( t...r I ( t)ZI I P no¢ ni)P.C€ .in/f (noft)lRRn/#f(nott) nOet, not t) .,R -t I(R3 ~oet 3T3 mi n X ai ny"( Zt) ( .T 3 which leads to the expression for

  14. Intelligent transportation systems strategic plan: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This interim report on an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Plan has been developed as documentation of the process of offering a vision for ITS and recommending an outline for organizational structure, infrastructure, and long-term planning for ITS in Kentucky. This plan provides an overview of the broad scope of ITS and relationships between various Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) functional areas and ITS user service areas. Three of the functional areas of ITS have been addressed in this interim report with sections devoted to mission, vision, goals, and potential technology applications. Within each of the three areas, recommendations have been made for applications and technologies for deployment. A more formalized business plan for ITS will be developed to recommend specific projects for implementation. Those three functional areas are: (1) Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS), (2) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), and (3) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  15. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface.

  16. Ti/Al Design/Cost Trade-Off Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    4099 5705 41 6388 9304 (44/Rev) 46 8258 9761 Speed - 13, 533 rpm (100% N) 31 10,000 2T I42/Rev Material Clamped atI a goo - Rene ’ 80 DovetailI 0TiAl...as the F1O1 Stage 4 Blade Materiel. 41 9. Maximum Blade and Dovetail Stresses for Ti-36-5Nb F1O0 Fourth-Stage Compressor Blade. 42 10. Strain Range of...Tensile Properties. 92 A-4. Ti-36A1-5Nb rreep and Stress Rupture Results. 93 A-5. Ti-36AI-5Nb Strain Control LCF Results. 93 A-6. HCF Results on Ti

  17. Water Transport during Normal Operations of Towboats and Barges in the Illinois River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Romeoville/Loading area ARTCO Seneca , IL Kindra Lake Towing South Chicago, IL Kindra Lake Towing Walsh Slip (Chicago, IL) Ballast tanks from barges...All 6 S N 8/23/10 11:37 Seneca ARTCO ATI 680B H All 6 S N 8/23/10 11:37 Seneca ARTCO TCB463B H All 6 S N 8/23/10 11:40 Seneca ARTCO RRS...8182 H All 6 S N 8/23/10 11:40 Seneca ARTCO AT735B H All 6 S N 8/23/10 12:27 Morris ARTCO AB67 H All 6 S N 8/23/10 12:27 Morris ARTCO

  18. Techniques for efficient, real-time, 3D visualization of multi-modality cardiac data using consumer graphics hardware.

    PubMed

    Levin, David; Aladl, Usaf; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

    2005-09-01

    We exploit consumer graphics hardware to perform real-time processing and visualization of high-resolution, 4D cardiac data. We have implemented real-time, realistic volume rendering, interactive 4D motion segmentation of cardiac data, visualization of multi-modality cardiac data and 3D display of multiple series cardiac MRI. We show that an ATI Radeon 9700 Pro can render a 512x512x128 cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) study at 0.9 to 60 frames per second (fps) depending on rendering parameters and that 4D motion based segmentation can be performed in real-time. We conclude that real-time rendering and processing of cardiac data can be implemented on consumer graphics cards.

  19. Interference oscillations in the angular distribution of laser-ionized electrons near ionization threshold.

    PubMed

    Arbó, D G; Yoshida, S; Persson, E; Dimitriou, K I; Burgdörfer, J

    2006-04-14

    We analyze the two-dimensional momentum distribution of electrons ionized by few-cycle laser pulses in the transition regime from multiphoton absorption to tunneling by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and by a classical-trajectory Monte-Carlo simulation with tunneling (CTMC-T). We find a complex two-dimensional interference pattern that resembles above threshold ionization (ATI) rings at higher energies and displays Ramsauer-Townsend-type diffraction oscillations in the angular distribution near threshold. CTMC-T calculations provide a semiclassical explanation for the dominance of selected partial waves. While the present calculation pertains to hydrogen, we find surprising qualitative agreement with recent experimental data for rare gases [A. Rudenko, J. Phys. B 37, L407 (2004)].

  20. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  1. Grain Boundary Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Allvac 718Plus(Trademark) Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Garg, Anita; Lin, Peter; Provenzano, virgil; Heard, Robert; Miller, Herbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain Boundary Engineering can enhance the population of structurally-ordered "low S" Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries in the microstructure. In some alloys, these "special" grain boundaries have been reported to improve overall resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and creep resistance. Such improvements could be quite beneficial for superalloys, especially in conditions which encourage damage and cracking at grain boundaries. Therefore, the effects of GBE processing on high-temperature mechanical properties of the cast and wrought superalloy Allvac 718Plus (Allvac ATI) were screened. Bar sections were subjected to varied GBE processing, and then consistently heat treated, machined, and tested at 650 C. Creep, tensile stress relaxation, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests were performed. The influences of GBE processing on microstructure, mechanical properties, and associated failure modes are discussed.

  2. A Numerical Analysis of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    dx at ’ atI- /L:{(x,t)uh(x,t)[•o - 1008 dld = -J O(x,O)uh(x,O)dx - or0 t(Jx,t)uh(xt)dtdx = -L (x,O)uh(x,O)dx - J 00 t(X,t)uh(xt)dxdt. (5.13) O0 O0...approach h3 ). Second, the 6-20 higher order kernels have more elaborate shapes than standard kernels. But unless enough particles are used to take advantage...and use the normalization of W to obtain f ’(uo) = nf ’(u) W(Uo - u, h) du f’(x + u,) W(-x, h) dx = W(-z,h) [f’(uo) + x f"(uo) + - dx 7-18 = f’(uo) j W

  3. Assessment of Tactical Sonobuoy Computer Programs for Environmental Software Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    liLiAf U c I 4)(jtjt)1 Dcn’iit I~tionU1S 1: f\\ ’’n ;accdl [positionsl N iitoi ll Tin)L-dnpejenlt x U2i ’ itL ati ornial x 1,-p’ii ndih’ norma ~a N Nia...8217ASJ)A 4- 4-4-4 PATTERN 0S1\\ 0-1 4± + 0 44S - -49 22 I.fil i) -I I,,, - . o’ I :I ili tN, of I)etection Im. SccwlriiI I I S APA 7 I~~~~ L1 II I( I7

  4. MTP Observations During the ATTREX Integration and Test Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    MTP temperature calibration is excellent and agrees with the MMS calbration (or MMS agrees with MTP, since its calibration was com pleted long before that of MMS!) center dot Having radiosondes laun ched from the Global Hawk base is extremely important for accurate tem pe rature calibration in radiosonde - sparse oceanic regions center. The MTP measurement of the cold-point will make an important contribution to the future ATTREX field campaigns because the demonstrated sp ati al variation of cold- point requires continuous measurements which only the MTP can provide. Profiling with the aircraft is not adequate. The MTP-measured isentropes will be important in studying atmospheric dynamics in the TTL, and how t his dynamics affects both the composition and (possibly) the thermal structure of the TTL.

  5. Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-22

    a- e PCUMENTATION PAGE F .A q . 4_ Waq _III I u f I I 0’ND-A246 954 0 - Sdofr oATI I . nlpsti r0vn Amo OATU cOVsUD 22 Januarv 1992 ]Annual Jan. 9 -Dec...Indiana, May 15-17, 1991. Deng, M.H., Lynch H.J., Wurtman, R.J. and Lopez G.-Coviella, I. La diferenciacion de celulas de retinoblastoma...100 mg/kg) onou strreata4 25 THE EFFECT OF Ro 40-7592 ON SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE 220- 0-0 SAL + NET *- COMTI + NE LL 200 (fl T/ 0 V) 180 0 ± W M Q

  6. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets’ motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:27314350

  7. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Limited Energy Study-Lighting Fort Campbell, Kentucky: Volume 1-Sections 1-5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    volt bi~t DISCOVERY COSMO STANDARD FE~kraES - *Whatq eflnamel 1¶ vf ~l-d 14 ŕ ýTA.U).\\Rf VrATI IM-r r-111, ~L’l4ed , Whitc *u Ia L3 volt cLus ’P ba.1)M...taksitaurcim’n:’. amd I(Ca! Claimu~i ’lsica1 d~aI; 31 Fort Caianrble). The bamslint wm% caiculited after rnopkieancitmnt of any pro-rawd ictrnfits under ECO-lI...34s e~.A tfW 1 60 ."Aloooso deum 5A FOR IMT It I’ SI0 - - 1.3 ev S’ f e, 9I U .~ 0 b I4 st e " tSOaI. 14 N A *0 C4 S *epsa lisimsf4 te owl**# mehi me. NA

  8. An application of artificial intelligence to automatic telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes (APT's) allow an astronomer to be removed form the telescope site in both time and space. APT's 'execute' an observation program (a set of observation requests) expressed in an ASCII-based language (ATIS) and collect observation results expressed in this same language. The observation program is currently constructed by a Principal Astronomer from the requests of multiple users; the execution is currently controlled by a simple heuristic dispatch scheduler. Research aimed at improving the use of APT's is being carried out by the Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) project at NASA Ames. The overall goal of the ERE project is the study and construction of systems that integrate planning, scheduling, and control. This paper discusses the application of some ERE technical results to the improvement of both the scheduling and the operation of APT's.

