Science.gov

Sample records for atis vallis rihards

  1. Vallis Alpes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-17

    A bottleneck at the start of the lunar sinuous rille within Vallis Alpes formed several morphologic features including a lava pond, a breached dam, and an island in the rille in this image captured by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  2. Reull Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-16

    The channels and impact crater rim shown in this THEMIS image provide insight to the forces that have sculpted the surface within the extensive Reull Vallis network. Drainage features and dissected materials observed around and within the impact crater wall demonstrate the erosional and depositional effects of possible fluvial processes. A portion of a possible landslide is also observed within the crater as lobes of material emanate from the crater wall. Reull Vallis is a large and morphologically diverse outflow channel system, and this small view from within demonstrates the combination of mass movement processes that have persisted over an extended time period. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04031

  3. Reull Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-06

    This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a section of Reull Vallis, a major channel that empties into Hellas Planitia. Orbit Number: 58040 Latitude: -39.0604 Longitude: 111.349 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-01-13 17:56 http://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19226.html

  4. Shalbatana Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-25

    The steep sided depression in this image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is Shalbatana Vallis, a channel located in Xanthe Terra. Orbit Number: 61140 Latitude: 6.44703 Longitude: 317.443 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-09-26 00:36 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20100

  5. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  6. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. Scamander Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Scamander Vallis on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by the slightly sinuous gully of Scamander Vallis. The channel begins by dissecting a steep slope of an impact crater wall and abruptly ends about 180 km north of the crater.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 13 degrees N. to 19 degrees N. and from longitude 330 degrees to 332 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The lack of tributaries, fairly straight path, and steep walls of the channel suggest spring sapping as a mode of origin. The abrupt termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  8. Ravi Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    This VIS image is located in Ravi Vallis, a channel running from the highlands of Xanthe Terra to the complex lower elevation Hydraotes Chaos. The tear-drop shaped island near the center of the image indicates fluid flow was from the left to the right side of the image. Orbit Number: 64209 Latitude: 0.0308233 Longitude: 320.437 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-06-04 18:52 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20801

  9. Evros Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small portion of Evros Vallis, an ancient valley located south of the large impact basin, Schiaparelli. In this image, the walls and floor of the valley, as well as the adjacent upland, are all mantled by dust. In addition to the dust mantle, large, windblown ripples occur in low-lying areas, particularly on the valley floor. The ripples, also, have been covered by dust.

    Location near: 12.7oS, 346.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  10. Ravi Vallis Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    This image shows another portion of Ravi Vallis. In this image taken by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, a small crater and the resistant material formed during the impact form a donut on the floor of the valley.

  11. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-31

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Ares Vallis.

  12. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-17

    A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis is seen in the center of this image from NASA Mars Odyssey. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water.

  13. Daga Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-19

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Daga Vallis on Eos Mensa.

  14. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the beginning of Ares Vallis at the edge of Iani Chaos.

  15. Apsus Vallis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, windblown ripples on the floors of channels of the Apsus Vallis system. The fluid responsible for forming the valleys is unknown; it might have been water. No primary landforms, other than the channels themselves, have been preserved in a way that would indicate the nature of the fluid that carved the valleys. Apsus Vallis is located just west of the Elysium volcanic region; the area in the picture is located near 35.5oN, 225.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. Kasei Vallis Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    Except for the loss of its ring of ejecta, the crater at the leading edge of this streamlined island in Kasei Vallis, imaged here by NASA Mars Odyssey, shows no hint of the catastrophic floods that passed by it. Kasei Vallis is one of several major outflow channel systems that were active over 3 billion years ago. The intense floods scoured the landscape, eroding craters and producing streamlined islands. But in a close-up view, the evidence for these floods is not apparent. This true of the most similar terrestrial example, the channeled scablands of eastern Washington which also were formed by a catastrophic flood. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04022

  17. Ares Vallis Polygons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-04

    The jumble of eroded ridges and mesas seen in this NASA Mars Odyssey image occurs within Ares Vallis, one of the largest catastrophic outflow channels on the planet. Floods raged through this channel, pouring out into the Chryse Basin to the north. Close inspection of the THEMIS image reveals polygonal shapes on the floor of the channel system. Polygonal terrain on Mars is fairly common although the variety of forms and scales of the polygons suggests multiple modes of origin. Those in Ares Vallis resemble giant desiccation polygons that form in soils on Earth when a moist layer at depth drys out. While polygons can form in icy soils (permafrost) and even lava flows, their presence in a channel thought to have been carved by flowing water is at least consistent with a mode of origin that involved liquid water. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04019

  18. Aquifers In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Jaumann, R.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with the Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the topo- graphic position of sapping pits and gully heads on the rim of Nirgal Vallis. Hence Nirgal Vallis is understood to be formed by groundwater sapping (1, 2, 3, 4) an aquifer is proposed as water supply. Gullies in the northern rim of Nirgal Vallis as discovered in Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images (5, 6) proof the existence of such an aquifer. Further evidence for sapping in Nirgal Vallis is demonstrated by short hanging tribu- taries with amphitheater-like heads. The basis of these sapping pits defines the con- tact of aquifer to aquiclude during the valley formation. The gully heads are much deeper under the local surface and the correlation of their topographic position with the valley depth indicate the subsidence of the groundwater level following the ver- tical erosion of the valley. This implies the existence of different groundwater tables over time confined by impermeable layers, whereas the gully head level is the most recent groundwater table which still may be erosional active under the conditions of increasing water pressure and ice barrier failure (5). The occurrence of more than one tilted sapping level at different topographic positions which are time-correlated with the erosional notching of the valley, either indicates different aquifers with litholog- ical aquicludes or a climate controlled subsidence of the permafrost layer acting as confining layer. References: (1) Baker et al., 1992, In: Mars, Univ. of Arizona Press. (2) Carr, 1995, JGR 100, 7479. (3) Malin and Carr, 1999, Icarus, 397, 589. (4) Jaumann and Reiss, 2002, LPSC. (5) Malin and Edgett, 2000, Science, 288, 2330. (6) Malin and Edgett, 2001, JGR 106, 23429.

  19. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Ares Vallis. Orbit Number: 4482 Latitude: 6.97956 Longitude: 339.713 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2002-12-18 13:46 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19215

  20. Sapping In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with Viking and Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the three-dimensional structure of the Nirgal Vallis drainage system in order to constrain the formation process. Based on precisely correlated Viking, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) cartographic data (1,2), we have measured morphometric and topologic parameters (3,4,5,6,7) of the valley network. Although there is no single parameter, which unambiguously distinguishes between run-off and sapping, the combination of parameters such as surface dip angle, longitudinal profile, width to depth ratio, drainage density, structural control, valley terminations and bifurcation ratio will constrain the formation process. All topographic based valley network parameters indicate an origin by groundwater sapping processes and headward erosion for Nirgal Vallis and confirms former geomorphologic analyses. The extremely low drainage density of Nirgal Vallis may either be caused by very slow erosion, due to low groundwater supply or arid conditions, or by sequential interruptions of the erosion process due to probable climate changes. (1) Zeitler and Oberst, 1999; JGR, 104, 14051. (2) Hauber et al., 2000, Int. Arch. Photogram. Rem. Sens. XXXIII, 360. (3) Horton, 1945, Geol. Sic. Amer. 56. 275. (4) Strahler, 1964, In: Handbook Appl. Hydrogeol. McGraw Hill. (5) Leopold et al, 1964, In: Fluvial Proc. Geomorph. Freeman (6) Summerfield, 1991, In: Global Geomorph. Longman, Burnt Mill.(7) Ritter et al. 1995, In: Processes Geomorph. Wm.C.Brown Publ..

  1. Mawrth Vallis Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1217 UTC (7:17 a.m. EST) on January 10, 2006, near 25.5 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees west longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Mawrth Vallis is located to the south of Acidalia Planitia and to the east of Tiu Valles. One of the oldest channels on Mars, Mawrth Vallis cuts through the ancient cratered terrain of western Arabia Terra and is part of the Chryse Planitia basin.

    Mawrth Vallis holds special interest to scientist studying Mars. In 2005 the OMEGA spectrometer on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter discovered phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis. Phyllosilicates are a family of hydroxyl (OH) bearing minerals that generally have a flaky or sheet-like structure. These OH-bearing minerals are often the products of water-related chemical alteration, making them good indicators for the presence of liquid water. Clay minerals are part of this family.

    OMEGA's discovery made Mawrth Vallis a prime target for CRISM's higher-resolution instrumentation. The upper left panel in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The gray-scale THEMIS image reveals a variety of light and dark materials shaped by erosion.

    The upper right image is an infrared false-color image taken by CRISM. It reveals the complex, layered nature of these deposits, while the lower three spectral images provide further detail of the region's distinct mineral layers.

    The lower left image reveals two discrete clay units as well as an overlying layer of the material rich in the volcanic mineral pyroxene. The bottom-center image reveals

  2. Mawrth Vallis Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1217 UTC (7:17 a.m. EST) on January 10, 2006, near 25.5 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees west longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Mawrth Vallis is located to the south of Acidalia Planitia and to the east of Tiu Valles. One of the oldest channels on Mars, Mawrth Vallis cuts through the ancient cratered terrain of western Arabia Terra and is part of the Chryse Planitia basin.

    Mawrth Vallis holds special interest to scientist studying Mars. In 2005 the OMEGA spectrometer on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter discovered phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis. Phyllosilicates are a family of hydroxyl (OH) bearing minerals that generally have a flaky or sheet-like structure. These OH-bearing minerals are often the products of water-related chemical alteration, making them good indicators for the presence of liquid water. Clay minerals are part of this family.

    OMEGA's discovery made Mawrth Vallis a prime target for CRISM's higher-resolution instrumentation. The upper left panel in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The gray-scale THEMIS image reveals a variety of light and dark materials shaped by erosion.

    The upper right image is an infrared false-color image taken by CRISM. It reveals the complex, layered nature of these deposits, while the lower three spectral images provide further detail of the region's distinct mineral layers.

    The lower left image reveals two discrete clay units as well as an overlying layer of the material rich in the volcanic mineral pyroxene. The bottom-center image reveals

  3. Lobo Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Lobo Vallis, which is part of the larger Kasei Valles. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43756 Latitude: 27.9304 Longitude: 299.541 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-10-26 04:14 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21015

  4. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  6. Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Color image of Ma'adim Vallis region of Mars; north toward top. Image shows the 600-km-long channel that drained into impact crater Gusev. Crater Gusev is about 160 km in diameter. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 13 degrees S. to 29 degrees S. and from longitude 180 degrees to 188 degrees; Mercator projection. Ma'adim Vallis is cut into the degraded highlands of Mars and has morphologic characteristics of terrestrial river beds, including the well-developed dentritic tributaries that constitute an integrated river system. However, the junction angles between tributaries commonly show a wide variation, which gives the channel system a more random directional pattern than typical terrestrial drainage networks. Topographic contours suggest a large drainage basin once existed for this channel. Gradients for the channel are high, about 0.007, over the central 300 km of its length; this is about two times that of the upper 450 km of the Colorado River. In places, some tributaries are discontinuous, perhaps indicating burial by more recent material. After the channel breaches Gusev it appears to end within the crater. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flow percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  7. Shalbatana/Simud Vallis Junction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-11

    The sinuous channels and streamlined islands at the junction of Shalbatana and Simud Vallis, seen in this NASA Mars Odyssey image, present an erosional history of the catastrophic floods that scoured the Martian surface hundreds of millions of years ago.

  8. A Plateau in Ares Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-15

    This channelized area is near the source region of the huge outflow channel, Ares Vallis. It was at the distal end or long-ways down-river-area where the Pathfinder/Sojourner mission landed on 4 July 1997.

  9. Arabia's Auqakuh Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-477, 8 September 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of southern Auqakuh Vallis in northeastern Arabia Terra. The floor of this ancient valley--which might have been carved by a liquid such as water--is today covered by large, windblown, ripple-like bedforms. The terrain surrounding the valley has been eroded such that only remnants of former craters and layered bedrock remain. The valley was once much deeper, but material of hundreds, if not thousands, of meters thickness has been removed. This picture is located near 28.9oN, 299.9oW; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. Megaripples in Athabasca Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Researchers' goal in taking this image was to look for boulders in the large ripples formed by an ancient catastrophic flood in Mars' Athabasca Vallis. The Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft captured this image on Dec. 25, 2003, with use of an enhanced-resolution technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation.

    The flood-deposited megaripples had been seen in earlier, lower-resolution images from the same camera. They are the only good examples known of ripples formed in a giant catastrophic flood anywhere on Mars. Their presence indicates that large amounts of water poured rapidly through this area, based on resemblance to similar megaripples in catastrophic flood sites on Earth. The ripples in Athabasca Vallis were buried for some period and later exhumed. Strange, round features on top of some of the ripples and the adjacent plains are products of erosion and removal of the overlying layer. Finding boulders in the ripples would help constrain estimates of the power of the floods. However, the image does not show boulders in the ripples, implying either that the rocks that make up these features are smaller than about 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet) in diameter or that the ripple sediments have not been completely exhumed.

    The image covers an area 3 kilometers (2 miles) wide, near 9.5 degrees north latitude and 203.7 degrees west longitude. Pixel size is about 1.5 meters (5 feet) by one-half meter (1.6 feet). North is up and sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

    Mars Global Surveyor is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  12. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  13. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  14. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  15. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 12 July 2002) This image shows another example of an ancient channel in the Arabia Terra region of Mars. As with other channels observed on Mars, the geomorphology of Huo Hsing Vallis is suggestive of, and assumed to have been carved by, running water, although the fluid that flowed through these channels cannot be proven to have been water. This channel cuts through several layers of rocks. These rock layers may be sedimentary, composed of particles of other rocks that have been cemented together somehow, or they may be igneous layers, formed by the repeated eruption of lava (or some combination of sedimentary and igneous layers). The distinctive appearance of this terrain has led to its being described as 'etched'. Because the channel cuts through these rocks, the layered rocks must be older than the channel (see previous discussion of superposition). At the lower left side of the image, several intersecting ridges can be seen. These ridges may be inverted topography, or they may be exposed dikes, which form by linear intrusions of lava into rock underground; dikes are exposed by erosion of the overlying rock. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples in the channel. Wind moving particles of rock forms these ripples perpendicular to the wind direction.

  16. Athabasca Vallis Streamlined 'Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-322, 12 December 2002

    Tremendous floods carved these tear drop-shaped landforms in Athabasca Vallis in the Cerberus region, south of the Elysium volcanoes. The orientation of the streamlined forms indicate that the fluid flowed from the right/upper right toward the left/lower left (from the northeast to the southwest). Similar features occur in central and eastern Washington in the northwestern United States. The examples in Washington formed when massive amounts of water rushed across the landscape, scouring a 'channeled scabland' during the last Ice Age, roughly 12,000-13,000 years ago. The features on Mars are much older; while the absolute age cannot be determined, the small impact craters with rayed ejecta patterns on the flood surfaces indicate it must be much, much older than the flood landscape in Washington. This is a mosaic of six Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired in 1999 through 2002. Illumination is from the left. The mosaic covers an area 11.9 km (7.4 mi) by 13.0 km (8.1 mi). The full-size mosaic has a resolution of 4 meters (13 ft) per pixel.

  17. Ares Vallis Tributary - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-17

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of a tributary channel that empties into Ares Vallis.

  18. The Entrance to Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-07

    In Andy Weir's "The Martian," stranded astronaut Mark Watney drives from the Ares 3 landing site in Acidalia Planitia towards the Ares 4 landing site in Schiaparelli Crater via Mawrth Vallis. This image covers the entrance to Mawrth Vallis. As you can tell, driving over this terrain will be much more difficult than it was depicted in the novel or the movie. The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 58.5 centimeters (19.1 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 176 centimeters (69.2 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21555

  19. Phyllosilicate Deposits in Shalbatana Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Anne E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2011-01-01

    Shalbatana Vallis is an ancient river valley on Mars, the westernmost of the southern Chryse outflow channels. The geologic history of this area has significant implications for understanding Mars' hydrologic and climate history. The highland flood basalts are cut by large collapse depressions, multiple outflow channels, and chaotic terrain. An intravalley paleolake with a depth of over 400 m, in the 125 km diameter Orson Welles crater (Fig. 1) and the adjacent section of Shalbatana Vallis, was deduced from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, evidence of shorelines and the occurrence of fan-delta deposits, including Gilbert-style deltas [1]. A number of CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) images with strong phyllosilicate signatures have been identified throughout the channel and nearby highlands (Fig. 1). A majority of the signatures are concentrated in areas exposed by impact cratering. Since such minerals can form by a variety of different geological processes, such as weathering, burial diagenesis, and hydrothermal alteration [2], the nature of the phyllosilicate deposits in the Shalbatana Vallis region may provide insights into the formation processes that took place and help to place constraints on the early aqueous activity in the region.

  20. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all

  1. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all

  2. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  3. Mars Odyssey All Stars: Ares Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-09

    In Ares Vallis, teardrop mesas extend like pennants behind impact craters, where the raised rocky rims diverted the floods and protected the ground from erosion. This image is from NASA Mars Odyssey, one of an All Star set.

  4. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  5. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  6. MGS Views of Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At 3:08:30 AM on September 21, 1997, the MOC field of view swept across the highland valley network Nirgal Vallis at 28.5oS, 41.6 W. Although the MGS spacecraft was at an altitude of about 400 km (250 miles), the MOC was pointed obliquely across the planet at about 35o, so the distance to Nirgal Vallis was closer to 800 km (500 miles). At that range and viewing angle, the MOC field of view was about 16 km (10 miles) wide, and the resolution was about 9 meters (30 feet) per pixel. The acquired image is 36 km (23 miles) long.

    Five images are shown above:

    (A) is an excerpt from the USGS MDIM, roughly 180 km (112 mile) square. The small box outlines the MOC image acquisition.

    (B) is MOC frame P006_05, shown here at reduced resolution because the full image is almost 7 MBytes in size. Because the MOC acquires its images one line at a time, the cant angle towards the sun-lit portion of the planet, the spacecraft orbital velocity, and the spacecraft rotational velocity combined to significantly distort the image. However, even in this reduced resolution version, dunes can be seen in the canyon and in areas on the upland surface around the canyon.

    (C) shows a portion of P006_05 at the full resolution of the data. This view shows the dunes more clearly, and also illustrates better the distortion introduced by the method of data acquisition.

    (D) shows P006_05 skewed and rotated to the perspective that MOC was viewing at the time the image was taken.

    (E) shows a full-resolution version of a portion of the rotated perspective view.

    Nirgal Vallis is one of a number of canyons called valley networks or runoff channels. Much of the debate concerning the origin of these valleys centers on whether they were formed by water flowing across the surface, or by collapse and upslope erosion associated with groundwater processes. At the resolution of this image, it is just barely possible to discern an interwoven pattern of lines on the highland surrounding the

  7. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  8. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  9. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  10. The Color Wonderland of Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    There is a candidate landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region for the European Space Agency's ExoMars rover, planned to launch in 2020. This is one of the HiRISE images acquired to evaluate this site. Mawrth Vallis has some of the most spectacular color variations seen anywhere on Mars. This color variability is due to a range of hydrated minerals -- water caused alteration of these ancient deposits -- which is why this site is of interest to study the past habitability of Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21029

  11. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  12. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  13. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water FLow?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris is found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 897A32, left), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crown, D. A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Mest, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Three major outflow channel systems (Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Vallis) extend through the cratered highlands and sedimentary plains of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. These valles represent a stage in regional geologic history intermediate to formation of channels and valleys within highland terrains in the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian Epochs and debris aprons and gullies in the Amazonian Period. Dao Vallis, along with its tributary Niger Vallis, extends for ~1200 km from the eastern margin of Hadriaca Patera into Hellas Planitia, where a depositional lobe is observed on the basin floor. The Dao Vallis system (~6-50 km wide) is characterized by two steep-walled source depressions, regions of subsided plains, and prominent central canyons whose walls display gullies with associated depositional aprons covering parts of canyon floors. The present study is designed to utilize MOC images, MOLA topographic data, and THEMIS daytime and nighttime images to evaluate and refine the geologic evolution of Dao Vallis as defined in earlier Viking-based studies. Dao Vallis has previously been interpreted to have formed by collapse of volcanic and sedimentary plains, potentially triggered by volcano-ice interactions in the Martian subsurface. Small channels and lineations parallel to canyon walls provide evidence for surface flow of fluids. Evidence for subsurface flow is present in zones of subsided plains that separate the central canyons of Dao and Niger Valles from their source depressions. Later stages of the geologic history were dominated by mass-wasting from canyon walls, which may have significantly increased canyon width in places. Comparison of MOC, THEMIS, and Viking images suggests a consistency of geologic processes across a range of spatial scales, as evidence for collapse, mass-wasting, and fluvial erosion and deposition is observed in all datasets. The higher spatial resolution of MOC and THEMIS permits a more detailed understanding of Dao Vallis

  15. Nirgal Vallis (Released 27 March 2002)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This THEMIS image shows a sinuous valley network channel with sharp bends cutting across the cratered highlands of the southern hemisphere of Mars. The channel is named Nirgal Vallis, which is from the Babylonian word for 'Mars.' Nirgal Vallis is a channel with a total length of approximately 500 km. It is approximately 6 km wide in this region. Gullies and alluvial deposits discovered by Mars Global Surveyor are clearly visible on the polar-facing (south) wall and floor of Nirgal Vallis. These gullies appear to emanate from a specific layer in the walls. There is a pronounced sparsity of gullies on the equator-ward facing slopes. The gullies have been proposed to have formed by the subsurface release of water. Patches of dunes are also seen on the channel floor, notably along the edges of the channel floor near the canyon walls. There is still debate within the scientific community as to how valley networks themselves form: surface runoff (rainfall/snowmelt) or headward erosion via groundwater sapping. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top.

  16. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  17. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  18. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be... integrated into the uplink transmitter chain in a method that cannot easily be defeated. (c) The ATIS...

  19. Gullies and Bedrock in Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-11

    The gullies in this image are within the valley wall of an ancient channel-Nirgal Vallis-a testament to flowing water in Mars' ancient past. However, the formation of gullies are still the subject of much debate with respect to their formation: "wet" vs. "dry" or even "dry" with the aid of some lubricating fluid. Gullies most commonly form in the steep walls of simple craters. Gullies are common even in cold arctic deserts on Earth (e.g., the Haughton impact structure on Devon Island). This suggests that these provocative features can form on a mostly dry Mars that is only sporadically wet. Regardless, these features bear a remarkable resemblance to flowers, including the blossom, petals, stem, and roots. Can you see it too? http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19294

  20. A Functional Approach to Analyzing Treatments in ATI Reearch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Robert

    A persistent problem in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research has been the need for a better conceptualization of instructional treatments. The concerns are important in the analysis of instructional treatments: the importance of considering the psychological processes called upon by the instructional treatment, and the ecological validity…

  1. A Streamlined Form in Lethe Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    This image shows a portion of Lethe Vallis, an outflow channel that also transported lava. Another investigation of this area (Balme et al., 2011) discovered a repeat pattern of dune-like forms in the channel interpreted as fluvial dunes (or, giant current ripples) which are dunes formed by flowing water. This is one of only a few places on Mars where these pristine-appearing landforms have been identified. The channel formed by catastrophic floods, during which it produced the prominent crater-cored, teardroped-shaped island in the middle. The island has the blunter end pointing upstream and the long tail pointing downstream. Both the island and the fluvial dunes were formed by these extreme floods and their size is an indicator of the enormous discharges required to create them. The margins of the channel also show the terminal front of a pristine lava flow unit that inundated the channel from the south and the dunes show the remnants of another older lava flow. The top of the island displays polygonal patterned ground texture, which is a characteristic of periglacial processes in ice-rich ground. The dark materials from the channel and island walls are probably dark sand being eroded from an underlying horizontal basaltic (lava) layer. The crater at the core of the island has elongated dunes and reticulate dust ridges inside. This single image thus contains features formed by periglacial, volcanic, fluvial, impact, aeolian and mass wasting processes, all in one place. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21039

  2. Biotransformation of 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene derivatives by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Gonzalez, Pedro; Gonzalez-Vallejo, Victoria; Guillermo, Ricardo; Diaz, Luz N

    2010-08-01

    The microbiological transformation of 7alpha,19-dihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi gave 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 7alpha,11beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene and 7alpha,16beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene, while the incubation of 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene afforded 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene and 16beta,17-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atisan-19-al. The biotransformation of 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid gave 6beta-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid, 6beta,16beta,17-trihydroxy-7-oxo-19-nor-ent-atis-4(18)-ene and 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-6-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid.

  3. The Properties of Hrad Vallis are Consistent with Volcanic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The head of the system is marked by a complex set of elongate depressions oriented radially to the central peak of Elysium Mons. The system is relatively simple, consisting of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are mainly 50 to 430 m below adjacent plains, with local channel relief progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the ridged plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Though much of the channel region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or volcanic origin, local exposures of channel floors at Hrad Vallis show features including ridged and platy flows, shear zones, wake forms, and levees. The Hrad Vallis system is widely interpreted as having developed through large aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with the absence of clear deposits of fluvial or diluvial character, the relatively high elevation of the system head, mineralogical evidence that is suggestive of dry Martian conditions over much of the Hesperian and Amazonian, and the absence of realistic analog processes for development of large channel systems through aqueous outbursts from aquifers. Instead, the characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system are consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas of mafic composition. The system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses contextual and morphological properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon and Venus. Development of Hrad Valles is estimated to have involved eruption of approximately 100,000 cubic

  4. Multi-static MIMO along track interferometry (ATI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) has the ability to generate high-quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and concurrently detect and estimate the positions of ground moving target indicators (GMTI) with moderate processing requirements. This paper focuses on several different ATI system configurations, with an emphasis on low-cost configurations employing no active electronic scanned array (AESA). The objective system has two transmit phase centers and four receive phase centers and supports agile adaptive radar behavior. The advantages of multistatic, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) ATI system configurations are explored. The two transmit phase centers can employ a ping-pong configuration to provide the multistatic behavior. For example, they can toggle between an up and down linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform every other pulse. The four receive apertures are considered in simple linear spatial configurations. Simulated examples are examined to understand the trade space and verify the expected results. Finally, actual results are collected with the Space Dynamics Laboratorys (SDL) FlexSAR system in diverse configurations. The theory, as well as the simulated and actual SAR results, are presented and discussed.

  5. Simultaneous SAR and GMTI using ATI/DPCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Best, Matthew; Farrell, Sean

    2014-06-01

    In previous work, we presented GMTI detection and geo-location results from the AFRL Gotcha challenge data set, which was collected using a 3-channel, X-band, circular SAR system. These results were compared against GPS truth for a scripted vehicle target. The algorithm used for this analysis is known as ATI/DPCA, which is a hybrid of along-track interferometry (ATI) and the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technique. In the present paper the use of ATI/DPCA is extended in order to detect and geo-locate all observable moving targets in the Gotcha challenge data, including both the scripted movers and targets of opportunity. In addition, a computationally efficient SAR imaging technique is presented, appropriate for short integration times, which is used for computing an image of the scene of interest using the same pulses of data used for the GMTI processing. The GMTI detections are then overlaid on the SAR image to produce a simultaneous SAR/GMTI map.

  6. ATI SAA Annex 3 Button Tensile Test Report I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out under Splace Act Agreement SAA-EA-10-004 between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Astro Technology Incorpporated (ATI). NASA and ATI have entered into this agreement to collaborate on the development of technologies that can benefit both the US government space programs and the oil and gas industry. The report documents the results of a test done on an adnesive system for attaching new monitoring sensor devices to pipelines under Annex III of SAA-EA-10-004: "Proof-of-Concept Design and Testing of a Post Installed Sensing Device on Subsea Risers and Pipelines". The tasks of Annex III are to design and test a proof-of-concept sensing device for in-situ installation on pipelines, risers, or other structures deployed in deep water. The function of the sensor device is to measure various signals such as strain, stress and temperature. This study complements the work done, in Annex I of the SAA, on attaching a fiber optic sensing device to pipe via adhesive bonding. Both Annex I and Annex III studies were conducted in the Crew and Thermal System Division (CTSD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with ATI.

  7. Resurfacing history of the Harmakhis Vallis channel, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Soile; Kostama, Veli-Petri

    2016-10-01

    Harmakhis Vallis is one of the four major outflow channel systems (Dao, Niger, Harmakhis and Reull Valles) which cut the eastern rim region of the Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure of Mars. The structure of Harmakhis Vallis and the volume of its head depression, as well as the earlier dating studies suggest that the channel formed during the Hesperian period by collapsing when a large amount of subsurface fluids was released. Thus Harmakhis Vallis, as well as the other nearby outflow channels, represent a significant stage of the fluvial activity in the regional history. On the other hand, the channel lies on the Martian mid-latitude zone, where there are several geomorphologic indicators of past and possibly also contemporary ground ice. The floor of Harmakhis also displays evidence of a later-stage ice-related activity as the channel has been covered by lineated valley fill deposits and debris apron material.The eastern rim region of the Hellas impact basin has been the subject of numerous geologic mapping studies at various scales and using different imaging data sets. However, the Harmakhis Vallis channel itself has received less attention, or the studies on the channel have focused only on different geologic events as a separate subject. In this work, we present our mapping and dating results of the Harmakhis Vallis floor based on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's ConTeX camera imagery (CTX; ~5 m/pixel), which covers the entire Harmakhis channel system from its head depression to the beginning of the terminus. The purpose of the study is to outline how the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis channel has been modified after its formation, what kind of geologic processes have occurred on the channel and when, and by doing so, provide further understanding of the channel evolution and changes in the Martian climate. This work also gives information about the crater counting age determination method and its usability in the cases where only high

  8. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, N. V. Fomenko, A. N. Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-17

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  9. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida Ati2 is an effector protein of the type three secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Barbeau, Xavier; Sarty, Darren; Tanaka, Katherine H; Denoncourt, Alix M; Lagüe, Patrick; Reith, Michael E; Charette, Steve J

    2013-09-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, uses the type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject effector proteins into host cells to promote the infection. The study of the genome of A. salmonicida has revealed the existence of Ati2, a potential TTSS effector protein. In the present study, a structure-function analysis of Ati2 has been done to determine its role in the virulence of A. salmonicida. Biochemical assays revealed that Ati2 is secreted into the medium in a TTSS-dependent manner. Protein sequence analyses, molecular modelling and biochemical assays demonstrated that Ati2 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in a way similar to VPA0450, a protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus having high sequence similarity with Ati2. Mutants of Ati2 with altered amino acids at two different locations in the catalytic site displayed no phosphatase activity. Wild-type and mutant forms of Ati2 were cloned into expression systems for Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil amoeba used as an alternative host to study A. salmonicida virulence. Expression tests allowed us to demonstrate that Ati2 is toxic for the host cell in a catalytic-dependent manner. Finally, this study demonstrated the existence of a new TTSS effector protein in A. salmonicida.

  11. Along Track Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ATI-SAR) Techniques for Ground Moving Target Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Conventional along track interferometric synthetic aperature radar , ATI-SAR, approaches can detect...House, Inc., Norwood, MA, 1995. [14] R. Bamler and P. Hartl, " Synthetic aperture radar interferometry," Inverse Problems, vol. 14, R1-R54, 1998. [15... SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (ATI-SAR) TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND MOVING TARGET DETECTION Stiefvater Consultants

  12. Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys).

    PubMed

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and 'jackpot'-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal-Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys.

  13. Positive Reinforcement Training to Enhance the Voluntary Movement of Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys)

    PubMed Central

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and ‘jackpot’-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal–Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys. PMID:19383217

  14. Hydrated Silica at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Past Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Cuadros, J.; Hillier, S.; Parente, M.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrated silica has been identified in many outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region [1-3] often mixed with Al-bearing phyllosilicates such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. To determine which form of hydrated silica could be mixed with the Al-phyllosilicates at Mawrth Vallis, spectra of intimate mineral mixtures were measured in the lab and compared to CRISM spectra (figure 1). The mixtures considered were: kaolinite-opal-A, kaolinite-montmorillonite, montmorillonite-obsidian, montmorillonite-hydrated silica (opal), and glass-illite-smectite. The best spectral matches with Martian data from our lab experiments are mixtures of montmorillonite and obsidian having 20 to 50 % montmorillonite or mixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite with 25 to 50 % kaolinite. The spectra of clay mixtures with opal and of hydrothermally altered glass-illite-smectite did not represent as well the Martian spectra observed in this region. This suggests that a cryptocrystalline (obsidian) or crystalline form of hydrated silica is present at Mawrth Vallis rather than an amorphous form (opal-A) which has been identified elsewhere on Mars [e.g. 4]. References: [1] Bishop, J. L. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2] McKeown, N. K. et al. (2009) JGR- Planets, 114, E00D10. [3] Noe Dobrea, E. Z. et al. (2010) JGR- Planets, 115, E00D19. [4] Milliken, R. E. et al. (2008) Geology, 36, 847-850. Figure 1 (left) Spectra of montmorillonite-obsidian mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from FRT0000848D. (right) Spectra of kaolinite-montmorillonite and kaolinite-SiOH (opal-A) mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from HRL000043EC and FRT0000848D.

  15. Emplacement Scenarios for Vallis Schroteri, Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schr teri are not well understood. Vallis Schr teri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schr teri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from fl ows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu u O o in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet fl ow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet fl ow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overfl ow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overfl ow, and redirection of the lava fl ow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy.

  16. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  17. A View of the Painted Desert Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-07

    The clay-rich terrain surrounding Mawrth Vallis is one of the most scenic regions of Mars, a future interplanetary park, as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Here, we cut a long, oblique view into strips to see the full color coverage in more compact form. The origin of these altered layers is the subject of continued debates, perhaps to be resolved by a future rover on the surface. We do know that these layers are very ancient, dating back to a time when the environment of Mars was wetter and more habitable, if there were any inhabitants. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21871

  18. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold.

    The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green.

    The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  19. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  20. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold.

    The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green.

    The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  1. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights from Licus Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    We study the geomorphology of Licus Vallis, a large paleolake outlet valley, and its tributary valleys. We conclude that overflow flooding outpaced tributary erosion, pointing to the importance of lake overflow floods in martian landscape evolution.

