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Sample records for atis vallis rihards

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Apsus Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02170 Apsus Vallis

    The channel in this image is called Apsus Vallis and it is located near the Elysium volcanic complex. Lava may have played a part in the formation of Apsus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.3N, Longitude 134.9E. 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Sabis Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03663 Sabis Vallis

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5.7N, Longitude 207.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Mawrth Vallis Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1217 UTC (7:17 a.m. EST) on January 10, 2006, near 25.5 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees west longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Mawrth Vallis is located to the south of Acidalia Planitia and to the east of Tiu Valles. One of the oldest channels on Mars, Mawrth Vallis cuts through the ancient cratered terrain of western Arabia Terra and is part of the Chryse Planitia basin.

    Mawrth Vallis holds special interest to scientist studying Mars. In 2005 the OMEGA spectrometer on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter discovered phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis. Phyllosilicates are a family of hydroxyl (OH) bearing minerals that generally have a flaky or sheet-like structure. These OH-bearing minerals are often the products of water-related chemical alteration, making them good indicators for the presence of liquid water. Clay minerals are part of this family.

    OMEGA's discovery made Mawrth Vallis a prime target for CRISM's higher-resolution instrumentation. The upper left panel in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The gray-scale THEMIS image reveals a variety of light and dark materials shaped by erosion.

    The upper right image is an infrared false-color image taken by CRISM. It reveals the complex, layered nature of these deposits, while the lower three spectral images provide further detail of the region's distinct mineral layers.

    The lower left image reveals two discrete clay units as well as an overlying layer of the material rich in the volcanic mineral pyroxene. The bottom-center image reveals

  5. Reull Vallis Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the odd patterns of erosion on the floor of Reull Vallis, a major valley system east of the Hellas Basin in the martian southern hemisphere. Somewhat circular features in this image may have once been meteor craters that were eroded and deformed by erosive processes. This image is located near 42.1oS, 254.5oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  8. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  9. Athabasca Vallis Streamlined 'Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-322, 12 December 2002

    Tremendous floods carved these tear drop-shaped landforms in Athabasca Vallis in the Cerberus region, south of the Elysium volcanoes. The orientation of the streamlined forms indicate that the fluid flowed from the right/upper right toward the left/lower left (from the northeast to the southwest). Similar features occur in central and eastern Washington in the northwestern United States. The examples in Washington formed when massive amounts of water rushed across the landscape, scouring a 'channeled scabland' during the last Ice Age, roughly 12,000-13,000 years ago. The features on Mars are much older; while the absolute age cannot be determined, the small impact craters with rayed ejecta patterns on the flood surfaces indicate it must be much, much older than the flood landscape in Washington. This is a mosaic of six Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired in 1999 through 2002. Illumination is from the left. The mosaic covers an area 11.9 km (7.4 mi) by 13.0 km (8.1 mi). The full-size mosaic has a resolution of 4 meters (13 ft) per pixel.

  10. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all

  11. Phyllosilicate Deposits in Shalbatana Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Anne E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2011-01-01

    Shalbatana Vallis is an ancient river valley on Mars, the westernmost of the southern Chryse outflow channels. The geologic history of this area has significant implications for understanding Mars' hydrologic and climate history. The highland flood basalts are cut by large collapse depressions, multiple outflow channels, and chaotic terrain. An intravalley paleolake with a depth of over 400 m, in the 125 km diameter Orson Welles crater (Fig. 1) and the adjacent section of Shalbatana Vallis, was deduced from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, evidence of shorelines and the occurrence of fan-delta deposits, including Gilbert-style deltas [1]. A number of CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) images with strong phyllosilicate signatures have been identified throughout the channel and nearby highlands (Fig. 1). A majority of the signatures are concentrated in areas exposed by impact cratering. Since such minerals can form by a variety of different geological processes, such as weathering, burial diagenesis, and hydrothermal alteration [2], the nature of the phyllosilicate deposits in the Shalbatana Vallis region may provide insights into the formation processes that took place and help to place constraints on the early aqueous activity in the region.

  12. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  13. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  14. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  15. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  16. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  17. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  18. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  19. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  20. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  1. Discharge rates in Ma'adim Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A. C.; Muller, J-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of a small part of the Martian channel Ma'adim Vallis was produced using the Frankot and Chellappa shape-from-shading algorithm. Software developed by the Dept. of Photogrammetry and Surveying at University College London uses this technique to extract slope information from the grey levels of image pixels. This technique was applied to a Viking Orbiter image of part of Ma'adim Vallis, and measurements of the channel depth and bed-slope of a channel incised into the floor of Ma'adim Vallis were made. These results were used to calculate order of magnitude estimates for discharge rates through the channel. The maximum values calculated are three orders of magnitude less than those for N. Kasei Vallis and are similar to values cited for the Missoula floods. However, when more realistic values of the water depth are used, discharge rates comparable with those for the Mississippi River result.

  2. A geologic characterization of Ladon Vallis, Mars, and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, D.; Milam, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ladon Vallis and Ladon Basin, Mars (Ladon study area), are in the path of the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava drainage system, which is part of what is potentially the solar system's longest fluvial system. A reconstruction of the geologic conditions that formed the flow path is vital to understanding geologic conditions on early Mars. An integral part of this reconstruction is the determination of the geologic process(es) that formed Ladon Vallis. Although previous workers have referred to Ladon Vallis as an 'outflow system' or 'outflow channel system', there has not been a formal geologic characterization that has led to that determination. The main purpose of this research has been to determine Ladon Vallis' channel type in order to help constrain its role in the flow path in which it resides. The characterization required to make this determination has involved analyzing its landforms and geometry and estimating the maximum discharge involved in its formation. While Ladon's anastomosing channels and streamlined islands suggest that it is an outflow channel, its discharge has been estimated (Grant and Parker, 2002) at levels more characteristic of valley networks. Results in this work have confirmed their estimated discharge for the final flow of Ladon Vallis. However, results more characteristic of outflow channels have been obtained for profiles downstream and in older flows. Crater counts have yielded age estimates similar to those of previous studies, with Ladon Vallis's formation beginning in the Middle Noachian from possible overland flow extending from Holden Basin and ending in the Early Hesperian from chaotic discharges from Holden Crater. Ladon Basin contained water through most of the Early Hesperian and lost much of it to flooding that formed Morava Vallis in the Middle Hesperian. Grant, J. A., and Parker, T. J., 2002, J. Geophys Res., 107(E9), 5066, doi:10.1029/2001JE001678.

  3. Vallis Marineris Mouth as the Best Location for Exploration Zone (EZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    The mouth of Vallis Marineris is a particularly interesting location where the widest rock varieties could be expected. The Vallis crosses chaotic terrains and equatorial zone where water ice could be discovered. Pathfinder and Viking were nearby.