  9. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Johnson, L. R.; Laybe, P.; Reinke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of 18 convective clusters demonstrates that the extension of the Area-Time-Integral (ATI) technique to the use of satellite data is possible. The differences of the internal structures of the radar reflectivity features, and of the satellite features, give rise to differences in estimating rain volumes by delineating area; however, by focusing upon the area integrated over the lifetime of the storm, it is suggested that some of the errors produced by the differences in the cloud geometries as viewed by radar or satellite are minimized. The results are good and future developments should consider data from different climatic regions and should allow for implementation of the technique in a general circulation model.

  10. Comparison of Tungsten and Molybdenum Based Emitters for Advanced Thermionic Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsing H.; Dickinson, Jeffrey W.; Klein, Andrew C.; Lamp, Thomas R.

    1994-07-01

    Variations to the Advanced Thermionic Initiative thermionic fuel element are analyzed. Analysis included neutronic modeling with MCNP for criticality determination and thermal power distribution, and thermionic performance modeling with TFEHX. Changes to the original ATI configuration include the addition of W-HfC wire to the emitter for high temperature creep resistance improvement and substitution of molybdenum for the tungsten base material. Results from MCNP showed that all the tungsten used in the coating and base material must be 100% W-184 to obtain criticality. The presence of molybdenum in the emitter base affects the neutronic performance of the TFE by increasing the emitter neutron absorption cross section. Due to the reduced thermal conductivity for the molybdenum based emitter, a higher temperature is obtained resulting in a greater electrical power production. The thermal conductivity and resistivity of the composite emitter region were derived for the W-Mo composite and used in TFEHX.

  11. Open Scenario Study, Phase I. Volume 2. Aggregate and Organizational Data Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Tra ini ng /Ed uc ati on Te sti ng Op era tio na l P lan nin g Ac qu isi tio n Int ell ige nc e & Th rea t A ss es...ep t o f O pe rat ion s ( Op era tio na l L ev el) As su mp tio ns Ob jec tiv es (B lue ) Fo rce s D ata Str ate gic C on ce pt (S tra teg ic- lev...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Open Scenario Study, Phase I

  12. NRES: The Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siverd, Robert; Eastman, Jason D.; Brown, Timothy M.; Hygelund, John; Henderson, Todd; Tufts, Joseph; Van Eyken, Julian C.; Barnes, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Network (LCOGT) is building the Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES), which will consist of six identical, optical (390 - 860 nm) high-precision spectrographs, each fiber-fed simultaneously by two 1 meter telescopes and a thorium argon calibration source, one at each of our observatory sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Thus, NRES will be a single, globally-distributed, autonomous observing facility using twelve 1-m telescopes. Simulations suggest we will achieve long-term radial velocity precision of better than 3 m/s in less than an hour for stars brighter than V = 12. We have been funded with NSF MRI and ATI grants, and expect our first spectrograph to be deployed in mid 2015, with the full network operation of all 6 units beginning in 2016. We will discuss the NRES design, goals, robotic operation, and status, as well as the early results from our prototype spectrograph.

  13. Event-Based Tone Mapping for Asynchronous Time-Based Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Simon Chane, Camille; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Posch, Christoph; Benosman, Ryad B.

    2016-01-01

    The asynchronous time-based neuromorphic image sensor ATIS is an array of autonomously operating pixels able to encode luminance information with an exceptionally high dynamic range (>143 dB). This paper introduces an event-based methodology to display data from this type of event-based imagers, taking into account the large dynamic range and high temporal accuracy that go beyond available mainstream display technologies. We introduce an event-based tone mapping methodology for asynchronously acquired time encoded gray-level data. A global and a local tone mapping operator are proposed. Both are designed to operate on a stream of incoming events rather than on time frame windows. Experimental results on real outdoor scenes are presented to evaluate the performance of the tone mapping operators in terms of quality, temporal stability, adaptation capability, and computational time. PMID:27642275

  14. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rain volume estimation over fixed and floating areas was investigated using rapid scan satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data, called the Area Time Integral (ATI) technique. The radar and rapid scan GOES satellite data were collected during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) and North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP). Six multicell clusters and cells were analyzed to the present time. A two-cycle oscillation emphasizing the multicell character of the clusters is demonstrated. Three clusters were selected on each day, 12 June and 2 July. The 12 June clusters occurred during the daytime, while the 2 July clusters during the nighttime. A total of 86 time steps of radar and 79 time steps of satellite images were analyzed. There were approximately 12-min time intervals between radar scans on the average.

  15. TREK-1 isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation display different susceptibility to the antidepressant fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Michaela; Egenberger, Brigitte; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2)P) channels are highly expressed in neurons and cardiac myocytes. In this study we investigated the potency of the antidepressant fluoxetine to inhibit brain and cardiac K(2)P channels, TREK-1, TASK-1 and THIK-1. Maximal sensitivity was detected for TREK-1, which was inhibited by 77% when expressed in HEK-293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. Alternative translation initiation (ATI) generates two different protein products from a single transcript of TREK-1. Electrophysiological analysis of two polypeptides engineered by mutagenesis (TREK-1[M53I], TREK-1[ΔN52]) revealed reduced current amplitude and K(+) selectivity of the truncated TREK-1 isoform. The sensitivity of TREK-1[ΔN52] to fluoxetine decreased by 70%, indicating that the first 52 amino acids are essential for TREK-1 sensitivity to this drug.

  16. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  17. Strong-field above-threshold ionization in laser-irradiated C60: The signatures of orbital symmetry and intramolecular interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usachenko, Vladimir; Kim, Vyacheslav; Pyak, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    We report about the results of our theoretical study of strong-field (multiphoton) above-threshold ionization (ATI) in laser-irradiated carbon fullerene molecule C60 under condition of relevant experiment. The problem is addressed within the velocity-gauge (VG) formulation of molecular strong-field approximation (SFA) essentially exploiting the density-functional-theory (DFT) method for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) molecular state using the routines of GAUSSIAN-03 code. The results of our present VG-SFA calculation for C60 photoelectron energy spectra (PES) demonstrate two distinct (well-separated) and pronounced local interference minima - in the low-energy and the high-energy domains of produced PES - both arising due to destructive intramolecular (multislit) quantum interference of strong-field ionization corresponding to photoelectron emission from multiple separate atomic centers.

  18. Feasibility Report and Environmental Assessment Nogales Wash and Tributaries.Nogales, Arizona (Revision)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-07

    epa𔃻 men, of En vironnien 10 Q14IIIi .0 in Eq ual / ppa limw 4 Ifiol~ ’it!o a cU,,,; , A- ]- Central Palm Plaza Building 2005 North Central A’enuc...to eel l ive~stock. ati oil Vol j / mI ’uOl I tatt-ittyL ur icry MO tcm i tmo a,~~~ ii Ii o i 3’rl j ’r U L te attn nn - Ceai-n it Of r I Art cc’x ida...44 1, V. ..4 0 44 04 -. V D .0 I’ ’. 0 󈧰 %’ " > 04444440 ~ >0. ~ ~ % 45~ A-5 0 oil CIL 0 a, 0 4m 4, 4 4,~ ~ 0 4, V >, .AR 0 0 0, 04 v .4~~ 1004 0

  19. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 10. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Phase Transitions of Poly(Omega-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl)oxy)alkyl Vinyl Ethers)s with Nonyl and Decanyl Alkyl Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-16

    Report No. 41 NAMAE OF PERFOMN4iNG OIRGANLZAI0N 60 OF~iCE SYMBOL 76 NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION ase Western Reserve Univ. 4Btak N L ADRESS (Oty...PL/NO’NG/SPONSOMRNG 8b OfFCE SYMBOL 9 PROCUJREMENT INSTRUJMENT IOENTIFiC-ATiON NJMBEgt ,ftGANLZATION 0f sp9J’catJe) L ADORE S(Cfry. Stire..ria ZIP...polymerization of 9.-[(4-cyano-4’-biphenyl)oxylnonyI vinyl ether ( L -9) and 10-[(4- cyano-4’-bipnenyl)oxy]decanyl vinyl ether (6-10) are described. The

  20. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals’ current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  1. Enlistment Standards as Applied to the Navy Selection Process with Reference to the Signalman and Radioman Ratings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    49 E. COM P ARI’St OF STEP SEVEN CROSS-VALID1ATI~ RESULTS . ’.50 5 D7SCiiŽ;:NANT AdiYS A5-3 D. Col04al.ICN CF sl~r N z CR0.3 .3- V2 A --ION -S...CHAiNCES FOE RECRE1ITS EN.’ERZXG THiZ NAVY .13 SUM iiAY 01 NAVAL POSIGFA,)A: SCiiOL: 3SS I::r. ?3FED1ICTOS--D.Ec1S PTIp:I 37al:s,:czc ...s . . 5 IV. CRITERIA...the ,possihility of succeeding in the fleet during the first year ’of enlistment. ’Examination of the SCREEN Table I C Bef. 5 ] will help the reader

  2. Inducing and Probing Attosecond-Time-Scale Electronic Wavefunction Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Much of the current interest in the field of ultrafast science focuses on the observation of attosecond dynamics of electronic wavepackets. These experiments typically require attosecond pulses either for pumping or probing such dynamics and/or are limited to observing electronic states embedded in the ionization continuum of atoms. Here, we present numerical evidence---based on solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for a 1-dimensional model atom---that a pump--probe scheme with two few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses provides interferometric access to sub-femtosecond electron wavepacket dynamics. Both continuum- and bound-state electronic wavepacket interference can be simultaneously observed by recording and analyzing time-delay dependent interferences in the ATI spectrum of an atom. Both dipole-allowed and forbidden electronic transition information can be extracted from the data, making this approach a versatile and comprehensive spectroscopic method for probing the bound electronic level structure of an atom.