  2. Retrieval of Single Scattering Albedo Spectra for Mawrth Vallis Using CRISM Along-Track Oversampled Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fraeman, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    We use radiative transfer modeling to retrieve single scattering albedos from CRISM ATO scenes of Mawrth Vallis. Spectra are indicative of smectites. Radiance coefficients and lab spectra are used to evaluate mineralogy and relative abundances.

  3. Phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis: Implications for a Past Aqueous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Parente, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Bibring, J.; Silver, E.

    2008-12-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains the largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars, as observed by OMEGA and CRISM. OMEGA identified nontronite and montmorillonite as the most common phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis region, and CRISM has confirmed and refined this observation with the further identification of kaolinite and hydrated silica [1-3]. In addition, saponite has been identified in one image within a crater. Two main phyllosilicate units occur in the Mawrth Vallis region: the lowermost unit is nontronite-bearing and is unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate-bearing unit composed of montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top. These two units are capped by a spectrally- unremarkable unit [4, 5]. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1-2 μm, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This component could be ferrous olivine, troilite/phyrrhotite, or glauconite, for example, and indicates either rapid deposition or reducing conditions, sometimes supplied on Earth by microorganisms. Each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified form only under hydrolytic conditions, indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian. It is likely the two units formed by separate events; however, the processes are similar so we address them together. The large areal extent, stratigraphy, mineralogy, and observed layering of the two primary units suggest that they may be formed in a manner similar to bentonite: volcanic ash of different composition deposited into a body of water and then altered. This suggests the presence of a stable ground water table and extensive volcanism near Mawrth Vallis in order to produce the volume of phyllosilicates observed here. Other potential formational processes include: i) sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin, ii) pedogenesis, or iii) hydrothermal alteration due to an overlying hot

  4. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  5. Polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, Rene A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of apparently genetically related landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars is examined. It is found that the outer valley of Hrad and the neighboring valley are composite features formed by karst or thermokarst processes and the growth and coalescence of smaller fault-aligned depressions. The materials in the vicinity may be soluble carbonates or sulfates or clay-rich sediment subject to thixotropic collapse. Water circulating within fault and fissure systems removed materials or altered the stability of materials to allow formation of steep-sided depressions. After the emplacement of surface materials in early Amazonian time, water was probably discharged to the surface. Isolate topographic depressions probably formed synchronously with the early release of water. Open lakes may have existed for a time.

  6. Spontaneous gastric carcinomas in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Cohen, Joyce K; Paul, Katherine S; Courtney, Cynthia L; Johnson, Zachary P; Anderson, Daniel C

    2011-12-01

    Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are native to West Africa and are a natural host of SIV, which is implicated in the origin of HIV2. They have been used in studies of AIDS pathogenesis, leprosy, immune responses, reproductive biology, and behavior. Spontaneous tumors have rarely been reported in this species. However, we noted spontaneous gastric carcinomas in 8 sooty mangabeys. Four male and 4 female mangabeys had mild to severe chronic weight loss, with abdominal distention in 5 of 8 animals. At necropsy, 7 of the 8 mangabeys had prominent large ulcerated masses with severe, diffuse thickening of the pyloric wall at or near the gastric-duodenal junction, which often partially occluded the gastric lumen. Early carcinoma was an incidental finding in one mangabey. Histologically, all of the tumors were classified as adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas were noncircumscribed with infiltrates of neoplastic epithelial cells, often arranged in acini. In 3 mangabeys, these infiltrates were transmural and invaded surrounding tissue locally. The adenocarcinomas were locally invasive, with metastasis to regional lymph nodes in 2 animals, but widespread metastasis was not seen. Anisocytosis, anisokaryosis, and high mitotic rates were seen in all 8 tumors. In the samples available, serology and Steiner stain did not detect Helicobacter, and immunohistochemistry failed to reveal Helicobacter or Epstein-Barr virus, 2 potential causes for human gastric carcinomas.

  7. Phyllosilicate Stratigraphy near Mawrth Vallis, Mars: New Insights from Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James; Squyres, S. W.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Kirk, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals were first identified on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer on board Mars Express [1,2]. On Earth, these minerals form most commonly through prolonged interactions between rock and water, so their presence on Mars may have significant implications for the planet's aqueous history. In finely layered outcrops surrounding the ancient outflow channel Mawrth Vallis, OMEGA found two compositionally distinct types of phyllosilicates. With the higher-resolution view afforded by CRISM and HiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we find that these different minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable source of sediment for this location during the Noachian era. A layered unit containing Al-rich phyllosilicates overlies the most extensive of at least two units rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates; in places, these are separated by another unit containing hydrated material of unknown mineralogy. All units are fractured into blocks ranging from decimeters to over a hundred meters across, and the morphology and scale of fractures correlates with the compositional stratigraphy. The lateral continuity of these stratigraphic units over scales exceeding 100 km and the uniformity (at CRISM resolution) of hydrated mineral signatures within each unit suggest that alteration occurred prior to sedimentary emplacement at this site. We use topographic data from HiRISE and the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express to aid in regional stratigraphic correlations and improve our understanding of the three-dimensional geometries of the phyllosilicate-rich layers. The layer geometries provide constraints on the timing of sedimentary deposition in Mawrth Vallis. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F. et al. (2005) Nature 438, 623-627.

  8. Fluvial morphology of Naktong Vallis, Mars: A late activity with multiple processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.; Masson, Ph.; Neukum, G.

    2009-07-01

    The morphology of fluvial valleys on Mars provides insight into surface and subsurface hydrology, as well as to Mars' past climate. In this study, Naktong Vallis and its tributaries were examined from high-resolution stereoscopic camera (HRSC) images, thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) daytime IR images, and mars orbiter laser altimeter (MOLA) data. Naktong Vallis is the southern part of a very large fluvial basin composed by Mamers, Scamander, and Naktong Vallis with a total length of 4700 km, and is one of the largest fluvial system on Mars. Naktong Vallis incised along its path a series of smooth intercrater plains. Naktong's main valley cut smooth plains during the Early Hesperian period, estimated ˜3.6-3.7 Gyr, implying a young age for the valley when compared to usual Noachian-aged valley networks. Branching valleys located in degraded terrains south of the main Naktong valley have sources inside a large plateau located at more than 2000 m elevation. Connections between these valleys and Naktong Vallis have been erased by the superimposition of late intercrater plains of Early to Late Hesperian age, but it is likely that this plateau represents the main source of water. Small re-incisions of these late plains show that there was at least one local reactivation. In addition, valley heads are often amphitheatre-shaped. Despite the possibility of subsurface flows, the occurrence of many branching valleys upstream of Naktong's main valley indicate that runoff may have played an important role in Naktong Vallis network formation. The importance of erosional landforms in the Naktong Vallis network indicates that fluvial activity was important and not necessarily lower in the Early Hesperian epoch than during the Noachian period. The relationships between overland flows and sapping features suggest a strong link between the two processes, rather than a progressive shift from surface to subsurface flow.

  9. Supernovae candidates Gaia17aty, Gaia17atz and Gaia17aud confirmed by Euler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Saesen, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2017-04-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts supernovae candidates Gaia17aty, Gaia17atz and Gaia17aud. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2017 March 29th - 30th.

  10. QUADrATiC: scalable gene expression connectivity mapping for repurposing FDA-approved therapeutics.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Paul G; Wen, Qing; Bankhead, Peter; Dunne, Philip D; McArt, Darragh G; McPherson, Suzanne; Hamilton, Peter W; Mills, Ken I; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2016-05-04

    Gene expression connectivity mapping has proven to be a powerful and flexible tool for research. Its application has been shown in a broad range of research topics, most commonly as a means of identifying potential small molecule compounds, which may be further investigated as candidates for repurposing to treat diseases. The public release of voluminous data from the Library of Integrated Cellular Signatures (LINCS) programme further enhanced the utilities and potentials of gene expression connectivity mapping in biomedicine. We describe QUADrATiC ( http://go.qub.ac.uk/QUADrATiC ), a user-friendly tool for the exploration of gene expression connectivity on the subset of the LINCS data set corresponding to FDA-approved small molecule compounds. It enables the identification of compounds for repurposing therapeutic potentials. The software is designed to cope with the increased volume of data over existing tools, by taking advantage of multicore computing architectures to provide a scalable solution, which may be installed and operated on a range of computers, from laptops to servers. This scalability is provided by the use of the modern concurrent programming paradigm provided by the Akka framework. The QUADrATiC Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed using advanced Javascript frameworks, providing novel visualization capabilities for further analysis of connections. There is also a web services interface, allowing integration with other programs or scripts. QUADrATiC has been shown to provide an improvement over existing connectivity map software, in terms of scope (based on the LINCS data set), applicability (using FDA-approved compounds), usability and speed. It offers potential to biological researchers to analyze transcriptional data and generate potential therapeutics for focussed study in the lab. QUADrATiC represents a step change in the process of investigating gene expression connectivity and provides more biologically-relevant results than

  11. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Kevin L.; Ramalingam, Mysore L.; Young, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI ``driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C24Cs→2C36Cs+Cs(g) equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE.

  12. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Chronology of deposition and alteration in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Werner, S. C.; Mangold, N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Vago, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mawrth Vallis area displays some of the largest and most altered phyllosilicate-rich outcrops. Mawrth Vallis is located just at the dichotomy boundary between the Noachian highlands and the younger, northern lowlands. A large, thick, layered clay-rich unit is present throughout the inter-crater plateaus. Additional clay-rich layers are also observed in parts of the Mawrth Vallis and the nearby Oyama crater floors. The main clay-unit displays a complex deposition and alteration history. The alteration took place before or during the layers deposition, with probable leaching after the deposition, fluid circulation through large veins, and some sulfate deposits. The surface of the clay unit has also been eroded by water activity. Determining the age of the alteration and its relationships with other processes, such as fluvial activity, is fundamental for establishing the timing of aqueous activity in this region, and on Mars. We have investigated the ages of the regional plateau, of key surfaces of the inter-crater plateau, of the Oyama crater's floor, and of Chryse Planitia deposits in the Mawrth Vallis mouth to constrain the age of the clay unit and its alteration. According to the cratering model results, the main layered unit on the plateaus of Mawrth Vallis was deposited prior to 3.8 Ga ago, and suffered erosion and redeposition, in Oyama crater and possibly in Mawrth Vallis. Surface alteration stopped no later than 3.7 to 3.6 Ga ago, which is the age of the dark, non-altered material capping the region, and of the dark deposits in Mawrth Vallis mouth. This work provides useful boundaries for constraining the time period of water activity in this region: alteration was possible until the late Noachian, but stopped at the surface at the transition with the Hesperian. It may indicate more globally that later clay deposits on Mars were altered before the Hesperian and reworked, or altered underground, in more local environments. This preserved window into early

  14. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Chronology of deposition and alteration in the Mawrth Vallis region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Werner, S. C.; Mangold, N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Vago, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis area displays some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops of Mars, on Noachian highlands. The Mawrth Vallis region is located just at the dichotomy boundary between the Noachian highlands and the younger, northern lowlands. A large, thick, layered clay-rich unit is present throughout the inter-crater plateaus. Clay-rich layers have also been identified in parts of the Mawrth Vallis and Oyama crater floors. The age of the alteration and its relationships with other processes such as fluvial activity is fundamental for estimating the timing of aqueous activity and habitability in this region, and on Mars. We have investigated the relative stratigraphy and ages of the regional plateau, of key surfaces of the inter-crater plateau, of Oyama crater's floor and of Chryse Planitia deposits in Mawrth Vallis' mouth to constrain the age of the clay unit and its alteration. According to the cratering model results, the main layered unit may have started forming prior to ˜4.0 Ga ago, was largely deposited by ˜3.9 Ga ago, and suffered erosion and redeposition up to ˜3.8 Ga ago, as indicated by the latest age of the deposits on the floor of Oyama crater. Surface aqueous alteration stopped no later than 3.7-3.6 Ga ago, corresponding to the age of the dark, non-altered material capping the region, and of the dark deposits in Mawrth Vallis' mouth. This work provides useful boundaries for constraining the time period of surface or shallow sub-surface water activity in this region. This preserved window into early phases of aqueous activity on Mars gives us a unique opportunity to study an aqueous environment of exobiological interest in the early solar system.

  16. Thermal and Mechanical Erosion by Low-Viscosity Lava Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northwestern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The system consists of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are typically 50 to 200 m below adjacent plains, with channel depths progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Problematically, much of the Hrad Vallis region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or other origin, concealing features of interest. Nevertheless, local exposures of channel floors show landforms including shear zones, longitudinal ridges, and wake forms. Adjacent upland plains show abundant evidence for the past emplacement of lobate-margined overflow deposits. The Hrad Vallis system has been previously interpreted as having developed through catastrophic aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with observations made in this study, including the absence of deposits of clear fluvial or diluvial character. Characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system appear instead to be most consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas. Specifically, the system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon, Venus, and Mercury. Crude thermal estimates suggest that Hrad Vallis could have been formed through effusion of as little as ~10,000 cubic kilometers of magma. Despite the widespread presence at Hrad Vallis of channel slopes of less than 0.1 degrees, daily incision rates of tens of centimeters to several meters are estimated for mechanical and thermal erosion processes

  17. Effect of Coulomb attraction on low-energy structure of ATI spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Dmitry; Chu, Shih-I.

    2011-05-01

    Recent experimental observations of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of rare gas atoms and diatomic molecules by mid-infrared laser fields revealed a prominent maximum in the electron energy spectrum very close to the ionization threshold. This low-energy structure (LES) cannot be reproduced by the widely used Keldysh- Faisal-Reiss theories. We have performed a theoretical analysis and fully ab initio precision calculations for the hydrogen atom. Our results show that LES is related to the effect of Coulomb attraction in the final state of the electron. The probability density of slow electrons is condensed in the vicinity of the nucleus favoring the ionization process. As a result, the ATI electron energy spectrum increases when approaching the threshold. Our numerical data on the hydrogen atom show a maximum in the energy distribution close to the threshold, similar to the low-energy structure revealed by the experiments. This work was partially supported by DOE and NSF.

  18. Hard-Object Feeding in Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and Interpretation of Early Hominin Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott; Ungar, Peter S.; Pampush, James D.; Vick, Anna E.; Bitty, E. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  19. Compositional stratigraphy of clay-bearing layered deposits at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Mustard, J.F.; Kirk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Phyllosilicates have previously been detected in layered outcrops in and around the Martian outflow channel Mawrth Vallis. CRISM spectra of these outcrops exhibit features diagnostic of kaolinite, montmorillonite, and Fe/Mg-rich smectites, along with crystalline ferric oxide minerals such as hematite. These minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable sediment source for these layered deposits. Similar stratigraphic sequences occur on both sides of the outflow channel and on its floor, with Al-clay-bearing layers typically overlying Fe/Mg-clay-bearing layers. This pattern, combined with layer geometries measured using topographic data from HiRISE and HRSC, suggests that the Al-clay-bearing horizons at Mawrth Vallis postdate the outflow channel and may represent a later sedimentary or altered pyroclastic deposit that drapes the topography. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Digital Elevation Models Aid the Analysis of Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C.; Garbeil, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars (33.0o - 35.5oN, 216o - 218oW), which suggest that this area was covered by an ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Using digital elevation models derived from High Resolution Imaging Science (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data, a reexamination of the area reveals a complex history including flow inflation and topographic control by transient topographic barriers. Among Amazonian-age outflow channels, Hrad Vallis is exceptional as it exhibits good evidence of magma/water interactions. It is inferred to have formed in association with a shallow igneous sill that melted part of the martian cryosphere and/or released water from an extensive aquifer to produce enormous lahar-like mud flows. Exposed ~30 m high dikes, 20 m high eroded mounds, and flow paths that are inconsistent with present-day topographic gradients, lead us to speculate that this area was covered by at least ~40 m of material (eolian deposits or ice) at the time of volcanic dike intrusion and flow emplacement. This material was subsequently removed leaving no clear morphologic signs (e.g., wind streaks, if eolian material; moraines, if ice). We favor the ice model because if this area was once ice-covered, it offers a plausible mode of formation (as pingoes) for some enigmatic 30 m high domes in the vicinity. At least one 120 km long flow from Hrad Vallis was emplaced as a pahoehoe-like flow that was confined by topographic obstacles and subsequently inflated to thickness of ~45 m. Although the direct relationship between this flow and Hrad Vallis remains to be determined, the inflated flow suggests a longer period of eruption/emplacement at a slower effusion rate than was previously believed.

  1. Geomorphological analysis of Ares Vallis (Mars) by using HRSC (MEX) data: catastrophic floods and glacial morphologies .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, A.; Ori, G. G.; Komatsu, G.; Pondrelli, M.

    Ares Vallis is one of the largest outflow channels of Mars. Aim of our work is a geomorphological analysis of the trough by using high-resolution images. We utilise principally the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, onboard Mars Express (ESA). Images have been processed in order to obtain stereo-derived Digital Terrain Models (DEMs). HRSC images and DEMs, together with high-resolution images of different Martian missions (MGS, and 2001 Odyssey) are successively visualised by using a GIS software, and a three-dimensional analysis have been performed.We analysed morphologies indicating catastrophic flood processes and others indicating glacial and periglacial processes. Geological properties and geometrical relationships of these features are here presented. Geomorphological analyses provide new constrains about Martian catastrophic flood processes and their possible minimum and maximum depths, and allow us to present more detailed hypotheses about the geological evolution of the investigated area. Catastrophic floods sculpting Ares Vallis appear to have been multiple and scattered in time: periods of time separating different floods could have been hundreds to thousands of years. Geomorphological evidences show that ice masses formed on top of catastrophic floods, and that successively grounded, forming dead-ice masses. Such dead-ice masses played a foundamental role on the evolution of the Ares Valls landscape, leading to the formation of prominent kame-like features. A few portions of the ice masses infilling Ares Vallis could have been buried and therefore preserved for long time (maybe until the present time).

  2. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars,and Associated Paleolake Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually

  3. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, and associated paleolake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-12-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleolake located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gusev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis comes from the following characteristics: (1) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the ~1.1 M km2 enclosed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural control is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant ~5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tributary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of bends in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar ~200 m in height, and a step-pool sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 × 106 m3/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up longitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary development. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial divide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping, highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief (~1 km) and slope (~0.5-1.5°) among degraded Martian craters, which are usually flat-floored. Long-term, fluvial sediment transport appears to have been inhibited within these craters

  4. Microstructural Analyses of ATI 718Plus® Produced by Wire-ARC Additive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Khan, A. K.; Andersson, J.; Ojo, O. A.

    2017-06-01

    A detailed microstructural study of ATI 718Plus superalloy produced by the wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process was performed through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Extensive formation of eutectic solidification microconstituents including Laves and MC-type carbide phases, induced by micro-segregation, are observed in the build of the alloy in the as-deposited condition. Notwithstanding the significant segregation of niobium (Nb), which has been reported to promote the formation of the δ-phase in ATI 718Plus, only η-phase particles are observed in the deposit. Excessive precipitation of η-phase particles is found to be linked to Laves phase particles that are partially dissolved in the deposit after post-deposition heat treatment (PDHT). The EBSD analysis shows a high textured build in the <100> directions with only a few misoriented grains at the substrate-deposit boundary and the top of the deposit. Investigation on the hardness of the build of the alloy, in the as-deposited condition, showed a softened zone about 2 mm wide at the deposited metal heat affected zone (DMHAZ), which has not been previously reported and potentially damaging to the mechanical properties. An extensive analysis with the use of both microstructural characterization tools and theoretical calculations shows that the DMHAZ has the lowest volume fraction of strengthening precipitates (γ' and γ″) in terms of their number density, which therefore induces the observed softness. Delayed re-precipitation kinetics and the extent of the precipitation of γ' and γ″ in the DMHAZ which is related to the diffusion of segregated solute elements from the interdendritic regions are attributed to this phenomenon. The microstructural analyses discussed in this work are vital to adequate understanding of properties of ATI 718Plus produced by the

  5. Microstructural Analyses of ATI 718Plus® Produced by Wire-ARC Additive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Khan, A. K.; Andersson, J.; Ojo, O. A.

    2017-09-01

    A detailed microstructural study of ATI 718Plus superalloy produced by the wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process was performed through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Extensive formation of eutectic solidification microconstituents including Laves and MC-type carbide phases, induced by micro-segregation, are observed in the build of the alloy in the as-deposited condition. Notwithstanding the significant segregation of niobium (Nb), which has been reported to promote the formation of the δ-phase in ATI 718Plus, only η-phase particles are observed in the deposit. Excessive precipitation of η-phase particles is found to be linked to Laves phase particles that are partially dissolved in the deposit after post-deposition heat treatment (PDHT). The EBSD analysis shows a high textured build in the 〈100〉 directions with only a few misoriented grains at the substrate-deposit boundary and the top of the deposit. Investigation on the hardness of the build of the alloy, in the as-deposited condition, showed a softened zone about 2 mm wide at the deposited metal heat affected zone (DMHAZ), which has not been previously reported and potentially damaging to the mechanical properties. An extensive analysis with the use of both microstructural characterization tools and theoretical calculations shows that the DMHAZ has the lowest volume fraction of strengthening precipitates ( γ' and γ″) in terms of their number density, which therefore induces the observed softness. Delayed re-precipitation kinetics and the extent of the precipitation of γ' and γ″ in the DMHAZ which is related to the diffusion of segregated solute elements from the interdendritic regions are attributed to this phenomenon. The microstructural analyses discussed in this work are vital to adequate understanding of properties of ATI 718Plus produced by the

  6. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  7. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  8. The ATI score (Age-Thrombotic burden-Index of microcirculatory resistance) determined during primary percutaneous coronary intervention predicts final infarct size in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: a cardiac magnetic resonance validation study.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Alkhalil, Mohammad; Wolfrum, Mathias; Fahrni, Gregor; Borlotti, Alessandra; Gaughran, Lisa; Dawkins, Sam; Langrish, Jeremy; Lucking, Andrew; Choudhury, Robin; Porto, Italo; Crea, Filippo; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Channon, Keith; Kharbanda, Rajesh; Banning, Adrian

    2017-06-27

    The age-thrombus score-index of microcirculatory resistance (ATI) score is a diagnostic tool able to predict suboptimal myocardial reperfusion before stenting, in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to validate the ATI score against cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). The ATI score was calculated prospectively in 80 STEMI patients. cMRI was performed within 48 hours in all patients and in 50 patients at six months follow up to assess the extent of infarct size (IS%) and microvascular obstruction (MVO%). The ATI score was calculated using Age ( >50 = 1 point), pre-stenting index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) (>40 and <100 = 1 point; ≥100 = 2 points) and angiographic thrombus score (4=1 point; 5=3 points). ATI score was closely related to final IS% (ATI0-1: 16.5% [8.7 - 22.9], ATI2-3: 28.5% [15.5 - 35.0], ATI4-5-6: 35.5% [22.2 - 44.4], p: 0.001) and with MVO% (ATI0-1: 0.0% [0.0-0.9], ATI2-3: 0.7% [0.0-2.5] and ATI4-5-6: 4.1% [1.2-10.7], p< 0.001). Furthermore, ATI score predicted final IS% at six months follow up (ATI0-1: 12.7% [4.1 - 18.0], ATI2-3-: 16.30% [8.0 - 24.7], ATI4-5-6: 29.5% [19.9 - 49.5], p: 0.02). The ATI score performed prior to stenting in patients with STEMI, can predict the likelihood of MVO% and IS% both acutely and at six months follow up cMRI.

  9. Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-11-01

    Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris.

  10. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, J.L.; Dobrea, E.Z.N.; McKeown, N.K.; Parente, M.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Michalski, J.R.; Milliken, R.E.; Poulet, F.; Swayze, G.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  11. Evidence for a changing Martian climate from the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2016-08-01

    Layered outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars contain the greatest diversity of aqueous alteration products on the planet, and these materials are used to infer past aqueous environments. Orbital investigations indicate Al/Si-rich clay-bearing units overly an Fe/Mg-smectite-rich unit. Many different secondary minerals have been identified in the upper Al/Si-rich clay units, but the presence of poorly crystalline phases has not been previously investigated. Identification of ∼10-30% allophane and imogolite in the clay-bearing units resolves previous mineralogical discrepancies between TES and CRISM of clay-bearing units on Mars. We demonstrate here that the poorly crystalline aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite comprise a significant portion of the uppermost stratum of the Al/Si-clay-rich units. These phases are unique to immature soils derived from volcanic ash in well-drained, mildly acidic environments on Earth, and we hypothesize that the deposits discovered here originate from supervolcanic activity in nearby Arabia Terra. The transition through time from smectite-bearing units to the uppermost allophane/imogolite unit in Mawrth Vallis signifies a change in climate from a warm and wet environment to one where water was sporadic and likely depleted rapidly.

  12. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  13. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  14. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Janice L; Dobrea, Eldar Z Noe; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Michalski, Joseph R; Milliken, Ralph E; Poulet, Francois; Swayze, Gregg A; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2008-08-08

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  15. Automated thermal impedance scanning (ATIS) system for NDE (nondestructive examination) of coatings on turbine engine parts

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Voyles, J.W.; Prati, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings have been gaining increased application throughout industry in recent years. The quality of the coating-to-substrate bond is of prime importance in many of these applications. This paper describes an Automatic Thermal Impedance Scanning (ATIS) system to provide completely automatic nondestructive examination (NDE) for thermal spray coating bonds in turbine engine parts. This system is being installed as part of an experimental automated production facility at the Teledyne CAE plant in Gainesville, GA. Thermal spray processes utilize a hot, high velocity gas stream to heat either a powder or wire to a plastic or molten state. The high velocity gas accelerates the hot particles to a high velocity before they are allowed to impact the surface to be coated. These particles adhere to the previously roughened surface (grit blast) by predominantly mechanical means. In some cases, depending on the part material and material sprayed, a quasi metallurgical bond can be formed. 19 figs.

  16. The 3ATI instrument: the first of a new breed of common display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Thomas, J.; James, M. R.; Tumilty, T.; Nguyen, K.

    2006-05-01

    This paper outlines how the convergence of: high resolution rugged AM-LCD; high reliability solid-state backlighting; low-power, high-performance microcircuits; and robust, reconfigurable software can be combined in a modular architecture, to provide a truly "one size fits all" multi-function instrument. The 3ATI form-factor has been selected for this demonstration, as it both represents a very significant population of legacy applications, and because of its compact nature, providing a significant technical challenge. The authors outline how these challenges were addressed and present one application example as applied to the Threat Warning Instrument (TWI), for the Canadian Forces CH-148 (derived from the Sikorsky H-92 platform) "Cyclone" Defensive Aids Suite.

  17. Retrieving current and wind vectors from ATI SAR data: airborne evidence and inversion strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Chapron, Bertrand; Marquez, José; Doody, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sense the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Together with the water displacement associated with ocean currents, the SAR measurements are also affected by a Wind-wave induced Artefact Surface Velocity (WASV) caused by the velocity of Bragg scatterers and the orbital velocity of ocean surface gravity waves. The WASV has been modelled theoretically in past studies but has been estimated empirically only once using Envisat ASAR. Here we propose, firstly, to evaluate this WASV from airborne ATI SAR data, secondly, to validate the airborne retrieved surface current after correction of the WASV against HF radar measurements and thirdly to examine the best inversion strategy for a an Ocean Surface Current (OSC) satellite mission to retrieve accurately both the ocean surface current vector (OSCV) and the wind vector in the frame of an OSC satellite mission. The airborne ATI SAR data were acquired in the tidally dominated Irish Sea using a Wavemill-type dual-beam SAR interferometer. A comprehensive collection of airborne Wavemill data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented site made it possible to estimate the magnitude and dependence on azimuth and incidence angle of the WASV. The airborne results compare favourably with those reported for Envisat ASAR, empirical model, which has been used to correct for it. Validation of the current retrieval capabilities of the proof-of-concept has been conducted against HF radar giving a precisions typically better than 0.1 m/s for surface current speed and 7° for direction. Comparisons with POLCOMS (1.8 km) indicate that the model reproduces well the overall temporal evolution but does not capture the high spatial variability of ocean surface currents at the maximum ebb flow. Airborne retrieved currents highlight a short-scale spatial variability up to 100m related to bathymetry channels, which

  18. Initial characterization of the GH-IGF axis and nutritional status of the Ati Negritos of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Clavano-Harding, A B; Ambler, G R; Cowell, C T; Garnett, S P; Al-Toumah, B; Coakley, J C; Ho, K K; Baxter, R C

    1999-12-01

    The Ati Negritos are a Pygmy-like aboriginal population from the Philippines with physical characteristics of short stature, dark skin and woolly, kinked hair. Their final height, components of their GH-IGF axis and various nutritional markers are described. SUBJECTS, DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Auxological data and sera for the components of the GH-IGF axis and nutritional parameters were collected from 9 adult Ati Negritos in their native environment and 10 Filipinos in Sydney. The height SDS (- 3.66 +/- 1.1 vs. - 1.01 +/- 1.2), weight SDS (- 2.30 +/- 1.6 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.7), and BMI SDS (- 1.4 +/- 1.8 vs. - 0.2 +/- 0.5) between the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.01). The mean height of the 6 male Ati Negritos was 149 +/- 7 and 144 +/- 3 cm for the females and are comparable with the African Pygmies and the Mountain Ok people of Papua New Guinea. The Ati Negritos showed lower growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), acid labile subunit (ALS), zinc, albumin, ferritin, iron, iron saturation and much higher insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) and plasma transferrin concentrations. No differences were noted in random growth hormone (GH), plasma insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), nor in their plasma concentrations of prealbumin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Perturbations of both the GH-IGF-I axis and nutritional markers exist in the Ati Negritos. These findings may be determinants of their stature; however, the aetiology of these changes remains to be fully elucidated.

  19. A geomorphological analysis of Ares Vallis, Mars, using HRSC data: new constrains about catastrophic floods and ice-related morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, A.; Ori, G. G.; Komatsu, G.; Pondrelli, M.

    Ares Vallis, Mars, using HRSC data: new constrains about catastrophic floods and ice-related morphologies. A. Pacifici, G. G. Ori, G. Komatsu, and M. Pondrelli International Research School of Planetary Sciences, Universita' "G. d'Annunzio", Pescara, Italy. (pacifici@irsps.unich.it) Ares Vallis is one of the greatest outflow channels of Mars: it was extensively investigated in the past decades, also to support landing site analysis of the 1997 NASA Pathfinder Mission. Using high-resolution images of last Martian missions (MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MEX), we investigated Ares Vallis and its tributaries, taking also advantage of 3D analysis performed using the MEX HRSC stereo capability. Ares Vallis appears to be characterized by different morphological associations along its path. We observe and investigate grooved terrains, streamlined uplands, pendant bars and several thermokarstic features: detailed measurements of such features are performed, and their geological properties are suggested. Observed morphologies give new constrains about catastrophic floods, and concur to provide a possible geologic history of the trough. Our investigations revealed that Ares Vallis and its tributary were sculpted by several catastrophic floods, well spaced in time, and originating from Iani, Hydaspis and Aram Chaos. Floods were responsible for sculpting of grooved terrains and streamlined uplands. During these catastrophic events, climatic conditions of the planet are assumed to be similar to those of today, and ice probably formed on top of the floods. Consequently, at the end of each flood, ice masses grounded and joined to each other and formed a thick stagnant dead-ice body. Floods of lower magnitudes and possibly different in origin were responsible for the emplacement of ice contact deposits. Several pieces of evidence for sub and/or intra-glacial floods are observed. Finally, we observe associations of pitted surfaces and high values of emittance on Infra-Red Thermal images

  20. Moon/Mars Landing Commemorative Release: Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.

    One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.

    At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.

    For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.

    Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.

    The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits

  1. Moon/Mars Landing Commemorative Release: Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.

    One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.

    At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.

    For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.

    Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.

    The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits

  2. Geologic map of MTM -45252 and-45257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -45252 and -45257 (latitude 42.5° S. to 47.5°S., longitude 250° W. to 260° W.) cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra east of Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials having moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous material, and extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains. Part of the ~1,500-km-long Reull Vallis outflow system is within the map area. The area also contains surficial deposits, such as the prominent large debris aprons that commonly surround highland massifs. Regional slopes are to the west, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by topographic maps of Mars. Approximately 60 percent of the surface of Mars is covered by rugged, heavily cratered terrains believed to represent the effects of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Much of this terrain, including that within the map area, records a long history of modification by tectonism, fluvial processes, mass wasting, and eolian activity. The presence of fluvial features to the east of Hellas basin, including Reull Vallis and other smaller channels, has significant implications for past environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas basin provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Current photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale (see also Mest and Crown, 2002) from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements previous geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, drainage networks, and highland debris aprons, as well as regional geologic mapping studies and geologic mapping of Hellas basin as a whole at 1:5,000,000 scale. Viking Orbiter image coverage of the map area generally ranges from 160 to 220 m/pixel; the central part of the map area is covered by higher resolution images of about 47 m/pixel. Crater size

  3. Kasei Vallis of Mars: Dating the Interplay of Tectonics and Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, D. U.

    1985-01-01

    Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.

  4. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights From Licus Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..

  5. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  6. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examining young, presumably sedimentary plains along RV, and 4) determining the nature of the connection between the segments of RV.

  7. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  8. Multispectral Analysis of the Kasei Vallis-lanae Planum Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, R. B.; Cloutis, E.; Roush, T. L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Kasei Vallis - Lunae Planum region of Mars was investigated using the three color Viking Orbiter 1 data. Spatial resolution is 820m and Ls = 100 deg, a season of low atmospheric and and surface dustiness. This region was chosen for high quality color and thermal inertia data as well as for the diversity of volcanic plains and fluvial landform. The data was reformatted to Mercator projection and calibrated to normal reflectance using in flight calibration parameters and observed photometric properties. Color properties from this image are displayed in two forms: the Red Albedo vs. Violet Albedo two dimensional histogram, and representative 3 point spectra. Virtually the full range of regolith color properties known from prior research is represented, plus some new characteristics. Interpretations of the data are presented which address general composition and formation processes of channel and intracrater deposits.