  4. Resurfacing history of the Harmakhis Vallis channel, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Soile; Kostama, Veli-Petri

    2016-10-01

    Harmakhis Vallis is one of the four major outflow channel systems (Dao, Niger, Harmakhis and Reull Valles) which cut the eastern rim region of the Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure of Mars. The structure of Harmakhis Vallis and the volume of its head depression, as well as the earlier dating studies suggest that the channel formed during the Hesperian period by collapsing when a large amount of subsurface fluids was released. Thus Harmakhis Vallis, as well as the other nearby outflow channels, represent a significant stage of the fluvial activity in the regional history. On the other hand, the channel lies on the Martian mid-latitude zone, where there are several geomorphologic indicators of past and possibly also contemporary ground ice. The floor of Harmakhis also displays evidence of a later-stage ice-related activity as the channel has been covered by lineated valley fill deposits and debris apron material.The eastern rim region of the Hellas impact basin has been the subject of numerous geologic mapping studies at various scales and using different imaging data sets. However, the Harmakhis Vallis channel itself has received less attention, or the studies on the channel have focused only on different geologic events as a separate subject. In this work, we present our mapping and dating results of the Harmakhis Vallis floor based on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's ConTeX camera imagery (CTX; ~5 m/pixel), which covers the entire Harmakhis channel system from its head depression to the beginning of the terminus. The purpose of the study is to outline how the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis channel has been modified after its formation, what kind of geologic processes have occurred on the channel and when, and by doing so, provide further understanding of the channel evolution and changes in the Martian climate. This work also gives information about the crater counting age determination method and its usability in the cases where only high

  5. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, N. V. Fomenko, A. N. Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-17

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  6. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  7. Biotransformation of 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene derivatives by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Gonzalez, Pedro; Gonzalez-Vallejo, Victoria; Guillermo, Ricardo; Diaz, Luz N

    2010-08-01

    The microbiological transformation of 7alpha,19-dihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi gave 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene, 7alpha,11beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene and 7alpha,16beta,19-trihydroxy-ent-atis-16-ene, while the incubation of 19-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene afforded 13(R),19-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-ene and 16beta,17-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atisan-19-al. The biotransformation of 7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid gave 6beta-hydroxy-7-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid, 6beta,16beta,17-trihydroxy-7-oxo-19-nor-ent-atis-4(18)-ene and 3beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-6-oxo-ent-atis-16-en-19-oic acid.

  8. Evidence for late Hesperian lacustrine activity in Shalbatana Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Achille, Gaetano; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Reiss, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    An intravalley paleolake (more than 400 m deep) was detected along the course of Shalbatana Vallis from the evidence of shorelines and the occurrence of a few fan-delta deposits (including a Gilbert-type delta). The fronts of all the sedimentary deposits strikingly match the same topographic contours (2800 and 3000 m below the Martian datum), indicating the paleolake water levels under which they formed. Also, the corresponding shorelines are visible along the Shalbatana Vallis walls. The peculiar settings of the lake suggest that Shalbatana Vallis was impounded during its final hydrological activity and that ponding of water lasted enough time to allow the formation and evolution of the lacustrine system. Water source is uncertain, but a composite sapping mechanism is hypothesized in order to take into account the amount of water required to excavate, transport, and deposit the materials found in the deposits. Previous works and new crater counting computations indicate that the paleolake was active during the Hesperian epoch; therefore, at that time, surface conditions were different from those of modern Mars and supportive of flow and ponding of water. It is unclear whether the hydrological activity was sustained entirely by a favorable climatic regime and secondary regional factors like volcanism, impact cratering, and tectonism could have also triggered/accelerated the local groundwater activity, implying that the system could have evolved relatively independent from climatic conditions. The latter eventuality and the regional importance of this research advised against an extrapolation of its results to the overall debate about Martian climatic-geomorphological evolution.

  9. Hydrated Silica at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Past Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Cuadros, J.; Hillier, S.; Parente, M.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrated silica has been identified in many outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region [1-3] often mixed with Al-bearing phyllosilicates such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. To determine which form of hydrated silica could be mixed with the Al-phyllosilicates at Mawrth Vallis, spectra of intimate mineral mixtures were measured in the lab and compared to CRISM spectra (figure 1). The mixtures considered were: kaolinite-opal-A, kaolinite-montmorillonite, montmorillonite-obsidian, montmorillonite-hydrated silica (opal), and glass-illite-smectite. The best spectral matches with Martian data from our lab experiments are mixtures of montmorillonite and obsidian having 20 to 50 % montmorillonite or mixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite with 25 to 50 % kaolinite. The spectra of clay mixtures with opal and of hydrothermally altered glass-illite-smectite did not represent as well the Martian spectra observed in this region. This suggests that a cryptocrystalline (obsidian) or crystalline form of hydrated silica is present at Mawrth Vallis rather than an amorphous form (opal-A) which has been identified elsewhere on Mars [e.g. 4]. References: [1] Bishop, J. L. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2] McKeown, N. K. et al. (2009) JGR- Planets, 114, E00D10. [3] Noe Dobrea, E. Z. et al. (2010) JGR- Planets, 115, E00D19. [4] Milliken, R. E. et al. (2008) Geology, 36, 847-850. Figure 1 (left) Spectra of montmorillonite-obsidian mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from FRT0000848D. (right) Spectra of kaolinite-montmorillonite and kaolinite-SiOH (opal-A) mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from HRL000043EC and FRT0000848D.

  10. Emplacement Scenarios for Vallis Schroteri, Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schr teri are not well understood. Vallis Schr teri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schr teri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from fl ows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu u O o in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet fl ow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet fl ow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overfl ow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overfl ow, and redirection of the lava fl ow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy.

  11. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  12. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  13. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold.

    The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green.

    The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  14. Multi-static MIMO along track interferometry (ATI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) has the ability to generate high-quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and concurrently detect and estimate the positions of ground moving target indicators (GMTI) with moderate processing requirements. This paper focuses on several different ATI system configurations, with an emphasis on low-cost configurations employing no active electronic scanned array (AESA). The objective system has two transmit phase centers and four receive phase centers and supports agile adaptive radar behavior. The advantages of multistatic, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) ATI system configurations are explored. The two transmit phase centers can employ a ping-pong configuration to provide the multistatic behavior. For example, they can toggle between an up and down linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform every other pulse. The four receive apertures are considered in simple linear spatial configurations. Simulated examples are examined to understand the trade space and verify the expected results. Finally, actual results are collected with the Space Dynamics Laboratorys (SDL) FlexSAR system in diverse configurations. The theory, as well as the simulated and actual SAR results, are presented and discussed.

  15. Polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, Rene A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of apparently genetically related landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars is examined. It is found that the outer valley of Hrad and the neighboring valley are composite features formed by karst or thermokarst processes and the growth and coalescence of smaller fault-aligned depressions. The materials in the vicinity may be soluble carbonates or sulfates or clay-rich sediment subject to thixotropic collapse. Water circulating within fault and fissure systems removed materials or altered the stability of materials to allow formation of steep-sided depressions. After the emplacement of surface materials in early Amazonian time, water was probably discharged to the surface. Isolate topographic depressions probably formed synchronously with the early release of water. Open lakes may have existed for a time.