  3. The potential of hydrodynamic analysis for the interpretation of Martian fluvial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Schumann, Guy; Neal, Jeffrey; Lin, Shih-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    After liquid water was identified as the agent of ancient Martian fluvial activities, the valley and channels on the Martian surface were investigated by a number of remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In particular, the stereo DTMs and ortho images from various successful orbital sensors are being effectively used to trace the origin and consequences of Martian hydrological channels. For instance, to analyze the Martian fluvial activities more quantitatively using the topographic products, Burr et al. (2003) employed 1D hydrodynamic models such as HEC-RAS together with the topography by MOLA to derive water flow estimates for the Athabasca Valles area on Mars [1]. Where extensive floodplain flows or detailed 2D bathymetry for the river channel exist, it may be more accurate to simulate flows in two dimensions, especially if the direction of flow is unclear a priori. Thus in this study we demonstrated a quantitative modeling method utilizing multi-resolution Martian DTMs, constructed in line with Kim and Muller's (2009) [2] approach, and an advanced hydraulics model LISFLOOD-FP (Bates et al., 2010) [3], which simulates in-channel dynamic wave behavior by solving for 2D shallow water equations without advection. Martian gravitation and manning constants were adjusted in the hydraulic model and the inflow values were iteratively refined from the outputs of the coarser to the finer model. Then we chose the target areas among Martian fluvial geomorphologies and tested the effectiveness of high resolution hydraulic modeling to retrieve the characteristics of fluvial systems. Test sites were established in the Athabasca Valles, Bahram Vallis, and Naktong Vallis respectively. Since those sites are proposed to be originated by different fluvial mechanisms, it is expected that the outputs from hydraulics modeling will provide important clues about the evolution of each fluvial system. Hydraulics modeling in the test areas with terrestrial simulation parameters was also

  4. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  5. Geomorphic constraints on the geologic history of Gale Crater (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, M. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Hayes, A. G.; Williams, R. M.; Calef, F. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Parker, T. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater near the Peace Vallis (PV) alluvial fan system. Gale is located on the crustal dichotomy of Mars between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the smoother northern lowlands. Recent crater counts on Gale's ejecta give an age estimate of ~3.6 Ga, corresponding to the Early Hesperian or possibly the Late Noachian (Le Deit et al., 2012). In the region to the south of Gale are similarly-sized craters (e.g. Hershel and Wien) that appear substantially more degraded, are partially to nearly buried, and have subtle rims, indicating that they likely pre-date Gale. Farah Vallis (FV), a large v-shaped channel incised into the southwestern rim of Gale, may have been part of a large regional drainage system (~270,000 km2) originating near Hershel Crater. Ejecta from Gale appear to have partly buried this valley network, implying it was active before the formation of Gale itself (Irwin et al., 2005). Gale also contains an ~5 km high central mound composed of layered material, whose age based on crater counts and superposition relationships, is ~3.6 to 3.8 Ga (Thomson et al., 2011). Here, we use crater counting and geomorphological relationships from mapped features within Gale to extend the work of others in providing a chronology of Gale's multi-stage geologic history. Using CTX imagery we have identified several large fan/delta features within Gale, in addition to those previously identified. These features, combined with topographic benches and morphologic changes from canyons to local fan deposition, suggest a series of large lakes. The largest (-2100 m) would have filled Gale entirely, and the smallest would have been a shallow lake at the distal end of the PV fan. The simplest interpretation, and the one supported by the geomorphology, is that Gale was sourced in part with water from FV and then progressively fell, creating weak shoreline features at several elevations. In addition, we performed a crater

  6. ExoMars 2018: the four final candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Flahaut, Jessica; Vago, Jorge L.; Hauber, Ernst; Bridges, John C.

    2015-04-01

    December 2014. The Aram Dorsum site comprises Noachian layered sedimentary rocks with a prominent inverted channel system (>80 km long). Potential targets include the inverted channel, the channel margins, a channel transition unit, and pits present within the floodplain. The Hypanis Vallis site lies near two fluvial fan/deltaic systems at the termination of Hypanis and Sabrina Valles. Potential targets include mainly outcrops of expected fine-grained sediments on the smooth transition unit that surrounds the delta/fan, and units around the rim of Magong crater. The Mawrth Vallis site contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates detected on the Martian surface, in Noachian terrain [8]. Potential targets include the mineralogically diverse clay-rich outcrops and ancient channels. The Oxia Planum site lies on Fe/Mg phyllosilicates-rich exposures associated to layered rocks that may be related to the Mawrth Vallis sequence. Potential targets include the clay-rich outcrops as well as channels and inverted channels and delta-fan deposits. New data are being actively acquired by the HiRISE, CRISM and HRSC teams to support the ExoMars 2018 landing site selection process. The ellipses are large and new data are important for characterizing the potential targets and evaluating the safety of the sites. The proposing teams, the ExoMars project team and the LSSWG will continue their analysis and comparison of the sites, aiming to complete the certification of at least one site by September 2016 -- in time for the start of the mission's Critical Design Review (CDR). The final selection of the landing site is expected within 2017. References: [1] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/48088-mission-overview/ [2] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/53462-call-for-exo mars-2018-landing-site-selection/ [3] ExoMars 2018 LSSWG recommendation: http://exploration.esa.int/mars/54707-recommendation-for-the-narrowing-of-exomars-2018-landing-sites/

  7. A recent, equatorial, periglacial environment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Viking era, Mars' recent climatic history was held to be cold and dry with little evidence for long-lived liquid water near the surface; signs of a past wetter, warmer climate were confined to ancient Noachian or Hesperian-aged terrains. Recent missions have revealed contemporary near-surface water-ice to be abundant at high latitudes, and a population of mid-latitude fluvial-like gullies that appear to have formed by transient melting of ice or snow. Thus today's view of Mars' recent surface evolution is one of global permafrost existing within a framework of climate change, the timescales of which are governed by obliquity cycles with periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, in recent mapping work of the equatorial Elysium Planitia region using the latest very high resolution images of Mars (HiRISE; 25cm/pixel) we have found evidence for longer-lived, geologically recent liquid water at the martian surface. This suggests that there was a recent period when the climate was warmer than current obliquity cycle-based models predict. The Elysium Planitia region of Mars is both geologically young (late Amazonian period; <100 Ma) and hosts a variety of landforms that are morphologically similar to those of periglacial and permafrost environments on Earth. The region was exposed to massive flooding from deep underground sources during the late Amazonian, as demonstrated by the distinctive fluvial morphologies seen in the outflow channel Athabasca Vallis. These floods would have provided both the source of ice and particulate material required for a periglacial or permafrost landscape and there was probably a long-lived, but slowly freezing, lake or sea in the downstream Elysium basin. However, the provenance of the materials and landforms of this region is disputed: many authors still regard the Athabasca Vallis and Elysium basin as being flood lava provinces, with effusive volcanic materials reoccupying earlier flood landscapes (a classic

  8. Studying the NE Eridania sedimentary sequence through the Mars 2020 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Coradini, M.; McBride, K. S.