  9. Are sinuous ridges in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matt R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman

    2013-04-01

    A suite of elongate, branching positive relief landforms has been observed around Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. They are typically 10 to 150 metres across, and several to tens of kilometres in length. We have observed that these forms occur both individually and as part of complex systems incorporating various cross-cutting, anastomosing and branching patterns. This study forms part of a larger debate as to whether fluvioglacial processes, as opposed to igneous activity, shaped the landscapes in the Elysium Planitia region. The similarity of some of these positive relief branching forms to inverted channels, or perhaps even relict sub-glacial fluvial systems (eskers) suggests an alternative fluvioglacial hypothesis to formation by volcanic processes. Interestingly, if these are esker-like forms then glacial activity in this region was "wet-based", so there should be other characteristic landforms visible. To address this idea, we are conducting a new mapping study of sinuous ridges in the region around Rahway Vallis to assess whether they are more consistent in morphology with formation by igneous or fluvioglacial processes. The survey is being performed using orbital images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Our mapping has shown that many of the ridges form convergent, contributory networks. The ridges are spatially associated with kilometre-wide shallow channels and are found at a nearly constant elevation of -3000m above Mars Datum. Our preliminary interpretation is that these ridges are depositional landforms with multiple sources, and therefore could be sub-glacial (eskers), or inverted fluvial channels. The associated larger channels could be higher order fluvial channels, with the ridges and wide-channels together forming part of a larger drainage network.

  10. Detection of copiapite in the northern Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Evidence of acid sulfate alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, William H.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Horgan, Briony

    2014-10-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region on Mars is associated with extensive layered deposits containing a stratigraphic sequence of Fe/Mg smectites overlain by Al phyllosilicates. Earlier studies have reported restricted exposures of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite on top of the sequence. In this paper we have used CRISM data covering the northern portion of the Mawrth Vallis region to find a new jarosite exposure and multiple occurrences of the mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral copiapite (Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2·20(H2O)). HiRISE imagery indicate that the copiapite exposures lie on top of the Al phyllosilicates and thus post-date that unit either as a coating or as extensive veins. The presumed copiapite exposures are associated with high values of a “SINDX” parameter derived from CRISM data. Application of several spectral matching metrics over a spectral subsection indicated several candidates for the high SINDX phase including copiapite, ferricopiapite and metavoltine (another mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral). Visible and near infrared CRISM spectra of the high SINDX areas are most consistent with the phase being copiapite. On Earth copiapite generally occurs as efflorescent coatings in acid mine drainage environments or in association with acid sulfate soils. The presence of jarosite and copiapite indicates the presence of acidic waters. Such acid waters could have contributed to the formation of the underlying Al phyllosilicate minerals. A possible mode of origin for these minerals in this region would involve a fluctuating ground water table and the weathering of Fe sulfide minerals.

  11. Geologic map of MTM -40252 and -40257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -40252 and -40257 cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra northeast of the Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials of moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains, and other surficial deposits. Reull Vallis, an approximately 1,500 km-long outflow channel system, cuts through the southeast corner of the map area. Regional slopes are to the southwest, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by Martian topographic maps and the orientations of channels along the northeast rim of the Hellas basin. The Martian highlands cover more than 60 percent of the planet's surface and are primarily in the southern hemisphere. Most of the highlands consist of rugged, densely cratered terrains believed to represent the final phase of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Parts of the Martian highlands show evidence of extensive degradation and modification. The map area shows landforms created by numerous geologic processes, including tectonism, fluvial activity, and mass wasting. The occurrence of fluvial features, such as outflow channels and valley networks, has significant implications for past Martian conditions. Determining the geology of the highlands northeast of the Hellas basin provides a better understanding of the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, of drainage networks, and of highland debris aprons and regional geologic mapping studies of the highlands at the 1:2,000,000 scale and 1:1,000,000 scale. Crater size-frequency distributions have been compiled to constrain the relative ages of geologic units and determine the timing and extents of the observed

  12. ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites: Aram Dorsum and the Hypanis Vallis Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Gupta, S.; Balme, M.; Grindrod, P.; Fawdon, P.; Davis, J.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Yershov, V.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    The search for life on Mars is a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars Rover to further this goal. The ExoMars Rover's key science objectives are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the subsurface; and 3) characterize the surface environment. ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a variety of techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers).The choice of landing site is vital if the objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for longterm, or frequently recurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is a few km, but ellipse size is ~104 by 19 km). Various engineering constraints also apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum; and (iii) few steep slopes within the ellipse.In 2014, two international workshops were held to discuss potential landing sites. The outcome of these workshops was a shortlist of four possible sites: Aram Dorsum, Hypanis Delta, Mawrth Vallis, and Oxia Planum. We proposed the Hypanis and Aram Dorsum sites and led the scientific presentations for these sites at the Workshops. Here, we present the science cases for Aram Dorsum and Hypanis Vallis.

  13. Patapsco Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-13

    This NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft image shows two different types of linear depressions. The wide depression at the top of the frame is Elysium Fossae, which most likely formed due to tectonic activity.

  14. Niger Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 September 2003

    Named for a great river in Africa, the martian version is a system of eroding channels that empties into the Hellas impact basin. One style of erosion is evident in this image, where the upper branches of the Niger are merging. Some process weakens the crust until it founders, producing large slump blocks that continue to erode. This process enlarges the channels and ultimately may lead to a single upper channel.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.7, Longitude 92.6 East (267.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Vallis Marineris

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-18

    This Mars Odyssey image transects Candor Chasma and Melas Chasma. Many canyon features are clearly visible in the image, including the steep cliff faces, landslides, and layered canyon floor deposits.

  16. Kasei Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-04

    The scoured grooves in the catastrophic outflow channels shown in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft formed hundreds of million of years ago and have the appearance of wood grain. They now host dune-like ripples of windblown material. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04015

  17. Helicobacter Species Identified in Captive Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) with Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Esmail, Michael Y.; Bacon, Rebecca; Swennes, Alton G.; Feng, Yan; Shen, Zeli; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Sharma, Prachi; Cohen, Joyce; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Of all human cancers, gastric carcinoma is the one of the leading causes of death. Helicobacter pylori is considered a major etiologic agent of this disease. Spontaneously occurring gastric carcinoma is a rare diagnosis in nonhuman primates. A 2011 case report documented a high incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma in a closed colony of captive sooty mangabeys (Cercebus atys). However, H. pylori infection was not detected in these animals. Materials and Methods In this study, using archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded stomach sections of these animals alternative methodologies were used to identify H. pylori and other non-H. pylori Helicobacter species. In addition, two additional cases of sooty mangabeys with metastatic gastric carcinoma are characterized. Results Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we identified gastric H. suis in 75% of archived and new gastric carcinoma cases. In the two newly reported cases, H. suis and a novel Helicobacter species were detected via PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. H. pylori was not identified in any of the gastric carcinoma cases via FISH and/or PCR and sequence analysis of Helicobacter spp. in DNA from of available tissues. Conclusions This report is the first to characterize Helicobacter species infection in spontaneous gastric carcinoma with metastatic potential in nonhuman primates. PMID:26477442

  18. Helicobacter Species Identified in Captive Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) with Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Michael Y; Bacon, Rebecca; Swennes, Alton G; Feng, Yan; Shen, Zeli; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Sharma, Prachi; Cohen, Joyce; Fox, James G

    2016-06-01

    Of all human cancers, gastric carcinoma is the one of the leading causes of death. Helicobacter pylori is considered a major etiologic agent of this disease. Spontaneously occurring gastric carcinoma is a rare diagnosis in nonhuman primates. A 2011 case report documented a high incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma in a closed colony of captive sooty mangabeys (Cercebus atys). However, H. pylori infection was not detected in these animals. In this study, using archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded stomach sections of these animals alternative methodologies were used to identify H. pylori and other non-H. pylori Helicobacter species. In addition, two additional cases of sooty mangabeys with metastatic gastric carcinoma are characterized. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we identified gastric H. suis in 75% of archived and new gastric carcinoma cases. In the two newly reported cases, H. suis and a novel Helicobacter species were detected via PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. H. pylori was not identified in any of the gastric carcinoma cases via FISH and/or PCR and sequence analysis of Helicobacter spp. in DNA from of available tissues. This report is the first to characterize Helicobacter species infection in spontaneous gastric carcinoma with metastatic potential in nonhuman primates. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Detection of Ground Moving Targets for Two-Channel Spaceborne SAR-ATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Cai, Bin; Liang, Diannong

    2010-12-01

    Many present spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are constrained to only two channels for ground moving target indication (GMTI). Along-track interferometry (ATI) technique is currently exploited to detect slowly moving targets and measure their radial velocity and azimuth real position. In this paper, based on the joint probability density function (PDF) of interferogram's phase and amplitude and the two hypotheses "clutter" and "clutter plus signal", several constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criteria are analyzed for their capabilities and limitations under low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and low clutter-to-noise ratio (CNR) conditions. The CFAR detectors include one-step CFAR detector with interferometric phase, two-step CFAR detectors, and two-dimensional (2D) CFAR detector. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP) criterion is exploited as an upper bound for the performance of the other CFAR detectors. Performance analyses demonstrate the superiority of the 2D CFAR techniques to detect dim slowly moving targets for spaceborne system.

  20. Hormonal correlates of ontogeny in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) and mangabeys (Cercocebus atys).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Leigh, Steven R; Donovan, Sharon M; Monaco, Marcia H

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between serum hormone levels and morphometrics during ontogeny in olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), to test hypotheses about the endocrine regulation of species size differences. First, we expect that levels of hormones and binding proteins predict size change during ontogeny in both species. Second, a high level of integration among the hormones and binding proteins analyzed is expected, with the implication that they act in combination to influence the development of body size and shape. Utilizing a mixed longitudinal sample, we compare change in 18 different measurements, which reflect overall size growth as well as growth in length and circumference, with levels of six growth-related hormones and binding proteins. We examine the relationship between hormone and binding protein levels and morphometrics, using multivariate analyses and "arithmetically-estimated" velocity curves of hormones, binding proteins, to characterize how the endocrine factors analyzed relate to growth. Results suggest that levels of these endocrine factors can be used to predict local and overall growth during ontogeny and that integration between multiple hormone axes is indicated. While important for growth in both species, ontogenetic changes in hormone and binding protein levels are more tightly correlated with changes in morphometric measurements in baboons than mangabeys. These results have important implications for understanding why some smaller-bodied species have higher absolute growth-related hormone levels than larger-bodied species.

  1. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hamilton, V.; Hardgrove, C.; Kah, L.; Leveille, R.; Mangold, N.; Rowland, S.; Williams, R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  2. The origin and evolution of the Peace Vallis fan system that drains to the Curiosity landing area, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Mangold, Nicholas; Newsom, Horton; Hardgrove, Craig; Calef, Fred; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2014-04-01

    The landing site for the Curiosity rover is located at the distal end of the Peace Vallis fan in Gale Crater. Peace Vallis fan covers 80 km2 and is fed by a 730 km2 catchment, which drains an upland plains area through a 15 km wide gap in the crater rim. Valley incision into accumulated debris delivered sediment through a relatively low density valley network to a main stem channel to the fan. An estimated total fan volume of 0.9 km3 matches the calculated volume of removal due to valley incision (0.8 km3) and indicates a mean thickness of 9 m. The fan profile is weakly concave up with a mean slope of 1.5% for the lower portion. Numerous inverted channels outcrop on the western surface of the fan, but on the eastern portion such channels are rare suggesting a change in process from distributary channel domination on the west to sheet flow on the eastern portion of the fan. Runoff (discharge/watershed area) to produce the fan is estimated to be more than 600 m, perhaps as much as 6000 m, indicating a hydrologic cycle that likely lasted at least thousands of years. Atmospheric precipitation (possibly snow) not seepage produced the runoff. Based on topographic data, Peace Vallis fan likely onlapped Bradbury Rise and spilled into a topographic low to the east of the rise. This argues that the light-toned fractured terrain within this topographic low corresponds to the distal deposits of Peace Vallis fan, and in such a setting, lacustrine deposits are expected.

  3. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  4. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  5. Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

  6. Landing at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis: A potential 2020 Mars rover landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2014-04-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Mars rover mission we selected a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and associated hydrous mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km × 20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. In central delta cliff sections weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates are detected. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater, remnants of an approximately 1 m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from the adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terrain analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  7. Clay Bearing Units in the Region around Mawrth Vallis: Stratigraphy, Extent, and Possible Alteration Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrea, E. Z. Noe; Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Swayze, G.; Michalski, J. R.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R.; Morris, R. B.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2007-01-01

    The largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars occurs on the highland plains around Mawrth Vallis. This exposure extends for about 300 km southward from the edge of the dichotomy boundary, covering an area greater than 200 x 300 kilometers over an elevation range of approximately 2000 meters. At least two different types of hydrated phyllosilicates (Fe/Mg-rich and Al-rich phyllosilicates) have been identified in OMEGA data based on absorption bands near 2.3 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively. These clay-bearing units are associated with layered, indurated light-toned units with complex spatial and stratigraphic relationships, and are unconfomably overlain by a darker, indurated, more heavily cratered unit. Ongoing analysis of OMEGA (approximately 1 kilometer/pixel) and CRISM multi-spectral (MSP, 200 meters/pixel) data reveal hydrated minerals with absorptions at approximately 2.2 or 2.3 micrometers in locations up to 300 kilometers away from the borders of the previously identified extent of clay-bearing units. We seek to: 1) further constrain the mineralogy of the hydrated species identified in [5], and 2) understand spatial and stratigraphic relationships between the different hydrated minerals and the cratered plains units in which they are found. In this work we perform mineralogical and stratigraphic comparisons between units to test whether these extended units may be related, in order to establish a broad zone of alteration.

  8. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  10. A comparative study based on the first principles calculations of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Helal, M. A.; Ara, I. E.; Farid Ul Islam, A. K. M.; Rahaman, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic, thermodynamic, vibrational and optical properties of the cubic phase of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) crystals have been carried out based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters, band structures, elastic constants and the elastic moduli of ATiO3 are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. The ferroelectric phenomenon of the crystals has been analyzed based on the nature of their phonon spectra. The phonon frequencies and the Born effective charges have been calculated to elucidate the ferroelectric instability of the cubic phase of ATiO3 by calculating the interatomic forces for several small displacements consistent with the symmetry of modes.

  11. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  12. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  13. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based along track interferometry (ATI) approach to SAR-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.

  14. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  15. Annual and seasonal variations of zooplankton in a shallow-water lagoon system, the Valli of Comacchio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherelli, Victor Ugo; Ferrari, Ireneo

    1982-03-01

    Over a period of about 3 years, 120 quantitative zooplankton samples were taken at five stations of the Valli of Comacchio, a wide shallow-water lagoon system of the north Adriatic Italian coast which has seasonally limited manregulated communications with the sea. The high density of the meroplanktonic forms and the prevalence of phytal copepods, mainly harpacticoids, over the typical euplanktonic ones, such as calanoids, are the main characteristics of the zooplankton assemblages of these lagoons. Acartia clausi, the only representative marine calanoid, was a passive immigrant in the valli. The zooplankton structure showed striking analogies with that of similar brackish environments lacking in free water exchanges with sea, e.g. the 'dead' Lagoon of Venice. Statistical analyses carried out on density data assessed significant differences between mean station densities of total zooplankton, polychaete trochophores and copepod nauplii. A significant year-station interaction variance for phytal harpacticoids was detected. The main source of variability of the zooplankton was represented by strong seasonal fluctuations of the various systematic groups which resulted in a fairly characteristic and recurrent pattern of their occurrence year by year.

  16. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  17. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  18. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  19. The sinuous ridge and channel network within Rahway Vallis and the wider contextual study of the surrounding Rahway Basin, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman

    2014-05-01

    Rahway Vallis is a previously identified shallow v-shaped valley network in the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, located at 10°N 175°E, within the Cerberus Plains in the Elysium Planitia region of Mars. Rahway Vallis is situated in low-lying terrain bounded to west, north and east by older highlands, and to the south by the flood-carved channel system Marte Vallis. Here we present a study of the low-lying area in which Rahway Vallis sits, which we refer to as the "Rahway basin". The floor of the Rahway basin is extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) and hosts a branching network of ridge and channel systems. The aim of this project is to determine the genesis of these branching forms, in particular to test the hypothesis that they are glaciofluvial in origin. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels that are identifiable in CTX 6 m/pixel images, we have found that they are set within broader v-shaped valley that has almost no morphological expression. These valleys have a convex-up, shallow (around 15 metres vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) V-shaped profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway Basin. Long profiles show the channels to deepen with respect to the bank height downslope. Both channels and valley show a consistent downhill gradient from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. If these are water-cut channels, they reach Strahler stream orders of 4, consistent with a contributory network with multiple sources. Associated with the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels but also form individually and parallel to the channels. Possible explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels and eskers. However despite looking through ca. 250 CTX images across the Rahway basin, no other glacial

  20. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  1. Volcano/Ice Interaction Origin of Thermally Distinct Craters in Hrad Vallis, Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence of volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars can provide important constraints on the timing and distribution of Martian volcanic processes and climate characteristics. We seek to constrain the presence of volatiles in close association with volcanic activity in the Elysium region of Mars. Northwest of the Elysium Rise is Hrad Vallis, a ~370 m deep, 800 km long sinuous valley that begins in a source region at 34oN, 218 oW. Flanking both sides of the source region is a lobate deposit that extends ~50 km perpendicular from the source and is an average of ~40 m thick. Within the lobate deposit 12 craters have been identified by thermal infrared signatures and morphologies that are distinct from any other craters or depressions in the region. The thermally distinct craters (TDCs) are 1100-1800 m in diameter, 30-40 m deep and are typically circular with central depressions surrounded by ~1 to >6 concentric fracture sets. In order to investigate the origin of the thermal anomalies, as well as scrutinize previous observations made using THEMIS and MOC data, the meter-scale morphology of the TDCs and the surrounding terrain was characterized using images from the CTX (~6 m/pix) and HiRISE (0.25-0.30 m/pix) cameras. Patches of the terrain appear smooth at the meter scale, while fields of cones populate other regions of the surface. The cones are ~30-50 m across at the summit, and ~60-80 m across at the base. Many of the cones have flat summits, while some have a summit crater. The larger cones exhibit channels extending radially away from the summit and decameter-scale pits are observed at the base of many of the cones. The cone morphology suggests they may be the result of the explosive interaction between hot material (lava? mudflow?) and volatiles (either frozen ground or ground ice). Morris and Mouginis-Mark (2006) noted the ejecta surrounding Crater 11 appeared to have a slight “rayed” appearance. HiRISE views of the proposed rays reveal that these are

  2. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  3. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  4. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Nancy K.; Bishop, Janice L.; Noe Dobrea, Eldar Z.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Parente, Mario; Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Silver, Eli A.

    2009-11-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ˜1.91, and 2.17-2.41 μm. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 μm, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis.

  6. Application of Abreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (ATIES) Methodology to a Mars Orbit Basing (MOB) Solar Clipper Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Any envisioned future with ubiquitous space transportation systems as defined by NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) will rely on revolutionary improvements in the development and integration of technologies. Given the limitation of financial resources on both the government and industry, strategic decision makers need a method to assist them in the prioritization of advanced space transportation technological investment. The Abbreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, And Selection (ATIES) methodology described here is exercised to leap this gulf of evaluation through a systematic aggregation of decision-making techniques and sundry probabilistic methods. The process is applied to a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) based in-space transportation system with an atmospheric transfer vehicle called a Mars Reusable Excursion Vehicle (MREV) and transit/orbital and surface habitats (based upon the Mars Orbit Basing, MOB, concept developed at NASA Headquarters). The candidate architecture includes a crewed transport to Mars and surface landing using the MREV. Three potential enhancing technologies were used in this analysis: carbon nano-tube structures, triple junction photovoltaic arrays, and super-conducting Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems. Feasible technology portfolios (combinations of technologies) that met annual and cumulative program funding constraints were then assessed as to their impact upon the system and subsequent overall metrics. An analysis module for assessing programmatic and performance uncertainties associated with future transportation systems was developed by combining the approach of a spreadsheet-based meta-model with capability to perform Monte Carlo simulations to generate cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). The Reduced Order Simulation for Evaluation of Technologies and Transportation Architectures (ROSETTA) model is a spreadsheet-based meta-model which is a representation of the design process for a

  7. A tool for predicting the outcome of reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction using age, thrombotic burden and index of microcirculatory resistance (ATI score).

    PubMed

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Fahrni, Gregor; Alkhalil, Mohammad; Cuculi, Florim; Dawkins, Sam; Wolfrum, Mathias; Choudhury, Robin P; Forfar, John C; Prendergast, Bernard D; Yetgin, Tuncay; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Tebaldi, Matteo; Channon, Keith M; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Rothwell, Peter M; Valgimigli, Marco; Banning, Adrian P

    2016-11-20

    Restoration of effective myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction is difficult to predict. A method to assess the likelihood of a suboptimal response to conventional pharmacomechanical therapies could be beneficial. We aimed to derive and validate a scoring system that can be used acutely at the time of coronary reopening to predict the likelihood of downstream microvascular impairment in patients with STEMI. A score estimating the risk of post-procedural microvascular injury defined by an index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) >40 was initially derived in a cohort of 85 STEMI patients (derivation cohort). This score was then tested and validated in three further cohorts of patients (retrospective [30 patients], prospective [42 patients] and external [29 patients]). The ATI score (age [>50=1]; pre-stenting IMR [>40 and <100=1; ≥100=2]; thrombus score [4=1; 5=3]) was highly predictive of a post-stenting IMR >40 in all four cohorts (AUC: 0.87; p<0.001-derivation cohort, 0.84; p=0.002-retrospective cohort, 0.92; p<0.001-prospective cohort and 0.81; p=0.006-external cohort). In the whole population, an ATI score ≥4 presented a 95.1% risk of final IMR >40, while no cases of final IMR >40 occurred in the presence of an ATI score <2. The ATI score appears to be a promising tool capable of identifying patients during PPCI who are at the highest risk of coronary microvascular impairment following revascularisation. This procedural risk stratification has a number of potential research and clinical applications and warrants further investigation.

  8. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  9. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Homervergel G.; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  10. Social compatibility in a newly formed all-male group of white crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus atys lunulatus).

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María; Guillén-Salazar, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Surplus males in primate captive populations are a common problem for zoos. Some captive breeding programs promote all-male groups as an adequate option to house surplus males, but there have been few attempts to assess the feasibility of this management technique across primate species. The present study provides preliminary data regarding social compatibility within a newly formed all-male group of four white crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus atys lunulatus). The study was conducted at the Valencia Zoo (Spain), where data on social behavior were collected over 6 months using continuous focal animal sampling for a total of 87 hr of observation. Results show that low intensity aggressive behaviors (facial threats) were expressed at high rates, whereas physical aggression (fights) rarely occurred. Aggression was more frequent among individuals belonging to the same age-gender class. Regarding affiliative behaviors, every individual actively sought proximity to all other group members through positive approaches, and although not all males carried out social grooming, every male was groomed by at least one group member. Our results suggest that the group was compatible socially because social relationships among the individuals were not neutral, and physical aggression occurred at low rates. The present study provides preliminary data supporting the feasibility of all-male groups as a management option for surplus males in captive populations of white crowned mangabeys. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to be able to generalize both within and across species. Zoo Biol 0:1-7, 2007. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Orbital and spin interplay in spin-gap formation in pyroxene ATi Si2 O6 (A=Na,Li)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikihara, Toshiya; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2004-12-01

    Interplay between orbital and spin degrees of freedom is theoretically studied for the phase transition to the spin-singlet state with lattice dimerization in pyroxene titanium oxides ATiSi2O6 (A=Na,Li) . For the quasi-one-dimensional spin- 1/2 systems, we derive an effective spin-orbital-lattice coupled model in the strong correlation limit with explicitly taking account of the t2g orbital degeneracy and investigate the model by numerical simulation as well as the mean-field analysis. We find a nontrivial feedback effect between orbital and spin degrees of freedom; as temperature decreases, development of antiferromagnetic spin correlations changes the sign of orbital correlations from antiferro- to ferro-type, and finally, the ferro-type orbital correlations induce the dimerization and the spin-singlet formation. As a result of this interplay, the system undergoes a finite-temperature transition to the spin-dimer and orbital-ferro-ordered phase concomitant with the Jahn-Teller lattice distortion. The numerical results for the magnetic susceptibility show a deviation from the Curie-Weiss behavior and well reproduce the experimental data. The results reveal that the Jahn-Teller energy scale is considerably small and the orbital and spin exchange interactions play a decisive role in the pyroxene titanium oxides.

  12. Multiple working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars: Insights from the Mawrth Vallis region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Niles, P. B.; Cuadros, J.; Baldridge, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    A unique aspect of martian geology is the presence of similar compositional stratigraphy observed in many locations throughout the surface. Where the Al-rich and Fe/Mg-rich clay minerals occur together, aluminous clays typically overly layered ferromagnesian clays, possibly indicating that precipitation-driven leaching occurred in a warmer, wetter climate. Sulfates generally occurring stratigraphically above clays could be relics of a global environmental shift between clay-forming and sulfate forming epochs. These compositional relationships speak to an important aspect of the martian geosystem that is yet poorly understood. We synthesized recent ideas to produce several working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars and tested the hypotheses on well-exposed sulfate- and clay-bearing rocks found in the Mawrth Vallis region. In the Mawrth Vallis area, interpretations of compositional stratigraphy are strongly constrained by the fact that the sulfates and clays occur within a friable unit (probably loessite or tephra) that was deposited unconformably onto cratered terrain of fundamentally different character. Within the friable unit, the presence of aluminous clays over ferromagnesian clays might represent evidence for leaching associated with rainfall, but the presence of montmorillonite, beidellite, and sulfates argue against intense leaching as a dominant process. We suggest that ice/snow-mediated chemical weathering of dust could produce a deposit consistent with the observations through hydrolysis reactions facilitated by acidic, briny solutions within the icy dust deposit. Slow downward transport of Mg2+ and possibly Fe2+ in these solutions could potentially have produced the crude compositional stratigraphy, but regional scale leaching of basaltic bedrock by rainfall is unlikely to explain the observations. Because both clays and sulfates are found within draping, friable sedimentary deposits that occur at a range of elevations

  13. Geology of phyllosilicates rich outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, as seen by OMEGA and HRSC/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Neukum, G.; OMEGA Team

    OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) aboard Mars Express has discovered large outcrops rich in phyllosilicates in the region of Mawrth Vallis, Mars (around 20°W, 25°N) [1]. This region is located at the limit of the Martian dichotomy, where the outflow channel Mawrth Vallis cuts Noachian plateaus. We have re-examined this region using OMEGA spectra of the surface from 0.9 µm to 2.6 µm, with spatial sampling from 500 m to 3 km, offering a full cover of the region. The detection of phyllosilicates has been confirmed thanks to absorption bands at 1.4 and 1.9 µm, and at 2.2 or 2.3 µm. Comparison with laboratory spectra reveals similarities with Mg- or Fe-rich smectites such as nontronite, or Al-rich smectites such as montmorillonites. A precise location of the phyllosilicates rich outcrops indicates that those hydrated minerals are placed exclusively on bright outcrops, mostly on the Noachian plateaus, whereas the dark surfaces are rich in clinopyroxenes. On HRSC and MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera aboard Mars Global Surveyor) visible images, the phyllosilicates-rich outcrops reveal strong erosion features such as numerous residual buttes and very few small craters, in favour of a quite recent erosion. Furthermore, the dark terrains constitute a thin mantle that covers the large bright unit. Several MOC images, with a resolution around 3 m/pixel, also reveal that those Noachian terrains display thin layers, different of lava flow deposits. These layered deposits have been interpreted as sedimentary rocks [2]. The phyllosilicates-rich eroded outcrops correspond to a geological unit with a thickness of more than 100 meters in many places. The horizontal extension reaches more than 300 km x 400 km. The precise volume of the unit as well as the proportion of phyllosilicates inside the rocks cannot be known so far, but what OMEGA has detected still implies a very important volume of altered rocks. Future lander missions could help to

  14. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  15. Origin and significance of decameter-scale polygons in the lower Peace Vallis fan of Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Fairén, Alberto G.; Le Deit, Laetitia; Williams, Amy J.; Sletten, Ronald S.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Decameter-scale polygons are extensively developed in the Bedded Fractured (BF) Unit of the lower Peace Vallis fan. The polygons occur in a likely extension of the Gillespie Lake Member, north of Yellowknife Bay, the section first drilled by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We examine hypotheses for the origin of these polygons to provide insight into the history of Gale crater. The polygons are ∼4-30 m across, square to rectangular, and defined by ∼0.5-4 m wide, generally straight troughs with orthogonal intersections. Polygon networks are typically oriented-orthogonal systems, with occasional nearly circular patterns, hundreds of meters across. Potential origins include cooling of lava, and for sedimentary units, syneresis, unloading, weathering, desiccation, impact processes, and cold-climate thermal contraction. Cold-climate thermal contraction is the hypothesis most consistent with the sedimentary nature of the BF Unit and the polygon morphology, geometry, networks, and apparent restriction to the coarse-grained Gillespie Lake Member. A periglacial setting further provides the best analogs for the circular networks and is consistent with geologic context and MSL data. Most of the decametric polygons appear to be ancient. They are confined to the Hesperian BF Unit, and only a few of their bounding fractures extend into younger or recently exposed units. In this regard, they differ from the majority of proposed thermal-contraction polygons on Mars, as those are generally thought to be young features, and, accordingly, the history of formation, preservation and reactivation of the decametric polygons is likely to be more complex than that of any proposed young polygons on Mars. The decametric polygons in the BF Unit may represent landforms developed in a cold but still comparatively wet interlude between a clement early Mars and the much drier and colder planet of today.

  16. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  17. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  18. Ponding, draining and tilting of the Cerberus Plains; a cryolacustrine origin for the sinuous ridge and channel networks in Rahway Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2015-06-01

    Rahway Vallis sits within a shallow basin (the "Rahway basin") in the Cerberus Plains of Mars containing a branching network of channels converging on the basin floor. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels we have found that they are set within broader, subtly-expressed, valleys. These valleys are shallow (around 15 m vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) and have convex to rectilinear slope profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway basin. Both channels and valleys descend and deepen consistently from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. The morphology and topology of this channel system are consistent with formation by contributory fluid flow, generated from many distributed sources. The transition between the older heavily cratered terrain and the floor of the Rahway basin is bounded by near-horizontal continuous topographic terraces. Plotting the elevation of the terraces shows that they conform to a plane with a height difference of around 100 m east to west for the 300 km width of the Rahway basin. We calculate that the volume of material needed to fill the topography up to the level of the plane best fit by the terraces is ∼1500 km3. Bordering the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels, but also occur individually and parallel to the channels. The multiple tilted terraces, the channel/valley network with many fluvial-like characteristics, and the distributed source regions, suggest that the landforms within the Rahway basin are unlikely to have formed through purely volcanic processes. Rather, the channels within the Rahway basin are consistent with a genesis requiring the flow of liquid water, and the sinuous ridges with melting of a static ice body that occupied the basin. We suggest a hypothesis of rapid basin

  19. Mineralogy and stratigraphy of phyllosilicate-bearing and dark mantling units in the greater Mawrth Vallis/west Arabia Terra area: Constraints on geological origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Fu, R.; Rossi, C.M.; Michalski, J.R.; Heinlein, C.; Hanus, V.; Poulet, F.; Mustard, R.J.F.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Swayze, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of MRO/CRISM images of the greater Mawrth Vallis region of Mars affirm the presence of two primary phyllosilicate assemblages throughout a region ∼1000 × 1000 km. These two units consist of an Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate and hydrated silica assemblage. The lower unit contains Fe/Mg-smectites, sometimes combined with one or more of these other Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates: serpentine, chlorite, biotite, and/or vermiculite. It is more than 100 m thick and finely layered at meter scales. The upper unit includes Al-smectite, kaolin group minerals, and hydrated silica. It is tens of meters thick and finely layered as well. A common phyllosilicate stratigraphy and morphology is observed throughout the greater region wherever erosional windows are present. This suggests that the geologic processes forming these units must have occurred on at least a regional scale. Sinuous ridges (interpreted to be inverted channels) and narrow channels cut into the upper clay-bearing unit suggesting that aqueous processes were prevalent after, and possibly during, the deposition of the layered units. We propose that layered units may have been deposited at Mawrth Vallis and then subsequently altered to form the hydrated units. The Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage is consistent with hydrothermal alteration or pedogenesis of mafic to ultramafic rocks. The Al-phyllosilicate/hydrated silica unit may have formed through alteration of felsic material or via leaching of basaltic material through pedogenic alteration or a mildly acidic environment. These phyllosilicate-bearing units are overlain by a darker, relatively unaltered, and indurated material that has probably experienced a complex geological history.

  20. Sunset over Ares Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-22

    Every several days, Mars Pathfinder will image the sunrise and sunset on Mars. Future images will show a larger area -- we have a higher data rate than we expected when we planned this image, so we can get more information. Images taken at sunset, like this, and up to two hours later, will be used to investigate the distribution of dust within the Martian atmosphere. Already, we can see some dust layers in the images. By seeing how the twilight fades with time -- it lasts for over two hours -- we can determine that the dust extends high into the atmosphere. Sojourner spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997. Although mission managers tried to restore full communications during the following five months, the successful mission was terminated on March 10, 1998. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00696

  1. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO3 (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO3 (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandech, Narasak; Sarasamak, Kanoknan; Limpijumnong, Sukit

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO3 for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO3 for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C11 elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C12 elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C44 elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  2. Universal two-dimensional characteristics in perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Nobuya; Akashi, Ryosuke; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    A series of unsynthesized perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are investigated by the density functional calculations. These oxyhydrides are stable in the sense of the formation energies for some possible synthesis reactions. They are crystallized into quite similar crystal structures with the long c-axis, and the corner-sharing TiO4H2 octahedra of the ideal perovskite-type structure are deformed into the 5-fold coordinated titanium atoms with the OH plane and the apical oxygen atoms. All of these oxyhydrides exhibit two-dimensional electronic states at the valence band maximum characterized by the in-plane oxygen 2p and the hydrogen 1s orbitals. While the c-axis becomes short as the ionic radius of the A atom becomes small and the two-dimensional characteristics are weakened, the electronic state at the valence band maximum is still characterized as the O-H in-plane state. Additionally, the Born effective charge tensors, spontaneous electric polarizations, dielectric tensors, and piezoelectric tensors are evaluated. It is found that the spontaneous electric polarizations of these oxyhydrides are much larger than that of tetragonal BaTiO3.