  16. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  17. Phyllosilicate Stratigraphy near Mawrth Vallis, Mars: New Insights from Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James; Squyres, S. W.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Kirk, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals were first identified on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer on board Mars Express [1,2]. On Earth, these minerals form most commonly through prolonged interactions between rock and water, so their presence on Mars may have significant implications for the planet's aqueous history. In finely layered outcrops surrounding the ancient outflow channel Mawrth Vallis, OMEGA found two compositionally distinct types of phyllosilicates. With the higher-resolution view afforded by CRISM and HiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we find that these different minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable source of sediment for this location during the Noachian era. A layered unit containing Al-rich phyllosilicates overlies the most extensive of at least two units rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates; in places, these are separated by another unit containing hydrated material of unknown mineralogy. All units are fractured into blocks ranging from decimeters to over a hundred meters across, and the morphology and scale of fractures correlates with the compositional stratigraphy. The lateral continuity of these stratigraphic units over scales exceeding 100 km and the uniformity (at CRISM resolution) of hydrated mineral signatures within each unit suggest that alteration occurred prior to sedimentary emplacement at this site. We use topographic data from HiRISE and the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express to aid in regional stratigraphic correlations and improve our understanding of the three-dimensional geometries of the phyllosilicate-rich layers. The layer geometries provide constraints on the timing of sedimentary deposition in Mawrth Vallis. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F. et al. (2005) Nature 438, 623-627.

  18. Fluvial morphology of Naktong Vallis, Mars: A late activity with multiple processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Ansan, V.; Mangold, N.; Masson, Ph.; Neukum, G.

    2009-07-01

    The morphology of fluvial valleys on Mars provides insight into surface and subsurface hydrology, as well as to Mars' past climate. In this study, Naktong Vallis and its tributaries were examined from high-resolution stereoscopic camera (HRSC) images, thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) daytime IR images, and mars orbiter laser altimeter (MOLA) data. Naktong Vallis is the southern part of a very large fluvial basin composed by Mamers, Scamander, and Naktong Vallis with a total length of 4700 km, and is one of the largest fluvial system on Mars. Naktong Vallis incised along its path a series of smooth intercrater plains. Naktong's main valley cut smooth plains during the Early Hesperian period, estimated ˜3.6-3.7 Gyr, implying a young age for the valley when compared to usual Noachian-aged valley networks. Branching valleys located in degraded terrains south of the main Naktong valley have sources inside a large plateau located at more than 2000 m elevation. Connections between these valleys and Naktong Vallis have been erased by the superimposition of late intercrater plains of Early to Late Hesperian age, but it is likely that this plateau represents the main source of water. Small re-incisions of these late plains show that there was at least one local reactivation. In addition, valley heads are often amphitheatre-shaped. Despite the possibility of subsurface flows, the occurrence of many branching valleys upstream of Naktong's main valley indicate that runoff may have played an important role in Naktong Vallis network formation. The importance of erosional landforms in the Naktong Vallis network indicates that fluvial activity was important and not necessarily lower in the Early Hesperian epoch than during the Noachian period. The relationships between overland flows and sapping features suggest a strong link between the two processes, rather than a progressive shift from surface to subsurface flow.

  19. Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys).

    PubMed

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and 'jackpot'-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal-Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys.

  20. Positive Reinforcement Training to Enhance the Voluntary Movement of Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys)

    PubMed Central

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and ‘jackpot’-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal–Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys. PMID:19383217

  1. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Thermal and Mechanical Erosion by Low-Viscosity Lava Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northwestern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The system consists of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are typically 50 to 200 m below adjacent plains, with channel depths progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Problematically, much of the Hrad Vallis region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or other origin, concealing features of interest. Nevertheless, local exposures of channel floors show landforms including shear zones, longitudinal ridges, and wake forms. Adjacent upland plains show abundant evidence for the past emplacement of lobate-margined overflow deposits. The Hrad Vallis system has been previously interpreted as having developed through catastrophic aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with observations made in this study, including the absence of deposits of clear fluvial or diluvial character. Characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system appear instead to be most consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas. Specifically, the system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon, Venus, and Mercury. Crude thermal estimates suggest that Hrad Vallis could have been formed through effusion of as little as ~10,000 cubic kilometers of magma. Despite the widespread presence at Hrad Vallis of channel slopes of less than 0.1 degrees, daily incision rates of tens of centimeters to several meters are estimated for mechanical and thermal erosion processes

  3. Simud Vallis Floor: A Joint Landing Site for both the ExoMars 2018 and the Mars 2020 Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Mancarella, F.; McBride, K. S.; Coradini, M.

    2014-07-01

    The geomorphological, mineralogical and the surface engineering properties of the Simud Vallis floor are presented. This region is scientifically compelling and a safe landing area for both the ExoMars 2018 and the Mars 2020 rovers.

  4. Estimation of soil moisture status based on TVDI and ATI in Heihe River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Zhou, S.; Huang, Y.; LV, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Based on TVDI (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index) and ATI (Apparent Thermal Inertia), this study estimated the soil moisture status in Heihe river basin (northwestern of China) using the vegetation, surface temperature and surface reflectance products in 2012 from MODIS. When calculating the dry edge and wet edge in temperature-vegetation triangle framework, a step-width of 0.02 in NDVI was set and the maximum and minimum temperatures in each interval were found. A fitting line was derived based on these points using the least square method. The results shows that the values of R2 of the dry edge is larger than that of the wet edge. The average R2 of dry edges is 0.89, while the average R2 of wet edges in only 0.74. The slope of dry edges reaches its peak absolute value of -61.51 in DOY 97 (day of year) in 2012. To divide the whole basin into different parts with different degrees of soil moisture status, defined intervals and natural breaks methods were used for TVDI and ATI respectively. The majority of the upstream of Heihe river is comparable or general wet region, with the downstream of the river basin being the dry region. The result of TVDI shows that the midstream of the river belongs to the dry region, as same as its surrounding areas. However, the result of ATI shows the midstream of the river is much wetter. The comparison between the in-situ precipitation data and TVDI and ATI indicates that TVDI and ATI both respond to the precipitation. Only the remote sensing data is need to estimate the soil moisture status based on the TVDI and ATI methods, which can provide straightforward approaches to estimate soil moisture and monitor drought.

  5. Digital Elevation Models Aid the Analysis of Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C.; Garbeil, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars (33.0o - 35.5oN, 216o - 218oW), which suggest that this area was covered by an ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Using digital elevation models derived from High Resolution Imaging Science (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data, a reexamination of the area reveals a complex history including flow inflation and topographic control by transient topographic barriers. Among Amazonian-age outflow channels, Hrad Vallis is exceptional as it exhibits good evidence of magma/water interactions. It is inferred to have formed in association with a shallow igneous sill that melted part of the martian cryosphere and/or released water from an extensive aquifer to produce enormous lahar-like mud flows. Exposed ~30 m high dikes, 20 m high eroded mounds, and flow paths that are inconsistent with present-day topographic gradients, lead us to speculate that this area was covered by at least ~40 m of material (eolian deposits or ice) at the time of volcanic dike intrusion and flow emplacement. This material was subsequently removed leaving no clear morphologic signs (e.g., wind streaks, if eolian material; moraines, if ice). We favor the ice model because if this area was once ice-covered, it offers a plausible mode of formation (as pingoes) for some enigmatic 30 m high domes in the vicinity. At least one 120 km long flow from Hrad Vallis was emplaced as a pahoehoe-like flow that was confined by topographic obstacles and subsequently inflated to thickness of ~45 m. Although the direct relationship between this flow and Hrad Vallis remains to be determined, the inflated flow suggests a longer period of eruption/emplacement at a slower effusion rate than was previously believed.