    2014-04-01

    The landing sites we are proposing for the next Mars 2020 rover span between 28°29'30"S-28°53'0"S Latitude and 178°56'30"W°178°28'0"W Longitude, i.e. on the NE floor of a 1.1×106 km2 closed drainage basin [1]. This area, see Fig. 1, belongs to the bigger (3×106 km2) Eridania basin that gave birth to the Ma'adim Vallis through catastrophic overflow, and presenting a water table between 950 and 1250 m [1,2,3]. The crater counting chronology for this area gives an age between Early to Middle Noachian [4]. By means of OMEGA [5] and CRISM [6] data, a large clay-bearing sedimentary unit has been identified over almost the entire margin of the Eridania basin [7]. On our specific site, i.e. the NE margin of the Eridania basin, sequences of aqueous minerals are observed. Such sedimentary minerals are accessible through erosional windows into the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. The top-down mineral sequence identified on the landing sites area presents an unaltered capping unit that is overlying an Al-rich clay stratum (see Fig. 2) akin to Al-smectite and/or kaolins with a <1 m thickness. A third sedimentary Fe-rich clay layer (akin to the nontronite smectite) is found, presenting a thickness of <10 m and overlying a mineral at the base of the exposed strata, which could be either a zeolite (favoured scenario) or a hydrated sulfate. On Earth, the thicknesses and compositions of the clay-rich strata have been used to constrain the paleoclimate [8,9], hence, the in situ exploration of the proposed sedimentary sequences at Eridania would provide fundamental observables of the early era (> 3.8 Ga) during which liquid water was durably stable at the surface. The most valuable candidates for ancient Martian microbial life sustainability and preservation are longlasting environments, characterized by the presence of ponding water [10,11,12]: hence, the proposed site presents a high exobiological potential that is just waiting to be unveiled. Besides

  9. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  10. Evaluation of altitude-appropriate reference ranges for neutrophils in diagnosis of sepsis in very low birth weight infants: A multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jialin; Fan, Juan; He, Yu; Dong, Wenhui; Wang, Zhengli

    2017-01-01

    Background The circulating neutrophil count was commonly believed to be influenced by altitude. At present, neutrophil reference ranges (RRs) for very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates are only available from the sea level and from high altitude. This study aimed to construct RRs for neutrophils in VLBW infants in an intermediate-altitude area and assess its usefulness in evaluation for sepsis. Methods This was a multicenter retrospective study of 2173 VLBW infants admitted to 20 hospitals in Chongqing in southwest of China with altitude from 1000 to 2600 feet. The RRs for absolute total neutrophils (ATN), absolute total immature neutrophils (ATI), and immature: total neutrophil proportion were constructed based on “normal” neonates (unlikely infection). Values of neutrophil from septic and uninfected neonates were respectively assessed using the revised RRs and the previous Mouzinho’s and Schmutz’s RRs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared using the McNemar’s test or χ2 test. Results The upper limits for ATN and ATI using the revised RRs were much higher than those using Mouzinho’s RRs, but lower than those using Schmutz’s RRs. The revised RRs and Mouzinho’s RRs had higher sensitivities than Schmutz’s RRs at 73–672 h. The revised RRs had a higher specificity than Mouzinho’s RRs at both 0–72 h and 73–672 h. The NPV for any abnormality in neutrophil values was high at both 0–72 h and 73–672 h irrespective of the RRs used. Conclusion Altitude-appropriate RRs for neutrophils is more suitable to guide the diagnosis and management of neonatal sepsis in VLBW infants. PMID:28182674

  11. Sequential CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Reactivation from Distinct Cellular Reservoirs following Perturbation of Elite Control

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Sarah A.; Mlcochova, Petra; Maldarelli, Frank; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Elite Controllers may reveal insights into virus persistence given they harbour small reservoir sizes, akin to HIV non-controllers treated early with combination antiretroviral therapy. Both groups of patients represent the most promising candidates for interventions aimed at sustained remission or ‘cure’. Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in the latter group leads to stochastic rebound of virus, though it is unclear whether loss of elite control is also associated with similar rebound characteristics. Methods We studied three discrete periods of virus rebound during myeloma related immune disruption over 2.5 years in an elite controller who previously underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the absence of any antiretroviral therapy. Single genome sequencing of the V1-V4 region of env in PBMC and plasma was performed and phylogenies reconstructed. Average pairwise distance (APD) was calculated and non-parametric methods used to assess compartmentalisation. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on genotypic algorithms. Results 122 single genome sequences were obtained (median 26 sequences per rebound). The initial rebounding plasma env sequences following ASCT represented two distinct lineages, and clustered with proviral DNA sequences isolated prior to ASCT. One of the lineages was monophyletic, possibly indicating reactivation from clonally expanded cells. The second rebound occurred 470 days after spontaneous control of the first rebound and was phylogenetically distinct from the first, confirmed by compartmentalisation analysis, with a different cellular origin rather than ongoing replication. By contrast, third rebound viruses clustered with second rebound viruses, with evidence for ongoing evolution that was associated with lymphopenia and myeloma progression. Following ASCT a shift in tropism from CXCR4-tropic viruses to a CCR5-tropic population was observed to persist through to the third rebound. Conclusions Our data

  12. Hazard of pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment: Prioritization by structural approaches and prediction of ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are recognized as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) since they are detected in the environment in increasing amount, mainly in aquatic compartment, where they may be hazardous for wildlife. The huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points requires tools able to quickly highlight the potentially most hazardous and toxic pharmaceuticals, focusing experiments on the prioritized compounds. In silico tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on structural molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points necessary to prioritize existing, or even not yet synthesized chemicals for their potential hazard. In the present study, new externally validated QSAR models, specific to predict acute toxicity of APIs in key organisms of the three main aquatic trophic levels, i.e. algae, Daphnia and two species of fish, were developed using the QSARINS software. These Multiple Linear regressions - Ordinary Least Squares (MLR-OLS) models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors calculated by free PaDEL-Descriptor software and selected by Genetic Algorithm. The models are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a wide structural applicability domain. They were applied to predict acute toxicity for a large set of APIs without experimental data. Then predictions were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a trend, driven by the combination of toxicities for all the studied organisms, was highlighted. This trend, named Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI), allowed the raking of pharmaceuticals according to their potential toxicity upon the whole aquatic environment. Finally a QSAR model for the prediction of this Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI) was proposed to be applicable in QSARINS for the screening of existing APIs for their potential hazard and the a priori chemical design of not environmentally hazardous APIs.

  13. Differences in estimating terrestrial water flux from three satellite-based Priestley-Taylor algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Shaohua; Lin, Yi; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Xianhong; Sun, Liang; Wang, Xuanyu; Zhang, Lilin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimates of terrestrial latent heat of evaporation (LE) for different biomes are essential to assess energy, water and carbon cycles. Different satellite- based Priestley-Taylor (PT) algorithms have been developed to estimate LE in different biomes. However, there are still large uncertainties in LE estimates for different PT algorithms. In this study, we evaluated differences in estimating terrestrial water flux in different biomes from three satellite-based PT algorithms using ground-observed data from eight eddy covariance (EC) flux towers of China. The results reveal that large differences in daily LE estimates exist based on EC measurements using three PT algorithms among eight ecosystem types. At the forest (CBS) site, all algorithms demonstrate high performance with low root mean square error (RMSE) (less than 16 W/m2) and high squared correlation coefficient (R2) (more than 0.9). At the village (HHV) site, the ATI-PT algorithm has the lowest RMSE (13.9 W/m2), with bias of 2.7 W/m2 and R2 of 0.66. At the irrigated crop (HHM) site, almost all models algorithms underestimate LE, indicating these algorithms may not capture wet soil evaporation by parameterization of the soil moisture. In contrast, the SM-PT algorithm shows high values of R2 (comparable to those of ATI-PT and VPD-PT) at most other (grass, wetland, desert and Gobi) biomes. There are no obvious differences in seasonal LE estimation using MODIS NDVI and LAI at most sites. However, all meteorological or satellite-based water-related parameters used in the PT algorithm have uncertainties for optimizing water constraints. This analysis highlights the need to improve PT algorithms with regard to water constraints.

  14. Dimensions and attachments of the ankle ligaments: evaluation for ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wenny, Raphael; Duscher, Dominik; Meytap, Emmy; Weninger, Patrick; Hirtler, Lena

    2015-06-01

    For operative reconstruction, precise anatomic information on the dimensions of the ankle ligaments is important and can help to optimize these procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the length and width dimensions of the ankle ligaments and to contrast the results with the published literature. Seventeen non-paired adult, formalin-fixed ankle specimen were dissected to expose the capsuloligamentous structures. The following ligaments were investigated: tibiofibular syndesmosis (anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligament/ATiFL and PTiFL), lateral ankle ligaments (anterior and posterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament/ATFL, PTFL and CFL), medial ankle ligaments (deltoid ligament, anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligament/ATTL and PTTL). After identification of the ligaments, the dimensions were measured with a ruler and a sliding caliper. Additionally, the attachment area and the center of insertion (COI) were evaluated. The dimensions of the ligaments were recorded. Measurements were calculated and discussed according to the existing literature. The tibial COI of the ATiFL was situated 8.35 ± 2.05 mm from the inferior articular surface of the tibia and 5.04 ± 1.32 mm from the fibular notch. Its fibular COI was situated 25.45 ± 5.84 mm from the tip of the lateral malleolus and 3.12 ± 1.01 mm from the malleolar articular surface. The calcaneal COI of the CFL was situated 20.63 ± 3.56 mm anterior and 5.73 ± 1.89 mm plantar to the superior edge of the calcaneal. Its fibular attachment of the CFL was directly at the tip of the lateral malleolus, dorsal to the fibular attachment of the ATFL. Studies of the therapeutic options in severe ankle ligament injuries have shown better results in anatomical reconstructions compared to other operative treatments. To optimize these procedures, exact anatomical information on the dimensions of the ankle ligaments should be beneficial.