  3. A new technique for identification of minerals in hyperspectral images. Application to robust characterization of phyllosilicate deposits at Mawrth Vallis using CRISM images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping of Mars by MRO has revealed the presence of numerous small phyllosilicate outcrops. These are typically identified in CRISM images using "summary products" (Pelkey, 2007) that consist of band ratios, depths and spectral slopes around diagnostic wavelengths. The summary products are designed to capture spectral features related to both surface mineralogy and atmospheric gases and aerosols. Such products, as an analysis tool to characterize composition as well as a targeting tool to identify areas of mineralogical interest, have been successful in capturing the known diversity of the Martian surface, and in highlighting locations with strong spectral signatures. Here we present alternative mineral mapping technique that 1) aims to increase the robustness of mineral detections with respect to the specific CRISM artifacts, 2) takes advantage of the spatial context of each pixel and 3) develops new parameters for the discrimination of species in the phyllosilicates family. We include spatial context by evaluating spectral shapes, band depths and spectral slopes for the current pixel based on its spatial neighbors within the same geological unit. Furthermore, the parameters are based on estimates that are more robust to CRISM speckling noise that might alter the parameters and potentially the mineral interpretation. As an effort to distinguish between phyllosilicates species, we are augmenting the suite of existent parameters with a set of mineral parameters that involve the position, number and shapes of diagnostic phyllosilicate absorptions. We are comparing the effectiveness of this new approach to the summary product procedure. The study shows that homogeneous mineral maps and diagnostic spectral identifications are possible as a result of the application of such new parameters. We applied the technique to the discrimination of kaolinite in Mawrth Vallis. The experiments show several small kaolinite outcrops dispersed within the more extensive Al

  4. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  5. Structure property relationships in the ATi{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A=Na, Ca) family of reduced titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Geselbracht, Margret J. . E-mail: mgeselbr@reed.edu; Erickson, Ann S.; Rogge, Matthew P.; Greedan, John E.; Walton, Richard I.; Stoltzfus, Matthew W.; Eng, Hank W.; Woodward, Patrick M.

    2006-11-15

    Reduced titanates in the ATi{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A=Li, Mg) spinel family exhibit a variety of interesting electronic and magnetic properties, most notably superconductivity in the mixed-valence spinel, Li{sub 1+} {sub x} Ti{sub 2-} {sub x} O{sub 4}. The sodium and calcium analogs, NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, each differ in structure, the main features of which are double rutile-type chains composed of edge-sharing TiO{sub 6} octahedra. We report for the first time, the properties and band structures of these two materials. XANES spectroscopy at the Ti K-edge was used to probe the titanium valence. The absorption edge position and the pre-edge spectral features observed in the XANES data confirm the assignment of Ti{sup 3+} in CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and mixed-valence Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} in NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetic susceptibility studies are consistent with the classification of both NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} as small band-gap semiconductors, although changes in the high-temperature magnetic susceptibility of CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} suggest a possible insulator-metal transition near 700 K. Band structure calcions agree with the observed electronic properties of these materials and indicate that while Ti-Ti bonding is of minimal importance in NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the titanium atoms in CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} are weakly dimerized at room temperature. -- Graphical abstract: Normalized titanium K-edge XANES spectra confirm mixed-valence for NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} with an edge energy intermediate between Ti{sup 3+} oxides such as CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ti{sup 4+} containing oxides such as TiO{sub 2}.

  6. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species.

  7. Streamlined Hills of Maja Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 May 2003

    Classic catastrophic flood morphology (streamlined hills and longitudinal grooves) is captured in this image of Lunae Planum. Similar features (although much smaller in size) are seen in terrestrial catastrophic flood regions such as Channeled Scabland of Washington state and in Iceland.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.8, Longitude 301.8East (58.2). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  9. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pandech, Narasak; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Sarasamak, Kanoknan

    2015-05-07

    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO{sub 3} for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C{sub 11} elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C{sub 12} elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C{sub 44} elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  10. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  11. Asiago spectroscopic classification of SN 2017ati.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Terreran, G.

    2017-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic observation of Gaia17aiq. The target was supplied by Gaia Photometric Science Alerts programme . The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Survey name | IAU name | Host galaxy | Disc.

  12. Visualization of Buried Marte Vallis Channels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-07

    This illustration schematically shows where the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detected flood channels that had been buried by lava flows in the Elysium Planitia region of Mars.

  13. Active duration estimation of Subur Vallis, a Martian fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronczay, David; Kereszturi, Akos

    2017-04-01

    We carried out age estimation and estimation of the active period of a typical, moderately sized fluvial system at Xanthe Terra. Morphology was determined using HRSC and CTX images. Crater size frequency distribution was used to determine the ages of the main terrain units. Based on the channel bed morphology, we used the Darcy-Weisbach resistance equation to estimate the average water flow velocity and discharge. In the next step, we used various sediment transport rate predictors from the literature, to determine the erosion rate, and consequently the likely timescale of the main erosional process creating the channel. We discuss the main sources of uncertainty of our results.

  14. Adaptation of ATI-R Scale to Turkish Samples: Validity and Reliability Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezci, Erdogan

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' teaching approaches have become an important issue in the search of quality in education and teaching because of their effect on students' learning. Improvements in teachers' knowledge and awareness of their own teaching approaches enable them to adopt teaching process in accordance with their students' learning styles. The Approaches to…

  15. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  16. Cognitive ATI Research: A Simulated Laboratory Environment in (PCE-)Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamsteeg, Paul A.; Bierman, Dick J.

    A study of 228 undergraduate psychology students examined the effectiveness of a prototype of "heatlab," a laboratory simulation written in PCE-PROLOG, intended for remedying misconceptions of the concepts "heat" and "temperature." The effect of varying the amount of structure on students' understanding and the…

  17. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  18. Geologic map of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) –30247, –35247, and –40247 quadrangles cover a portion of southern Hesperia Planum and the highlands of eastern Promethei Terra, east of the Hellas basin. The map area (lat 27.5–42.5° S., long 110–115° E.) consists of cratered ancient highland materials of moderate relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of plains, and surficial deposits. Waikato and Reull Valles extend through plains and highland terrains. Regional slopes are generally to the southwest toward the Hellas basin, but local slopes (for example, highlands to plains) dominate the landscape.

  19. Horizontal Tau air showers from mountains in deep vally :Traces of Ultrahigh neutrino tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    1999-08-01

    Ultra High Energy (UHE) Tau neutrino may lead to a very peculiar imprint in future underground K m3 detectors in water and ice as well as in air: rarest secondary tau tracks and decay which may exceed the muon ones. Indeed Bremsstrahlung at high energy lead to longer tracks for heavier leptons. Radiation lenght grows nearly with the square of the lepton mass. Indeed electrons are too light and their trace in matter is negligible (decimeters) muon are much better observed, while tau are too short life time and short range to be found. However, because relativistic time expansion, UHE tau traces in matter, above 1017 eV , are relativistically boosted overcoming the corresponding muon tracks, already bounded by bremsstrahlung logaritmic regime. The tau crossing for Kms in water or ice may be confused with common muon tracks; their tau decay may be missunderstood as muonic catastrophic brehmstrallung interactions. To economize UHE tau dicovery, we suggest to look the tau decay in air into the deep valleys montains, like Canyons or deep in escavation mines where horizontal air showers induce fluoresce or Cerenkov lights. The mountain valley width screens from horizontal secondary muons. The valley height increases the solid angle view. The horizontal air Kms-size gap offer a strong discriminator to filter UHE muons against tau. Tens event a year at PeV ( W resonance peak) energies in K m3 excavation gap should be observable . Hunting air shower in the night toward high mountains in Canyons or in a deep excavation may be the best and cheapest way to discover UHE neutrinos , either born by electron antineutrino scattering on electrons at PeV energies, or by direct tau neutrino possibly relic of muonic flavour oscillation even at EeV energies.

  20. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra on Mars and the Evolution of Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Grant, J. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.

    2017-06-01

    The Margaritifer Terra region on Mars preserves a long and fascinating record of aqueous activity. Geologic mapping in four quadrangles helps constrain the timing, source, duration, and relative importance of aqueous versus other geomorphic processes.

  1. The Efficacy of ATI Predictive Testing and Remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Alexandra Selman

    2013-01-01

    This project study sought to evaluate the effects of implementing quarterly predictive testing and remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) pass rates of an associate's degree nursing program at a small Midwestern community college. The college's pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has been below both the…

  2. The Efficacy of ATI Predictive Testing and Remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Alexandra Selman

    2013-01-01

    This project study sought to evaluate the effects of implementing quarterly predictive testing and remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) pass rates of an associate's degree nursing program at a small Midwestern community college. The college's pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has been below both the…

  3. Effects of changing housing conditions on mangabey behavior (Cercocebus atys): spatial density, housing quality, and novelty effects

    PubMed Central

    Crast, Jessica; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Jonesteller, Trina

    2015-01-01

    The separate influences of spatial density and housing quality on the behavior of captive animals are difficult to measure because the two factors are often intrinsically linked. Here, we recorded affiliative and agonistic behavior in adult sooty mangabeys in various housing situations, testing spatial density and housing quality changes separately (N=26 experienced spatial density changes; N=12 experienced housing quality changes). We varied spatial density by 50% while holding housing quality constant and we varied housing quality while holding spatial density constant (achieved by comparing two types of run-housing that varied in the amount of visual privacy and outdoor access). Each housing condition was one month in duration. Prior to collecting data in each housing condition, we evaluated the subjects’ initial responses to the change in housing environment during two-week novelty periods. Affiliative behavior did not change during the novelty periods. Agonistic behavior initially increased slightly when spatial density increased and it decreased significantly when spatial density decreased; it also decreased when subjects moved to housing that offered more visual privacy and outdoor space, indicating that the mangabeys were sensitive to these housing changes. After the novelty periods, affiliative behavior increased under higher spatial density, but remained unchanged across housing quality conditions; agonistic behavior remained unchanged across all conditions. Results suggest that a prolonged increase in spatial density led the mangabeys to adopt a tension-reduction coping strategy, in which the increase in affiliative behavior alleviates a presumed increase in social tension. Reducing visual privacy and choice did not affect the mangabeys’ behavior, post-novelty period. Thus, like many other primates, the mangabeys managed tension by flexibly adapting to changes in their housing environment in ways that reduce the risk of severe aggression. This study highlights the importance of controlled behavioral studies in facilitating data-driven management decisions that promote animal welfare. PMID:26111730

  4. Operations and maintenance manual for the light duty utility arm (LDUA) at-tank instrument enclosure (ATIE) (LDUA system 4300)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) At-Tank Instrument Enclosure has completed testing and is ready for operation. This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation and maintenance of the At-Tank Instrument Enclosure.

  5. A Comparison of Large-Scale Reforestation Techniques Commonly Used on Abandoned Fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Vally

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; John A. Stanturf

    1999-01-01

    Reforesting abandoned land in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley has attracted heightened attention. Currently, federal cost share programs, such as the Wetland Reserve Program and the Conservation Reserve Program, are enticing landowners to consider reforesting lands that are marginally productive for agriculture. This study examined four reforestation techniques...

  6. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ATiO{sub 3}–Pr thin films prepared by a photochemical method (where A = Ba and Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, G.; Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Buono-Core, G.E.; Huentupil, Y.; Chornik, B.; Carrasco, C.; Rodríguez, C.A.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A method of photochemical deposition has been used to the preparation of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped Pr(III). • The (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}/Pr(III) films under 375 nm excitation shows emissions attributable to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr ion. • These PL signals decreased above 10 mol% of Pr(III). • Analysis suggests the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap influences in the PL processes. - Abstract: This article reports the characterization and optical properties of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped with Pr at different proportions (0–15 mol%). The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and quartz substrates using a photochemical method and post-annealed at 900 °C. The evaluation of photo-reactivity of the precursor complexes was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that Ba, Ca, Ti, O and Pr are present in the form of perovskite. Under UV light excitation (375 nm) the (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}–Pr films show the characteristic emissions ascribed to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr{sup 3+} ion. The optical measurements show the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap which influence the emission processes.

  8. Aqueous mineralogy and stratigraphy at and around the proposed Mawrth Vallis MSL Landing Site: New insights into the aqueous history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobrea, Eldar Z. Noe; Michalski, Joseph; Swayze, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have confirmed the mineralogical stratigraphy previously inferred by other authors, but also demonstrate the presence of additional minerals, including a possible acid-leaching product near the top of the sequence, an Mh-OH bearing phyllosilicate at the to of the sequence, and potentially a Ca-sulfate at the bottom of the phyllosilicate sequence. The latter has important implications regarding the relative timing of sulfate vs clay formation on Mars.

  9. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Topographic map of the western region of Dao Vallis in Hellas Planitia, Mars; MTM 500k -40/082E OMKT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosiek, Mark R.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. Contours were derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) compiled on a digital photogrammetric workstation using Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs with orientation parameters derived from an analytic aerotriangulation. The image base for this map employs Viking Orbiter images from orbits 406 and 363. An orthophotomosaic was created on the digital photogrammetric workstation using the DTM compiled from stereo models.

  12. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  13. Formation of orthopoxvirus cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and embedding of virions are dynamic processes requiring microtubules.

    PubMed

    Howard, Amanda R; Moss, Bernard

    2012-05-01

    In cells infected with some orthopoxviruses, numerous mature virions (MVs) become embedded within large, cytoplasmic A-type inclusions (ATIs) that can protect infectivity after cell lysis. ATIs are composed of an abundant viral protein called ATIp, which is truncated in orthopoxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) that do not form ATIs. To study ATI formation and occlusion of MVs within ATIs, we used recombinant VACVs that express the cowpox full-length ATIp or we transfected plasmids encoding ATIp into cells infected with VACV, enabling ATI formation. ATI enlargement and MV embedment required continued protein synthesis and an intact microtubular network. For live imaging of ATIs and MVs, plasmids expressing mCherry fluorescent protein fused to ATIp were transfected into cells infected with VACV expressing the viral core protein A4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein. ATIs appeared as dynamic, mobile bodies that enlarged by multiple coalescence events, which could be prevented by disrupting microtubules. Coalescence of ATIs was confirmed in cells infected with cowpox virus. MVs were predominantly at the periphery of ATIs early in infection. We determined that coalescence contributed to the distribution of MVs within ATIs and that microtubule-disrupting drugs abrogated coalescence-mediated MV embedment. In addition, MVs were shown to move from viral factories at speeds consistent with microtubular transport to the peripheries of ATIs, whereas disruption of microtubules prevented such trafficking. The data indicate an important role for microtubules in the coalescence of ATIs into larger structures, transport of MVs to ATIs, and embedment of MVs within the ATI matrix.

  14. A New Type of Compartment, Defined by Plant-Specific Atg8-Interacting Proteins, Is Induced upon Exposure of Arabidopsis Plants to Carbon Starvation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Arik; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Ufaz, Shai; Galili, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Atg8 is a central protein in bulk starvation–induced autophagy, but it is also specifically associated with multiple protein targets under various physiological conditions to regulate their selective turnover by the autophagy machinery. Here, we describe two new closely related Arabidopsis thaliana Atg8-interacting proteins (ATI1 and ATI2) that are unique to plants. We show that under favorable growth conditions, ATI1 and ATI2 are partially associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane network, whereas upon exposure to carbon starvation, they become mainly associated with newly identified spherical compartments that dynamically move along the ER network. These compartments are morphologically distinct from previously reported spindle-shaped ER bodies and, in contrast to them, do not contain ER-lumenal markers possessing a C-terminal HDEL sequence. Organelle and autophagosome-specific markers show that the bodies containing ATI1 are distinct from Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and classical autophagosomes. The final destination of the ATI1 bodies is the central vacuole, indicating that they may operate in selective turnover of specific proteins. ATI1 and ATI2 gene expression is elevated during late seed maturation and desiccation. We further demonstrate that ATI1 overexpression or suppression of both ATI1 and ATI2, respectively, stimulate or inhibit seed germination in the presence of the germination-inhibiting hormone abscisic acid. PMID:22253227

  15. A new type of compartment, defined by plant-specific Atg8-interacting proteins, is induced upon exposure of Arabidopsis plants to carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Honig, Arik; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Ufaz, Shai; Galili, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Atg8 is a central protein in bulk starvation-induced autophagy, but it is also specifically associated with multiple protein targets under various physiological conditions to regulate their selective turnover by the autophagy machinery. Here, we describe two new closely related Arabidopsis thaliana Atg8-interacting proteins (ATI1 and ATI2) that are unique to plants. We show that under favorable growth conditions, ATI1 and ATI2 are partially associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane network, whereas upon exposure to carbon starvation, they become mainly associated with newly identified spherical compartments that dynamically move along the ER network. These compartments are morphologically distinct from previously reported spindle-shaped ER bodies and, in contrast to them, do not contain ER-lumenal markers possessing a C-terminal HDEL sequence. Organelle and autophagosome-specific markers show that the bodies containing ATI1 are distinct from Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and classical autophagosomes. The final destination of the ATI1 bodies is the central vacuole, indicating that they may operate in selective turnover of specific proteins. ATI1 and ATI2 gene expression is elevated during late seed maturation and desiccation. We further demonstrate that ATI1 overexpression or suppression of both ATI1 and ATI2, respectively, stimulate or inhibit seed germination in the presence of the germination-inhibiting hormone abscisic acid.

  16. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  17. Nutritional Wheat Amylase-Trypsin Inhibitors Promote Intestinal Inflammation via Activation of Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Zevallos, Victor F; Raker, Verena; Tenzer, Stefan; Jimenez-Calvente, Carolina; Ashfaq-Khan, Muhammad; Rüssel, Nina; Pickert, Geethanjali; Schild, Hansjörg; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Schuppan, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are nutritional activators of innate immunity, via activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on myeloid cells. We aimed to characterize the biologic activity of ATIs in various foods and their effect on intestinal inflammation. We selected 38 different gluten-containing and gluten-free products, either unprocessed (such as wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, amaranth, soya, lentils, and rice) or processed (such as pizza, pasta, bread, and biscuits). ATIs were extracted and their biological activities determined in TLR4-responsive mouse and human cell lines. Effects of oral ATIs on intestinal inflammation were determined in healthy C57BL/6 mice on a gluten-free or ATI-free diet and in mice given low-level polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis. Parameters of innate and adaptive immune activation were determined in duodenum, ileum, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Modern gluten-containing staples had levels of TLR4-activating ATIs that were as much as 100-fold higher than in most gluten-free foods. Processed or baked foods retained ATI bioactivity. Most older wheat variants (such as Emmer or Einkorn) had lower bioactivity than modern (hexaploid) wheat. ATI species CM3 and 0.19 were the most prevalent activators of TLR4 in modern wheat and were highly resistant to intestinal proteolysis. Their ingestion induced modest intestinal myeloid cell infiltration and activation, and release of inflammatory mediators-mostly in the colon, then in the ileum, and then in the duodenum. Dendritic cells became prominently activated in mesenteric lymph nodes. Concentrations of ATIs found in a normal daily gluten-containing diet increased low-level intestinal inflammation. Gluten-containing cereals have by far the highest concentrations of ATIs that activate TLR4. Orally ingested ATIs are largely resistant to proteases and heat, and increase intestinal inflammation by activating gut and mesenteric lymph node

  18. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses.

  19. Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-12

    Aurorae Chaos is located at the eastern end of the chasmata forming Vallis Marineris. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is very close to the chasmata and at a higher elevation than the floor of the chasmata.

  20. Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-22

    Located at the eastern end of Vallis Marineris is the region of chaos called Aurorae. This image from NASA Mars Odyssey is from the northern part of Aurorae Chaos and contains mesas separated by complex low lying regions.

  1. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  2. Landing Sites Under Consideration for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.; Kirk, R.; Fergason, R.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Milliken, R.; Sun, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Detailed scientific investigations of target materials and surface characteristics are focusing on four potential landing sites (Holden, Gale and Eberswalde craters and Mawrth Vallis) for the Mars Science Laboratory.

  3. Final Four Landing Sites for the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory will land at Mawrth Vallis, Holden, Gale, or Eberswalde Craters (locations important to the potential habitability of Mars) after 4 community workshops and the consideration of more than 50 candidates over the past 4 years.

  4. Martian Meanders: Wavelength-Width Scaling and Flow Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire-Mazzocco, H.; Stepinski, T. F.; McGovern, P. J.; Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2006-03-01

    Martian meanders reveals linear wavelength/width scaling with a coef. k~10, that can be used to estimate discharges. Simulations of channel evolution are used to determine flow duration from sinuosity. Application to Nirgal Vallis yields 200 yrs.

  5. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km about 7.5 mile diameter crater imaged by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft looks vaguely like a stop sign.

  6. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Methodological Considerations in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research with Intact Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Salvia, John

    1980-01-01

    The paper cites difficulties in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research which investigates relationships between test performance and the extent of profiting from instruction. Two methods for ATI research (regression analysis and analysis of variance) are described, assumptions and potential mininterpretations are noted, and correct…

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael; Trigwell, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) was developed to explore the relationship between students' approaches to learning, and teachers' approaches to teaching, in the physical sciences in higher education. It is increasingly being used in other contexts. Aim: To analyse the factor structure of the ATI. Method: Confirmatory factor…

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Performance of Shipborne Fixed Crossed Loop H/F D/F Applied to Aircraft Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    19 Oct 2009 Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old...Haslemere, Surrey. 1%£. aMBBaBtt ABD BEMBBtt «wanauiw g in BBBBBBBB g MIPBORIS ?BB> CROSSED LOOP H/fr P/P jJVUSD TO AIBSRAW HAVICrtTll». Safrans

  10. Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    042.027 (Cognitive Factors in Learning and Retention) under the sponsorship of the Chief of Naval Material (Office of Naval Technology ). The general goal of...1...... ,,O and Problem ............................................... I , eFl ... classroom . Before such generalization can be made, more ATI investigations must be conducted using more appropriate learning materials. In most of the ATI

  11. Hemispheric Asymmetries and Cognitive Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    Visual, auditory, and bimodal event-related potentials were recorded from 50 males, and lateral asymmetry indices were derived. Eleven psychometric tests of different cognitive attributes were also administered to them. This area of research has been labeled aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI). The emphasis of ATI research is on identification of…

  12. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors as nutritional activators of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Schuppan, Detlef; Zevallos, Victor

    2015-01-01

    While the central role of an adaptive, T cell-mediated immune response to certain gluten peptides in celiac disease is well established, the innate immune response to wheat proteins remains less well defined. We identified wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), but not gluten, as major stimulators of innate immune cells (dendritic cells>macrophages>monocytes), while intestinal epithelial cells were nonresponsive. ATIs bind to and activate the CD14-MD2 toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex. This activation occurs both in vitro and in vivo after oral ingestion of purified ATIs or gluten, which is usually enriched in ATIs. Wheat ATIs represent a family of up to 17 proteins with molecular weights of around 15 kDa and a variable primary but conserved secondary structure characterized by 5 intrachain disulfide bonds and alpha helices. They mostly form di- and tetramers that appear to equally activate TLR4. Relevant biological activity is confined to ATIs in gluten-containing cereals, while gluten-free cereals display no or minimal activities. ATIs represent up to 4% of total wheat protein and are highly resistant to intestinal proteases. In line with their dose-dependent function as co-stimulatory molecules in adaptive immunity of celiac disease, they appear to play a role in promoting other immune-mediated diseases within and outside the GI tract. Thus, ATIs may be prime candidates of severe forms of non-celiac gluten (wheat) sensitivity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2013-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…

  14. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  15. Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2013-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…

  16. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  17. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  18. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val to Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13 to 32 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a Val deficient basal diet containing 0.60% L-Lys•HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed th...

  19. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid.

  20. Strong-field ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules by a bicircular laser field: Rotational and reflection symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuladžić, M.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Milošević, D. B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate above-threshold ionization (ATI) of homonuclear diatomic molecules by the so-called bicircular field using the improved molecular strong-field approximation. Bicircular field is a two-color laser field having coplanar circularly polarized counter-rotating components of frequencies r ω and s ω , with r and s integers. Our analysis includes the high-energy part of the corresponding spectra, i.e., high-order ATI (HATI). The obtained molecular (H)ATI spectra are more complicated than the corresponding atomic spectra. We have identified four symmetries which are satisfied in (H)ATI of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Two of these symmetries are general rotational symmetries valid both for direct and rescattered HATI electrons. The remaining two symmetries are reflection symmetries valid only for the direct ATI electrons. Analytical proof of these symmetries is also given. These symmetries are illustrated using numerical examples of HATI spectra of the N2 molecule for various molecular orientations.

  1. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km per pixel observations of 4 major channel and valley systems: Shalbatana Vallis; Simud Vallis, Hydraotes Chaos, and the associated outflow channel connecting it with the eastern end of Vallis Marineris; Al-Qahira Vallis; and Ma'adim Vallis. Simultaneous broad band visible channel data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that all 4 valley systems have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies of Martian channels. We conclude that the higher inertia is likely due to some intrinsic difference associated with the channel floors, rather than due only to dark aeolian deposits as suggested by some previous studies. Our conclusion is based largely upon the localized nature of the dark deposits in contrast with the thermal homogeneity of the channel floors. Thus, these channels and valleys show an uncommon (for Mars) connection between morphology and inertia.

  2. Standardization of the homogeneous mobility shift assay protocol for evaluation of anti-infliximab antibodies. Application of the method to Crohn's disease patients treated with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Breijo, B; Chaparro, M; Cano-Martínez, D; Guerra, I; Iborra, M; Cabriada, J L; Bujanda, L; Taxonera, C; García-Sánchez, V; Marín-Jiménez, I; Barreiro-de Acosta, M; Vera, I; Martín-Arranz, M D; Mesonero, F; Sempere, L; Gomollón, F; Hinojosa, J; Gisbert, J P; Guijarro, L G

    2016-12-15

    The availability of a quantitative method to measure anti-infliximab (IFX) antibodies (ATI) would facilitate the implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical decision-making. Our aim was to standardize the homogeneous mobility shift assay (HMSA) used in the measure of ATI levels. In this prospective longitudinal multicenter study, 50 IFX-treated Crohn's disease (CD) patients were followed up for 54weeks. During this period 360 human serum samples were analysed. Monomeric ATI levels were measured by a quantitative HMSA-method using an anti-IFX calibrator. IFX trough levels measured by ELISA were correlated with ATI levels. Using HMSA and a pure anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody specific for IFX (anti-IFX calibrator), we measured the levels of monomeric ATI generated in Crohn's disease patients treated with IFX. Anti-IFX calibrator allowed to quantify monomeric antibodies against IFX with a low limit of quantification (3nM). The threshold level of ATI in order to classify the immunogenicity of the patients was 10nM. We observed that 24% (12/50) of IFX-treated patients developed ATI (>10nM) during the observation period (54weeks). Serum concentration of ATI higher than 10nM dramatically increased the probability (OR=51.1; 95% CI: 20.4-128.0; p<0.0001) of presenting low levels of IFX (⩽1.5nM) in serum, as observed in some CD patients treated with standard doses of the drug. The HMSA-method described here allows an accurate quantification of ATI concentration in international units (IU) and therefore it could be useful in the study of the relationship between ATI concentration, infliximab level and the clinical response to the drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tonsillectomy among children with low baseline acute throat infection consultation rates in UK general practices: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Elizabeth; Watt, Hilary; Curcin, Vasa; Bottle, Alex; Sharland, Mike; Saxena, Sonia

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the effectiveness of tonsillectomy in reducing acute throat infection (ATI) consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up among children with low baseline ATI consultation rates. Retrospective cohort study. UK general practices from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Children aged 4-15 years with ≤3 ATI consultations during the 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline). 450 children who underwent tonsillectomy (tonsillectomy group) and 13 442 other children with an ATI consultation (comparison group) in 2001. Mean differences in ATI consultation rates over the first 3 years' and subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline); odds of ≥3 ATI consultations at the same time points. Among children in the tonsillectomy group, the 3-year mean ATI consultation rate decreased from 1.31 to 0.66 over the first 3 years' follow-up and further declined to 0.60 over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up period. Compared with children who had no operation, those who underwent tonsillectomy experienced a reduction in 3-year mean ATI consultations per child of 2.5 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.6, p<0.001) over the first 3 years' follow-up, but only 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4, p<0.001) over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with baseline, respectively. This equates to a mean reduction of 3.7 ATI consultations over a 6-year period and approximates to a mean annual reduction of 0.6 ATI consultations per child, per year, over 6 years' follow-up. Children who underwent tonsillectomy were also much less likely to experience ≥3 ATI consultations during the first 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.17) and the subsequent 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.41). Among children with low baseline ATI rates, there was a statistically significant reduction in ATI consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up. However, the relatively modest clinical benefit needs to be weighed against the potential

  4. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  5. Academic and nursing aptitude and the NCLEX-RN in baccalaureate programs.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary Ann; Harris, Debra; Tracz, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    Accurately predicting NCLEX-RN® success has a positive impact on all nursing education stakeholders. This study focused on the ability to predict NCLEX-RN pass rates on the basis of prenursing academic aptitude variables and the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) nursing aptitude program. The ATI predictors were the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) and fi ve ATI subject tests: Fundamentals, Medical Surgical, Nursing Care of Children, Mental Health, and Maternal Newborn. The prenursing variables comprised the prenursing grade point average, a prerequisite communication course, and the ATI TEAS composite subscores of TEAS Reading, TEAS Math, TEAS Science, and TEAS English. This study included participants from four baccalaureate nursing programs in the California State University system. Results of canonical correlation, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression revealed a significant correlation among prenursing, ATI scores, and NCLEXRN fi rst-try pass rates. Prediction of NCLEX-RN success rate using standardized testing data was supported, with the strongest predictors being the ATI Medical Surgical and ATI Mental Health tests.

  6. Temporal integration reflected by frequency following response in auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Ye, Datian

    2015-01-01

    Auditory temporal integration (ATI) has been widely described in psychoacoustic studies, especially for loudness perception. Loudness increases with increasing sound duration for durations up to a time constant about 100 ~ 200 ms, and then loudness becomes saturated with more duration increase. However, the electrophysiological mechanism underlying the ATI phenomenon has not been well understood. To investigate ATI at the brainstem level of auditory system and its relationship to cortical and behavioral ATI, frequency follow response (FFR) was acquired in our study. Simultaneously, ATI in auditory cortex was evaluated by cortical response P1. Behavioral loudness and electrophysiological measures were estimated from normal-hearing young adults for vowel /a/ whose durations varied from 50 ms to 175 ms. Significant effects of stimulus duration were found both on FFR and P1 amplitudes. Linear regression analysis revealed that as stimulus duration increased, brainstem FFR amplitude was significantly associated with cortical P1 amplitude and behavioral loudness, which confirmed the existence of temporal integration in auditory brainstem. Moreover, behavioral loudness ATI was better predicted using brainstem and cortical measures together than merely using each one separately, indicating an interplay and coordination for ATI across the three levels along auditory pathway.

  7. Arabidopsis ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 Is Involved in Autophagy-Dependent Vesicular Trafficking of Plastid Proteins to the Vacuole[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Simon; Honig, Arik; Levanony, Hanna; Peled-Zehavi, Hadas; Galili, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagy has been extensively studied in various organisms, but knowledge regarding its functions in plants, particularly in organelle turnover, is limited. We have recently discovered ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (ATI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that following carbon starvation it is localized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated bodies that are subsequently transported to the vacuole. Here, we show that following carbon starvation ATI1 is also located on bodies associating with plastids, which are distinct from the ER ATI bodies and are detected mainly in senescing cells that exhibit plastid degradation. Additionally, these plastid-localized bodies contain a stroma protein marker as cargo and were observed budding and detaching from plastids. ATI1 interacts with plastid-localized proteins and was further shown to be required for the turnover of one of them, as a representative. ATI1 on the plastid bodies also interacts with ATG8f, which apparently leads to the targeting of the plastid bodies to the vacuole by a process that requires functional autophagy. Finally, we show that ATI1 is involved in Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance. Taken together, our results implicate ATI1 in autophagic plastid-to-vacuole trafficking through its ability to interact with both plastid proteins and ATG8 of the core autophagy machinery. PMID:25281689

  8. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  9. Antibodies to Infliximab Are Associated with Lower Infliximab Levels and Increased Likelihood of Surgery in Pediatric IBD

    PubMed Central

    Zitomersky, Naamah L.; Atkinson, Benjamin J.; Fournier, Kerri; Mitchell, Paul D.; Stern, Julia Bender; Butler, Michael C.; Ashworth, Lori; Hauenstein, Scott; Heiner, Linda; Chuang, Emil; Singh, Sharat; Bousvaros, Athos

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult studies suggest antibodies to infliximab (ATI) correlate with loss of response in inflammatory bowel disease but pediatric data are limited. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of trough infliximab levels and ATI in 134 pediatric and young adult patients receiving infliximab. At the time serum was obtained demographics, disease phenotype, duration of infliximab therapy, use of combination therapy (methotrexate or 6-mercaptopurine with infliximab), and surgery were recorded. Results Assays were performed on 134 subjects currently receiving infliximab (85 male; mean age, 17.3 ± 4.3 years; 114 Crohn’s disease and 20 ulcerative colitis). Infliximab use ranged from 12 days to 12 years: median 2.0 (interquartile range [1.1–4.3]) years. Twenty-seven of 134 (20%) patients had ATI ≥5 U/mL. Of patients with ATI ≥5 U/mL, 59% had infliximab levels <5 μg/mL, compared with 14% of patients with ATI <5 U/mL (P < 0.001). Ten (7%) patients (9 Crohn’s disease, 1 ulcerative colitis) underwent bowel resections after beginning infliximab infusions. Sixty percent who underwent surgery had ATI ≥12 U/mL; in contrast, only 8% of patients who did not undergo surgery had ATI ≥12 U/mL (P = 0.01). At the time of serum sampling, 50 (37%) patients were receiving combination therapy, compared with 84 (63%) on infliximab alone. Combination therapy at the time of serum sampling did not correlate with either increase infliximab levels or lower ATI compared with infliximab monotherapy. However, prior immunomodulator use was associated with lower antibody levels (P = 0.007). Conclusions ATI correlates with reduction in infliximab level and a higher risk of surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25569737

  10. Aerosol Characteristics in the Northern Territory of Australia During the Dry Season With an Emphasis on Biomass Burning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    eucalyptus ) in an open forest with an understorey of (sorghum) tussock grasses. The same eucalypt species were...pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP sea-salt smoke secondary June 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Mg nssK nssSO4 NO3 Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr...ati on in T SP PM10 to PM1 (coarse particles) PM1 (fine particles) sea-salt smoke secondary Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP

  11. Fast Sampling and Analysis of Offgas Dioxins/Furans Using a Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C. G.; Rees, R. T.; Reick, K. G.; Montgomery, J. L.; Battleson, D. M.; LeFever, J.; Sears, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    The United States Department of Energy is using or evaluating several Alternatives-to- Incineration (ATI) technologies for treating hazardous wastes and low-level mixed wastes. ATI treatment technologies may have the potential for generating gaseous or other emissions of polychlorinated dioxins/furans, a class of highly toxic compounds which are regulated to very low levels. At present, the emission limit for dioxins/furans from hazardous waste incinerators is 0.2 ng TEQ/dscm (0.4 ng TEQ/dscm w/TC). Emissions from ATI technologies are expected to be subject to similar restrictions.