  6. Duration of the Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev Crater Hydrogeologic System, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Greeley, R.

    1998-05-01

    Ma'adim Vallis and Gusev crater (Aeolis subquadrangle of Mars) formed a complex hydrogeologic system through time. Crater statistics over five geologic units, coupled with morphologic and geologic observations, show that this system was active over a period ranging from 0.7 to about 2 billion years. These results make the floor of Gusev crater one of the most prominent martian depositional features. The last aqueous sedimentary deposition could have occurred during Early Amazonian.

  7. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars,and Associated Paleolake Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually

  8. Times-to-Criterion: An Appropriate Outcome Variable for ATI Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara L.; Dobrovolny, Jacqueline L.

    In the area of aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research, an outcome variable which has received relatively little attention is differential student learning times, or students' relative learning efficiency on one treatment as opposed to another. Although it has been argued that learning times are not appropriate variables for evaluating…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  10. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  11. Potential for Biomarkers in Phyllosilicate-bearing Rocks at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Parente, M.; Makarewicz, H. D.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Des Marais, D. J.; Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals have been identified on Mars in OMEGA and CRISM images using spectral absorptions at 1.38-1.42, 1.91-1.93, 2.16-2.33 and 2.39-2.41 μm [1-5]. Analyses of OMEGA and CRISM spectra in the Mawrth Vallis region have revealed large exposures of Fe/Mg-smectite as the deepest phyllosilicate unit within the ancient cratered terrain that likely formed a thick, pervasive deposit that was subsequently covered by a unit rich in Al-phyllosilicates and hydrated silica. Many CRISM spectra of these phyllosilicate-dominated regions in Mawrth Vallis contain additional absorption bands near 2.4 and 2.5 μm that we attribute to aqueously-formed phases (examples shown in plot of CRISM spectra with their dominant clay types). To interpret such data further, we have acquired lab spectra of a large collection of carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, phosphates, zeolites and amorphous materials (e.g. opal, allophane, imogolite) in addition to an extensive phyllosilicate spectral library. Current analyses of recently improved CRISM images with better spectral clarity are enabling characterization of minor components contributing to these spectral features. We believe that the phyllosilicate-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis harbor additional phases that formed due to aqueous processes and include components that could be biomarkers. Clay-bearing soils in harsh environments such as the Atacama desert contain nitrates, organics and other biosignatures [6]. Further, smectite clays are excellent binding agents [7] and preserve organics well [8]. Thus, the smectite-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis might have preserved organics and biosignature minerals if these were present there during the early aqueous period of Mars. [1] Poulet F. et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [2] Bishop J. L. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [3] Loizeau D. et al. (2009) Icarus, in press. [4] McKeown N. K. et al. (2009) JGR, in press. [5] Noe Dobrea E. Z. et al. (2009) JGR, in review. [6] Navarro

  12. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  13. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Janice L; Dobrea, Eldar Z Noe; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Michalski, Joseph R; Milliken, Ralph E; Poulet, Francois; Swayze, Gregg A; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  14. Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, J.L.; Dobrea, E.Z.N.; McKeown, N.K.; Parente, M.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Michalski, J.R.; Milliken, R.E.; Poulet, F.; Swayze, G.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars in the Mawrth Vallis region show several phyllosilicate species, indicating a wide range of past aqueous activity. Iron/magnesium (Fe/Mg)-smectite is observed in light-toned outcrops that probably formed via aqueous alteration of basalt of the ancient cratered terrain. This unit is overlain by rocks rich in hydrated silica, montmorillonite, and kaolinite that may have formed via subsequent leaching of Fe and Mg through extended aqueous events or a change in aqueous chemistry. A spectral feature attributed to an Fe2+ phase is present in many locations in the Mawrth Vallis region at the transition from Fe/Mg-smectite to aluminum/silicon (Al/Si)-rich units. Fe2+-bearing materials in terrestrial sediments are typically associated with microorganisms or changes in pH or cations and could be explained here by hydrothermal activity. The stratigraphy of Fe/Mg-smectite overlain by a ferrous phase, hydrated silica, and then Al-phyllosilicates implies a complex aqueous history.

  15. Evidence for a changing Martian climate from the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2016-08-01

    Layered outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars contain the greatest diversity of aqueous alteration products on the planet, and these materials are used to infer past aqueous environments. Orbital investigations indicate Al/Si-rich clay-bearing units overly an Fe/Mg-smectite-rich unit. Many different secondary minerals have been identified in the upper Al/Si-rich clay units, but the presence of poorly crystalline phases has not been previously investigated. Identification of ∼10-30% allophane and imogolite in the clay-bearing units resolves previous mineralogical discrepancies between TES and CRISM of clay-bearing units on Mars. We demonstrate here that the poorly crystalline aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite comprise a significant portion of the uppermost stratum of the Al/Si-clay-rich units. These phases are unique to immature soils derived from volcanic ash in well-drained, mildly acidic environments on Earth, and we hypothesize that the deposits discovered here originate from supervolcanic activity in nearby Arabia Terra. The transition through time from smectite-bearing units to the uppermost allophane/imogolite unit in Mawrth Vallis signifies a change in climate from a warm and wet environment to one where water was sporadic and likely depleted rapidly.

  16. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  17. Hard-Object Feeding in Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and Interpretation of Early Hominin Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott; Ungar, Peter S.; Pampush, James D.; Vick, Anna E.; Bitty, E. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  18. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; McGraw, W Scott; Ungar, Peter S; Pampush, James D; Vick, Anna E; Bitty, E Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  19. Geologic map of MTM -45252 and-45257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -45252 and -45257 (latitude 42.5° S. to 47.5°S., longitude 250° W. to 260° W.) cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra east of Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials having moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous material, and extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains. Part of the ~1,500-km-long Reull Vallis outflow system is within the map area. The area also contains surficial deposits, such as the prominent large debris aprons that commonly surround highland massifs. Regional slopes are to the west, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by topographic maps of Mars. Approximately 60 percent of the surface of Mars is covered by rugged, heavily cratered terrains believed to represent the effects of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Much of this terrain, including that within the map area, records a long history of modification by tectonism, fluvial processes, mass wasting, and eolian activity. The presence of fluvial features to the east of Hellas basin, including Reull Vallis and other smaller channels, has significant implications for past environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas basin provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Current photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale (see also Mest and Crown, 2002) from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements previous geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, drainage networks, and highland debris aprons, as well as regional geologic mapping studies and geologic mapping of Hellas basin as a whole at 1:5,000,000 scale. Viking Orbiter image coverage of the map area generally ranges from 160 to 220 m/pixel; the central part of the map area is covered by higher resolution images of about 47 m/pixel. Crater size

  20. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  1. Kasei Vallis of Mars: Dating the Interplay of Tectonics and Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, D. U.

    1985-01-01

    Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.