  15. Effect of tecarfarin, a novel vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitor, on coagulation in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choppin, A; Irwin, I; Lach, L; McDonald, MG; Rettie, AE; Shao, L; Becker, C; Palme, MP; Paliard, X; Bowersox, S; Dennis, DM; Druzgala, P

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tecarfarin (ATI-5923) is a novel vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitor that is metabolized by esterase (mainly human carboxylesterase 2) to a single major metabolite, ATI-5900, in rats, dogs and humans. Tecarfarin is not significantly metabolized by CYP450 enzymes. The objective of this study was to test and compare the efficacy of tecarfarin with that of warfarin, when administered either intravenously or once a day orally, to produce stable anticoagulation in beagle dogs. Experimental approach: Effects on coagulation were assessed by measuring the activity levels of Factor VII and Factor X and thromboplastin-induced coagulation times, reported as prothrombin time (PT). Key results: Continuous intravenous infusions and oral administration of tecarfarin and warfarin caused a dose-dependent decrease in activity of Factor VII and Factor X, and associated increase in PT. Intravenous fresh frozen canine plasma or subcutaneous vitamin K1 treatment reversed the anticoagulant effects of orally administered tecarfarin. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of amiodarone on CYP2C9, co-administration of amiodarone significantly increased the anticoagulation effect of warfarin and plasma warfarin concentrations. In contrast, amiodarone had no effect on the anticoagulation induced by tecarfarin or tecarfarin plasma concentrations in this model. Conclusions and implications: Overall, the data presented herein indicate that tecarfarin, via a vitamin K-dependent mechanism, causes changes in key parameters of haemostasis in beagle dogs that are consistent with effective anticoagulation. Compared to warfarin it has a decreased potential to interact metabolically with drugs that inhibit CYP450 enzymes and, therefore, may offer an improved safety profile for patients. PMID:19845677

  16. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  17. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  18. DOE-Imaging grant FG02-06ER15829, entitled "Developing Laser-Induced Re-Collision Electron Self-Diffraction" Brief summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V. Litvinyuk, and Itzik Ben-Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Our principal goal was the experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Key steps along the development of this experimental technique have been accomplished and reported in the publications listed in this brief report. We started with measuring 3D electron momenta spectra in aligned nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Chakra Maharjan (Ph.D. student of Lew Cocke) was a lead researcher on this project. Although Chakra succeeded in obtaining those spectra, we were scooped by the publication of identical results in Science by the NRC Ottawa group. Our results were never published as a refereed article, but became a part of Chakra's Ph.D. dissertation. That Science paper was the first experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Chakra also worked on wavelength dependence of 3D ATI spectra of atoms and molecules using tunable OPA pulses. Another Ph.D. student, Maia Magrakvelidze (her GRA was funded by the grant), started working on COLTRIMS experiments using OPA pulses (1800 nm wavelength). After some initial experiments it became apparent that COLTRIMS did not yield sufficient count rates of electrons in the high-energy part of the spectrum to see diffraction signatures with acceptable statistics (unfavorable scaling of the electron yield with laser wavelength was partly to blame). Nevertheless, Maia managed to use COLTRIMS and OPA to measure the angular dependence of the tunneling ionization rate in D{sub 2} molecules. Following the initial trial experiments, the decision was made to switch from COLTRIMS to VMI in order to increase the count rates by a factor of {approx}100, which may have given us a chance to see LIED. Research Associate Dr. Sankar De (his salary was funded by the grant), in collaboration with Matthias Kling's group (then at MPQ Garching), proceeded to design a special multi-electrode VMI spectrometer for capturing high-energy ATI electrons and to install it in place of COLTRIMS inside our

  19. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  20. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2013-06-01

    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite

  1. Complex and Perplexing Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A variegated mottled texture is readily apparent in this terrain located NW of the volcano, Elysium Mons. The Hrad Vallis (the Armenian word for Mars) channel system can be seen sauntering across the bumpy landscape of Utopia Planitia. The upper branch of Hrad Vallis has a large chunk of material on its floor; this chunk appears to have been rafted away from the material on the far left of the image (moved from left to right). This unusual because the channel flows toward the left. This material may be lava flows. Many craters in this region of the planet have their interiors filled with material. Pedestal craters (craters with ejecta blankets perched higher than the surrounding plains) are also found in these regions. These observations seem to imply that this region was once buried and has now been uncovered (exhumed). The exact causes and timing of these events are unknown.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a

  2. Introducing and discussing a novel diagrammatic representation of impact crater dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprarelli, Graziella

    2014-07-01

    Impact craters on the surface of Mars are degraded by erosion and infilling due to combinations of geological processes. These result in modifications of relative crater dimensions, including diameter increase and reduction of rim-floor depths. In principle, the longer a crater is exposed to geological processes, the more pronounced the modifications. Visualization and analysis of these effects are achieved by plotting the measured depths (M) of impact craters vs the corresponding theoretical depths (predicted: P) calculated from the crater diameters using depth/Diameter power laws. This type of diagram is referred to as MPD (measured depth vs predicted depth diagram). The advantage of using the MPD representation consists in the fact that the data plot along linear regressions, more easily interpreted than standard depth vs diameter diagrams. As an example of application of the method, the MPD was used to discriminate different generations of impact craters in Terra Sabaea into four groups: T0 (fresh craters), T1, T2 and T3 (from younger to older), all located on the most ancient geological unit in the area (Npld). Other units in the area are Hpl3 and Hr, impacted only by craters belonging to group T0, suggesting that these units are stratigraphically correlated. The data of 5 craters in superposition relationships with the eastern reaches of Evros Vallis, one of the major valley networks in the area, were plotted in the diagram and assigned each to a regression depending on the location of their data points in relation to the prediction bands of the regressions. The craters superposed to the valley all belonged to T0, indicating that Evros Vallis has the same relative age of units Hpl3 and Hr. A conceptual discussion of the results demonstrates that MPD statistics (a) are unaffected by the procedures used to acquire depths and diameters of impact craters and by the power laws used, and (b) can be interpreted irrespective of the sequence or combination of

  3. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  4. Megafans as Hydrous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin; Miller, R. McG.; Allen, C. C.; Kreslavsky, M. H.; Eckardt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscale sedimentary environment known as the megafan, is a low-angle, partial cone of fluvial sediment generated where a river enters an unconfined basin where it begins the process of avulsing over wide areas. In shifting to different positions, the river lays down a partial cone of sediment and establishes a characteristic radial pattern of paleo courses. The apparent paucity of sedimentary bodies obviously tied to martian outflow channels may also relate to the difficulty of recognition due to their sheer size and featurelessness. However, the existence of megafans on Mars is being examined now that their ubiquity and characteristics on Earth are better understood. Accordingly we suggest two likely candidates on Mars: Maja Valles fluvial cone and Amazonis Planitia fluvial sedimentary bodies. Two cryptic examples from Amazonis Planitia may be important for understanding subsurface hydrous accumulation. For at least some of its history, discharges from Mangala Valles likely resulted in megafans. Distances from the end of Mangala Valles to the northern (low) margin of the planitia are very large, a fact that has suggested that fluvial emplacement was unlikely. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. Megafans emanating from Marte, Mangala and Labou valles have probably contributed to hydrous near-subsurface environments--in their distal

  5. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  6. Using a terrestrial paleosol sequence to evaluate a weathering origin for clays on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B. H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Soils provide abundant geochemical sources of energy for life, and when soils are buried as paleosols, their mineralogy and geochemistry can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and paleoclimates. Here we analyze how the clay mineralogy and spectral properties of the paleosol sequence preserved in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in eastern Oregon relate to environmental and climatic conditions at the time of soil formation. This 440-meter thick volcaniclastic deposit contains over 500 individual clay-rich (30-90%) paleosols. The deposits span 15 My around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, a period of global cooling. The paleosol mineralogy reflects this climatic shift by transitioning from kaolinites, to smectites, to poorly-crystalline phases, with local variations due to environmental variables like water saturation, pH, salinity, and organic content. Analog studies of this and other paleosol sequences are helping us to better understand surface environments and climates on ancient Mars. Possible paleosol sequences on Mars are best exemplified by the regionally extensive clay-rich deposits in the region of Mawrth Vallis. Using our terrestrial analogs, we can interpret the mineralogy and physical stratigraphy at Mawrth. Under a paleosol framework, the Mawrth clays are consistent with regional paleosols formed under a temperate climate, with local variations due to chemical gradients in a wetlands-like surface environment, providing many energy pathways for life and high preservation potential.

  7. Spirit at Gusev Crater: Preliminary Observations, Potential Processes and Hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Crumpler, L.; Grin, E. A.; Milam, K.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Grotzinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    Spirit landed in a flat plain in Gusev crater with local undulations at meters scales generated by ridges covered with blocks, some of them looking rounded. Several, flat-topped, mesas are visible in the far field in direction of Ma adim Vallis. A set of north/south oriented hills reaches approximately 150 m elevation to the east of the landing site (LS). A dipping brighter unit with possibly some scarps is associated with it. This setting could be consistent with layering observed on the MOC images of the hills, local exposure of material with variable dust cover, or deflated or allochtonous material. Numerous small depressions are visible from LS referred to as "Columbia Memorial Station"* (CMS). Floors are partially filled with finer-grained, high albedo material. At least one of them, nicknamed "Sleepy Hollow"* (approximately 30 m diameter) may be an eroded secondary impact crater. It is unclear if they can all be related to small impact structures. Some of them are elongated and aligned with the ridges. The morphology of rocks and soil at this Gusev Crater is presented. Evidence of dynamic aeolian action along this Crater is also discussed.