  12. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [Everglades agricultural area and the west north central peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures derived from HCMM data were compared with to those obtained by GOES satellite and the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) calculated. For two dates, the HCMM temperatures appear to be about 5 C lower than the GOES temperatures. The ATI for excessively-drained to well-drained mineral soils was greater than for drained organic soils possibly because of long periods of low rainfall during late 1980 and early 1981. Organic soils cropped to sugar cane showed lower ATI after a severe killing freeze. With dead leaves, there was less transpiration and more solar radiation probably reached the dark soil surface. This would explain the larger diurnal temperature amplitude observed.

  13. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (ATI), Charleston, South Carolina 2. Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California 3. American... Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia 20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado..., California 23. Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 24. Riverside Research...

  14. Negative-Ion Formation from Surface Scattering and the Anderson Correlation Energy U.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    David Squire AFOSR/NC Amuy Research Office Bolltg AFB P.O. Box 12211 ! Washington, D.C. 20332 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Professor Roald Hoffmann Department of Chemistry Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 ATI

  15. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  16. 75 FR 38139 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Services and Manpower. 73,936 ATI Wah Chang, Allegheny Albany, OR April 14, 2009. Technologies, Inc. 73,942...,989 United Auto Workers (UAW) Fenton, MO Local 136. 74,057 Specialty Minerals, Inc...... Franklin, VA...

  17. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, G S; Pereira, M O; Benarroz, M O; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M J; Fonseca, A S; Medeiros, A C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na(99m)TcO(4) and (99m)Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  18. 76 FR 33166 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... the Government. Defect means any condition or characteristic in any supply or service furnished by the... Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number, European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health...

  19. Probing electron delays in above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zipp, Lucas J.; Natan, Adi; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2014-11-21

    Recent experiments have revealed attosecond delays in the emission of electrons from atoms ionized by extreme UV light, offering a glimpse into the ultrafast nature of light-induced electron dynamics. In this work, we extend these measurements to the strong-field above-threshold ionization (ATI) regime, by measuring delays in the photoemission of electrons from argon in the presence of an intense laser field. We probe the ATI process with a weak coherent reference, at half the laser frequency. The interfering ionization signal reveals the relative spectral phase of adjacent ATI channels, with an equivalent resolution of a few attoseconds. These relative delays depend on the strong field, and approach zero at higher intensity. Our phase measurements of ATI electrons show how strong fields alter ionization dynamics in atoms.

  20. Probing electron delays in above-threshold ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Zipp, Lucas J.; Natan, Adi; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2014-11-21

    Recent experiments have revealed attosecond delays in the emission of electrons from atoms ionized by extreme UV light, offering a glimpse into the ultrafast nature of light-induced electron dynamics. In this work, we extend these measurements to the strong-field above-threshold ionization (ATI) regime, by measuring delays in the photoemission of electrons from argon in the presence of an intense laser field. We probe the ATI process with a weak coherent reference, at half the laser frequency. The interfering ionization signal reveals the relative spectral phase of adjacent ATI channels, with an equivalent resolution of a few attoseconds. These relative delaysmore » depend on the strong field, and approach zero at higher intensity. Our phase measurements of ATI electrons show how strong fields alter ionization dynamics in atoms.« less

  1. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from Ascaris suum, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite, was tested for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in male mice. Dominant lethal effects of ATI for the main stages of germ cell development were analyzed by mating at specific time points after dosing. Three groups of adult BALB/c males received 50, 100 or 250mg/kg body weight (bw) single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ATI in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The control group received concurrent injection of PBS. After the administration of ATI or PBS, each male was mated with two untreated females. For fractionated examination with regard to successive germ cell stages (spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes, and spermatogonia), every second week two other untreated virgin females were placed with each male for mating. The uteri of the females were inspected on the 15th day of gestation, and preimplantation loss and postimplantation loss determined from dominant lethal parameters. Exposure of mice germ cells to ATI did not impair mating activity of males. Pregnancy rates were reduced ( approximately 5-10%) by treatment of males with higher doses of ATI, but differences between treatment and control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the females bred to ATI-treated males, significant increase in preimplantation loss was observed at post-injection week 1 (reflecting exposure to spermatozoa) and 3 (reflecting exposure to mid and early spermatids) for higher doses of the inhibitor (P<0.05 or P<0.01). During mating days 15-21 a statistically significant increase in postimplantation loss and dominant lethal effects were observed for all doses of ATI. At higher doses, dominant lethal effects were restricted to spermatozoa (P<0.01). These data suggest that ATI induces dominant lethal mutations at postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, but spermatids are the most sensitive cell stage to the effect of ATI. These preliminary findings show that ATI

  2. Clinical correlations of infliximab trough levels and antibodies to infliximab in South Korean patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Hye; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Hyungil; Chang, Kiju; Kim, Gwang-Un; Song, Eun Mi; Seo, Myeongsook; Lee, Ho-Su; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Park, Sang Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical implications of infliximab trough levels (IFX-TLs) and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) levels in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in Asian countries. METHODS IFX-TL and ATI level were measured using prospectively collected samples obtained with informed consent from CD patients being treated at Asan Medical Center, South Korea. We analyzed the correlations between IFX-TLs/ATI levels and the clinical activity of CD (quiescent vs active disease) based on the CD activity index, C-reactive protein level, and physician’s judgment of patients’ clinical status at enrollment. The impact of concomitant immunomodulators was also investigated. RESULTS This study enrolled 138 patients with CD (84 with quiescent and 54 with active disease). In patients with quiescent and active diseases, the median IFX-TLs were 1.423 μg/mL and 0.163 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001) and the median ATI levels were 8.064 AU/mL and 11.209 AU/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In the ATI-negative and -positive groups, the median IFX-TLs were 1.415 μg/mL and 0.141 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with and without concomitant immunomodulator use, there were no differences in IFX-TLs (0.632 μg/mL and 1.150 μg/mL, respectively; P = 0.274) or ATI levels (8.655 AU/mL and 9.017 AU/mL, respectively; P = 0.083). CONCLUSION IFX-TL/ATI levels were well correlated with the clinical activity in South Korean CD patients. Our findings support the usefulness of IFX-TLs/ATI levels in treating CD patients receiving IFX in clinical practice. PMID:28293096

  3. Anti-Tumor Effects of Atractylenolide-I on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, Fangyi; Wang, Ting; Jia, Ping; Wang, Huafei; Qing, Yi; Xiong, Tingting; He, Mengjie; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Atractylenolide-I (AT-I), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, on human ovarian cancer cells. Material/Methods The viability and anchorage-independent growth of ovarian cancer cells were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assay, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry analysis. The level of cyclin B1 and CDK1 was measured using qPCR and ELISA analysis. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, AIF, and Bcl-2, and phosphorylation level of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR were determined with Western blot analysis. Results AT-I decreased the cell viability and suppressed anchorage-independent growth of A2780 cells. Cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase transition by AT-I treatment, which was related to decreased expression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment induced apoptosis, as shown by up-regulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cytosolic release of cytochrome c and AIF, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, in a dose-dependent manner. Then, the effects of AT-I on PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were examined to further investigate the underlying anti-cancer mechanism of AT-I, and the results showed that treatment with AT-I significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AT-I induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that AT-I might be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:28141785

  4. Flight Investigation of NACA DS Cowlings on the XP-42 Airplane. 1 - High Inlet Velocity Cowling with Propeller Cuffs Tested in High-Speed Level Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-01-01

    Intelligence Deportment Air Materiel Command AIR TECHNICAL INDEX Wright Patterson Air Force Dnyton, Ohio TITLE: Investigation of Maximum...Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old and was...Do Not Return This Document To DTIC »•’ ,’ Reproduced by AIR DOCUMENTS DIVISION • 4 ."*!*• HEADQUARTERS AIR MATERIEL COMMAND WRIGHT FIELD

  5. Effect of Finite Span on the Airload Distributions for Oscillating Wings. 1 - Aerodynamic Theory of Oscillating Wings of Finite Span

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-03-01

    Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old and was...applications to specific problems are given in part II of this report. INTRODUCTION V» The present report d-3als with the linear aerodynamic theory...vation of this integral equation is an important part of the work. In this report the foregoing results are obtained in what appeare at present to be the

  6. Low cost, combined radio frequency and electrostatic protection for electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Attenuation Technology Inc. (ATI) has developed a series of ferrite attenuators for protecting electroexplosive devices (EED's) from inadvertent actuation due to RF exposure. ATI's first attenuator was fabricated using the MN 67 ferrite formulation. That attenuator protected EED's from both pin-to-pin and pin-to-case RF exposure. Those attenuators passed MIL STD 1385B testing when used in electric blasting caps (EBC), electric squibs, and firing line filters made for the US Navy.

  7. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-03

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  8. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  9. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  10. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of a pyrrole containing arylthioindole in human Jurkat leukemia cell line and multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells

    PubMed Central

    Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Kuiava, Ludmila M; Blokhin, Dmitry Yu; Miura, Koh; Silvestri, Romano; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a series of novel arylthioindole compounds, potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, were synthesized. In the present study the effects of 2-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-3-((3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thio)-1H-indole (ATI5 compound) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human T-cell acute leukemia Jurkat cells and their multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 subline were investigated. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with the ATI5 compound for 48 hrs resulted in a strong G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-independent apoptotic cell death accompanied by the induction of the active form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage. ATI5 treatment also caused non-cell death related mitotic arrest in multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 cells after 48 hrs of treatment suggesting promising opportunities for the further design of pyrrole-containing ATI compounds as anticancer agents. Cell death resistance of Jurkat/A4 cells to ATI5 compound was associated with alterations in the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein-coding and microRNA genes. More importantly, findings showing that ATI5 treatment induced p53-independent apoptosis are of great importance from a therapeutic point of view since p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human neoplasms. PMID:26785947

  11. Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-π, π], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

  12. Hellas outflow channel study: the formation and timing of Waikato and Reull Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostama, V.-P.; Kukkonen, S.

    2012-09-01

    There are several large scale outflow channels to the east-northeast of the Hellas basin in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Majority of these channels are located in the large scale topographic trough connecting Hesperia Planum and Hellas basin. One of these valley systems is located outside the Hellas- Hesperia Trough (HHT, [4,6]). This ~1500 km Reull Vallis and its parts have been studied in greater detail in the past [i.e., 5,8]. Previous studies noted the upper parts of the Reull system separated by a topographic depression (previously identified and provisionally named as Morpheos basin), and identified it as a possible paleo-reservoir, filled by the release of fluents from the upper part of the Reull system, now known as Waikato Vallis [5-7]. In earlier study [5], we presented a hypothesis for the formation of the Reull Vallis system and its segments, including Waikato, Reull and Teviot Valles which addressed the geomorphic observations of Reull Vallis system. The new data from HRSC, CTX and HiRISE enable to add more detail to the evolution of the whole fluvial system. The crater size-frequency counting using the hi-res data and geological analysis of the upper WMR (Waikato-Morpheos-Reull) system region and southern Hesperia Planum enable us to 1) estimate the formation age of the upper Reull Vallis and Waikato Vallis outflow channels, 2) more explicitly define the size of the Morpheos basin, and 3) present a detailed analysis of the upper parts of this system. Using the observations and calculations, an updated view and time of the evolution of the system and associated region is presented.

  13. Resurfacing event observed in Morpheos basin (Eridania Planitia) and the implications to the formation and timing of Waikato and Reull Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostama, V.-P.; Kukkonen, S.; Raitala, J.

    2017-06-01

    The large scale outflow channels of the Hellas impact basin are characteristic to its eastern rim region. Although the majority of the valles are located in the large-scale topographic trough connecting Hesperia Planum and Hellas basin, the most far-reaching of them, Reull Vallis is situated to the south-southeast of this trough cutting through Promethei Terra. Reull Vallis and the general geology of the region has been studied in the past, but new higher resolution image data enables us to look into the details of the features implicating the fluvial history of the region. Photogeological mapping using the available data and extensive crater counting utilizing CTX, HiRISE and HRSC provided new insights to the timing of the regional events and episodes. The study resulted in more detailed age constraints compared to the previous results from Viking images. These calculations and the geological study of the upper WMR system (Waikato Vallis - Morpheos basin - Reull Vallis) region and southern Hesperia Planum enabled us to estimate the time-frame of the (fluid) infilling of this reservoir to a model time period of 3.67-3.52 Ga which is thus also the time of the visible activity of the upper Reull Vallis and Waikato Vallis outflow channels. The results also more explicitly defined the size of previously identified Morpheos basin (confined to the 500-550 m contour lines). We also present a geological analysis of the upper parts of the WMR system, and using the observations and calculations, present an updated view of the evolution of the system and associated region.

  14. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of Mars - The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (about 30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented for the region 0-45 deg N, 0-90 deg W. In the region adjoining the Chryse basin there are two major channels, Kasei Vallis and Ares Vallis, whose floor materials have higher thermal inertia than the surrounding upland regions. Moreover, there are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor.

  15. Erosion of Edge of the South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows small ripples, about 10 meters apart, located in Her Desher Vallis. Her Desher is a small channel that shows evidence of phyllosilicates -- silicates with a sheet-like structure, such as clay minerals. Much larger images of this area show that Her Desher Vallis appears isolated, with no obvious connections to craters or larger valleys. Her Desher, the ancient Egyptian name for Mars, translates to "the Red One." https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21639

  16. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of Mars - The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (about 30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented for the region 0-45 deg N, 0-90 deg W. In the region adjoining the Chryse basin there are two major channels, Kasei Vallis and Ares Vallis, whose floor materials have higher thermal inertia than the surrounding upland regions. Moreover, there are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor.

  17. Thermophysical Variation within Dune Fields in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, S. W.; Putzig, N. E.; Hoover, R.; Fenton, L. K.

    2016-12-01

    The activity and composition of Martian sand dunes, which are relatively young features, provide insight into the current and recent climate state of Mars. This study investigates small-scale variations of thermophysical properties within dune fields across the southern hemisphere of Mars to better understand near-surface composition. Previous morphological studies of southern hemisphere dune fields on Mars indicate a trend of decreasing activity with increasing latitude. We observe a corresponding trend in thermal properties. To investigate the thermal behavior of the dunes, we use apparent thermal inertia (ATI) derived from the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), which has a resolution of 100 meters per pixel. Overlaying THEMIS ATI values on images and digital terrain models from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) allows us to compare ATI with small-scale dune morphology and slopes. In general, we observe three types of ATI behavior: (1) fields with exposed ground between dunes display lower ATI on the dunes themselves, consistent with dunes of relatively low thermal inertia resting upon a wind-resistant consolidated bed with higher thermal inertia; (2) fields with little or no inter-dune exposures exhibit ATI in dune troughs that is 100 tiu or more lower than along crests, counterintuitively suggesting that dune trough material is finer than that along dune crests; and (3) fields with highly degraded dunes typically display uniform ATI values, indicating that their properties do not vary laterally at the resolution of THEMIS images or vertically within a seasonal skin depth. These ATI behaviors correspond to the activity state of the dune field with type 1 being the most active and occurring toward the equator, while type 3 is the least active and found mostly at high southern latitudes. To consider alternative explanations for the ATI variation observed in Type 2 fields, we created thermal models of slopes, lateral

  18. Increased aortic tortuosity indicates a more severe aortic phenotype in adults with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Franken, Romy; El Morabit, Abdelali; de Waard, Vivian; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; Marquering, Henk; Planken, Nils R N; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Mulder, Barbara J M; Groenink, Maarten

    2015-09-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) have a highly variable occurrence of aortic complications. Aortic tortuosity is often present in MFS and may help to identify patients at risk for aortic complications. 3D-visualization of the total aorta by MR imaging was performed in 211 adult MFS patients (28% with prior aortic root replacement) and 20 controls. A method to assess aortic tortuosity (aortic tortuosity index: ATI) was developed and reproducibility was tested. The relation between ATI and age, and body size and aortic dimensions at baseline was investigated. Relations between ATI at baseline and the occurrence of a clinical endpoint (aortic dissection, and/or aortic surgery) and aortic dilatation rate during 3 years of follow-up were investigated. ATI intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent (ICC: 0.968 and 0.955, respectively). Mean ATI was higher in 28 age-matched MFS patients than in the controls (1.92 ± 0.2 vs. 1.82 ± 0.1, p=0.048). In the total MFS cohort, mean ATI was 1.87 ± 0.20, and correlated with age (r=0.281, p<0.001), aortic root diameter (r=0.223, p=0.006), and aortic volume expansion rate (r=0.177, p=0.026). After 49.3 ± 8.8 months follow-up, 33 patients met the combined clinical endpoint (7 dissections) with a significantly higher ATI at baseline than patients without endpoint (1.98 ± 0.2 vs. 1.86 ± 0.2, p=0.002). Patients with an ATI>1.95 had a 12.8 times higher probability of meeting the combined endpoint (log rank-test, p<0.001) and a 12.1 times higher probability of developing an aortic dissection (log rank-test, p=0.003) compared to patients with an ATI<1.95. Increased ATI is associated with a more severe aortic phenotype in MFS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  20. Further studies to extend and test the area-time-integral technique applied to satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Vonderhaar, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'variable-threshold approach'. In the former approach, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are most closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts. Results thus far have indicated that a strong correlation exists between the rain volumes and the satellite ATI values, but the optimum threshold for this relationship seems to differ from one geographic location to another. The difference is probably related to differences in the basic precipitation mechanisms that dominate in the different regions. The average rainfall rate associated with each cloudy pixel is also found to vary across the spectrum of ATI values. Work on the second, or 'variable-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values was essentially suspended during this period due to exhaustion of project funds. Most of the ATI work thus far has dealt with cloud clusters from the Lagrangian or 'floating-target' point of view. For many purposes, however, the Eulerian or 'fixed-target' perspective is more appropriate. For a very large target area encompassing entire cluster life histories, the rain volume-ATI relationship would obviously be the same in either case. The important question for the Eulerian perspective is how small the fixed area can be made while maintaining consistency in that relationship.

  1. Diapycnal Transport and Pattern Formation in Double-Diffusive Convection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    been made to combine the classical and mixing-driven views into a unified framework ( Salmon 1990, Samelson and Vallis 1997). These newer theories...of the stability of the water column to double- diffusive activity. Deep-Sea Research, 30, 1105–1107. Salmon , R., 1990: The thermocline as an

  2. Naktong Valles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    This image, taken by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows a cratered highland region called Arabia Terra. The center right side of the image shows a branch of the valley network Naktong Vallis cutting into the eastern rim of an unnamed crater.

  3. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay

    1997-01-01

    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  4. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-17

    Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms.

  5. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  7. Relationships Between the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), Fluvial Channels, and the Dichotomy Boundary Southeast of Nicholson Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, B. A.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) data to investigate the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and its relationship to fluvial channels southeast of Nicholson Crater. In this area the MFF shows small-scale layering and is draped over Labou Vallis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Echus Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    Between the Tharsis region and Lunae Planum lies Echus Chasma and the source of Kasei Vallis. Flows from the Tharsis volcanoes are buckled by tectonic forces forming mounds and fractures in the Chasma as seen in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey.

  9. Relationships Between the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), Fluvial Channels, and the Dichotomy Boundary Southeast of Nicholson Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, B. A.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) data to investigate the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and its relationship to fluvial channels southeast of Nicholson Crater. In this area the MFF shows small-scale layering and is draped over Labou Vallis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Redefining Professional Development. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The research on effective professional development is consistent across many studies. Researchers Willis Hawley and Linda Valli (Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, n.d.), in their synthesis of the professional development literature, find that high-quality teacher development is as follows: (1) Informed by research on teaching and…

  11. Developing a Reflective Practitioner through the Connection between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's ("Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques." State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; "Peabody J Educ" 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in…

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  13. Hadriaca and Dao

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-30

    This daytime IR image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of the patera summit depression and eroded flank of Hadriacus Mons at the top of the image and a section of Dao Vallis at the bottom of the image.

  14. A Closer Look at Holden Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-16

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows layered deposits in Uzboi Vallis which sometimes occur in alcoves along the valley and/or below where tributaries enter into the lake from surrounding clay-bearing surfaces. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21563

  15. Use of an AUV to Quantify Submesoscale Mixing Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    report for that latter progam . LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the driving mechanisms and pathways of dissipation...past several decades. These spectral formulations are based on a combination of nonlinear cascade physics and dimensional analysis (Vallis, 2006). In

  16. Aram Chaos: A Long Lived Subsurface Aqueous Environment with Strong Water Resource Potential for Human Missions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, L.; Mueller, R. P.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Aram Chaos is a 280-km-wide near-circular structure near the outflow channel Ares Vallis and Aureum Chaos. It is a compelling landing site for human explorers featuring multiple science ROIs with a compelling resource ROI with polyhydrated sulfates.

  17. Clues to the Relative Timing of Lakes in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Parker, T.; Rubin, D.; Lewis, K.; Sumner, D.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2014-07-01

    In Gale Crater two higher deltas appear to record the deposition into lakes associated with the cutting of Farah Vallis. At the entrance canyon to Mt. Sharp a possible back stepping fan/delta sequence may record a later rising lake level.

  18. Auqakuh Stripe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-01

    This MOC image shows windblown ripples on the floor of Auqakuh Vallis. The light-toned area, running diagonally across the scene from the lower left to the upper right, may be dust that has accumulated in the bottom of the valley and on top of the ripples

  19. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016

  20. Influence of immunogenicity on the efficacy of longterm treatment of spondyloarthritis with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Chamaida; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Nuño, Laura; Bonilla, Gema; Villalba, Alejandro; Peiteado, Diana; Díez, Jesús; Nagore, Daniel; del Agua, Ainhoa Ruiz; Moral, Rosario; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Balsa, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is a monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor α that is effective for treating spondyloarthritis (SpA). However, after initial success of the drug some patients lose responsiveness or develop infusion reactions, which may be related to the development of antibodies against the drug. To investigate the clinical relevance of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) formation in patients with SpA undergoing IFX treatment over a prolonged period. 94 patients with SpA treated with IFX from 1999 to 2010 were studied. Their clinical characteristics, serum trough IFX levels and ATI status were evaluated for a mean of 6.99 (95% CI:6.28 to 7.7) years. Clinical activity and improvement were measured using the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS): inactive <1.3, moderate ≥1.3 and <2.1, high ≥2.1-≤3.5, and very high >3.5 at three time points (6 months, 12 months and >4 years). ATI were detected in 24 (25.5%) patients. The patients with ATI had higher ASDAS scores than those without ATI (2.55±0.89 vs 1.79±1.04, p=0.038 at 6 months; 1.95±0.67 vs 1.67±0.71, p=0.042 at 1 year; 2.52±0.99 vs 1.53±0.81, p=0.024 at >4 years). Eleven patients (12%) developed infusion-related reactions, and of these, ATI were present in eight patients (73%). The patients with infusion-related reactions had higher ATI titres (median 12 931 AU/ml, IQR 853-82 437) vs median 2454 AU/ml, IQR 449-7718, p=0.028) and shorter survival (4.25 years vs 8.19 years, p<0.001). ATI development occurred more frequently in the patients not receiving methotrexate (20/58 (34.5%) vs 4/36 (11.1%), p=0.011). In patients with SpA treated with IFX, ATI formation is associated with a poor clinical response, the appearance of infusion reactions and the discontinuation of treatment.

  1. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (Principal Investigator); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

  2. Methotrexate Reduced TNF Bioactivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Rinaudo-Gaujous, Mélanie; Thomas, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate methotrexate effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha bioactivity during infliximab (IFX) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to correlate TNF bioactivity with antibody towards IFX (ATI) development and RA clinical response. Materials and Methods. Thirty-nine active women RA patients despite conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) requiring IFX therapy were enrolled, and clinical data and blood samples were recorded at baseline (W0) and at 6 weeks (W6), W22, and W54 of IFX treatment. TNF bioactivity as well as IFX trough and ATI concentrations were assessed on blood samples. Results. TNF bioactivity decreased from W0 to W54 with a large range from W22 at the time of ATI detection. From W22, TNF bioactivity was lower in presence of methotrexate as csDMARD compared to other csDMARDs. IFX trough concentration increased from W0 to W54 with a large range from W22, similarly to TNF bioactivity. Methotrexate therapy prevented ATI presence at W22 and reduced TNF bioactivity compared to other csDMARDs (p = 0.002). Conclusion. This suggests that methotrexate plays a key role in TNF bioactivity and against ATI development. PMID:28352145

  3. Salvianolic acid B improves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into alveolar epithelial cells type I via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yang, Jingxian; Gao, Xi; Xu, Dan; Niu, Dongge; Li, Jinglin; Wen, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is among the most common causes of mortality in intensive care units. Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may attenuate pulmonary edema. In addition, alveolar epithelial cells type I (ATI) are involved in reducing the alveolar edema in response to ALI. However, the mechanism involved in improving the efficiency of differentiation of MSCs into ATI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI and the activities of the Wnt signaling pathways were investigated. The BMSCs were supplemented with conditioned medium (CM). The groups were as follows: i) CM group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM; ii) lithium chloride (LiCl) group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 5 mM LiCl; iii) Sal B group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 10 mM Sal B. The samples were collected and assessed on days 7 and 14. It was revealed that aquaporin (AQP)-5 and T1α were expressed in BMSCs, and induction with LiCl or Sal B increased the expression of AQP-5 and T1α. Furthermore, the Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a signaling pathways were activated during the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI. In conclusion, it was suggested that the promotive effects of Sal B on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI occurred through the activation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  4. Alternative translation initiation augments the human mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Lawrence; Reyes, Aurelio; Duncan, Anna L.; Rorbach, Joanna; Wood, Stuart R.; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Gammage, Payam A.; Robinson, Alan J.; Minczuk, Michal; Holt, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative translation initiation (ATI) is a mechanism of producing multiple proteins from a single transcript, which in some cases regulates trafficking of proteins to different cellular compartments, including mitochondria. Application of a genome-wide computational screen predicts a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal for 126 proteins in mouse and man that is revealed when an AUG codon located downstream from the canonical initiator methionine codon is used as a translation start site, which we term downstream ATI (dATI). Experimental evidence in support of dATI is provided by immunoblotting of endogenous truncated proteins enriched in mitochondrial cell fractions or of co-localization with mitochondria using immunocytochemistry. More detailed cellular localization studies establish mitochondrial targeting of a member of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein family, PABPC5, and of the RNA/DNA helicase PIF1α. The mitochondrial isoform of PABPC5 co-immunoprecipitates with the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase, and is markedly reduced in abundance when mitochondrial DNA and RNA are depleted, suggesting it plays a role in RNA metabolism in the organelle. Like PABPC5 and PIF1α, most of the candidates identified by the screen are not currently annotated as mitochondrial proteins, and so dATI expands the human mitochondrial proteome. PMID:23275553

  5. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of a Lantana camara extract on the labeling of blood constituents of rats with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Maiworm, A I; Santos-Filho, S D; Presta, G A; Giani, T S; Paoli, S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-03-01

    Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24 +/- 2.59 to 11.95 +/- 3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane.

  6. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  7. Cationic aluminum alkyl complexes incorporating aminotroponiminate ligands.

    PubMed

    Korolev, A V; Ihara, E; Guzei, I A; Young, V G; Jordan, R F

    2001-08-29

    The synthesis, structures, and reactivity of cationic aluminum complexes containing the N,N'-diisopropylaminotroponiminate ligand ((i)Pr(2)-ATI(-)) are described. The reaction of ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(2) (1a-e,g,h; R = H (a), Me (b), Et (c), Pr (d), (i)Bu (e), Cy (g), CH(2)Ph (h)) with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] yields ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(+) species whose fate depends on the properties of the R ligand. 1a and 1b react with 0.5 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to produce dinuclear monocationic complexes [([(i)Pr(2)-ATI] AlR)(2)(mu-R)][(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2a,b). The cation of 2b contains two ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlMe(+) units linked by an almost linear Al-Me-Al bridge; 2a is presumed to have an analogous structure. 2b does not react further with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)]. However, 1a reacts with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to afford ((i Pr(2)-ATI)Al(C(6)F(5))(mu-H)(2)B(C(6)F(5))(2) (3) and other products, presumably via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer and ligand redistribution of a [((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlH][(C(6)F(5))(4)] intermediate. 1c-e react with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield stable base-free [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] complexes (4c-e). 4c crystallizes from chlorobenzene as 4c(ClPh).0.5PhCl, which has been characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state the PhCl ligand of 4c(ClPh) is coordinated by a dative PhCl-Al bond and an ATI/Ph pi-stacking interaction. 1g,h react with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5g,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][(BC(6)F(5))(4)] intermediates. 1c,h react with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5c,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][RB(C(6)F(5))(3)] intermediates. The reaction of 4c-e with MeCN or acetone yields [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(L)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] adducts (L = MeCN (8c-e), acetone (9c-e)), which undergo associative intermolecular L exchange. 9c-e undergo slow beta-H transfer to afford the dinuclear dicationic alkoxide complex [(((i

  8. Predicting NCLEX-RN success in a diverse student population.

    PubMed

    Alameida, Marshall D; Prive, Alice; Davis, Harvey C; Landry, Lynette; Renwanz-Boyle, Andrea; Dunham, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Many schools of nursing have implemented standardized testing using platforms such as those developed by Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) to better prepare students for success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses® (NCLEX-RN). This study extends and replicates the research on standardized testing to predict first-time pass success in a diverse student population and across two prelicensure program types. The final sample consisted of 589 students who graduated between 2003 and 2009. Demographic data, as well as academic performance and scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor, were analyzed. The findings in this study indicate that scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor were positively, significantly associated with first-time pass success. Students in jeopardy of failing the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt can be identified prior to graduation and remediation efforts can be strengthened to improve their success. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Design and Synthesis of 2-Heterocyclyl-3-arylthio-1H-indoles as Potent Tubulin Polymerization and Cell Growth Inhibitors with Improved Metabolic Stability

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Rensen, Willeke; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Gatti, Valerio; Bolognesi, Alessio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Granata, Ilaria; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Soriani, Alessandra; Iannitto, Maria Luisa; Mariani, Marisa; Santoni, Angela; Brancale, Andrea; Ferlini, Cristiano; Dondio, Giulio; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano

    2011-01-01

    New arylthioindoles (ATIs) were obtained by replacing the 2-alkoxycarbonyl group with a bioisosteric 5-membered heterocycle nucleus. The new ATIs 5, 8, and 10 inhibited tubulin polymerization, reduced cell growth of a panel of human transformed cell lines, and showed higher metabolic stability than the reference ester 3. These compounds induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis at a similar level as combretastatin A-4 and vinblastine and triggered caspase-3 expression in a significant fraction of cells in both p53-proficient and p53-defective cell lines. Importantly, ATIs 5, 8, and 10 were more effective than vinorelbine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel as growth inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Compound 5 was shown to have medium metabolic stability in both human and mouse liver microsomes, in contrast to the rapidly degraded reference ester 3, and a pharmacokinetic profile in the mouse characterized by a low systemic clearance and excellent oral bioavailability. PMID:22044164

  10. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process.

  11. Brief Report: Relationship Among Viral Load Outcomes in HIV Treatment Interruption Trials.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Graham C; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J; Mellors, John W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Jonathan Z

    2016-07-01

    Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ≤12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point.

  12. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-11

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition.

  13. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880

  14. Dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Tosa, V.; Nam, C.H.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) in left/right asymmetry of photoelectron energy spectra is analyzed. Based on a classical analysis of high-order ATI electrons produced by few-cycle laser pulses, calculated asymmetry maps of electron spectra reproduce very well the experimental results reported in Lindner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004)], utilized for determining the Guoy phase shift of few-cycle laser pulses. The anomalous behavior of the high-energy part of the ATI electron spectra is, then, fully understood in terms of earlier medium depletion occurring in the leading edge of the laser pulse. In order to correctly reproduce the experimental findings a physical temporal envelope of the laser pulse, which only vanishes at the infinity, plays a crucial role.