  2. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  3. Are sinuous ridges in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matt R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman

    2013-04-01

    A suite of elongate, branching positive relief landforms has been observed around Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. They are typically 10 to 150 metres across, and several to tens of kilometres in length. We have observed that these forms occur both individually and as part of complex systems incorporating various cross-cutting, anastomosing and branching patterns. This study forms part of a larger debate as to whether fluvioglacial processes, as opposed to igneous activity, shaped the landscapes in the Elysium Planitia region. The similarity of some of these positive relief branching forms to inverted channels, or perhaps even relict sub-glacial fluvial systems (eskers) suggests an alternative fluvioglacial hypothesis to formation by volcanic processes. Interestingly, if these are esker-like forms then glacial activity in this region was "wet-based", so there should be other characteristic landforms visible. To address this idea, we are conducting a new mapping study of sinuous ridges in the region around Rahway Vallis to assess whether they are more consistent in morphology with formation by igneous or fluvioglacial processes. The survey is being performed using orbital images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Our mapping has shown that many of the ridges form convergent, contributory networks. The ridges are spatially associated with kilometre-wide shallow channels and are found at a nearly constant elevation of -3000m above Mars Datum. Our preliminary interpretation is that these ridges are depositional landforms with multiple sources, and therefore could be sub-glacial (eskers), or inverted fluvial channels. The associated larger channels could be higher order fluvial channels, with the ridges and wide-channels together forming part of a larger drainage network.

  4. Geologic map of MTM -40252 and -40257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -40252 and -40257 cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra northeast of the Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials of moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains, and other surficial deposits. Reull Vallis, an approximately 1,500 km-long outflow channel system, cuts through the southeast corner of the map area. Regional slopes are to the southwest, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by Martian topographic maps and the orientations of channels along the northeast rim of the Hellas basin. The Martian highlands cover more than 60 percent of the planet's surface and are primarily in the southern hemisphere. Most of the highlands consist of rugged, densely cratered terrains believed to represent the final phase of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Parts of the Martian highlands show evidence of extensive degradation and modification. The map area shows landforms created by numerous geologic processes, including tectonism, fluvial activity, and mass wasting. The occurrence of fluvial features, such as outflow channels and valley networks, has significant implications for past Martian conditions. Determining the geology of the highlands northeast of the Hellas basin provides a better understanding of the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, of drainage networks, and of highland debris aprons and regional geologic mapping studies of the highlands at the 1:2,000,000 scale and 1:1,000,000 scale. Crater size-frequency distributions have been compiled to constrain the relative ages of geologic units and determine the timing and extents of the observed

  5. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hamilton, V.; Hardgrove, C.; Kah, L.; Leveille, R.; Mangold, N.; Rowland, S.; Williams, R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  6. Fluvial processes in Ma'adim Vallis and the potential of Gusev crater as a high priority site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie; Landheim, Ragnild; Greeley, Ronald; Farmer, Jack

    1994-01-01

    According to exobiology site selection criteria for Mars, the search for potential extinct/extant water dependent life should focus on sites were water flowed and ponded. The Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater system is of high priority for exobiology research, because it appears to have involved long term flooding, different periods and rates of sedimentation, and probable episodic ponding. The topics covered include the following: evidence of nonuniform fluvial processes and early overflooding of the plateau and ponding.

  7. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  8. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  9. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability. PMID:20950170

  10. Acidic Alteration Environments at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus and Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Flahaut, Jessica; Gross, Christoph; Horgan, Briony

    2015-04-01

    Unique surface materials have been discovered at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, Mawrth Vallis, and elsewhere that have CRISM features distinct from those of any known minerals. Typically these unusual sites are found in light-toned outcrops or interior layered deposits associated with phyllosilicates and/or sulfates. We term these units "doublet" materials because they exhibit a doublet absorption in CRISM spectra between 2.2 and 2.3 µm. We are investigating the spectral signatures of these outcrops compared to lab spectra of minerals, mixtures and alteration products. We're also evaluating the stratigraphy of these unique alteration phases compared with neighboring phyllosilicate and sulfate units. A similar 2.2-2.3 µm doublet has been observed in spectra taken of acid altered clays produced in the laboratory. The band centers and relative intensities of these Martian doublet features vary greatly suggesting that a process such as acid weathering could be acting on OH-bearing minerals to produce altered phases that differ depending on the type of substrate, water/rock ratio, solution chemistry, and duration of aqueous processes. Because these unique materials occur in many regions across a range of times on Mars, acidic alteration may have been a key process at local and regional scales throughout Martian geologic history. Constraining the types of acidic alteration that have taken place on Mars will assist in defining the aqueous geochemistry at these sites.

  11. Clay Bearing Units in the Region around Mawrth Vallis: Stratigraphy, Extent, and Possible Alteration Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrea, E. Z. Noe; Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Swayze, G.; Michalski, J. R.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R.; Morris, R. B.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2007-01-01

    The largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars occurs on the highland plains around Mawrth Vallis. This exposure extends for about 300 km southward from the edge of the dichotomy boundary, covering an area greater than 200 x 300 kilometers over an elevation range of approximately 2000 meters. At least two different types of hydrated phyllosilicates (Fe/Mg-rich and Al-rich phyllosilicates) have been identified in OMEGA data based on absorption bands near 2.3 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively. These clay-bearing units are associated with layered, indurated light-toned units with complex spatial and stratigraphic relationships, and are unconfomably overlain by a darker, indurated, more heavily cratered unit. Ongoing analysis of OMEGA (approximately 1 kilometer/pixel) and CRISM multi-spectral (MSP, 200 meters/pixel) data reveal hydrated minerals with absorptions at approximately 2.2 or 2.3 micrometers in locations up to 300 kilometers away from the borders of the previously identified extent of clay-bearing units. We seek to: 1) further constrain the mineralogy of the hydrated species identified in [5], and 2) understand spatial and stratigraphic relationships between the different hydrated minerals and the cratered plains units in which they are found. In this work we perform mineralogical and stratigraphic comparisons between units to test whether these extended units may be related, in order to establish a broad zone of alteration.

  12. Variability in Macrobenthos Communities in the Valli di Comacchio, Northern Italy, a Hypereutrophized Lagoonal Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistri, M.; Fano, E. A.; Rossi, G.; Caselli, K.; Rossi, R.

    2000-11-01

    The composition and the community structure of the macrobenthic assemblages in different habitats in the Valli di Comacchio (northern Italy, Adriatic Sea) was investigated. Nine stations in three major basins were selected and sampled quarterly from November 1997 to September 1998 for macrofauna and environmental parameters. Sampling stations were located along a gradient of macrophytic coverage and sediment texture. Data were subjected to ANOVA and multivariate analysis to discriminate between habitats, sites, and seasonality on their faunal attributes. Water variable values were typical of eutrophic areas. A total of 37 macrobenthic taxa were identified, and differences in the species complement were found between the various habitats within each site. Unvegetated habitats were generally found quite impoverished. Community structure of the macrobenthos at the most marine station was ruled by the cycle of Ulva rigida. Trophic guild analysis revealed a well structured community thriving in the Ruppia -vegetated habitat. The persistence, in the marginal Ruppia -vegetated habitat, of such a well structured macrobenthic community, suggests that, notwithstanding the loss of structuring capacity of the habitat exhibited by innermost areas, this lagoonal ecosystem could be resilient enough to recover to its former ecological value.