  8. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  9. The Diversity of Martian Volcanic Features as Seen in MOC Images and MOLA Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    This project focused on the evolution of the summit areas of Martian volcanoes. By using data collected from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instruments, we tried to better understand the diversity of constructional volcanism on Mars, and hence further understand eruption processes. We investigated the styles of volcanism on the major volcanic constructs (Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes), and also studied the role of magma-volatile interactions within the shallow subsurface of these volcanoes and the surrounding areas. Theoretical models for internal processes within volcanoes, including the thermal influences of dike intrusions on pre-existing volatiles, were developed based on our identification of landform distributions. Our work provided new insights into the diversity of volcanism on Mars, and the distribution of Martian volatiles in space and time. Highlights of our results include: 1) The identification of large ash deposits at the summit of Arsia Mons; 2) The study of a large flank eruption on Elysium Mons and the estimation of the effusion rate needed to produce the observed lava channel; 3) The quantitative description of dike intrusion into volatile-rich terrain to explain the origin of Hrad Vallis; 4) The identification of constructional ridges on top of very young lava flows from Olympus Mons, with the interpretation that these ridges were formed by very recent phreatomagmatic eruptions; and 5) The characterization of the dimensions and slope distributions on 18 volcanic edifices on Mars.

  10. Aqueous history of Mars as inferred from landed mission measurements of rocks, soils, and water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2016-09-01

    The missions that have operated on the surface of Mars acquired data that complement observations acquired from orbit and provide information that would not have been acquired without surface measurements. Data from the Viking Landers demonstrated that soils have basaltic compositions, containing minor amounts of salts and one or more strong oxidants. Pathfinder with its rover confirmed that the distal portion of Ares Vallis is the site of flood-deposited boulders. Spirit found evidence for hydrothermal deposits surrounding the Home Plate volcanoclastic feature. Opportunity discovered that the hematite signature on Meridiani Planum as seen from orbit is due to hematitic concretions concentrated on the surface as winds eroded sulfate-rich sandstones that dominate the Burns formation. The sandstones originated as playa muds that were subsequently reworked by wind and rising groundwater. Opportunity also found evidence on the rim of the Noachian Endurance Crater for smectites, with extensive leaching along fractures. Curiosity acquired data at the base of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater that allows reconstruction of a sustained fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine system prograding into the crater. Smectites and low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified in the lacustrine deposits. Phoenix, landing above the Arctic Circle, found icy soils, along with low concentrations of perchlorate salt. Perchlorate is considered to be a strong candidate for the oxidant found by the Viking Landers. It is also a freezing point depressant and may play a role in allowing brines to exist at and beneath the surface in more modern periods of time on Mars.

  11. A geomorphic analysis of Hale crater, Mars: The effects of impact into ice-rich crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; McEwen, A. S.; Tornabene, L. L.; Baker, V. R.; Melosh, H. J.; Berman, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Hale crater, a 125 × 150 km impact crater located near the intersection of Uzboi Vallis and the northern rim of Argyre basin at 35.7°S, 323.6°E, is surrounded by channels that radiate from, incise, and transport material within Hale's ejecta. The spatial and temporal relationship between the channels and Hale's ejecta strongly suggests the impact event created or modified the channels and emplaced fluidized debris flow lobes over an extensive area (>200,000 km 2). We estimate ˜10 10 m 3 of liquid water was required to form some of Hale's smaller channels, a volume we propose was supplied by subsurface ice melted and mobilized by the Hale-forming impact. If 10% of the subsurface volume was ice, based on a conservative porosity estimate for the upper martian crust, 10 12 m 3 of liquid water could have been present in the ejecta. We determine a crater-retention age of 1 Ga inside the primary cavity, providing a minimum age for Hale and a time at which we propose the subsurface was volatile-rich. Hale crater demonstrates the important role impacts may play in supplying liquid water to the martian surface: they are capable of producing fluvially-modified terrains that may be analogous to some landforms of Noachian Mars.

  12. From the South Pole to the Northern Plains: The Argyre Planitia Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Grant, J. A.; Anderson, F. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    Parker (1985, 1994) first described evidence for catastrophic flooding from a large lake or sea within Argyre Planitia through the Uzboi-Holden- Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system during the Noachian. The channel connection to Argyre had been recognized during the mid-1970s, based primarily on Russian orbiter images taken at that time. The most critical reviews of these inferences related to the relative timing of the plains materials, sinuous ridges, and debris aprons in southern Argyre, and the connection, via Uzboi Vallis, of ponding within Argyre to flooding through the Chryse Trough. The prevailing "competing" hypothesis for formation of materials within Argyre is that they are a result of south circumpolar glacial processes, with glacial scour and stagnation producing the pitting and sinuous ridges (eskers) on the basin floor rather than lacustrine erosion and deposition followed much later by a process akin to rock glacier formation of the debris aprons in a colder Amazonian climate. Argyre was part of a larger surface hydrological system that also included two large valley networks draining the Margaritifer Sinus region northwest of Argyre. The morphometry of these systems suggest a combination of precipitation and groundwater sapping, with surface runoff for their formation.

  13. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  14. Meter-Scale Characteristics of Martian Channels and Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Malin, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor images, with resolutions as high as 1.5 m pixel, enable characterization of martian channels and valleys at resolutions one to two orders of magnitude better than was previously possible. A major surprise is the near-absence of valleys a few hundred meters wide and narrower. The almost complete absence of fine-scale valleys could be due to lack of precipitation, destruction of small valleys by erosion, or dominance of infiltration over surface runoff. V-shaped valleys with a central channel, such as Nanedi Vallis, provide compelling evidence for sustained or episodic flow of water across the surface. Larger valleys appear to have formed not by headward erosion as a consequence of groundwater sapping but by erosion from water sources upstream of the observed sections. The freshest appearing valleys have triangular cross sections, with talus from opposing walls meeting at the center of the valley. The relations suggest that the width of the valleys is controlled by the depth of incision and the angle of repose of the walls. The flat floors of less fresh-appearing valleys result primarily from later eolian fill. Several discontinuous valleys and lines of craters suggest massive subsurface solution or erosion. The climatic implications of the new images will remain obscure until the cause for the scarcity of fine-scale dissection is better understood. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Titan's Tropospheric Winds: Effects Influencing Superrotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2010-10-01

    Several effects on atmospheric superrotation are explored using an idealized general circulation model (GCM) of Titan. GCMs typically do not produce superrotation to the degree observed in Titan's atmosphere. Numerical experiments with an Earth-like GCM suggest large-scale disturbances of zonal wavenumbers one and two are responsible for establishing and maintaining superrotation [Mitchell & Vallis 2010]. The global structure of these disturbances are sensitive to artificial damping at all latitudes, and they show extreme sensitivity to damping directly at the equator. A Titan GCM with idealized physics including grey radiation and moist convection is employed to study several effects on Titan's tropospheric superrotation. These include "spurious” effects like numerical noise or artificial damping and "real” effects like topographical wave forcing or the pattern of seasonal convection. For instance, Cassini measurements show Titan's surface has zonal- degree-two (quadrupole) topographical relief of ˜200 m at the equator [Zebker et al. 2009; Iess et al. 2010] and mountains up to 2 km in height [Radebaugh et al. 2007]. Based on these numerical experiments, I will suggest steps that can be taken to improve the ability of Titan GCMs to develop realistic superrotation. I will interpret the experimental results in light of recent observations.

  16. Exploring Gusev Crater with Spirit: Review of science objectives and testable hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Grin, E.A.; Carr, M.H.; Sutter, B.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Farmer, J.D.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.O.; DesMarais, D.J.; Kramer, M.G.; Newsom, H.; Barber, C.; Thorsos, I.; Tanaka, K.L.; Barlow, N.G.; Fike, D.A.; Urquhart, M.L.; Grigsby, B.; Grant, F.D.; de Goursac, O.

    2003-01-01

    Gusev Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit mission. Located at the outlet of Ma'adim Vallis and 250 km south of the volcano Apollinaris Patera, Gusev is an outstanding site to achieve the goals of the MER mission. The crater could have collected sediments from a variety of sources during its 3.9 Ga history, including fluvial, lacustrine, volcanic, glacial, impact, regional and local aeolian, and global air falls. It is a unique site to investigate the past history of water on Mars, climate and geological changes, and the potential habitability of the planet, which are central science objectives of the MER mission. Because of its complex history and potential diversity, Gusev will allow the testing of a large spectrum of hypotheses with the complete suite of MER instruments. Evidence consistent with long-lived lake episodes exist in the landing ellipse area. They might offer a unique opportunity to study, for the first time, Martian aqueous sediments and minerals formed in situ in their geological context. We review the geological history and diversity of the landing site, the science hypotheses that can be tested during the MER mission, and the relevance of Gusev to the MER mission objectives and payload. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Spectral Masking in Mixtures of Mars-Relevant Minerals: Comparison of Laboratory End Members and Natural Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull-Hearth, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, visible- to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy has revealed an array of hydrated minerals on the surface of Mars. However, one of the major limitations of VNIR spectroscopy is how it responds to mixtures of minerals. Based on differences in optical constants, some phases can mask others in mixture, even when the first phase is more abundant. Here, we report on a laboratory study to measure the impact of mixtures on the VNIR spectra of hydrated/hydroxylated iron oxide and sulfate phases that are relevant to Mars geochemistry. Pure endmembers of hydrated/hydroxylated iron oxide and sulfate phases are synthesized in the lab, then mixed in known ratios, and measured via VNIR spectroscopy and XRD to assess the percentages of each mineral needed to mask others. Laboratory mixtures are then compared to natural mixtures from the Río Tinto/Río Odiel system and acid mine drainage (AMD) systems of southeastern Pennsylvania. Finally, both laboratory and natural mixtures are be compared to CRISM VNIR data from key iron-phase regions on Mars, including Aram Chaos, Mawrth Vallis, and Noctis Labyrinthus.