  15. The Size of the Expressed HIV Reservoir Predicts Timing of Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Etemad, Behzad; Ahmed, Hayat; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mellors, John W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lederman, Michael M.; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Therapies to achieve sustained antiretroviral therapy-free HIV remission will require validation in analytic treatment interruption (ATI) trials. Identifying biomarkers that predict time to viral rebound could accelerate the development of such therapeutics. Design A pooled analysis of participants from 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group ATI studies to identify predictors of viral rebound. Methods Cell-associated DNA (CA-DNA) and CA-RNA were quantified in pre-ATI PBMC samples, and residual plasma viremia (RV) was measured using the single-copy assay. Results Participants who initiated ART during acute/early HIV infection and those on an NNRTI-containing regimen had significantly delayed viral rebound. Participants who initiated ART during acute/early infection had lower levels of pre-ATI CA-RNA (acute/early vs. chronic-treated: median <92 vs. 156 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, P<0.01). Higher pre-ATI CA-RNA levels were significantly associated with shorter time to viral rebound (≤4 wks vs. 5–8 wks vs. >8 wks: median 182 vs. 107 vs. <92 HIV-1 RNA copies/106 CD4+ cells, Kruskal-Wallis P<0.01). The proportion of participants with detectable RV prior to ATI was significantly higher among those with shorter time to viral rebound. Conclusions Higher levels of HIV expression while on ART are associated with shorter time to HIV rebound after treatment interruption. Quantification of the active HIV reservoir may provide a biomarker of efficacy for therapies that aim to achieve ART-free HIV remission. PMID:26588174

  16. The size of the expressed HIV reservoir predicts timing of viral rebound after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Jonathan Z; Etemad, Behzad; Ahmed, Hayat; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J; Mellors, John W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2016-01-28

    Therapies to achieve sustained antiretroviral therapy-free HIV remission will require validation in analytic treatment interruption (ATI) trials. Identifying biomarkers that predict time to viral rebound could accelerate the development of such therapeutics. A pooled analysis of participants from six AIDS Clinical Trials Group ATI studies to identify predictors of viral rebound. Cell-associated DNA (CA-DNA) and CA-RNA were quantified in pre-ATI peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples, and residual plasma viremia was measured using the single-copy assay. Participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute/early HIV infection and those on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimen had significantly delayed viral rebound. Participants who initiated ART during acute/early infection had lower levels of pre-ATI CA-RNA (acute/early vs. chronic-treated: median <92 vs. 156 HIV-1 RNA copies/10 CD4 cells, P < 0.01). Higher pre-ATI CA-RNA levels were significantly associated with shorter time to viral rebound (≤4 vs. 5-8 vs. >8 weeks: median 182 vs. 107 vs. <92 HIV-1 RNA copies/10 CD4 cells, Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.01). The proportion of participants with detectable plasma residual viremia prior to ATI was significantly higher among those with shorter time to viral rebound. Higher levels of HIV expression while on ART are associated with shorter time to HIV rebound after treatment interruption. Quantification of the active HIV reservoir may provide a biomarker of efficacy for therapies that aim to achieve ART-free HIV remission.

  17. Atomic processes in strong bichromatic elliptically polarized laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Odžak, S. Hasović, E.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Čerkić, A. Fetić, B.; Kramo, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-03-25

    Nonlinear quantum-mechanical phenomena in strong laser fields, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) are significantly modified if the applied laser field is bichromatic and/or elliptically polarized. Numerical results obtained within the strong-field approximation are presented for two special cases. We show results for HHG by plasma ablation in a bichromatic linearly polarized laser field. We also consider the ATI process in bicircular field which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields.

  18. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  19. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  20. Identification and Application of Quantum Trajectories in Above-Threshold Ionization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    gain more insight into the physical mecha- nism of ATI, the transition matrix element based on the Keldysh- Faisal -Reiss model [ 16] is written as an inte...return at almost 9U and all higher-order counted. In addition, the ATI plateau develops. Thet d rmaximum intensity Io can be calibrated by using the cut...calculated plateau 5. Paul, P.M., Toma, E.S., Berger, P., Mullot, G., Auge, F., behavior for each type of quantum orbit. The top step in Balcou, Ph

  1. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Low-Drag Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-09-01

    Reproduction Quality Notice This document is part of the Air Technical Index [ATI] collection. The ATI collection is over 50 years old and was...Do Not Return This Document To DTIC - — *4•,ts-*4----,• Hr’t-":’-"-𔃻’- a*i""jVfr •. Reproduced by AIR DOCUMENTS DIVISION i i...HEADQUARTERS AIR MATERIEL COMMAND WRIGHT FIELD. DAYTON, OHIO "**£ "f..,.^.S44k^V^,, ii f *-’ "’ -—- *4wa •»*»- Mimwi • 11^ WH 5^ US

  2. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R S; Moreno, S R F; Lima-Filho, G L; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  3. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  4. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  5. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  6. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8-1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  7. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    PubMed

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  8. Stunning Image of Rosetta above Mars taken by the Philae Lander Camera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-05

    Stunning image taken by the CIVA imaging instrument on Rosetta Philae lander just 4 minutes before closest approach at a distance of some 1000 km from Mars on Feb. 25, 2007. A portion of the spacecraft and one of its solar arrays are visible in nice detail. Beneath, the Mawrth Vallis region is visible on the planet's disk. Mawrth Vallis is particularly relevant as it is one of the areas on the Martian surface where the OMEGA instrument on board ESA's Mars Express detected the presence of hydrated clay minerals -- a sign that water may have flown abundantly on that region in the very early history of Mars. Id 217487 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18154

  9. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  11. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  12. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  13. Motivational Factors and Predictors for Attending a Continuing Education Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachioni, Meire; Nascimento Ordonez, Tiago; Lima da Silva, Thais Bento; Tavares Batistoni, Samila Sathler; Sanches Yassuda, Mônica; Caldeira Melo, Ruth; Rodrigues da Costa Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Lopes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the stated motives of participants who enrolled in a program at the Open University for the Elderly (UnATI, in Portuguese), identify correlations between the stated motives and sociodemographic data, and find a set of predictors related to the listed motives. A total of 306 middle-aged and elderly adults aged 50 or…

  14. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  15. Maintenance Categories - A Substudy of the Maintenance Support Structure for Contingency Forces Study (ACN 21012).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-23

    Major Albert B. Hutton, Major James W. Jeter, Jr., Mr. L. Conrad Davis, CPr John C. Wilkins, CPT Willian C., Bayer , Mr. Prancis E. Vogt, CW2 Rocbert M...34Maintenance Support Positive," At!y L •istician, Vol. 2, No. 2, (March - April 1970). 3. Bell, Raymond , et rd. Vehicle Aver e Useful Life Study for Truck

  16. 47 CFR 87.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-ground surveillance applications, including position reports, velocity vector, intent and other relevant information about the aircraft. Automatic terminal information service-broadcast (ATIS-B). The automatic..., velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information relating to these...

  17. 47 CFR 87.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft-to-ground surveillance applications, including position reports, velocity vector, intent and other relevant information about the aircraft. Automatic terminal information service-broadcast (ATIS-B). The..., velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information relating to these...

  18. 47 CFR 87.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-ground surveillance applications, including position reports, velocity vector, intent and other relevant information about the aircraft. Automatic terminal information service-broadcast (ATIS-B). The automatic..., velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information relating to these...

  19. Aptitude-Treatment Interactions during Creativity Training in E-Learning: How Meaning-Making, Self-Regulation, and Knowledge Management Influence Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Lin, Chun Fu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs) is to find the interactions between treatments and learners' aptitudes and therefore to achieve optimal learning. This study aimed at understanding whether the aptitudes of meaning-making, self-regulation, and knowledge management (KM) would interact with the treatment of 17-week KM-based training…

  20. Apoptosis induced by ozone and oxysterols in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmider, Beata; Loader, Joan E.; Murphy, Robert C.; Mason, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of ozone-induced lung cell injury is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that ozone induces lipid peroxidation and that these peroxidased lipids produce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxysterols are lipid peroxide formed by the direct effect of ozone on pulmonary surfactant and cell membranes. We studied the effects of ozone and the oxysterol 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and its metabolite cholestan-6-oxo-3,5-diol (6-oxo-3,5-diol) on human alveolar epithelial type I-like cells (ATI-like cells) and type II cells (ATII cells). Ozone and oxysterols induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in ATI-like cells. They also generated reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Ozone and β-epoxide were strong inducers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) protein expressions. Furthermore, we found higher sensitivity of ATI-like cells than ATII cells exposed to ozone or treated with β-epoxide or 6-oxo-3,5-diol. In general the response to the cholesterol epoxides was similar to the effect of ozone. The importance of understanding the response of human ATI-like cells and ATII cells to oxysterols may be useful for further studies, because these compounds may represent useful biomarkers in other diseases. PMID:20219673

  1. Adaptive Instructional Strategies for Teaching Rules in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research on an adaptation approach designed to extend the aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) concept by applying instructional variations to individuals as opposed to groups within the context of an introductory mathematics lesson adapted from the beginning module in an undergraduate statistics course. A 17-item reference list is…

  2. A naturally occurring cowpox virus with an ectromelia virus A-type inclusion protein gene displays atypical A-type inclusions.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hansen, Hilde; Traavik, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Human orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe are usually caused by cowpox virus (CPXV). The genetic heterogeneity of CPXVs may in part be due to recombination with other OPV species. We describe the characterization of an atypical CPXV (CPXV-No-H2) isolated from a human patient in Norway. CPXV-No-H2 was characterized on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype as well as the DNA region containing the p4c and atip open reading frames. CPXV-No-H2 produced atypical V(+/) ATI, in which virions are on the surface of ATI but not within the ATI matrix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atip gene of CPXV-No-H2 clustered closely with that of ectromelia virus (ECTV) with a bootstrap support of 100% whereas its p4c gene is diverged compared to homologues in other OPV species. By recombination analysis we identified a putative crossover event at nucleotide 147, downstream the start of the atip gene. Our results suggest that CPXV-No-H2 originated from a recombination between CPXV and ECTV. Our findings are relevant to the evolution of OPVs.

  3. Vector Along-Track Interferometry for Ocean Current mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Imel, David; Madsen, Soren

    1996-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of measuring Along-Track Interferometric (ATI) vector ocean velocities using the azimuth beamwidth of the SAR antenna to obtain angular diversity, at the expense of spatial resolution. A simple model of the measurement is introduced for point targets and moving ocean surfaces to help interpret the velocity measurements.

  4. Heuristic Models for the Generation of Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    Researchers in the field of instruction are exploring the theory that different instructional procedures may be used for students with varying aptitudes so as to individualize teaching, so-called aptitude-treatment interactions (ATI's). This paper reviews pertinent literature, then seeks to develop theoretical models for the generation of…

  5. Interpersonal and Relational Orientation among Pre-Service Educators: Differential Effects on Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators' interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three…

  6. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  7. A Numerical, Analytical and Observational Study of the Effect of Clouds on Surface Wind and WInd Stress during the Central Arctic Winter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-13

    public release; distribution is unlimited. 92-18197 92 unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGU IForm Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE T AADNo...0704-018 la REPORT SECURITY CILASSIFICATION UN L SIIDlb RESIRICIIVE MARKINGS 2a SECURITY CLASSIFICATION A)TI4ORITY 3 OISIRIBtIIONIAVAILARLITY OF...General Classification Scheme ........................................................ 54 2. Scale A nalysis

  8. Women Empowerment through Access to Information: The Strategic Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyelude, Adetoun A.; Bamigbola, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been steady increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to improve their socioeconomic status to be able to cope and also contribute effectively in this period of economic crisis. ATI (access to information) provision is a vital factor in empowerment, thus, many organizations, such as library,…

  9. Development and Use of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how research into approaches to university teaching, from a relational perspective, has been used to develop an inventory to measure the key aspects of the variation in approaches to teaching. The Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) is one of several that derive from the research perspective applied by Marton and colleagues…

  10. Attitudes and Achievement in Biology: An Investigation of the Effects of Student Attributes and Teaching Styles on Attitudes and Achievement in Secondary School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, John Hamilton

    Using a specially-constructed category system (CATS), biology lessons are analyzed for attribute-treatment interaction (ATI) and the data submitted to analysis. Relationships between fifteen individual predictors (general ability, four personality factors, two cognitive preferences, treatment, and seven first-order attribute-treatment…

  11. The Influence of Direct Instruction on Student Self-appraisals: A Hierarchical Analysis of Treatment and Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Treatment and aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effects were assessed on grade 3 student self-appraisal data relating to self-esteem, attitude, anxiety, and locus of control. In particular, parent instruction in learning skills resulted in significantly higher average scores on student self-esteem and attitude and lower scores on anxiety.…

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  13. A randomized therapeutic vaccine trial of canarypox-HIV-pulsed dendritic cells vs. canarypox-HIV alone in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajesh T.; O'Neill, David; Bosch, Ronald J.; Chan, Ellen S.; Bucy, R. Pat; Shopis, Janet; Baglyos, Lynn; Adams, Elizabeth; Fox, Lawrence; Purdue, Lynette; Marshak, Ann; Flynn, Theresa; Masih, Reena; Schock, Barbara; Mildvan, Donna; Schlesinger, Sarah J.; Marovich, Mary A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Targeting canarypox (CP)-HIV vaccine to dendritic cells (DCs) elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses in vitro. We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate whether adding DC to a CP-HIV vaccine improved virologic control during analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected subjects. Twenty-nine subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy were randomized to vaccination with autologous DCs infected with CP-HIV + keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (arm A, n = 14) or CP-HIV + KLH alone (arm B, n = 15). The mean viral load (VL) setpoint during ATI did not differ between subjects in arms A and B. A higher percentage of subjects in the DC group had a VL setpoint <5000 c/mL during ATI (4/13 or 31% in arm A compared with 0/13 in arm B, p = 0.096), but virologic control was transient. Subjects in arm A had a greater increase in KLH lymphoproliferative response than subjects in arm B; however, summed ELISPOT responses to HIV-1 antigens did not differ by treatment arm. We conclude that a DC-CP-HIV vaccine is well-tolerated in HIV-1-infected patients, but does not lower VL setpoint during ATI compared with CP-HIV alone. New methods to enhance the immunogenicity and antiviral efficacy of DC-based vaccines for HIV-1 infection are needed. PMID:19450647

  14. The Synthesis and Purification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 1 - Butylbenzene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    Synthesis (19440); Chemistry, Organic - Synthesis (23238); Hydrogenation firm, ^’bJ&JL fUdtOls DIVISION: Sciences, General W3J/3. SECTION: Chemistry...Chemistry (1) ATI SHEET NO.: R-33-1-7 SUBJECT HEADINGS: Butylbenzene - Synthesis (19440); Chemistry, Organic - Synthesis (23238); Hydrogenation (49915

  15. Aptitude-Treatment Interactions during Creativity Training in E-Learning: How Meaning-Making, Self-Regulation, and Knowledge Management Influence Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Lin, Chun Fu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs) is to find the interactions between treatments and learners' aptitudes and therefore to achieve optimal learning. This study aimed at understanding whether the aptitudes of meaning-making, self-regulation, and knowledge management (KM) would interact with the treatment of 17-week KM-based training…

  16. Perceived triggers of asthma: evaluation of a German version of the Asthma Trigger Inventory.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Kullowatz, Antje; Kanniess, Frank; Dahme, Bernhard; Magnussen, Helgo

    2008-03-01

    Patients' perception of asthma triggers has been explored in a largely unstructured fashion in the past. Therefore, we developed the Asthma Trigger Inventory (ATI), a questionnaire that allows for a psychometrically valid measurement of patients' perceived asthma triggers. Here we evaluate a German language version of the ATI and studied the relationship of subscales with self-reported health status, health care use, psychopathology, and results of allergy skin testing. Data were obtained from 370 asthma patients recruited from the community, primary care, and in-patient asthma treatment and education. Analysis revealed a five-factor structure that largely confirmed results with the English original. Reliability was good to satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.77-0.89) for allergy, exercise, air pollution/irritants, infection, and psychological trigger subscales. In hierarchical regression analysis adjusting for demographics and asthma severity, asthma patients with stronger non-allergic triggers showed less physical and mental well-being and more asthma-related health care use. Psychological triggers showed unique associations with anxious and depressed mood. Pollen and animal allergen scores of the ATI were significantly related to skin test results for relevant allergens. Non-allergic but not allergic triggers showed substantial associations with asthma control. The German version of the ATI reliably measures asthma patients' trigger perceptions. Non-specific asthma triggers exert a greater burden on patients' well-being and primary health care use.

  17. Exploring the Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education System: A Study of Indian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of university and school teachers towards inclusive education system. One hundred teachers having equal number of male and female population was included in the study. Participants were administered an attitude scale namely--Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIE), developed by Wilczenski (1992) to…

  18. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely correspond to the General Soil Map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils. Areas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also correspond well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model shows both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  19. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA.

  20. Community College Nursing Student Success on Professional Qualifying Examinations from Admission to Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lenora; Sandiford, Janice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate variables associated with learning and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), (2) to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and (3) to provide a model that could…

  1. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PARATHION 400 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... I"p,.; ;tlld III ,j;,\\' f J, ," ·1 .,L.:fll iellt n" !lilt lIn Pl)',l~ S:\\l:\\I,1. GiL'''', I nark \\. V,.ll'., \\\\t'l'ati: ~-' 'iJlll(.l~ .. \\: oIil' 111 ';1 ill !" ~ ,1' I. T)., \\ I i.1 \\ < 1 If i 1,,1 '- I ...

  2. Profiling Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education: A Cluster-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teaching approaches in higher education have already been the subject of a considerable body of research. An important contribution was Prosser and Trigwell's development of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI). The present study aims to map out the approaches to teaching profiles of teachers in higher education on the basis of their scores…

  3. Project SQUID - Semi-Annual Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    scale attached to the front suppoit but, since preliminary c ale illations indicated it was not needed, no damping mil nanism was installed. (d) The...report obtainable from CAPO. DIVISION: Rower Plants . Jet and Turbine W) SECTION: gexXopmance {16> ’^ ’ ATI SHEET NO.: Central Air Docvmonta

  4. Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-09

    Ken Fireman . “Gates, Rice made Last-Minute Offer of New Arms Ideas in Moscow.” Bloomberg News, October 13, 2007. 23 Wade Boese. “U.S., Russia at...is complete. Officials in the Pentagon, however, have repeatedly stressed that the early phases of the NPR evaluated U.S. options for near-term

  5. Active Control of Surge in Compressors Which Exhibit Abrupt Stall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Giusto C. (1998), "Modellizzazione e analisi parametrica di un sistema di controllo passivo del pompaggio" [in Italian], Proc. 530 Congresso Nazionale ATI...Florence, Italy, p. 1179. Giannattasio P. (1999), "Analisi di stabilith di un sistema di compressione industriale con controllo attivo del pompaggio

  6. The Preschool Teacher as an Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; And Others

    The life span and life events literature, in conjunction with the Aptitude/Treatment Interaction paradigm, is used to define developmental and contextual variables for program design and research efforts in the area of early childhood teacher education. The extended paradigm or framework, called Antecedent/Transaction Interaction (ATI), consists…

  7. Advanced Target Tracker Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Multiple tar-ets, Target tracking, Target cueing, Target screening, Image processing, Scene analysis, Artificial intelligenv ~e 4 ~’ Ati.ýT PACT (CONTINUE...in successive frames. Furthermore, the artificial intelligence capability of the scene model will allow inference of the target shape from its

  8. Access to Information and Freedom of Information Requests: Neglected Means of Data Production in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walby, Kevin; Larsen, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Access to information (ATI) and freedom of information (FOI) mechanisms are now relevant features of governments in many liberal democracies today. Citizens, organizations, and permanent residents in several countries across the globe can request unpublished information from federal, provincial, state, county, and municipal government agencies.…

  9. Confidence in Their Own Ability: Postgraduate Early Childhood Students Examining Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores reflections of a group of postgraduate early childhood students in relation to their self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education. Participant self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education were measured using an adapted version of the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) and an adapted version of the…

  10. SOLUTIA INC, RFI/MCP PHASE 2 COMPREHENSIVE SITE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2014-12-04

    ... Mruiii soil \\ \\ afiT W atei \\\\ ati'i Wjlir \\ \\ ali-r Soil Sml Sm l S.nl Sllll ' \\i ••ii.inlilliriii- ^ ii - \\[) n _ MV •-••_• I _ SDJ J •.>•. M>U'.::. NL\\'J._J . NLH'J.:.'; ...

  11. Evolution at protein ends: major contribution of alternative transcription initiation and termination to the transcriptome and proteome diversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS), alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT) create the extraordinary complexity of transcriptomes and make key contributions to the structural and functional diversity of mammalian proteomes. Analysis of mammalian genomic and transcriptomic data shows that contrary to the traditional view, the joint contribution of ATI and ATT to the transcriptome and proteome diversity is quantitatively greater than the contribution of AS. Although the mean numbers of protein-coding constitutive and alternative nucleotides in gene loci are nearly identical, their distribution along the transcripts is highly non-uniform. On average, coding exons in the variable 5′ and 3′ transcript ends that are created by ATI and ATT contain approximately four times more alternative nucleotides than core protein-coding regions that diversify exclusively via AS. Short upstream exons that encompass alternative 5′-untranslated regions and N-termini of proteins evolve under strong nucleotide-level selection whereas in 3′-terminal exons that encode protein C-termini, protein-level selection is significantly stronger. The groups of genes that are subject to ATI and ATT show major differences in biological roles, expression and selection patterns. PMID:24792168

  12. Motivational Factors and Predictors for Attending a Continuing Education Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachioni, Meire; Nascimento Ordonez, Tiago; Lima da Silva, Thais Bento; Tavares Batistoni, Samila Sathler; Sanches Yassuda, Mônica; Caldeira Melo, Ruth; Rodrigues da Costa Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Lopes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the stated motives of participants who enrolled in a program at the Open University for the Elderly (UnATI, in Portuguese), identify correlations between the stated motives and sociodemographic data, and find a set of predictors related to the listed motives. A total of 306 middle-aged and elderly adults aged 50 or…

  13. It's the Little Things: Exploring the Importance of Commonplace Events for Early-Career Teachers' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl; Morgan, Mark; O'Leary, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a rationale for further researching the everyday events that keep teachers motivated or that discourage them. We put forward the idea that routine Affect Triggering Incidents (ATIs) are an important area for researchers to investigate in terms of how they impact teacher motivation and resilience. Two groups of…

  14. Profiling Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education: A Cluster-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teaching approaches in higher education have already been the subject of a considerable body of research. An important contribution was Prosser and Trigwell's development of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI). The present study aims to map out the approaches to teaching profiles of teachers in higher education on the basis of their scores…

  15. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  16. Voluntary Release Pilot Program: Effects on Attrition of General Detail Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    evaluate existing personality inventories (tests that provide a personality profile based on an individual’s past history, attitudes, and interactions...MONTHS ACTIVE SERVICE COMPLETED a. Experimental Group 70 V 150. b.0 ConAol IGAoup ~~~igure ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ATI 7 triinoertm y eritqaiy ne- b. Contol

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analyses of Earth Penetration Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    Army ATTN; f . Lindsey (, Arn y Mobil)it lquli R&D (md AT IN : I’, IMI -X’ 115 Army Armament Material Readiness Command ATI: 1RIDMI. -W(. ATT N: MA...Force ATTN: Code U401, M. Kleinerman ATTN: INT, E. Jacobsen ATTN: Code X211 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Naval Surface Weapons Ctr ATTN: Tech Lib & Info Svcs Br

  18. Effects On Achievement from Programmed Instruction of Experimentally Induced Familiarization of Content and Different Response Modes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; Kagen, Edward

    A study of programed instruction sought to establish an attribute by treatment interaction (ATI) between prior familiarity of material and response mode. Two experimental variables (familiarization and response mode) and two subject attributes (sex and I.Q.) were employed. Junior High (JH) and graduate student (GS) were assigned to familiarization…

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SCORPION III, 02/17/1995

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... _' .. j~,_; :'L:'!:/ l ,,:l1.._ .. :~~_-r. t:;t- ;'·J':.r: ... - fl-cul(':.. dll Ct ;i~trants .... .1. ~Jlr.'ild[ £-.C:")~L.iCL~ tv ~>IJ:';'Hit. ':::UCII ,;at::.I; C"LC ;....ut..! . .J. L ...

  20. Interpersonal and Relational Orientation among Pre-Service Educators: Differential Effects on Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators' interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three…

  1. It's the Little Things: Exploring the Importance of Commonplace Events for Early-Career Teachers' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl; Morgan, Mark; O'Leary, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a rationale for further researching the everyday events that keep teachers motivated or that discourage them. We put forward the idea that routine Affect Triggering Incidents (ATIs) are an important area for researchers to investigate in terms of how they impact teacher motivation and resilience. Two groups of…

  2. Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To ascertain whether cerebral lateralities can be considered aptitudes or individual difference measures within an aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) framework, hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive psychometric tests were administered to 50 right-handed, Caucasian, male Navy recruits. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was computed…

  3. Access to Information and Freedom of Information Requests: Neglected Means of Data Production in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walby, Kevin; Larsen, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Access to information (ATI) and freedom of information (FOI) mechanisms are now relevant features of governments in many liberal democracies today. Citizens, organizations, and permanent residents in several countries across the globe can request unpublished information from federal, provincial, state, county, and municipal government agencies.…

  4. Cluster headache: potential options for medically refractory patients (when all else fails).

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J; Stillman, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The most evidence exists for mixed anesthetic/steroid occipital nerve blocks (which are also useful in non-refractory patients), deep brain stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blocks, SPG radiofrequency ablation, and SPG stimulation with the Autonomic Technologies, Inc (ATI) SPG Neurostimulator, the latter approved in the European Union and reimbursed in several countries.

  5. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  6. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  7. Determination of Transient Skin Temperature of Conical Bodies During Short-Time, High-Speed Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-04-06

    technology . ATI documents that are partially legible have been included in the DTIC collection due to their historical value. If you are dissatisfied with...Atmoaphere — Tablea and Data. HACA Rep. Ho. 218, 1925. (Reprint 19*0.) 11. Talen , Haue-Shen: Superaarodynamloa, Mechanics of Rarefied Oases. Jour. Aero. Sei

  8. Community College Nursing Student Success on Professional Qualifying Examinations from Admission to Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lenora; Sandiford, Janice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate variables associated with learning and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), (2) to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and (3) to provide a model that could…

  9. Gaia17aiq - Possible Supernova between two Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, D.

    2017-02-01

    New optical transient Gaia17aiq of magnitude 17.6 was observed by Gaia on 2017-02-06.43 and 06.50 UT. It was published on Feb. 14 (eight days after the detection) as hostless blue transient with Transient Name Server ID 2017ati.

  10. Using Personnel Distribution Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Re. toninAtiOn Reorieval by Manfied Koulten, 10 P_ Mandel, Marc. "Uniform Treeatment of Fluctuationsmpreael." Oct 1977, 36 otp.. ADOA0472M Mill 78...G.. "War and Peace in the Notts am Statietica Aaeociftiornf gome Piical fimplicatioins of the Changingf Military Situation in Northern Europe." I8 pp

  11. Fundamental Role of Grain Boundaries: Meso-Scale Simulation and Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    REPORT DOCUMEi ATI(N PAGE AFRL-SR-AR-TR-08-0240 Puoic repoting burden for this collection of alataon is estnaled to average 1 hour per response, i g...understanding the behavior of nano- scale structures, where discrete dislocation properties govern the properties. These advances have had limited

  12. User’s Manual for Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Code TEMPO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    8217SEP 21’’ A "’R’ATI ’N A T� TEE, .’I" *A;W MPTFH OPERAS RANT’ .’PTRlSAATIN ATTN ’R IFEl , .𔃼.’~R "rl . 3M’S DTSET ’TI’EA1 ;FRY Fi.1 TT’I SYSTE~MS

  13. The Interaction of Cognitive Styles with Varying Levels of Feedback in Multimedia Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe

    1996-01-01

    Study of 105 Brunei secondary school students investigating interactive effects of feedback levels using aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) approach and cognitive styles (field dependent-independent (FDI) in multimedia presentations found differences between no feedback (NF) and knowledge of results (KOR), NF and elaborated feedback (EF), none…

  14. 76 FR 35197 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... with ``Army Training Information Architecture--Learning Management System (ATIA-LMS... environment at the Training Capability Manager--Army Training Information System (TCM-ATIS). Building security... Architecture--Learning Management System (ATIA-LMS). System location: Commander, U.S. Army Training Support...

  15. Military Women’s Health and Illness Behaviors in Deployed Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-12

    your fertility.” Because my husband and I want to have children .” Gathering Information − “The only recommendation I have: educate; educate; educate...genitourinary infections during deployment. Military Medicine, 168, 569-574. McHugh, S., & Vallis, T.M. (1986). Illness Behaviour : Operationalization of the...of caring for the women and children in Afghanistan. JOGNN, 40, 255-261. Wu, R. (1973). Behavior and illness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

  16. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  17. MC-16 Memnonia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-16 quadrangle, Memnonia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands in the southern two-thirds are cut in the northeastern part by a large outflow channel, Mangala Vallis. The highlands are bounded to the north by undulating wind-eroded deposits and to the east by lava flows of the Tharsis region. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  18. Week 2: Sojourner smorgasbord at the Hard Rock Cafe, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ARES VALLIS, MARS—While children on Earth scoured their local toy stores for the Mattel "Hot Wheels" models of Mars Pathfinder and rover Sojourner, the Pathfinder team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., settled down to the business of "doing science" on the Red Planet. To accomplish "science" this week, Sojourner was commanded to drive from Yogi rock through the granular patch known as the Cabbage Patch and on to Scooby Doo.

  19. Personnel Attrition Rates in Historical Land Combat Operations: A Catalog of Attrition and Casualty Data Bases on Diskettes Usable with Personal Computers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    labor intensive and therefore very time-consuming and costly. Accordingly, making repeated passes to collect a few additional facets of information, or to...and Labor Activities in France, 1830-1960 (ICPSR 8421). (23) Analysis of Arrests in Paris, June 1848 (ICPSR 0049). (24) Violent Events in France, 1830...Pelaez (ed) Public Law and Comparative Politics. Trabajos en Homenaje a Ferran Vallis i Taberner, Vol XVII, Barcelona, Spain; Facultad de Derecho de

  20. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  1. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; Edgar, Lauren A.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  2. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  4. Ashkenazi Jewish origin protects against formation of antibodies to infliximab and therapy failure.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Bella; Haj-Natour, Ola; Kopylov, Uri; Yavzori, Miri; Fudim, Ella; Picard, Orit; Loebstein, Ronen; Lahat, Adi; Maor, Yaakov; Avidan, Benjamin; Lang, Alon; Weiss, Batia; Chowers, Yehuda; Eliakim, Rami; Ben-Horin, Shomron

    2015-05-01

    Infliximab is an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. Antibodies to infliximab (ATI) develop in approximately 45% of infliximab-treated IBD patients and are correlated with loss of clinical response. Scarce data exist as to factors which predict infliximab immunogenicity.To investigate factors that may predict formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) and infliximab therapy failure an observational study of consecutive IBD patients treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Trough levels of ATI were measured. Patients were monitored for disease activity using clinical activity indexes and were classified according to ATI formation and clinical response. All clinical and demographic parameters were analyzed for association with the designated outcomes.One hundred fifty-nine patients were included and 1505 sera were tested. On multivariate analysis, Jewish Ashkenazi ethnicity was protective against both development of ATI (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.7, P = 0.005) and treatment failure (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.66, P = 0.003). Concomitant immunomodulator therapy was also negatively associated with immunogenicity and infliximab therapy failure (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.65, P = 0.002; OR 0.42 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic therapy was positively associated with both outcomes (OR 4.2 95% CI 1.07-16.1, p = 0.04, OR 4.45 95% CI 1.2-16.6, p = 0.026 respectively). All other variables, including IBD type, gender, weight, age, smoking status and disease duration, were not predictive of ATI formation or clinical failure. However, among Crohn's disease patients, a non-stricturing non-penetrating phenotype was protective against ATI formation (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.14-0.96, p = 0.04). P = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic/interrupted therapy was

  5. Ashkenazi Jewish Origin Protects Against Formation of Antibodies to Infliximab and Therapy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Bella; Haj-Natour, Ola; Kopylov, Uri; Yavzori, Miri; Fudim, Ella; Picard, Orit; Loebstein, Ronen; Lahat, Adi; Maor, Yaakov; Avidan, Benjamin; Lang, Alon; Weiss, Batia; Chowers, Yehuda; Eliakim, Rami; Ben-Horin, Shomron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infliximab is an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. Antibodies to infliximab (ATI) develop in approximately 45% of infliximab-treated IBD patients and are correlated with loss of clinical response. Scarce data exist as to factors which predict infliximab immunogenicity. To investigate factors that may predict formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) and infliximab therapy failure an observational study of consecutive IBD patients treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Trough levels of ATI were measured. Patients were monitored for disease activity using clinical activity indexes and were classified according to ATI formation and clinical response. All clinical and demographic parameters were analyzed for association with the designated outcomes. One hundred fifty-nine patients were included and 1505 sera were tested. On multivariate analysis, Jewish Ashkenazi ethnicity was protective against both development of ATI (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17–0.7, P = 0.005) and treatment failure (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13–0.66, P = 0.003). Concomitant immunomodulator therapy was also negatively associated with immunogenicity and infliximab therapy failure (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.65, P = 0.002; OR 0.42 95% CI 0.18−0.99, p = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic therapy was positively associated with both outcomes (OR 4.2 95% CI 1.07−16.1, p = 0.04, OR 4.45 95% CI 1.2−16.6, p = 0.026 respectively). All other variables, including IBD type, gender, weight, age, smoking status and disease duration, were not predictive of ATI formation or clinical failure. However, among Crohn's disease patients, a non-stricturing non-penetrating phenotype was protective against ATI formation (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.14−0.96, p = 0.04). P = 0.04, respectively), whereas episodic

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  7. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  8. Fluvial drainage systems: Margaritifer Sinus and Agyre (NC, NE) quadrangles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial drainage systems, delineated by mapping on stereo pairs of Viking Orbiter images, have developed in various-sized basins in the Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19) and Agyre (MC-26) Quadrangles, Mars. The Ladon Valles system is the largest, draining into and through two multi-ringed impact basins. Smaller fluvial basins to the southeast of the Ladon structural basin appear to have internal drainage. An intermediate-scale fluvial basin containing Himera Vallis extends along a north-south axis at 22 W and opens northward toward outflow channels south of Margaritifer Chaos. Stereo-pair mapping was extended furhter to the east, in MC-19 Ne, Se, and MC-26 NE, to investigate sources of outflow to the Ares Vallis system. The direction of flow in the channel at the northeast quadrant of the Ladon Basin is unresolved at present because of the poor quality of images available to form stereo pairs. However, an easterly drainage basin boundary running north-south along longitude 9 W, and extending westward at latitude 32-35 S, encloses a series of longitudinal drainage systems. Both the Parana Valles-Loire Vallis system and the Samara Valles system appear to drain in a northwesterly direction. The Samara flows to the Himera drainage basin, and the Parana-Loire to the northeast Ladon channel area.