  13. A lake in Uzboi Vallis and implications for Late Noachian-Early Hesperian climate on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Irwin, R. P.; Wilson, S. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Siebach, K.

    2011-03-01

    Uzboi Vallis (centered at ∼28°S, 323°E) is ∼400 km long and comprises the southernmost segment of the northward-draining Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) meso-scale outflow system that emerges from Argyre basin. Bond and Holden craters blocked the valley to the south and north, respectively, forming a Late Noachian-to-Hesperian paleolake basin that exceeded 4000 km3. Limited CRISM data suggest lake deposits in Uzboi and underlying basin floor incorporate relatively more Mg-clays and more Fe-clays, respectively. The short-lived lake overflowed and breached Holden crater’s rim at an elevation of -350 m and rapidly drained into the crater. Fan deltas in Holden extend 25 km from the breach and incorporate meter-sized blocks, and longitudinal grooves along the Uzboi basin floor are hundreds of meters long and average 60 m wide, suggesting high-discharge drainage of the lake. Precipitation-derived runoff rather than regional groundwater or overflow from Argyre dominated contributions to the Uzboi lake, although the failure of most tributaries to respond to a lowering of base level indicates their incision largely ended when the lake drained. The Uzboi lake may have coincided with alluvial and/or lacustrine activity in Holden, Eberswalde, and other craters in southern Margaritifer Terra, where fluvial/lacustrine activity may have required widespread, synoptic precipitation (rain or snow), perhaps associated with an ephemeral, global hydrologic system during the Late Noachian into the Hesperian on Mars.

  14. Landing at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis: A potential 2020 Mars rover landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2014-04-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Mars rover mission we selected a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and associated hydrous mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km × 20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. In central delta cliff sections weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates are detected. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater, remnants of an approximately 1 m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from the adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terrain analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  15. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  16. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  18. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  19. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Edgett, K. S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  20. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  1. Detection of Ground Moving Targets for Two-Channel Spaceborne SAR-ATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Cai, Bin; Liang, Diannong

    2010-12-01

    Many present spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are constrained to only two channels for ground moving target indication (GMTI). Along-track interferometry (ATI) technique is currently exploited to detect slowly moving targets and measure their radial velocity and azimuth real position. In this paper, based on the joint probability density function (PDF) of interferogram's phase and amplitude and the two hypotheses "clutter" and "clutter plus signal", several constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criteria are analyzed for their capabilities and limitations under low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and low clutter-to-noise ratio (CNR) conditions. The CFAR detectors include one-step CFAR detector with interferometric phase, two-step CFAR detectors, and two-dimensional (2D) CFAR detector. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP) criterion is exploited as an upper bound for the performance of the other CFAR detectors. Performance analyses demonstrate the superiority of the 2D CFAR techniques to detect dim slowly moving targets for spaceborne system.

  2. Microstructural Effects on the Mechanical Properties of ATI 718Plus® Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsey, R. M.; Tsang, J.; Oppenheimer, S.; McDevitt, E.

    2012-02-01

    Four microstructural variants of ATI 718Plus® alloy (718Plus) have been investigated to elucidate the effects of grain size, precipitate size, morphology, and phase fraction (δ and γ') on mechanical properties such as low cycle fatigue (LCF) life, fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties, and dwell FCGR behavior at both 649°C and 704°C under 100 s dwell and nondwell conditions. Similar tests have also been performed on Waspaloy in two comparative microstructural conditions. LCF test results demonstrate that all four microstructural conditions of 718Plus have superior life compared with Waspaloy under all investigated test conditions. FCGR results show that, at both test temperatures, all microstructural conditions of 718Plus and Waspaloy exhibit identical behavior in the steady-state regime, except that 718Plus exhibits a much higher threshold stress intensity (Δ K TH). However, the dwell FCGR results show that Waspaloy displays better steady-state crack growth resistance under dwell conditions. However, with a thermal exposed precipitate microstructure, 718Plus shows considerable improvement in this response.

  3. Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

  4. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  5. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  6. The sinuous ridge and channel network within Rahway Vallis and the wider contextual study of the surrounding Rahway Basin, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman

    2014-05-01

    Rahway Vallis is a previously identified shallow v-shaped valley network in the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, located at 10°N 175°E, within the Cerberus Plains in the Elysium Planitia region of Mars. Rahway Vallis is situated in low-lying terrain bounded to west, north and east by older highlands, and to the south by the flood-carved channel system Marte Vallis. Here we present a study of the low-lying area in which Rahway Vallis sits, which we refer to as the "Rahway basin". The floor of the Rahway basin is extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) and hosts a branching network of ridge and channel systems. The aim of this project is to determine the genesis of these branching forms, in particular to test the hypothesis that they are glaciofluvial in origin. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels that are identifiable in CTX 6 m/pixel images, we have found that they are set within broader v-shaped valley that has almost no morphological expression. These valleys have a convex-up, shallow (around 15 metres vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) V-shaped profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway Basin. Long profiles show the channels to deepen with respect to the bank height downslope. Both channels and valley show a consistent downhill gradient from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. If these are water-cut channels, they reach Strahler stream orders of 4, consistent with a contributory network with multiple sources. Associated with the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels but also form individually and parallel to the channels. Possible explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels and eskers. However despite looking through ca. 250 CTX images across the Rahway basin, no other glacial

  7. Ancient Martian Lakestands and Fluvial Processes in Iani Chaos: Geology of Light-Toned Layered Deposits and their Relationship to Ares Vallis Outflow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guallini, Luca; Gilmore, Martha; Marinangeli, Lucia; Thomas, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Iani Chaos is a ~30,000 square kilometers region that lies at the head of the Ares Vallis outflow channel system. Mapping of Ares Vallis reveals multiple episodes of erosion, probably linked to several discharge events from the Iani Chaos aquifer. We present the first detailed geomorphological map of the Iani region. Five chaos units have been distinguished with varying degrees of modification (primarily by erosion and fracturing), starting from a common terrain (Noachian highlands). We observe a general progressive decrease of their mean elevation from the Mesas, Mesas & Knobs and Hummocky (Hy) terrains to the Knobs and Knobby morphologies. This trend is consistent with an initial collapse of the original surface with an increase of the fracturing and/or of the erosion. Light-toned Layered Deposits (LLD) have been also mapped and described in Iani Chaos. These terrains are clearly distinguished by a marked light-toned albedo, high thermal inertia and a pervasively fractured morphology. LLD both fill the basins made by the collapsed chaotic terrains and are found to be partially modified by the chaos formation. LLD also overlap chaos mounds or are themselves eroded into mounds after deposition. These stratigraphic relationships demonstrate that LLD deposition occurred episodically in the Iani region and throughout the history of the development of the chaos. Water seems to have had an active role in the geological history of Iani. The composition and morphologies of the LLD are consistent with deposition in an evaporitic environment and with erosion by outflows, requiring stable water on the surface. For the first time, we have also mapped and analyzed potential fluvial features (i.e., channels, streamlined islands, terraces, grooved surfaces) on the surface of the LLD. These landforms describe a fluvial system that can be traced from central Iani and linked northward to Ares Vallis. Using topographic data, we have compared the elevation of the LLD and channel

  8. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based along track interferometry (ATI) approach to SAR-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.