  18. Knob fields in the Terra Cimmeria/Terra Sirenum region of Mars: Stratigraphy, mineralogy and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Lorenz; Bishop, Janice L.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the stratigraphy, morphology and mineralogy of five major knob fields in the region between Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum on Mars based on HRSC, CTX, MOC and HiRISE imagery together with hyperspectral data from CRISM. The knob fields comprise Ariadnes Colles, Atlantis Chaos and Gorgonum Chaos and further, unnamed fields of mounds. They have been mapped in previous studies as Hesperian or Amazonian units and are located within the shoreline of the proposed "Eridania lake", the putative source of Ma'adim Vallis. The mounds contain Mg/Fe-bearing phyllosilicates and locally Al-rich phyllosilicates. Our geological mapping shows that the knob fields have a late Noachian age, which indicates later phyllosilicate formation than typically observed on Mars. The knob fields formed by alteration of the "Electris deposit", an airfall deposit possibly rich in basaltic glass (Grant, J.A., Schultz, P.H. [1990]. Icarus 84, 166-195), in local depressions, possibly in the Eridania lake. The spectroscopic detection of phyllosilicates here may indicate that liquid water persisted longer in this region than elsewhere on Mars. The knob fields are embayed by the Hesperian ridged plains. Numerous valleys carve into the ridged plains and document that the aqueous history of this region continued into the Hesperian and Amazonian. The study area is traversed by the Sirenum Fossae. These graben appear to post-date the aqueous activity in the study area except in the Gorgonum basin, where a lake developed after their formation.

  19. Observations at the Mars Pathfinder site: Do they provide "unequivocal" evidence of catastrophic flooding?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Kargel, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    After Mars Pathfinder landed at the mouth of Ares Vallis, a large channel that drains into the Chryse Planitia basin, the mission reports unanimously supported the interpretation that the lander site is the locus of catastrophic flooding by noting that all aspects of the scene are consistent with this interpretation. However, alternatives cannot be ruled out by any site observations, as all aspects of the scene are equally consistent with other interpretations of origin, namely, ice and mass-flow processes subsequently modified by wind erosion. The authors discuss alternative explanations for the geologic history of the channel based on a regional view of the circum-Chryse channels from Viking images (our best broad-scale information to date) and the local view from the recent Pathfinder landing site. Mega-indicators of channel origin, the regional geomorphology, geology, and planetary climatic conditions, taken together suggest some combination of flood, mass flow, glacial, and eolian processes. The macro-indicators of channel origin (sedimentologic) are also not indicative of one process of emplacement, either as single criteria or taken cumulatively. Finally, the micro-indicators of channel origin (geochemical and mineralogic composition) do not provide very tight constraints on the deposits' possible origins other than that water was in some way involved.

  20. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetary Science, Volume 22; Conference, Houston, TX, Mar. 18-22, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of Phobos Mission Gamma ray spectra from Mars, comparison of volcanic and modified landforms from Tharsis Montes on Mars, polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars, new evidence of lacustrine basins on Mars, flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex on Mars, interpretation of canyon materials and flood sources on Kasei Valles on Mars, geochemistry of Manson Impact structure rocks, micrometer-sized glass spheres in Apollo 16 soil 61181, isotopic abundances in Pesyanoe of solar-type xenon, mineralogy of 12 large 'chondritic' interplanetary dust particles. Also discussed are: trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles, evolution of isotopic signatures in lunar regolith nitrogen, pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon, origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion, origin of yellow glasses associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments, trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks, mineralization on the moon, relation between diogenite cumulates and eucrite magmas.

  1. Radial rift and block tectonics around the Tharsis bulge: Introductional postulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although the Vallis Marineris canyon and radial fossae grabens have been extensively studied, their origin and formation mechanism is still the subject of numerous questions. Possible rift formation is only one point of view and does not explain the rifting mechanism and the radial pattern of these structures around the Tharsis bulge. Both active and passive rifting must be taken into account. According to the active mechanism the building of a colcanic complex like the Tharsis bulge is caused by the rising of a huge mantle plume and adjoining extrusions which tap the generated magma. The surrounding fossae and valley structures are caused by more passive crustal rifting due to tensional failure of the surface layers. The main rising mantle plume activated and regenerated failure patterns radial to the centre of activity. These radial zones of weakness are then most easily utilized by the rising mantle plume. Deep zones of weakness regulate the penetration and distribution of hot mantle rock into upper levels while, contrarily, the effective impingement of the hot mantle plume into the lithosphere opens up new weakness zones.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume.

  3. Surficial Geology of the Spirit Rover Traverse in Gusev Crater: Dry and Desiccating Since the Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit rover landed successfully in a low albedo portion of Gusev crater at 14.5692 deg S, 175.4729 deg E on January 3, 2004 and has traversed about 3.5 km over 180 sols through cratered plains to Bonneville crater and the Columbia Hills. Gusev, a 160 km diameter Noachian crater that lies at the terminus of the 900 km long Ma'adim Vallis, was selected as a landing site to search for evidence of previous liquid water flow and/or ponding. Although no clear evidence of fluvial or lacustrine activity has been identified in the cratered plains (excepting rocks in the Columbia Hills), their surficial geology strongly limits any warmer and/or wetter period of Mars history (e.g., observed at Meridiani Planum) to be pre-Late Hesperian. This paper will review the surficial geology of Gusev crater as observed along the traverse by Spirit with special reference to the derived gradation history that strongly argues for a dry and desiccating environment since the Late Hesperian.

  4. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  5. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  6. Pavonis Mons Summit Caldera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows part of the summit caldera of Pavonis Mons. Pavonis the middle of three Tharsis volcanos that form a line southeast of Olympus Mons and northwest of Vallis Marineris. On Earth volcanic calderas usually form when a massive eruption has emptied out the magma chamber and the 'roof' of the chamber collapses into the resultant space. It is likely that summit calderas on Martian volcanoes form in a similar manner.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael D.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Bridges, Nathan T.

    2000-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in the vicinity of the Mars Pathfinder (MPR landing site data from the lander and in data from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions. One is inferred to represent winds from the northeast, which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions. A second wind blowing from the ESE was responsible for modifying the crater rims and cutting some of the ventifacts. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, and the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis flooding events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  8. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime and Climate from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Kraft, M. D.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bridges, N. T.

    1999-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in data from the Mars Pathfinder lander and from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions, one inferred to represent winds from the northeast which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions, and a second wind pattern oriented approx. 90 degrees to the first. This latter wind could be from the W-NW or from the E-SE and was responsible for cutting the ventifacts and modifying the crater rims. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, in which the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  9. A potential Mars 2020 rover landing site at a delta in Magong Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Platz, T.; Le Deit, L.; van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the upcoming NASA 2020 Mars rover mission we identified a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km×20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. Weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates were detected at central delta cliff sections. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater remnants of an approximately 1m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from an adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terra in analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  10. A New View of the Surface of Mars: High-Resolution Rock Abundance from MGS TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, S.; Christensen, P.

    2001-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data from the most dust-free seasons on Mars were used to calculate the areal percentage of rocks and finer materials such as dust and sand. Rock is defined as a surface material that has a thermal inertia of 1250 J/m2-s1/2-K (30 cal/cm2-s1/2-K) or greater. A surface with a high rock abundance value could be exposed bedrock, blocky debris, well-cemented materials or a combination. Globally, the TES and IRTM data agree well, with no rocks exposed in the large dusty regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, and exposure of rocks in small (a few km) areas where likely eolian or mass-wasting processes actively remove dust from the ancient rocky surface. Analysis of high-resolution TES rock abundance suggests that there are extremely varied surfaces within relatively small regions, and places an upper limit of ~45 % rocks in the rockiest regions. Thermal inertia and rock abundance are correlate to some degree over much of the planet, but the highest thermal inertia surfaces often do not have the highest rock abundances. A global perspective will be presented here, with detailed look at a few high-resolution ares including Ares Vallis/Pathfinder, Valles Marineris, and the proposed landing sites for the 2003 MER landers.

  11. Retrieval of the Martian surface reflectance by means of Principal Component analysis and Target Transformation using OMEGA/Mex data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geminale, A.; Grassi, D.; Altieri, F.; Serventi, G.; Carli, C.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Sgavetti, M.; Orosei, R.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Frigeri, A.