  9. Application of capillary affinity electrophoresis and density functional theory to the investigation of valinomycin-lithium complex.

    PubMed

    Ehala, Sille; Dybal, Jirí; Makrlík, Emanuel; Kasicka, Václav

    2009-04-24

    Capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) and quantum mechanical density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to the investigation of interactions of valinomycin (Val), a macrocyclic dodecadepsipeptide antibiotic ionophore, with lithium cation Li(+). Firstly, from the dependence of effective electrophoretic mobility of Val on the Li(+) ion concentration in the background electrolyte (BGE) (methanolic solution of 50mM chloroacetic acid, 25 mM Tris, pH(MeOH) 7.8, 0-40 mM LiCl), the apparent binding (stability) constant (K(b)) of Val-Li(+) complex in methanol was evaluated as logK(b)=1.50+/-0.24. The employed CAE method include correction of the effective mobilities measured at ambient temperature, at different input power (Joule heating) and at variable ionic strength of the BGEs to the mobilities related to the reference temperature 25 degrees C and to the constant ionic strength 25 mM. Secondly, using DFT calculations, the most probable structures of the non-hydrated Val-Li(+) and hydrated Val-Li(+) x 3H(2)O complex species were predicted.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  11. Identification of the Orthopoxvirus p4c Gene, Which Encodes a Structural Protein That Directs Intracellular Mature Virus Particles into A-Type Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Terry A.; Andrews, Stanley C.; Miller, Sara E.; Ray, Caroline A.; Pickup, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. This gene encodes the 58-kDa structural protein P4c present on the surfaces of the intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. The gene is disrupted in the genome of cowpox virus Brighton Red (BR), demonstrating that although the P4c protein may be advantageous for virus replication in vivo, it is not essential for virus replication in vitro. Complementation and recombination analyses with the p4c gene have shown that the P4c protein is required to direct the IMV into the A-type inclusions (ATIs) produced by cowpox virus BR. The p4c gene is highly conserved among most members of the orthopoxvirus genus, including viruses that produce ATIs, such as cowpox, ectromelia, and raccoonpox viruses, as well as those such as variola, monkeypox, vaccinia, and camelpox viruses, which do not. The conservation of the p4c gene among the orthopoxviruses, irrespective of their capacities to produce ATIs, suggests that the P4c protein provides functions in addition to that of directing IMV into ATIs. These findings, and the presence of the P4c protein in IMV but not extracellular enveloped virus (D. Ulaeto, D. Grosenbach, and D. E. Hruby, J. Virol. 70:3372-3377, 1996), suggest a model in which the P4c protein may play a role in the retrograde movement of IMV particles, thereby contributing to the retention of IMV particles within the cytoplasm and within ATIs when they are present. In this way, the P4c protein may affect both viral morphogenesis and processes of virus dissemination. PMID:12388681

  12. Discovery of a CXCR4 agonist pepducin that mobilizes bone marrow hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Tchernychev, Boris; Ren, Yong; Sachdev, Pallavi; Janz, Jay M; Haggis, Lynn; O'Shea, Adam; McBride, Ed; Looby, Richard; Deng, Qing; McMurry, Thomas; Kazmi, Manija A; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hunt, Stephen; Carlson, Kenneth E

    2010-12-21

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), chemokine CXC-type receptor 4 (CXCR4), and its ligand, CXCL12, mediate the retention of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow. Agents that disrupt CXCL12-mediated chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing cells mobilize PMNs and HSPCs into the peripheral circulation and are therapeutically useful for HSPC collection before autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Our aim was to develop unique CXCR4-targeted therapeutics using lipopeptide GPCR modulators called pepducins. A pepducin is a synthetic molecule composed of a peptide derived from the amino acid sequence of one of the intracellular (IC) loops of a target GPCR coupled to a lipid tether. We prepared and screened a small CXCR4-targeted pepducin library and identified several pepducins with in vitro agonist activity, including ATI-2341, whose peptide sequence derives from the first IC loop. ATI-2341 induced CXCR4- and G protein-dependent signaling, receptor internalization, and chemotaxis in CXCR4-expressing cells. It also induced dose-dependent peritoneal recruitment of PMNs when administered i.p. to mice. However, when administered systemically by i.v. bolus, ATI-2341 acted as a functional antagonist and dose-dependently mediated release of PMNs from the bone marrow of both mice and cynomolgus monkeys. ATI-2341-mediated release of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells from the bone marrow was confirmed by colony-forming assays. We conclude that ATI-2341 is a potent and efficacious mobilizer of bone marrow PMNs and HSPCs and could represent a previously undescribed therapeutic approach for the recruitment of HSPCs before ABMT.

  13. Mineralogical characterization of Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites from THEMIS and TES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2009-10-01

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments are used to assess the mineralogic and dust cover characteristics of landing regions proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Candidate regions examined in this study are Eberswalde crater, Gale crater, Holden crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, Nili Fossae Trough, and south Meridiani Planum. Compositional units identified in each region from TES and THEMIS data are distinguished by variations in hematite, olivine, pyroxene and high-silica phase abundance, whereas no units are distinguished by elevated phyllosilicate or sulfate abundance. Though phyllosilicate minerals have been identified in all sites using near-infrared observations, these minerals are not unambiguously detected using either TES spectral index or deconvolution analysis methods. For some of the sites, small phyllosilicate outcrop sizes relative to the TES field of view likely hinder phyllosilicate mineral detection. Porous texture and/or small particle size (<˜60 μm) associated with the phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces may also contribute to non-detections in the thermal infrared data sets, in some areas. However, in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, low phyllosilicate abundance (<10-20 areal %, depending on the phyllosilicate composition) is the most likely explanation for non-detection. TES data over Mawrth Vallis indicate that phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces also contain significant concentrations (>15%, possibly up to ˜40%) of a high-silica phase such as amorphous silica or zeolite. High-silica phase abundance over phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces in Mawrth Vallis is higher than that of surrounding surfaces by 10-15%. With the exception of these high-silica surfaces in Mawrth Vallis, regions examined in this study exhibit similar bulk mineralogical compositions to that of most low-albedo regions on Mars; the MSL scientific payload

  14. Trickle Down Theories: A Comparison of Gullies in Three Regions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, E.; Gilmore, M.

    2001-12-01

    Gullies were identified in Mars Orbiting Camera (MOC) images, and have been attributed to flowing water (Malin&Edgett, Science 288). These gullies emanate directly from the ground and are visible in the walls of canyons and craters; thus the gullies are likely to be the result of groundwater. As on Earth, the depths of these gullies are likely controlled by the presence of an impermeable layer. Our goal is to examine the morphology and depth of the gullies to determine the nature of this controlling layer. Images from Hale Crater, Nirgal Vallis and Dao Vallis were compared, all of which contain gullies but are situated in different latitudes in the southern hemisphere and different geologic settings. The morphologies of these gullies were examined, especially the relationship between the alcove and the channel of the gullies to the surrounding rock layers exposed. Depths of the features in the images were calculated using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Once the MOLA profiles were identified and graphed, the profiles were mechanically manipulated using Photoshop to overlay the path the satellite would have scanned in the MOC image. If the small-scale features of the MOLA profile as well as the large-scale features could be correlated accurately, the match was considered a success. In the north wall of Nirgal Vallis, the majority of the gullies emanate consistently ~260+/-30 meters below the surface, with one image containing a gully with a depth of 640+/-10 meters. Dao Vallis shows a greater variation in gully depth than Nirgal Vallis, from as deep as 1131+/-63 meters below the surface to as shallow as 67+/-5 meters. Many of the Dao images contain multiple gullies with origins at different depths. Images from Hale Crater contain gullies both on the central peak and on the northern wall; the depths of these are variable and originate from near the surface to depths of 348+/-64 meters. In Nirgal Vallis, gullies that emanate from a consistent depth lie

  15. Pharmacodynamic Impact of Carboxylesterase 1 Gene Variants in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Treated with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Peter; Ferrero, Laura; Bjerre, Ditte; Bruun, Niels E.; Egfjord, Martin; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in the carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) may contribute to the efficacy of ACEIs. Accordingly, we examined the impact of CES1 variants on plasma angiotensin II (ATII)/angiotensin I (ATI) ratio in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that underwent ACEI dose titrations. Five of these variants have previously been associated with drug response or increased CES1 expression, i.e., CES1 copy number variation, the variant of the duplicated CES1 gene with high transcriptional activity, rs71647871, rs2244613, and rs3815583. Additionally, nine variants, representatives of CES1Var, and three other CES1 variants were examined. Methods Patients with CHF, and clinical indication for ACEIs were categorized according to their CES1 genotype. Differences in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between genotype groups after ACEI dose titration, expressed as the least square mean (LSM) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were assessed by analysis of variance. Results A total of 200 patients were recruited and 127 patients (63.5%) completed the study. The mean duration of the CHF drug dose titration was 6.2 (SD 3.6) months. After ACEI dose titration, there was no difference in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between subjects with the investigated CES1 variants, and only one previously unexplored variation (rs2302722) qualified for further assessment. In the fully adjusted analysis of effects of rs2302722 on plasma ATII/ATI ratios, the difference in mean ATII/ATI ratio between the GG genotype and the minor allele carriers (GT and TT) was not significant, with a relative difference in LSMs of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43–1.07; P = 0.10). Results of analyses that only included enalapril-treated patients remained non-significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple parallel comparisons (difference in LSM 0.60 [95% CI 0.37–0.98], P = 0.045). Conclusion These findings indicate that the included single variants of CES1 do not significantly influence plasma ATII/ATI ratios in CHF

  16. Elastic properties of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) and the effect of O incorporation on bonding, density and elasticity (T'  =  Ti, Zr).

    PubMed

    Hunold, Oliver; Keuter, Philipp; Bliem, Pascal; Music, Denis; Wittmers, Friederike; Ravensburg, Anna L; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Schneider, Jochen M

    2017-03-01

    We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally. A-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 thin films were synthesized by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Chemical composition analysis revealed the presence of up to 5 at.% impurities, with O being the largest fraction. The measured Young's modulus values for a-Ti0.74Y0.80B14 (301  ±  8 GPa) and a-Zr0.75Y0.75B14 (306  ±  9 GPa) are more than 20% smaller than the predicted ones. The influence of O incorporation on the elastic properties for these selected systems was theoretically studied, exemplarily in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Based on ab initio data, we suggest that a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 exhibits a very dense B network, which is partly severed in a-Ti0.75Y0.75B12.75O1.25. Upon O incorporation, the average coordination number of B and the molar density decrease by 9% and 8%, respectively. Based on these data the more than 20% reduced Young's modulus obtained experimentally for films containing impurities compared to the calculated Young's modulus for a-Ti0.75Y0.75B14 (without incorporated oxygen) can be rationalized. The presence of oxygen impurities disrupts the strong B network causing a concomitant decrease in molar density and Young's modulus. Very good agreement between the measured and calculated Young's modulus values is obtained if the presence of impurities is considered in the calculations. The implications of these findings are that prediction efforts regarding the

  17. P-wave attenuation anisotropy in TI media and its application in fracture parameters inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi-Yuan; Hu, Tian-Yue; He, Chuan; Tan, Yu-Yang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of aligned fractures in fluid-saturated rocks leads to obvious attenuation anisotropy and velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy analysis can be applied to estimate fracture density and scale, which provide important information for reservoir identification. This paper derives P-wave attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media where the symmetry axis is in the arbitrary direction theoretically and modifies the spectral ratio method to measure attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media, thus avoiding a large measurement error when applied to wide azimuth or full azimuth data. Fracture dip and azimuth can be estimated through attenuation anisotropy analysis. For small-scale fractures, fracture scale and fracture density can be determined with enhanced convergence if velocity and attenuation information are both used. We also apply the modified spectralratio method to microseismic field data from an oilfield in East China and extract the fracture dip through attenuation anisotropy analysis. The result agrees with the microseismic monitoring.

  18. Observation of Drifting Icebergs and Sea Ice from Space by TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Joong-Sun

    2017-04-01

    Detection and monitoring drifting icebergs and sea ice is of interest across wide range of Arctic and Antarctic coastal studies such as security of navigation, climatic impact, geological impact, etc. It is not easy to discriminate drifting ices from stationary ones, and to measure their drifting speeds. There is a potential to use space-borne SAR for this purpose, but it is difficult to precisely measure because the drift velocity is usually very slow. In this study, we investigate two approaches for discriminating drifting ices on the sea from surrounding static ones and for measuring their range velocity. The first method is to utilize the quad-pol TerraSAR-X which adopts dual receive antenna (DRA), and the second one is to examine the potential use of TanDEM-X bistatic along-track interferometry (ATI). To utilize DRA mode quad-pol SAR as ATI, it is necessary to remove the phase difference of scattering centers between transmitted H- and V-pol signals. By assume that the individual scattering center of returned signal does not change for a few inter-pulse periods, it is possible to measure the Doppler frequency induced by motion through measuring slow-time (or azimuth time) Doppler phase derivative of co-pol or cross-pol pairs. Results applied to TerraSAR-X quad-pol data over the Cape Columbia in the Arctic Ocean are to be presented and discussed. It was successful to detect and measure drift sea ice that was flowing away from the antenna with a velocity of about 0.37 m/s (or 1.4 km/h) to 0.67 m/s (or 2.4 km/h) while neighboring ones were static. A more sophisticated approach would be a bistatic ATI which exploits a long along-track baseline for observation of slowly moving ground objects. TanDEM-X bistatic ATI pairs are examined, which were acquired at an Antarctic coast. The ATI interferograms show an innovative capability of TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X constellation. An along-track baseline of a few hundred meters is superior to a few meter baseline of DRA mode ATI

  19. Intensity-resolved above-threshold ionization of xenon with short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, N. A.; Strohaber, J.; Kaya, G.; Kaya, N.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present intensity-resolved above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of xenon using an intensity scanning and deconvolution technique. Experimental data were obtained with laser pulses of 58 fs and a central wavelength of 800 nm from a chirped-pulse amplifier. Applying a deconvolution algorithm, we obtained spectra that have higher contrast and are in excellent agreement with characteristic two and ten Up cutoff energies contrary to that found for raw data. The retrieved electron-ionization probability is consistent with the presence of a second electron from double ionization. This recovered ionization probability is confirmed with a calculation based on the Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev tunneling ionization model [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)]. Thus, the measurements of the photoelectron yields and the developed deconvolution technique allowed retrieval of more accurate spectroscopic information from the ATI spectra and ionization probability features that usually are concealed by volume averaging.

  20. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  1. Assessing lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative training in couple and family therapy: establishing the validity of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Christi R; Carlson, Thomas S; Toomey, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI-F), which assesses faculty members' perceptions of the level of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative training that occurs in clinical programs. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI-F and three convergent validity items utilizing a sample of 117 faculty members from accredited family therapy programs. The findings provide empirical support for the relationship between including classroom content on LGB affirmative therapy and faculty members' beliefs about LGB individuals and relationships. Specifically, faculty members who report more positive beliefs about LGB clients appear to be more likely to include LGB affirmative therapy content in the courses they teach. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  2. Atomic processes in bicircular fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate laser-assisted electron-ion recombination (LAR), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of argon atoms by a bicircular laser field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies rω and sω. The energy of soft x rays generated in the LAR process is analyzed as a function of the incident electron angle and numerical results of direct recombination of electrons with Ar+ ions are presented. We also present the results of HHG by a bicircular field and confirm the selection rules derived earlier for inert-gas atoms in a p ground state. We show that the photoelectron spectra in the ATI process, presented in the momentum plane, as well as the LAR spectra exhibit the same discrete rotational symmetry as the applied field.

  3. Increased expression in vivo and in vitro of foreign genes directed by A-type inclusion body hybrid promoters in recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, S; Itamura, S; Iinuma, H; Nerome, K; Sugimoto, M; Shida, H

    1991-01-01

    We constructed A-type inclusion body (ATI) hybrid promoters, that is, late ATI promoters followed by tandemly repeated early regions of the promoter for the 7.5-kDa protein (the 7.5-kDa promoter). The repetition of the whole early promoter sequence of the 7.5-kDa gene, including the upstream consensus sequence and initiation region, efficiently increased the early expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in recombinant vaccinia virus. Recombinant vaccinia virus could express influenza virus hemagglutinin via the hybrid promoter more efficiently, induced higher levels of neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and consequently protected mice more efficiently against challenge with influenza virus than did recombinant vaccinia virus containing the widely used 7.5-kDa promoter. Images PMID:1654453

  4. Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.; Bucksbaum, P.H. Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa 02-668 Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics , Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 Physics Department and Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 )

    1995-02-01

    A generalized strong-field approximation is formulated to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. We apply it to determine angular distributions of electrons in above-threshold ionization (ATI). The theory treats the effects of an electron rescattering from its parent ion core in a systematic perturbation series. Probability amplitudes for ionization are interpreted in terms of quasiclassical electron trajectories. We demonstrate that contributions from the direct tunneling processes in the absence of rescattering are not sufficient to describe the observed ATI spectra. We show that the high-energy portion of the spectrum, including recently discovered rings (i.e., complex features in the angular distributions of outgoing electrons) are due to rescattering processes. We compare our quasiclassical results with exact numerical solutions.

  5. Change in the quantity and acute toxicity of pesticides sold in South African crop sectors, 1994 –1999

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Algernon; London, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND South African pesticide market sales data, for two years, 1994 and 1999, were audited to identify change in total and per hectare mass sold and acute toxicity indicator (ATI) (kg sold/rat oral LD50) in the grape, pome, stone fruit, potato and wheat sectors. RESULTS Total pesticide sales (62%), amount per hectare (42%) and number of active ingredients (23%) increased in 1999 compared to 1994 with the grape fruit sector, the most significant contributor over the two years. Total (14%) and per hectare ATI (19%) decreased in 1999, but not substantially with the potato sector the most significant contributor. CONCLUSIONS Toxic pesticides were still used in 1999 which highlights a need to develop alternative agricultural and non-chemical pest control methods that reduce usage of pesticides. PMID:19185919

  6. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Stephen T.; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. As a pattern-recognition receptor capable of binding a diverse range of ligands, it is typically expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions in the majority of tissues. In contrast, the lung exhibits high basal level expression of RAGE localised primarily in alveolar type I (ATI) cells, suggesting a potentially important role for the receptor in maintaining lung homeostasis. Indeed, disruption of RAGE levels has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary disorders including cancer and fibrosis. Furthermore, its soluble isoforms, sRAGE, which act as decoy receptors, have been shown to be a useful marker of ATI cell injury. Whilst RAGE undoubtedly plays an important role in the biology of the lung, it remains unclear as to the exact nature of this contribution under both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:20145712

  7. Aptitude-treatment interaction effects in psychooncological interventions.

    PubMed

    Stulz, Niklaus; Künzler, Alfred; Barth, Jürgen; Hepp, Urs

    2014-01-01

    To examine aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effects in cancer patients receiving psychooncological interventions (POIs). N=36 cancer patients were treated with POI. Hierarchical linear regression was used to test two interaction effects between patient baseline characteristics (aptitudes) and process analyses of therapy sessions (treatment) on change in mental health during POI. Patients with high emotional distress did best when their therapy reduced arousal, and patients with lower emotional distress benefited most if therapists emphasized arousal induction. The interaction between the coping style of the patient (internalizing vs. externalizing) and the focus of the treatment (emotion vs. behavior) did not predict POI outcomes. The ATI effect of patient's distress and therapist's arousal induction/reduction may help therapists to make differential treatment decisions in POI. Tailoring treatments to cancer patients based on their personal characteristics may enhance the effectiveness of POI. © 2014.

  8. Graphene from amorphous titanium carbide by chlorination under 200 °C and atmospheric pressures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Kou, Zongkui; Wu, Hui; Mu, Shichun

    2014-06-30

    The synthesis of graphene via decomposition of SiC has opened a promising route for large-scale production of graphene. However, extremely high requirements for almost perfectly ordered crystal SiC and harsh process conditions such as high temperatures (>1200 °C) and ultra-high vacuum are two significant challenges hindering its wide use to synthesize graphene by decomposition of SiC. Here, we show that the readily available precursor of carbides, amorphous TiC (a-Ti(1-x)C(x)), can be transformed into graphene nanosheets (GNS) with tunable layers by chlorination method at very low temperatures (200 °C) and ambient pressures. Moreover, freestanding GNS can be achieved by stripping off GNS from the surface of resulting particles. Therefore, our strategy, the direct transformation of a-Ti(1-x)C(x) into graphene, is simple and expected to be easily scaled up.

  9. The Interior Olivary Complex of Guinea Pig: Cytoarchitecture and Cellular Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Animals " of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. Request% for reprints should he addressed to Commander, U.S...neurons that demonstrated the characteristic oscillatory Sbrain, an animal was anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital behavior and that had an...Ati-v .Vetro/ 12: 247-254. 1975. P, i p Brei al Rk 18: 69-87. 1973. 50. Vi ncenzi. L. Su/blinac A ,/ilotia deill ’uoint. Estr . del Ia Reail. *27. I inas

  10. Determination of a Worst-Case Acceptor for Large-Scale Sympathetic Detonation Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    UNMASIlE SAR NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-69) vaicraoed b ANSI Std 13g-18 PREFACE On 30 September 1992, tht S. Army Balistic Reseah...Army Materiel Command ATI’N: AMSTA-JSK ( Armor Eng. Br.) ATTN: AMCAM Wanrn, MI 48397-5000 5001 Eienhower Ave. Alexandria. VA 22333-0001 1 Director U.S

  11. SAR Product Improvements and Enhancements - SARprises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    in Germany, Steffen Grünler, published a paper on the potential of using spaceborne ATI systems to estimate mean river discharges [ D ]. RESULTS...directly involved, and to the River Inlet (RIVET) projects. 6 REFERENCES [1] Toporkov, J.V., D . Perkovic, G. Farquharson, M.A. Sletten, S.J. Frasier...2004JC002809, 17 pp., 2005. [3] Romeiser, R., A. Seibt-Winckler, M. Heineke, D . Eppel, Validation of current and bathymetry measurements in the German

  12. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1.

  13. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA4. These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  14. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 35, Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    fusda.ienuv pod ; neiling (either fro~m heclou or.iiret of.. sy undero,, bubble-licc -lcn-omlkn, primenennaa cc Ihciayerdcpthai...of the tuttdra soil-water system ati chanics. Stordalen, Ahisko. Visual and tmatheinatical niethitds for assessing sea ice charav- 3.44Rydemi. B E.. ci...the ultrasonic acoustic emission rc- 35-2372 Caiculatlor , of avalanche friction coefficients from spnse in soun isdcclopcd Thcmodeldcriscd~onsidcrsthc

  15. Clinical role, optimal timing and frequency of serum infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody level measurements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Fábián, Anna; Bálint, Anita; Milassin, Ágnes; Rutka, Mariann; Matuz, Mária; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Molnár, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum infliximab (IFX) and antibody-to-infliximab (ATI) levels are objective parameters, that may have a great role in the therapeutic decisions during maintenance biological therapy. Research design and methods 48 inflammatory bowel disease patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy were prospectively enrolled and divided into adequate (complete remission N = 20) and inadequate responder (partial response, loss of response, dose escalation; N = 28) groups. Blood samples were collected just before (trough level, TL) and two (W2aTL) and six weeks (W6aTL) after the administration of IFX. Results Single measurement of ATI titer was insufficient for predicting therapeutic response due to transient expression of ATI, however, using the three points’ measurements, significant difference has been detected between the adequate and inadequate responder group (5.0% vs 35.7%; p = 0.016). The mean value of TL was significantly higher in the adequate responder group (3.11±1.64 vs.1.19±1.11; p<0.001) without further difference on the second and sixth week. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting the therapeutic response were 85.0% and 71.4% based on the cut-off value of TL 2.0 μg/ml. Conclusion Simultaneous measurement of serum IFX level prior to administration of regular IFX infusion and ATI titers significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy for the therapeutic decision in patients uncertainly responding to the therapy. The measurement of W2aTL and W6aTL levels did not result in further improvement in the prediction of therapeutic response. PMID:28362851

  16. Gigavolt Bound free Transitions Driven by Extreme Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    photoelectron spectrum in the ultra-relativistic limit of tunneling ionization is strongly af- fected by wave-particle resonance and finite spot-size...ization. The photoelectron spectrum typically ranges from the few eV range, as in above threshold ionization (ATI) [1, 2], to the few MeV range, as in...energies. cal cycles before leaving the confocal region. A new type of photoelectron spectrum is obtained when the free elec- tron stays confined to a

  17. Translations on South and East Asia, No. 789.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-14

    Nepal New Zealand _X Pakistan Papua New Guinea _X Philippines Republic of China Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand 17c. COS ATI Fie Id...by union minister for steel and mines Biju Patnaik at the parliamentary consultative committee of his ministry in New Delhi on the evenXng of 27...newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources aro translated; those

  18. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  19. A Technique for Choosing Cost-Effective Instructional Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    over another can be measured with respect to the next most efficient alter- native . Relative or incremental costing of alternatives provides...INPLTl,27XP9Fl0.l) 26 702 FORr.’AT( I NOMMtSC~L’ikT90 AKNI-UAL FAC. CO05r,010xi9P1Al,ýl 27 701 F041,ATI I NONnl3Cf’P’TF ANWr )AL FQUIPMENT COST lv4i

  20. Comparison of two techniques for selection of master gutta-percha cone using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, João Manoel; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; De-Bem, Samuel Henrique Câmara; Alfredo, Edson; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2013-01-01

    This study used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the fit of the master gutta-percha cone at time of cone fit, gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and the filling material volume in relation to the canal at the apical limit of the working length. Root canals of 20 maxillary central incisors were prepared with rotary instruments and distributed into two groups (n=10). The gutta-percha cone tip was either plasticized (apical thermal impression technique - ATI) or not (conventional technique - CT), and its apical fit was checked. The apical 1 mm of working length was examined with a micro-CT, canals were filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and new micro-CT scans were obtained. In CT, gutta-percha filled 35.83 ± 15.05% of the canal at cone selection and 38.72 ± 11.64% after filling. In ATI, these values were 23.14 ± 7.74% and 26.98 ± 20.40%, respectively. Gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and filling material volume in relation to the canal were, respectively, 61.28 ± 11.64% and 87.76 ± 9.98% for CT, and 73.00 ± 20.41% and 89.96 ± 9.08% for ATI. No significant difference was found between cone selection and after canal filling, for either CT (p=0.593) or ATI (p=0.4975). The techniques did not differ significantly with respect to gutta-percha volume in the filling material (p=0.132) and filling material volume in relation to the canal (p=0.612). An ideal fit of the master gutta-percha cone at working length was not achieved regardless of the cone selection technique, and the material-filled area was similar for both techniques.

  1. Algorithms for Real-Time Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    algorithm has been mapped on an application specific prototyping platform which contains four VLSI CORDIC ASICs and some FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate... makes less critical the implementation of a VLSI based systolic array. A practical application of systolic processing for classical ground based or ship...interferometry (ATI) - SAR to detect moving targets [ 18]. It can be shown that this approach offers a considerable computational advantage; FPGA technology has

  2. Microhardness, Friction and Wear of SiC and Si3N4 Materials as a Function of Load, Temperature and Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    AGENCY NAME AADDRESS(5f different frm Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS . (of this report) UNCLASSIFIED 1Sa. DECL ASSI FIC ATI ON/ DOWNGRADING...30 The Boussinesq elastic stress field: stress 160 trajectories and contours of principal normal stresses. Fig. 31 Surface hoop stress distributions...with other materials. 1.2.2.3 SiAlON The sialons are a more recently developed class of materials than either SiC or Si3N4, and there remains a great

  3. China’s Growing Military Power: Perpectives on Security, Ballistic Missiles, and Conventional Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    y ear earlier, gras sroots units h ad to ov ercom e “ selfis h departm entalis m and ov erem p h asis of local interests” and m ov e forw ard w...reasons of strictly selfis h national interests w ere so strong th at th e “negativ e trend” w ould be arrested “at som e point,” th at pragm atis

  4. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3' end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation.

  5. Balance between activation and regulation of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell response after modified vaccinia Ankara B therapeutic vaccination.

    PubMed

    Rallón, Norma; Mothe, Beatriz; Lopez Bernaldo de Quiros, Juan C; Plana, Montserrat; Ligos, José M; Montoya, María; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria A; Esteban, Mariano; Garcia, Felipe; Brander, Christian; Benito, José M

    2016-02-20

    The causes of HIV-vaccines failure are poorly understood. Therapeutic vaccination with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-B in HIV-1-infected individuals did not control the virus upon analytical treatment interruption (ATI). We investigated whether the functional characteristics of HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses stimulated by this vaccine, and the level of exhaustion of these cells might explain these results. Twenty-one HIV-1 chronically infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy, included in the therapeutic vaccine trial RISVAC03, were studied: 13 immunized and eight controls. Functional characteristics, cytotoxic potential and exhaustion of HIV-specific CD8 T cells, were evaluated by polychromatic flow cytometry. Differences between groups were tested using nonparametric tests. MVA-B vaccine induced an increase in HIV-specific CD8 T-cell response, but also increased their levels of exhaustion. At week 18 (following three immunizations) the level of response increased with respect to baseline (P = 0.02). A significant increase at weeks 18 and 24 (ATI) in granzyme B content was also observed. Interestingly, an increase in expression of exhaustion markers was found at weeks 18 (P = 0.006) and 24 (P = 0.01). However, there was no significant change in the functional profile of vaccine-induced CD8 cells. At week 36, in parallel to the rebound of plasma viremia after 12 weeks ATI, a significant increase in the level of CD8 response, in granzyme B content and in exhaustion markers expression, was observed in both groups. We show that therapeutic vaccination with MVA-B tilts the balance between activation and regulation of the response of HIV-specific CD8 T cells towards regulation, which impacts on the viral rebound after ATI.

  6. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  7. HUMAN ENGINEERING FOR AN EFFECTIVE AIR-NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC-CONTROL SYSTEM, AND APPENDIXES 1 THRU 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-14

    Henneman F. C.Frnick W. E. Kappauf WA R. Garner E. B. Newman F. C . Frick A. C . Williams, Jr.SW. R. Garner j.• JW. Gebhord W. F. Grether A report...Psychology Washington, D. C . UNCLASSIFIED ATI 133 954 (COPIES OSTAIMAULE FROM ASTIA-OSC) OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY RESECNH FOUNDATION, COLmUS HUMAN...Air Navigation Development Board, A-9 Civil Aeronautics Administration Washington 25, D. C . Dear Dr. Ewing: The attached report, entitled Human

  8. Life Prediction for a Structural Material under Cyclic Loads with Hold Times Using a Viscoplastic Constitutive Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    times. The six material parameters of the viscoplastic theory were S evaluated from a series of strain - controlled stabilized cyclic loading tests, and...fatigue. Two sets of low cycle :ati;ue life predictions were carried out and compared with experimental data. One in- Valved strain - controlled cyclic... strain for a strain -time 0e input that produces stress relaxation. Figures 2.22-2.30 illustrate the effects of strain controlled cyclic loading. For

  9. Systems Analysis Directorate Activities Summary - July 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    potential revenues increase/decrease as the FMS selling price increases/decreases. Attached MFR (Incl 1) contains the results of this study. 3. Point of...DATE August 1977 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME ft ADDRESSfi/ dUtarenl Irom Controlling Oltlca) 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 126 15 . SECURITY CLASS...of thla report; UNCLASSIFIED 15 «. DECLASSI FIG ATI ON/DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thla Report; Approved for

  10. Enhancements and Extensions of Formal Models for Risk Assessment in Software Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    The special case, alpha = 2, is called the Rayleigh Distribution with scale parameter beta, named after William Strutt , Lord Rayleigh . Table VI-2...curves, named after the 19th century physicist Lord Rayleigh (Putn96): 2 2 aty Kate−= where y = manpower rate at each point on the curve (such... Rayleigh curve, as documented by (Putn80) and (Boeh81) is a reasonably good fit for the manpower projections. Putnam observed that a strong

  11. An Evaluation of Marine Fog Forecast Concepts and a Preliminary Design for a Marine Obscuration Forecast System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    SNU 4n.aa 0.4 U - 4414 00 4414 410 1 *0 = .~ ~ 0 t 0 c~a- Cr, 0. _o 0 a.4 3-. a 20 M U- 0 m - c~4 0 ’a41 -A 0 - a0- -w >, I.> C. ad -I~u1 44- -1 01a a...tY A capping urine inversion has been demonstrated as being a necessary condition for the formation of marine fog along the California coast. A

  12. High Fracture Toughness Bearing Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AFWAL-TR-81-2042 C• ) HIGH FRACTURE TOUGHNESS BEARING DEVELOPMENT SKF Industries, Inc. King of Prussia, PA 19406 December 1981 Final Report for...withthe contractor SKF who wrote the report and found that the inclusion of the proprietary notice was ati oversight on their part. The con-tractor and...TASK SKF Industries, Inc . AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 1100 First Avenue 3048 06 07 King of Prussia, PA 19406 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  13. Near East/South Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-04

    artificial lake in the world behind itself, rich in fish, shores , possibilities of navigation and tourism; and we have not utilized any of it. However...discussion turned on the situation of off- shore banks in Bahrain in the light of the general economic conditions in which the banks are operating...office, Ketabchi, the governor, Hojjat o,l-Eslam Mohammad Baqer Shari’ati, the Friday Imam and Yahya Soltani , Majlis deputy for the people of

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  15. OPERATION BUSTER, Nevada Proving Grounds, October-November 1951. Project 3.8. Effects of an Atomic Detonation on Aircraft Structures on the Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-01-01

    A 2 4 Date ~ A I WASINGON DX...II 1 𔃼e2 I ",iI’PAED FORCES SPECIAL WEAPONS PROJECT.Ŗ .I ! . WASHINGTON, DC. nopy 20 of 297 copies, Series A OPERATION BUSTER PROJECT 3,8 EFFECTS...8217-’’:-.’""’ " -’ -- - -- . - . * -4 MJ- *~ -Avon -- NF - A * - A AV a FoI o* 1 E 1. -, :TLLIJ iLLU ,ATI(1i, S . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . vii±LL , "

  16. A Review of Water Characteristics of Grays Harbor 1938-1979 and an Evaluation of Possible Effects of the Widening and Deepening Project upon Present Water Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    hi. repat) _ UNCLASSIFIED I t~~IS& OECL. ASSI FIC€ATI ON/ DOWfN GRADING SCHEDULE IS. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT rothis. Report’ I Approved for Public...State Pollution Control Com- mission. 90 pp. BRIX , R., S. WRIGHT, and L. PHINNEY (1976) Salmon Bloassays. Appendix M in Maintenance Dredging and the...Press: Downey, California. 191 pp. DUNN, C. A., R. BRIX , and D. KIMURA (1975) Stamina Testing on Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) in Upper Grays

  17. Ethernet Time Transfer through a U.S. Commercial Optical Telecommunications Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    algorithm in 1993. Dr. Weiss won the 2013 NIST William P. Slichter Award, “For pioneering highly productive industry/ government partnerships to advance ...algorithms and mathematical analysis for which he holds several patents. He serves on, as chair, contributor and editor, the ATIS and ITU-T committees...at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He earned a BA in physics and mathematics from Rice University in 1998 and a PhD in physics from

  18. White-Light Optical Information Processing and Holography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-03

    in our future research program), then the white-light signal processing technique is more convenient and reliable than the conventional coherent...8217ppi tt tI[le I incohle ret tsource. n I- c( Mlcc oliei Seic Research I iaiit Ati t)SR-81-it4S APPLIED A£lD PP E 45 04F I N \\u etal Reifrence% s I IS )t

  19. A Hundred Osamas: Islamist Threats and the Future of Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    200 were injured in a triple bombing in Delhi, India, on October 29, 2005. Islamic militants are suspected. • Three Christian teenage girls were...Islamists like Khomeini or `Ali Shari`ati. But neither are they 23 secularists. To be a secularist today is to be considered religiously delinquent ...as “allowed,” “forbidden,” or “ neutral .” Which looks more Islamic: a party that aids prisoners’ families, or secularist party officials who are

  20. Isolated and Cascade Airfoils with Prescribed Velocity Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    imaged from roll film. The collection has deteriorated over time and is in poor condition. DTIC has reproduced the best available copy utilizing the...most current imaging technology. ATI documents that are partially legible have been included in the DTIC collection due to their historical value...Ackeret, J.: The Design of Closely Spaced Blade Grids. British K.T.P. Trans. No. 2007, Ministry Aircraft Prod. (From Schweiz . Bauzeitung, vol. 120

  1. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, VETERINARIAN TYPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    nlR[< I Itl'\\S fOJ;: !'S! GENER,\\l CI ,\\SSl F IrATI,·" i t ',j 3 It is ;1 viol"t{"l' tf r .. rl"ral ,.~". fl' ., .. pl'~duct in aI I9I11:nnf"r in.''1l ... • . t.·:1t '.·It" It l.ht"'liny. L ...