  10. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  11. Multiple working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars: Insights from the Mawrth Vallis region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Niles, P. B.; Cuadros, J.; Baldridge, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    A unique aspect of martian geology is the presence of similar compositional stratigraphy observed in many locations throughout the surface. Where the Al-rich and Fe/Mg-rich clay minerals occur together, aluminous clays typically overly layered ferromagnesian clays, possibly indicating that precipitation-driven leaching occurred in a warmer, wetter climate. Sulfates generally occurring stratigraphically above clays could be relics of a global environmental shift between clay-forming and sulfate forming epochs. These compositional relationships speak to an important aspect of the martian geosystem that is yet poorly understood. We synthesized recent ideas to produce several working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars and tested the hypotheses on well-exposed sulfate- and clay-bearing rocks found in the Mawrth Vallis region. In the Mawrth Vallis area, interpretations of compositional stratigraphy are strongly constrained by the fact that the sulfates and clays occur within a friable unit (probably loessite or tephra) that was deposited unconformably onto cratered terrain of fundamentally different character. Within the friable unit, the presence of aluminous clays over ferromagnesian clays might represent evidence for leaching associated with rainfall, but the presence of montmorillonite, beidellite, and sulfates argue against intense leaching as a dominant process. We suggest that ice/snow-mediated chemical weathering of dust could produce a deposit consistent with the observations through hydrolysis reactions facilitated by acidic, briny solutions within the icy dust deposit. Slow downward transport of Mg2+ and possibly Fe2+ in these solutions could potentially have produced the crude compositional stratigraphy, but regional scale leaching of basaltic bedrock by rainfall is unlikely to explain the observations. Because both clays and sulfates are found within draping, friable sedimentary deposits that occur at a range of elevations

  12. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  13. Origin and significance of decameter-scale polygons in the lower Peace Vallis fan of Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Fairén, Alberto G.; Deit, Laetitia Le; Williams, Amy J.; Sletten, Ronald S.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Decameter-scale polygons are extensively developed in the Bedded Fractured (BF) Unit of the lower Peace Vallis fan. The polygons occur in a likely extension of the Gillespie Lake Member, north of Yellowknife Bay, the section first drilled by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We examine hypotheses for the origin of these polygons to provide insight into the history of Gale crater. The polygons are ∼4-30 m across, square to rectangular, and defined by ∼0.5-4 m wide, generally straight troughs with orthogonal intersections. Polygon networks are typically oriented-orthogonal systems, with occasional nearly circular patterns, hundreds of meters across. Potential origins include cooling of lava, and for sedimentary units, syneresis, unloading, weathering, desiccation, impact processes, and cold-climate thermal contraction. Cold-climate thermal contraction is the hypothesis most consistent with the sedimentary nature of the BF Unit and the polygon morphology, geometry, networks, and apparent restriction to the coarse-grained Gillespie Lake Member. A periglacial setting further provides the best analogs for the circular networks and is consistent with geologic context and MSL data. Most of the decametric polygons appear to be ancient. They are confined to the Hesperian BF Unit, and only a few of their bounding fractures extend into younger or recently exposed units. In this regard, they differ from the majority of proposed thermal-contraction polygons on Mars, as those are generally thought to be young features, and, accordingly, the history of formation, preservation and reactivation of the decametric polygons is likely to be more complex than that of any proposed young polygons on Mars. The decametric polygons in the BF Unit may represent landforms developed in a cold but still comparatively wet interlude between a clement early Mars and the much drier and colder planet of today.

  14. Application of Abreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (ATIES) Methodology to a Mars Orbit Basing (MOB) Solar Clipper Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Any envisioned future with ubiquitous space transportation systems as defined by NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) will rely on revolutionary improvements in the development and integration of technologies. Given the limitation of financial resources on both the government and industry, strategic decision makers need a method to assist them in the prioritization of advanced space transportation technological investment. The Abbreviated Technology Identification, Evaluation, And Selection (ATIES) methodology described here is exercised to leap this gulf of evaluation through a systematic aggregation of decision-making techniques and sundry probabilistic methods. The process is applied to a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) based in-space transportation system with an atmospheric transfer vehicle called a Mars Reusable Excursion Vehicle (MREV) and transit/orbital and surface habitats (based upon the Mars Orbit Basing, MOB, concept developed at NASA Headquarters). The candidate architecture includes a crewed transport to Mars and surface landing using the MREV. Three potential enhancing technologies were used in this analysis: carbon nano-tube structures, triple junction photovoltaic arrays, and super-conducting Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems. Feasible technology portfolios (combinations of technologies) that met annual and cumulative program funding constraints were then assessed as to their impact upon the system and subsequent overall metrics. An analysis module for assessing programmatic and performance uncertainties associated with future transportation systems was developed by combining the approach of a spreadsheet-based meta-model with capability to perform Monte Carlo simulations to generate cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). The Reduced Order Simulation for Evaluation of Technologies and Transportation Architectures (ROSETTA) model is a spreadsheet-based meta-model which is a representation of the design process for a

  15. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  16. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ong, Homervergel G; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  17. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Homervergel G.; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  18. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  19. Ponding, draining and tilting of the Cerberus Plains; a cryolacustrine origin for the sinuous ridge and channel networks in Rahway Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2015-06-01

    Rahway Vallis sits within a shallow basin (the "Rahway basin") in the Cerberus Plains of Mars containing a branching network of channels converging on the basin floor. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels we have found that they are set within broader, subtly-expressed, valleys. These valleys are shallow (around 15 m vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) and have convex to rectilinear slope profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway basin. Both channels and valleys descend and deepen consistently from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. The morphology and topology of this channel system are consistent with formation by contributory fluid flow, generated from many distributed sources. The transition between the older heavily cratered terrain and the floor of the Rahway basin is bounded by near-horizontal continuous topographic terraces. Plotting the elevation of the terraces shows that they conform to a plane with a height difference of around 100 m east to west for the 300 km width of the Rahway basin. We calculate that the volume of material needed to fill the topography up to the level of the plane best fit by the terraces is ∼1500 km3. Bordering the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels, but also occur individually and parallel to the channels. The multiple tilted terraces, the channel/valley network with many fluvial-like characteristics, and the distributed source regions, suggest that the landforms within the Rahway basin are unlikely to have formed through purely volcanic processes. Rather, the channels within the Rahway basin are consistent with a genesis requiring the flow of liquid water, and the sinuous ridges with melting of a static ice body that occupied the basin. We suggest a hypothesis of rapid basin

  20. Sex and age differences in the diet and ingestive behaviors of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    McGraw, W Scott; Vick, Anna E; Daegling, David J

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade are united by several morphological features, including expanded premolars which are argued to be associated with a preponderance of hard objects in the diet. We test the association between premolar expansion and hard object feeding by examining how different dental regions are used during food processing. We examined the diet and oral processing activities of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Ivory Coast's Tai forest from August 2008 to September 2009. In addition to compiling diet profiles, we recorded the frequency that individuals performed four activities: 1) incising, 2) canine puncturing/scraping, 3) postcanine crushing (i.e., isometric biting), and 4) routine mastication (chewing cycles). Sooty mangabeys have a relatively narrow diet that consists largely of nuts/seeds, fruits, and invertebrates. While there are age and sex differences in diet, the most frequently consumed foods are similar across age and sex classes. The most frequently consumed foods are seeds of Sacoglottis gabonensis which are the hardest items in the sooty mangabey diet. Patterns of ingestive behavior vary with food type, but adults and nonadults (excluding infants dependent on mothers) of both sexes process similar foods. Premolar expansion in Cercocebus atys is associated with powerful crushing of hard objects of specific size and durophagy is a constant feature of sooty mangabey feeding ecology throughout ontogeny.