    The aim of this work is to extract the surface contribution in the Martian visible/near-infrared spectra removing the atmospheric components by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and target transformation (TT). The developed technique is suitable for separating spectral components in a data set large enough to enable an effective usage of statistical methods, in support to the more common approaches to remove the gaseous component. Data collected by imaging spectrometers, such as the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) instrument on board the ESA mission Mars Express (MEx), are particularly suitable for this purpose since it includes in the same session of observation a large number of spectra with different content of aerosols, gases and mineralogy. The methodology presented in this work has been applied to the analysis of OMEGA sessions over Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis regions, which have been already widely studied because of the presence of hydrated minerals. Once the surface reflectance, free from atmospheric contributions, has been obtained, the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) has been applied to spectra showing the hydrated phase. Silicates and iron-bearing hydrated minerals have been identified by means of the electronic transitions of Fe2+ between 0.8-1.2 mu m, while at longer wavelengths the hydrated mineralogy is identified by overtones of the OH group.

  12. Relative Time-scale for Channeling Events Within Chaotic Terrains, Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, D.

    1985-01-01

    A relative time scale for ordering channel and chaos forming events was constructed for areas within the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Transection and superposition relationships of channels, chaotic terrain, and the surfaces surrounding them were used to create the relative time scale; crater density studies were not used. Channels and chaos in contact with one another were treated as systems. These systems were in turn treated both separately (in order to understand internal relationships) and as members of the suite of Martian erosional forms (in order to produce a combined, master time scale). Channeling events associated with chaotic terrain development occurred over an extended geomorphic period. The channels can be divided into three convenient groups: those that pre-date intercrater plains development post-plains, pre-chasma systems; and those associated with the development of the Vallis Marineris chasmata. No correlations with cyclic climatic changes, major geologic events in other regions on Mars, or triggering phenomena (for example, specific impact events) were found.

  13. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  14. Sulfate Formation From Acid-Weathered Phylosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Most phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during the planet's earliest Noachian era, then Mars underwent a global change making the planet's surface more acidic [e.g. 1]. Prevailing acidic conditions may have affected the already existing phyllosilicates, resulting in the formation of sulfates. Both sulfates and phyllosilicates have been identified on Mars in a variety of geologic settings [2] but only in a handful of sites are these minerals found in close spatial proximity to each other, including Mawrth Vallis [3,4] and Gale Crater [5]. While sulfate formation from the acidic weathering of basalts is well documented in the literature [6,7], few experimental studies investigate sulfate formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates [8-10]. The purpose of this study is to characterize the al-teration products of acid-weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments. We focus on three commonly identified phyllosilicates on Mars: nontronite (Fe-smectite), saponite (Mg-smectite), and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1, and references therein]. This information will help constrain the formation processes of sulfates observed in close association with phyllosilicates on Mars and provide a better understanding of the aqueous history of such regions as well as the planet as a whole.

  15. Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the Apollinaris Patera Region of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the 80-km-wide central caldera of Apollinaris, a plume of young flows extending south down the flank of the volcano, a cliff and chaotic terrain west of the volcano, and the surrounding younger deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation (north and east). A patera (Latin for shallow dish or saucer) is a volcano of broad areal extent with little vertical relief. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 12 degrees S. to 6 degrees S. and from longitude 182 degrees to 189 degrees; Mercator projection. Apollinaris Patera is an isolated volcano (about 400 km across) lying on the Martian highlands just north of Gusev impact crater and the termination of Ma'adim Vallis. After the main edifice was built, eruption continued on the volcano's southern flank to form a broad ridge overlapping the original shield. Breakdown of ice-rich materials formed chaos on its western edge. Finally the friable materials (possible ash?) of the Medusae Fossae Fm were deposited.

  16. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  17. Above-threshold ionization in two electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardfield, Rina Shoshana

    1997-11-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) is a process in which a target atom absorbs more than the minimum number of photons from an applied electromagnetic field than are required for ionization, and is characterized by several peaks in the photoelectron spectrum which are separated from each other by the energy of a single photon (Agostini et al. 1979). The experiments of interest in this work involve ATI at microwave frequencies (Gallagher 1988, Gallagher and Scholz 1989), where the frequency of the field is too low to be able to see individual peaks in the spectrum. What is seen is that, in the presence of a weak assisting field, a very large number of microwave photons are absorbed. This problem cannot be treated using standard methods, due both to the intensity of the microwave field and to the large numbers of photons absorbed. The focus of this work is on the development of new analytical techniques to examine the interaction of an atomic system with two simultaneous electromagnetic fields. Specifically, the work focuses on above-threshold ionization in combined microwave and laser fields, where the microwave field is a very strong, very low frequency field, so that standard techniques, such as perturbation theory, do not apply. The work is based on two theoretical methods especially designed for use in intense field problems. These are the Strong Field Approximation (SFA) (Reiss 1980, 1992, 1996), which describes the ionization of an atom by an intense field in which the detached electron remains free in the field after ionization occurs, and the Momentum Translation Approximation (MTA) (Reiss 1970a, 1970b, 1989), which describes the dressing of a bound atomic state by a strong field in which the field can alter the state of the electron without necessarily causing transitions. The laser field, which is much weaker, is treated by traditional techniques. The theory is developed in general terms using S-matrix methods, with particular cases being modeled using

  18. Premolar microwear and tooth use in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Delezene, Lucas K; Zolnierz, Melissa S; Teaford, Mark F; Kimbel, William H; Grine, Frederick E; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    The mandibular third premolar (P3) of Australopithecus afarensis is notable for extensive morphological variability (e.g., metaconid presence/absence, closure of the anterior fovea, root number) and temporal trends in crown length and shape change over its 700 Ka time range. Hominins preceding A. afarensis have unicuspid, mesiodistally elongated P3s with smaller talonids, and subsequent australopiths have bicuspid, more symmetrically-shaped P3 crowns with expanded talonids. For these features, A. afarensis is intermediate and, thus, evinces the incipient stages of P3 molarization. Here, we examine A. afarensis P3 Phase II microwear and compare it with that of Australopithecus africanus and Cercocebus atys, an extant hard-object specialist, to assess whether the role of the P3 in food processing changed over time in A. afarensis. Premolar Phase II microwear textures are also compared with those of the molars to look for evidence of functional differentiation along the tooth row (i.e., that foods with different mechanical properties were processed by separate regions of the postcanine battery). Microwear textures were also examined along the mesial protoconid crest, the site of occlusion with the maxillary canine, of the A. afarensis P3 and compared with the same region in Pan troglodytes to determine whether microwear can be useful for identifying changes in the occlusal relationship between the P3 and maxillary canine in early Australopithecus. Finally, temporal trends in P3 Phase II and mesial microwear are considered. Results indicate that 1) both the P3 and molar Phase II facets of A. afarensis have less complex microwear textures than in A. africanus or C. atys; 2) A. afarensis P3 and molar Phase II textures differ, though not to the extent seen in taxa that eat hard and tough items; 3) microwear along the A. afarensis mesial protoconid crest is clearly distinct from that of the P. troglodytes, indicating that there is no honing equivalent in A. afarensis; and

  19. Portuguese Participation In The Mars Express/beagle2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. I.; Portuguese Mx Teams

    Three Portuguese groups responded to the European Space Agency (ESA) second an- nouncement of opportunities for the Mars Express Mission. Projects were submitted in the fields Atmosphere and Surface/Atmosphere Interaction, Exobiology and Geologi- cal Evolution. Contacts among the groups revealed large areas of potential interaction and a necessity of active data, methods and analysis interchange. The projects will be executed in the period 2002-2006, and aim to analyse the information that will be conveyed by instruments aboard the Mars Express Orbiter and Beagle 2 Lander. Our combined projects propose to yield seven products: the Mars Orbital Viewer U MOVie U ; an apparent thermal inertia (ATI) map; a high-resolution water stability map; a lithostructural map; a hydrological potential map; a local assessment of poten- tial biomarkers; a geological map of Mars. MOVie will be a virtual-reality addressable map of Mars, based on stereoscopic images from the HSRC camera. The ATI map will draw on data from both the OMEGA (VNIR band) and PFS (NIR/TIR band) instru- ments. This map will enrich the existing atmospheric circulation models and help in the discrimination of lithotypes and hydric potential. One of our main objectives is to address the question whether water release does occur in the present epoch, which will be done by analysing the water vapour content in the low atmosphere. Data ar- riving from Beagle 2 will also be the basis for the assessment of methane contents on low martian atmosphere and soil-adsorbed gases. Atmosphere, soil and rock compo- sition data from the lander will allow for the correction of remotely sensed spectra. Classification will proceed in two phases: first an expert system will evaluate point lithologies from mineral and rock spectra; then those point lithologies will be mapped onto the planetary surface by a self-organising neural network. Mathematical mor- phology operators will also be used to perform the classification of Mars

  20. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in a Miocene oxygen minimum zone, Trinidad, West Indies: A test of the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Coimbra, João C.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2014-10-01

    turnover of both ostracodal and foraminiferal assemblages were compared and contrasted quantitatively using a total assemblage turnover index (ATI) and the paleoenvironmental importance evaluated. The correlated between-sample ATI is for both groups lowest within the OMZ.