  3. Nature of Inlet Turbulence and Strut Flow Disturbances and Their Effect on Turbomachinery Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-25

    i i oI ni ill Ii n et to t lie rot or loadinM v edge, as .is evident from Tiible 111. lI1 tile region upstream of thc centerbodV and downstream of tle...intens itv. .T0 cllnt it;atiVc rsults c n he dra-vll. Robbins and Lakshminarayana’s [ I ] data is simi hair to the present investigation, even though tile

  4. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K.; Lieu, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  5. Potential Impact of Open Architecture on AEGIS Using KVA and Real Options Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-14

    2, 674, 916 0. 949% 0. 87% Academi c Loans 19 146, 850 3, 715, 300 4, 288, 179 - 572,878 0. 949% 0. 87% St andar d Devi ati on of Act uali zed...0 Act uali zed CF Fl exi bil t y Param et er Deci si on To Invest 4, 130,101 9, 851, 788 1. 263 Execut e I nves tm ent 2, 324, 992 4, 741, 612 1

  6. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-10

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system under development by the Department of Defense (DoD...Happing Agency Los Angeles, California 90009 ABSTRACT The Navstar Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system ...TITLE llnclud* Security Clauiti.ati-n) NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview N/A PROJECT NO. N/A TASK NO. N/A WORK UNIT NO.

  7. Active Suppression of Aeroelastic Instabilities for Forward Swept Wings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    ballasted to create DD F 3 1473 £01TION OF I NOV 6S IS OBSOLTE UNCLASSIFIRn SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) UNCLASSIFIED...instabilities in lieu of conventional flutter prevention procedures (adding stiffness or ballast weights). The principles and procedures of applying... Waters " concluded that a:tie controls could prevent or delay the onset tat K: divergence using onIy displacement feedoack. and that body freedom

  8. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  9. Innovative Training Concepts for Use in Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-30

    SPONSORINGMNITORINGIU.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) AEC EOTNME ATI: PERI-IK ARI Research Product For Knox, KY...for the Behavioral and Social Sciences 5001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22333-5600 Office, Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel Department of...The Army Research Institute (ARI) is charged with conducting basic and applied behavioral and social research that will contribute to the Army’s

  10. Linking and Streamlining the Defense Requirements, Acquisition, and Budget Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Mr. William R. Phillips; Dr. Dov S. Zakheim; General Michael P.C. Carns , USAF (Ret); Admiral Vernon E. Clark, USN (Ret); and General Paul J. Kern... Carns , USAF (Ret) General Paul Kern, USA (Ret) Colonel Jack Curran, USA, DBB Military Assistant Task Group Overview 4  Analyzed Past Studies...Mvtlon An aty.ls Phn•- Technology Dev .. opm•nt Phno --- ---Engln .. rln g &. Manl.lfactvrlng Oovolopm.nt Ph •M--- ---:=:.:=::.:.:.==-==· r\\ DEFENSE

  11. Qualitative Reasoning in an Expert System Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    the mini-world of the roller coaster and contributed the concept of envisionment . Envision- mont predicts system behavior through qualitative...about specific domain equations. His contribu- tions was a weak form of physical reasoning called envisionment which allowed the computer to predict...Administration. NASA-T-80194. [371 Kulpers. B. (1982). Getting the Envisionment Right. kriofinu gL Ih National Conferencej AtiUfia Zaekte". pp. 209-212. [381

  12. Hydrographs of a Martian flood from the breach of Galilaei Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Neil M.

    2015-05-01

    Spectacular floods were spawned on Mars when large craters filled to overtopping and catastrophically breached. The wealth of data now available permits quantitative analysis of these ancient floods. Galilaei Crater is examined here, along with the likely sources of its water and the processes that formed Tana Vallis, its 1-km-deep outflow channel. Laser altimetry data, stereo-photogrammetry, and scaled images are used to reconstruct the lake volume and the geometry of the preserved breach. It is theorized that surface flows from Hydaspis Chaos eroded the rim and floor of Galilaei Crater and partly filled the basin, leading to degradation of the underlying cryosphere. Groundwater released from a confined aquifer then slowly filled Galilaei Crater until the enclosed lake overtopped its rim. The resulting flood breached the crater wall, rapidly drained the lake, and eroded Tana Vallis. The drainable lake volume was ≥ 1.110 × 1013 m3, based on laser altimetry data from Mars Global Surveyor. This volume was 90% of the volume in Lake Superior in the Great Lakes. Using the reconstructed breach and channel geometry, methods used to analyze terrestrial dam breaches were applied to produce hydrographs of lake stage and discharge. Peak flood discharge in Tana Vallis likely ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 × 107 m3 s- 1. Mean channel incision rates are estimated at 0.333, 0.133, and 0.0667 m min- 1 for scenarios in which Tana Vallis formed in 2, 5, and 10 days. For the 5-day breach erosion scenario, stream power per unit streambed area at the time of peak discharge was estimated at > 3.5 × 105 W m- 2. The volume of material eroded to form the vallis was only ~ 3% of the lake volume that drained in 5 days. Open-channel calculations were performed to compare with the dam breach hydrographs for Tana Vallis. The channel as seen today never flowed bank full or even at three-fourths its maximum depth because the implied flows would have exceeded peak discharges from the crater breach. I

  13. Utility of Iron Staining in Identifying the Cause of Renal Allograft Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingchun; Khan, Salman; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ping L.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is associated with iron/heme deposition in proximal renal tubules and related acute tubular injury (ATI). Here we report the utility of iron staining in differentiating causes of renal allograft dysfunction in patients with a history of sickle cell disease. Case 1: the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction two years after renal transplant. Her renal biopsy showed ATI, supported by patchy loss of brush border and positive staining of kidney injury molecule-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells, where diffuse increase in iron staining (2+) was present. This indicated that ATI likely resulted from iron/heme toxicity to proximal tubules. Electron microscope confirmed aggregated sickle RBCs in glomeruli, indicating a recurrent SCN. Case 2: four years after renal transplant, the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction and became positive for serum donor-specific antibody. His renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and diffuse positive C4d stain in peritubular capillaries. Iron staining was negative in the renal tubules, implying that TMA was likely associated with acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR, type 2) rather than recurrent SCN. These case reports imply that iron staining is an inexpensive but effective method in distinguishing SCN-associated renal injury in allograft kidney from other etiologies. PMID:26697257

  14. The relation of radar to cloud area-time integrals and implications for rain measurements from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David; Bell, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    The relationships between satellite-based and radar-measured area-time integrals (ATI) for convective storms are determined, and both are shown to depend on the climatological conditional mean rain rate and the ratio of the measured cloud area to the actual rain area of the storms. The GOES precipitation index of Arkin (1986) for convective storms, an area-time integral for satellite cloud areas, is shown to be related to the ATI for radar-observed rain areas. The quality of GPI-based rainfall estimates depends on how well the cloud area is related to the rain area and the size of the sampling domain. It is also noted that the use of a GOES cloud ATI in conjunction with the radar area-time integral will improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates and allow such estimates to be made in much smaller space-time domains than the 1-month and 5-deg boxes anticipated for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  15. Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2013-04-01

    Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salières et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)], 10.1126/science.108836. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

  16. Angiotensin II causes cellular proliferation in infantile haemangioma via angiotensin II receptor 2 activation.

    PubMed

    Itinteang, Tinte; Marsh, Reginald; Davis, Paul Frank; Tan, Swee Thong

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the angiotensin peptides and their agonists and antagonists on cellular proliferation in proliferating infantile haemangioma (IH) in vitro explants. Proliferating IH samples from six patients were cultured in vitro in the presence of angiotensin I (ATI) alone, or AT1 and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, or ATII alone, or ATII with the ATII receptor 1 (ATIIR1) blocker, losartan, or ATII with the ATIIR2 blocker, PD123319, or the ATIIR2 agonist, CGP42112. After 6 days in culture, the IH tissue pieces were harvested, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. The effect of each treatment type on cellular proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of these tissue pieces using the proliferation marker, Ki67. There was a significant increase in cellular proliferation in the ATI and ATII treated IH tissues compared with control samples. Their effect on cellular proliferation was reduced by adding ramipril and PD123319, respectively. CGP42112, but not losartan, significantly increased cellular proliferation. Our findings suggest a key regulatory role of ATI and ATII in promoting cellular proliferation in IH, and establish a role for ACE and ATIIR2 in the proliferation of this tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  18. The isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation adopt similar conformation in the selectivity filter in TREK-2.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Zhuo; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2015-12-01

    TREK-2 (TWIK-related K(+) channel-2), a member of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, tunes cellular excitability via conducting leak or background currents. In TREK-2, the isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) mechanism exhibit large divergence in unitary conductance, but similar in selectivity to K(+). Up to now, the structural basis for this similarity in ion selectivity is unknown. Here, we report that externally applied Ba(2+) inhibits the currents of TREK-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The blocking effect is blunted by elevated extracellular K(+) or mutation of S4 K(+) binding site, which suggests that the inhibitory mechanism of Ba(2+) is due to its competitive docking properties within the selectivity filter (SF). Next, we demonstrate that all the ATI isoforms exhibit analogous behaviors upon the application of Ba(2+) and alteration of extracellular pH (pHo), which acts on the outer position of the SF. These results strongly support the notion that all the ATI isoforms of TREK-2 possess resembled SF conformation in S4 site and the position defined by pHo, which implicates that neither the role of N-terminus (Nt) nor the unitary conductance is associated with SF conformation. Our findings might help to understand the detail gating mechanism of TREK-2 and K2P channels.

  19. [Acid phosphatase of leukocytes in patients with diffuse toxic goiter in evaluating the stage of the disease].

    PubMed

    Vaiuta, N P; Livshits, A Kh; Mendeleev, I M

    1987-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (AP) of lymphocytes and neutrophils was examined cytochemically in 23 patients with associated diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) and thyrotoxicosis during thiamazol treatment, in 20 persons with a DTG remission, and in 5 patients with postradiation and postoperative hypothyroses. AP activity with multiple-granule distribution of the enzyme was high in the majority of the patients with thyrotoxicosis, decreasing with thiamazol treatment. Thyrotoxicosis recurred in 4 out of 11 patients whose lymphocytes had an increased amount of AP during a DTG remission. In 9 patients with normal AP content, no relapses were noted during a DTG remission. Two patients with iatrogenic hypothyroses associated with high lymphocytic AP activity manifested elevated titres of antithyroglobulin immunoglobulins (ATI). In 3 patients with normal content of cellular AP, the ATI titre was low. Cellular AP, a non-specific marker of immunogenesis activity, makes it possible to presumably differentiate the stages of DTG and to evaluate to a definite degree the character of a remission. The preserved high activity of lymphocytic AP in patients with a DTG remission is a prognostically unfavourable factor as regards thyrotoxicosis relapses. The high titre of ATI and activity of lymphocytic AP attest to the predominant autoimmune component of such hypothyroses in part of DTG patients. The authors stress that such patients should receive combined thyroid and glucocorticoid therapy.

  20. Above-threshold ionization through Rydberg state population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei Pei; Yuan, Ming Hu; Wang, Han Mu; Yang, Hai Feng; Liu, Hong Ping

    2017-04-01

    We present a theoretical scenario for the atomic above-threshold ionization (ATI) in an intense laser field by investigating the Rydberg state population in real time. Rather than merely viewing the final distribution of photoelectron yield directly, we monitor the Rydberg state population by projecting the time-dependent wave function onto the bound eigen-states. The calculation shows that the population of resonant Rydberg states is closely related to the peaks in photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum (PKES). For a hydrogen atom, the highest populated Rydberg states are degenerated, exactly corresponding to the first ATI peak if one additional photon is absorbed. While for non-hydrogen atoms, e.g., Ar, the highest Rydberg states are mainly populated on specific states, e.g., 3 d (5 s) and 4f in our case, also giving exact peak positions in PKES, where the state identification is obtained by the angular momentum resolved distribution of excited Rydberg states. This method provides an easy to understand picture for the resonance-enhanced effects in ATI as well as the role of atomic core potential in strong-field ionization.

  1. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 and Protein Kinase C Phosphorylate the Distal C-Terminal Tail of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Mediate Recruitment of Beta-Arrestin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiansong; Busillo, John M; Stumm, Ralf; Benovic, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-22

    Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a key event for cell signaling and regulation of receptor function. Previously, using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified two phosphorylation sites at the distal C-terminal tail of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, but were unable to determine which specific residues were phosphorylated. Here, we demonstrate that serines 346 and/or 347 (Ser-346/7) of CXCR4 are phosphorylated upon stimulation with the agonist CXCL12 as well as a CXCR4 pepducin, ATI-2341. ATI-2341, a Gi-biased CXCR4 agonist, induced more robust phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 compared to CXCL12. Knockdown of GRK2, GRK3 or GRK6 reduced CXCL12-induced phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 with GRK3 knockdown having the strongest effect, while inhibition of the conventional PKC isoforms reduced phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 induced by either CXCL12 or ATI-2341. The loss of GRK3- or PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-346/7 impaired the recruitment of β-arrestin to CXCR4. We also found that a pseudo-substrate peptide inhibitor for PKCζ effectively inhibited CXCR4 phosphorylation and signaling, most likely by functioning as a non-specific CXCR4 antagonist. Together, these studies demonstrate the role Ser-346/7 plays in arrestin recruitment and initiation of the process of receptor desensitization and provide insight into the dysregulation of CXCR4 observed in patients with various forms of WHIM syndrome.

  2. Controlling high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization with an attosecond-pulse train

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Salieres, P.; Villain, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-11-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of how high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) can be controlled by a time-delayed attosecond-pulse train superposed to a strong, near-infrared laser field. In particular we show that the high-order harmonic and photoelectron intensities, the high-order harmonic plateau structure and cutoff energies, and the ATI angular distributions can be manipulated by changing this delay. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the attosecond pulse train can be employed as a tool for constraining the instant an electronic wave packet is ejected in the continuum. A change in such initial conditions strongly affects its subsequent motion in the laser field, and thus HHG and ATI. In our studies, we employ the strong-field approximation and explain the features observed in terms of interference effects between various electron quantum orbits. Our results are in agreement with recent experimental findings and theoretical studies employing purely numerical methods.

  3. Be aware of the Adjusted Treatment Index.

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    The authors of the interim report relating to the Review of Operational Productivity in NHS providers, published in June of this year, are, as many will know, developing a set of Adjusted Treatment Index (ATI) metrics, and are also to publish a model of their interpretation of what an estates department should look like in terms of its operational productivity and cost. This article argues that the underlying reason for the past failures was the creation of static 'point-value' metrics similar to the ATIs proposed, and that this can only be overcome by designing and populating a series of non-linear dynamic simulation models with feedback control of an organisation's estate in relation to its asset base and condition with respect to time, together with the resultant financial capital and revenue consequences. It concludes by calling on IHEEM's Council to urgently make representation to the authors of the June 2015 report, and suggests that the Institute's members be fully involved in the design, testing, and interpretation, of the estates model and ATIs. IHEEM's Technology Platforms are ideally placed to play a central role in this.

  4. Serum-Infliximab Trough Levels in 45 Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease on  Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rolandsdotter, Helena; Marits, Per; Sundin, Ulf; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte; Fagerberg, Ulrika L.; Finkel, Yigael; Eberhardson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The role of trough serum infliximab (s-IFX) and antibodies toward IFX (ATI) during maintenance treatment remains unclear in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate trough s-IFX and ATI to identify any correlation with inflammatory activity and clinical response in a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort. We investigated the s-IFX trough levels in pediatric IBD patients (n = 45) on maintenance IFX treatment. Ninety-three blood samples were collected and demographics, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and albumin were recorded. The mean s-IFX trough level was 5.2 µg/mL. The mean trough s-IFX level was significantly higher in the samples taken during remission (7.2 µg/mL) compared to active disease (4.5 µg/mL, p < 0.05). The trough s-IFX levels correlated with ESR, CRP, and albumin. S-IFX was undetectable in eight of the patients, all with positive ATI and active disease. Surprisingly, clinical and biochemical remission was observed at only 26 of the 93 visits. The correlation between dose variations and changes in trough s-IFX was not evident. In line with studies in adults, the s-IFX trough levels correlated with response to infliximab. PMID:28272355

  5. UCA{trademark}/DAIS{trademark} demonstration project by Kansas City Power and Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) demonstrated the use of EPRI`s Utility Communication Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integrated Services (DAIS{trademark}) to provide KCPL employees seamless and transparent access to corporate data resources from their desktops. The major components of the KCPL project are client workstations with a Graphical User Interface which builds the necessary Structured Query Language (SQL) requests from the user`s data directory selections and provides a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface and programmer Application Program Interface (API). DAIS Directory Services provided data browsing and search capability and allows users to select data items for analysis. DAIS Servers provided database-related functions to both relational databases (customer data in Oracle) and non-relational data sources (PMAX performance monitoring system and PI historical database). The DAIS client software was provided by Automation Technology, Inc. (ATI); and the DAIS directory services software was provided by UNISYS. The Oracle DAIS server was provided by ATI, the PMAX non-relational DAIS server was developed by Black and Veatch, and the PI DAIS server was developed by ATI. The project was deemed a success as the corporate data was made available at the employee`s desktop for search and analysis, with the look and feel of a relational database, regardless of the source of the data.

  6. Analysis of THz generation through the asymmetry of photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoyan; Wang, Xu; Lin, C. D.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the mechanism of THz generation in a gas medium with intense two-color infrared lasers pulses. The dependence of the amplitude of THz emission on the relative phase between the fundamental color (800 nm) and its second harmonic (400 nm) is shown to be identical to the residual current as well as to the asymmetry of the above-threshold-ionization (ATI) photoelectrons along the left versus the right side of the linear polarization axis of the laser, thus confirming the validity of the semiclassical photocurrent model for the THz emission. We further analyze the even vs odd angular momentum distributions of the ATI electrons. The degree of overlap between the even-parity dominant electrons and the odd-parity dominant electrons within each ATI peak determines the strength of the THz emission, thus favoring the model that THz is generated through free-free transitions in the laser field. A model is also provided to obtain the same phase dependence as the four-wave mixing model.

  7. Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Following Pediatric Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Psycho-Educational Intervention for Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Li, Yimei; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study objective is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a web-based intervention for parents (AfterTheInjury.org [ATI]) in promoting emotional recovery following pediatric injury. Methods 100 children with injuries requiring medical attention and their parents were randomly assigned to the intervention or usual care. Efficacy outcomes included parent knowledge and child and parent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Results All parents in the intervention group completed the intervention (directed use of ATI) in the hospital. 56% reported using ATI online post-discharge, and 100% of these parents found it helpful. Parent knowledge increased immediately post-intervention, but there was no significant intervention impact on parent knowledge or PTSS at a 6-week follow-up. Relationships between knowledge and PTSS were identified. Conclusions Brief web-based interventions introduced during child hospitalization are a feasible strategy to reach many parents following pediatric injury. Preventing psychological symptoms may require more than parental education alone. PMID:23912164

  8. Is It Safe to Use the Same Scissors After Accidental Tumor Incision During Partial Nephrectomy? Results of In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Hwang, Eu-Chang; Yamane, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Enokida, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    When accidental tumor incision (ATI) has occurred during open partial nephrectomy (PN), scissors can be changed easily. In contrast, during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), it is time consuming and expensive especially during RPN to change scissors. This study investigates whether tumor cells remain on the surface of scissors after ATI during PN and investigates an alternative way to avoid changing scissors during LPN and RPN. We subcutaneously injected 786-O renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) cells containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (786-O/EGFP) into six mice. We incised the subsequent tumor with straight or Microline scissors. The scissor surfaces were then examined by microscopy for detection of EGFP immunofluorescence. In addition, the scissor surfaces were treated in three ways: no electrical treatment, electrical treatment of 20 W for 5 seconds, and electrical treatment of 40 W for 5 seconds. Strings or dots of EGFP were detected on every scissor surface, and 786-O/EGFP cells were alive and able to proliferate in medium in 33% of the nonelectrically treated samples. However, no 786-O/EGFP cells treated with monopolar electricity survived. In another experiment, we also found that 100 786-O cells placed on scissor surfaces could not survive after the same electrical treatment. RCC cells remained on scissors after ATI; however, electrical treatment eliminated tumor cells, possibly preventing recurrence or metastasis after surgery.

  9. High-order above-threshold ionization of argon: Plateau resonances and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Potvliege, R. M.; Vucic, Svetlana

    2006-08-15

    The Floquet quasienergy spectrum of argon in a strong laser field of 800 nm wavelength is calculated for intensities up to 7x10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}, and beyond for some states, using a discrete complex basis set. Many of the dressed excited states of interest shift nonponderomotively in complicated ways but keep an ionization width narrow enough to produce sharp enhancements of above-threshold ionization (ATI) through Stark-shift-induced resonances. The quasienergy map is compared to high-resolution ATI spectra for 120 fs Ti:sapphire pulses [Nandor et al., Phys. Rev. A 60, R1771 (1999)]. The plateau enhancements happen at intensities where the dressed ground state is in resonance or in the wing of resonances with dressed excited states. The resonant dressed states are identified. In many cases, the same state is responsible for an enhancement of ATI in the low as well as the high orders. No evidence is found for enhancements that are not concomitant with any curve crossing and could thereby be interpreted as channel-closing enhancement.

  10. Breaking the In Vitro Alveolar Type II Cell Proliferation Barrier while Retaining Ion Transport Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hong; Cheluvaraju, Chaitra; Jones, Lisa C.; Liu, Xuefeng; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Schlegel, Richard; Boucher, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar type (AT)I and ATII cells are central to maintaining normal alveolar fluid homeostasis. When disrupted, they contribute to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Research on ATII cells has been limited by the inability to propagate primary cells in vitro to study their specific functional properties. Moreover, primary ATII cells in vitro quickly transdifferentiate into nonproliferative “ATI-like” cells under traditional culture conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that normal and tumor cells grown in culture with a combination of fibroblast (feeder cells) and a pharmacological Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) exhibit indefinite cell proliferation that resembled a “conditionally reprogrammed cell” phenotype. Using this coculture system, we found that primary human ATII cells (1) proliferated at an exponential rate, (2) established epithelial colonies expressing ATII-specific and “ATI-like” mRNA and proteins after serial passage, (3) up-regulated genes important in cell proliferation and migration, and (4) on removal of feeder cells and Rho kinase inhibitor under air–liquid interface conditions, exhibited bioelectric and volume transport characteristics similar to freshly cultured ATII cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that this novel coculture technique breaks the in vitro ATII cell proliferation barrier while retaining cell-specific functional properties. This work will allow for a significant increase in studies designed to elucidate ATII cell function with the goal of accelerating the development of novel therapies for alveolar diseases. PMID:24191670

  11. Multiparameter radar study of rainfall: Potential application to area-time integral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparameter radars measure one or more additional parameters in addition to the coventional reflectivity factor. The combination of radar observations from a multiparameter radar is used to study the time evolution of rainstorms. A technique is presented to self-consistently compare the area-time integral (ATI) and rainfall volume estimates from convective storms, using two different measurements from a multiparameter radar. Rainfall volumes for the lifetime of individual storms are computed using the reflectivity at S band (10-cm wavelength) as well as one-way specific attenuation at X band (3-cm wavelength). Area-time integrals are computed by summing all areas in each radar snapshot having reflectivities (S band) in excess of a preselected threshold. The multiparameter radar data used in this study were acquired by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 radar during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) and the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE), respectively. ATI studies were accomplished in this work using multiparameter radar data acquired during the lifetime of six convective events that occurred in the COHMEX radar coverage area. A case study from the COMHEX field campaign (20 July 1986) was selected to depict the various stages in the evolution of a storm over which the ATI and rainfall volume computations were performed using multiparameter radar data. Another case study from the CaPE field campaign (12 August 1991) was used to demonstrate the evolution of a convective cell based on differential reflectivity observations.

  12. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Éric H F F; Santos, Ailton A; Sá-Caputo, Danubia C C; Neves, Rosane F; Guimarães, Carlos A S; Chang, Shyang; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Laser used to stimulate acupoints is called laser acupuncture (LA). It is generally believed that similar clinical responses to manual acupuncture can be achieved. Here we analysed the effects of the laser (904 nm) at the 'Zusanli' acupoint (ST.36) of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na(99m)TcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were exposed daily to the laser (904 nm) at ST.36 with 1 joule/min (40 mW/cm(2)) for 1 min. The animals of the CG were not exposed to laser at all. On the 8th day after LA, the animals were sedated and Na(99m)TcO4 was administered. After 10 min, the animals were all sacrificed and the organs removed. The radioactivity was counted in each organ to calculate the percentage of radioactivity of the injected dose per gram (%ATI/ g). Comparison of the %ATI/g in EG and CG was performed by Mann-Whitney test. The %ATI/g was significantly increased in the thyroid due to the stimulation of the ST.36 by laser. It is possible to conclude that the stimulation of ST.36 does lead to biological phenomena that interfere with the metabolism of the thyroid.

  13. Impaired and imbalanced cellular immunological status assessed in advanced cancer patients and restoration of the T cell immune status by adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Atsutaka; Kaneko, Toru; Naitoh, Keiko; Saito, Masashi; Iwai, Kazuro; Maekawa, Ryuji; Kamigaki, Takashi; Goto, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of antitumor immune responses, which may further clarify the immune status of cancer patients. In this study, we performed a detailed evaluation of the immunological status of 47 patients with advanced solid cancer, who had received no immunosuppressive treatment, and compared the results with 32 healthy subjects. Flow-cytometry data for peripheral blood were obtained using 19 monoclonal antibodies against various cell surface and intracellular molecules. Absolute numbers of T cells, several T cell subsets, B cells, and NK cells were significantly decreased in patients compared with healthy subjects. The percentage of CD27(+)CD45RA(+) T cells was lower and that of CD27(-)CD45RA(-) T cells was higher in patients compared with controls. Regulatory and type 2 helper T cells were elevated in patients relative to healthy subjects. The percentage of perforin(+) NK cells was significantly lower in patients than in controls. These results suggest a dysfunctional anti-tumor immune response in cancer patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood from 26 of 47 cancer patients was analyzed after adoptive T cell immunotherapy (ATI). ATI increased the number of T cell subsets, but not B and NK cells. The number and percentage of regulatory T cells decreased significantly. These results suggest that ATI can restore impaired and imbalanced T cell immune status.

  14. Larvicidal potential of five Philippine plants against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Monzon, R B; Alvior, J P; Luczon, L L; Morales, A S; Mutuc, F E

    1994-12-01

    Five species of Philippine plants, reported in the literature to have insecticidal properties, were selected for investigation, namely: Anona squamosa ("atis" or sugar apple), Eucalyptus globulus ("bagras" or olive gum eucalyptus), Lansium domesticum ("lansones"), Azadirachta indica ("neem") and Codiaeum variegatum ("San Francisco" or croton). These were screened and assayed for their larvicidal potential against Aedes aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) by exposing 3rd-4th instar larvae to seven different concentrations (two-fold dilutions starting from 100 g% up to 1.5625 g%) of the crude aqueous extract derived from fresh leaves. Three trials were performed for each species of mosquito and for each of the five plants to determine the average mortality rate at various concentrations after 24 and 48 hours exposure. Probit analysis using the NCSS program was employed to determine the LD50 and LD90 values in order to compare the larvicidal potency of the five plants and to compare the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts exerted maximum insecticidal activity after 48 hours exposure. Lansones and atis were the most effective against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Ae. aegypti was more susceptible than Cx. quinquefasciatus with respect to lansones and neem but Cx. quinquefasciatus was more susceptible than Ae. aegyti with respect to eucalyptus, San Francisco and atis. These varying results are probably due to differences in levels of toxicity among the active insecticidal ingredients of each plant and in the physiological characteristics of the two mosquito species.

  15. Mineral abundances at the final four curiosity study sites and implications for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Carter, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Loizeau, D.; Murchie, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    A component of the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) involved the presence of phyllosilicates as the main astrobiological targets. Gale crater was selected as the MSL landing site from among 4 down selected study sites (Gale, Eberswalde and Holden craters, Mawrth Vallis) that addressed the primary scientific goal of assessing the past habitability of Mars. A key constraint on the formation process of these phyllosilicate-bearing deposits is in the precise mineralogical composition. We present a reassessment of the mineralogy of the sites combined with a determination of the modal mineralogy of the major phyllosilicate-bearing deposits of the four final study sites from the modeling of near-infrared spectra using a radiative transfer model. The largest abundance of phyllosilicates (30-70%) is found in Mawrth Vallis, the lowest one in Eberswalde (<25%). Except for Mawrth Vallis, the anhydrous phases (plagioclase, pyroxenes and martian dust) are the dominant phases, suggesting formation conditions with a lower alteration grade and/or a post-formation mixing with anhydrous phases. The composition of Holden layered deposits (mixture of saponite and micas with a total abundance in the range of 25-45%) suggests transport and deposition of altered basalts of the Noachian crust without major chemical transformation. For Eberswalde, the modal mineralogy is also consistent with detrital clays, but the presence of opaline silica indicates that an authigenic formation occurred during the deposition. The overall composition including approximately 20-30% smectite detected by MSL in the rocks of Yellow-knife Bay area interpreted to be material deposited on the floor of Gale crater by channels (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/news/msl20130312.html).

  16. Sequence and relative timing of large lakes in Gale crater (Mars) after the formation of Mount Sharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Parker, Tim; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Mangold, Nicolas; Lewis, Kevin; Newsom, Horton

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of lake levels in Gale crater is important to define the hydrologic and climatic history experienced by the sedimentary deposits found by Curiosity. We propose that there were at least three major lake stands within Gale, each persisted >1000 years, and all occurred after Mount Sharp reached close to its current topographic form. Deltaic deposits off the southern rim of Gale, derived from incision of Farah Vallis, and corresponding deposits off the southern flank of Mount Sharp define the highest lake level, which had a mean depth of 700 m. Canyons similar in form to Farah Vallis enter into craters and/or the crustal dichotomy near Gale from the south, suggesting that the highest lake was supplied by a large-scale flow system. The next lake level, established after a period of drying and rewetting, is defined by four deltaic features, three sourced from Mount Sharp and one from the western rim of Gale, as well as the termination of gullies around the northern rim of Gale. This second lake level had a mean depth of 300 m. The presence of the gullies suggests more locally sourced water. Lake levels then rose another 100 m, as evidenced by two deltaic deposits derived from the rim of Gale and the termination of a second set of gullies. Post-lake, reduced hydrologic activity continued, evidenced by a time of fan building (including Peace Vallis). The sequence of events suggests an episodic shift through time from relatively wet regional conditions to a drier environment with local runoff.

  17. 2011 Black History Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-16

    Victoria Webb (center) discusses African-American history during a Black History Month program for John C. Stennis Space Center employees on Feb. 16. Webb, a 103-year-old native of Pass Christian, was guest speaker for the program, sponsored by the Stennis Diversity Council and the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. She was joined in her presentation by Valli Battle (left), a NAVOCEANO employee at Stennis, and friend Jeanell Barnes. Black History Month was first observed in 1976 and is celebrated each February. The 2011 theme was African-Americans and the Civil War.

  18. The new Martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I. K.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Sagan, C.; Blunck, J.; Kuiper, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters generally of diameters greater than 100 km have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named feature are displayed.

  19. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  20. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.