  1. A new technique for identification of minerals in hyperspectral images. Application to robust characterization of phyllosilicate deposits at Mawrth Vallis using CRISM images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping of Mars by MRO has revealed the presence of numerous small phyllosilicate outcrops. These are typically identified in CRISM images using "summary products" (Pelkey, 2007) that consist of band ratios, depths and spectral slopes around diagnostic wavelengths. The summary products are designed to capture spectral features related to both surface mineralogy and atmospheric gases and aerosols. Such products, as an analysis tool to characterize composition as well as a targeting tool to identify areas of mineralogical interest, have been successful in capturing the known diversity of the Martian surface, and in highlighting locations with strong spectral signatures. Here we present alternative mineral mapping technique that 1) aims to increase the robustness of mineral detections with respect to the specific CRISM artifacts, 2) takes advantage of the spatial context of each pixel and 3) develops new parameters for the discrimination of species in the phyllosilicates family. We include spatial context by evaluating spectral shapes, band depths and spectral slopes for the current pixel based on its spatial neighbors within the same geological unit. Furthermore, the parameters are based on estimates that are more robust to CRISM speckling noise that might alter the parameters and potentially the mineral interpretation. As an effort to distinguish between phyllosilicates species, we are augmenting the suite of existent parameters with a set of mineral parameters that involve the position, number and shapes of diagnostic phyllosilicate absorptions. We are comparing the effectiveness of this new approach to the summary product procedure. The study shows that homogeneous mineral maps and diagnostic spectral identifications are possible as a result of the application of such new parameters. We applied the technique to the discrimination of kaolinite in Mawrth Vallis. The experiments show several small kaolinite outcrops dispersed within the more extensive Al

  2. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  3. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  4. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pandech, Narasak; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Sarasamak, Kanoknan

    2015-05-07

    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO{sub 3} for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C{sub 11} elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C{sub 12} elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C{sub 44} elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  5. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  6. 3ATI flat panel replaces CRT on Air Force platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Byron L., Jr.; Willis, Michael J.

    1998-09-01

    Successful technology insertion programs must satisfy many system constraints in order to incorporate new capabilities into aging avionics systems while meeting program cost requirements. Such constraints frequently include form, fit, and functional replacement specifications, as well as power and electrical performance restrictions. This paper describes a technology insertion program undertaken by engineers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. The program goal was to replace the 30-year-old azimuth indicator display of a radar warning receiver system. This necessitated the use of electroluminescent (EL) display technology to replace the analog cathode ray tube display currently used in the system. Because of the prohibitively high cost of aircraft wiring modifications, the replacement display was required to be completely form, fit, and functionally equivalent to its replacement. The form, fit, and, functional equivalency requirement imposed the following system constraints: (1) power consumption of less than 10 Watts, (2) the need to maintain the same stroke-deflection current electrical interface, and (3) the need to meet the maintenance and repair budget of the existing display unit. Additional requirements included night-vision compatibility and full sunlight readability. The display was also required to be MIL-STD-1553 Remote Terminal communication capable. All of these requirements posed a challenging technology insertion problem to program personnel. The case study described in this paper illustrates the approach to meeting the particular requirements of this technology insertion program.

  7. Geologic map of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) –30247, –35247, and –40247 quadrangles cover a portion of southern Hesperia Planum and the highlands of eastern Promethei Terra, east of the Hellas basin. The map area (lat 27.5–42.5° S., long 110–115° E.) consists of cratered ancient highland materials of moderate relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of plains, and surficial deposits. Waikato and Reull Valles extend through plains and highland terrains. Regional slopes are generally to the southwest toward the Hellas basin, but local slopes (for example, highlands to plains) dominate the landscape.

  8. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  9. Horizontal Tau air showers from mountains in deep vally :Traces of Ultrahigh neutrino tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    1999-08-01

    Ultra High Energy (UHE) Tau neutrino may lead to a very peculiar imprint in future underground K m3 detectors in water and ice as well as in air: rarest secondary tau tracks and decay which may exceed the muon ones. Indeed Bremsstrahlung at high energy lead to longer tracks for heavier leptons. Radiation lenght grows nearly with the square of the lepton mass. Indeed electrons are too light and their trace in matter is negligible (decimeters) muon are much better observed, while tau are too short life time and short range to be found. However, because relativistic time expansion, UHE tau traces in matter, above 1017 eV , are relativistically boosted overcoming the corresponding muon tracks, already bounded by bremsstrahlung logaritmic regime. The tau crossing for Kms in water or ice may be confused with common muon tracks; their tau decay may be missunderstood as muonic catastrophic brehmstrallung interactions. To economize UHE tau dicovery, we suggest to look the tau decay in air into the deep valleys montains, like Canyons or deep in escavation mines where horizontal air showers induce fluoresce or Cerenkov lights. The mountain valley width screens from horizontal secondary muons. The valley height increases the solid angle view. The horizontal air Kms-size gap offer a strong discriminator to filter UHE muons against tau. Tens event a year at PeV ( W resonance peak) energies in K m3 excavation gap should be observable . Hunting air shower in the night toward high mountains in Canyons or in a deep excavation may be the best and cheapest way to discover UHE neutrinos , either born by electron antineutrino scattering on electrons at PeV energies, or by direct tau neutrino possibly relic of muonic flavour oscillation even at EeV energies.

  10. Infanticide risk and infant defence in multi-male free-ranging sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys.

    PubMed

    Fruteau, Cécile; Range, Friederike; Noë, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    For years, infanticide by males was thought to be unlikely in multi-male primate species. Recent studies have, however, presented evidence of infanticide in such species and a recent model by Broom and colleagues predicts that males' age and rank influence the occurrence of infanticide: youngest and highest-ranking immigrant males are more likely to commit infanticide than their older and lower-ranking counterparts if putative fathers fail to protect infants. I collected data on adult free-ranging sooty mangabey females in the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, over 11 months including a birth and a mating season. Infanticide had been previously reported in captivity for this species, but not in the wild. Several males entered the group prior to and during the mating season. As predicted by the model, only the more dominant immigrant ones attacked mother-infant pairs significantly more often than did other males. Mothers often reacted with counter-attacks. Potential fathers guarded and supported infants and mothers throughout the period of infant vulnerability. Furthermore, as only one of seven infants died despite 136 observed attacks on mother-infant pairs and unattended infants by immigrant males, we conclude that cooperation between putative fathers and mothers represents an effective protection against infanticide.

  11. Cognitive ATI Research: A Simulated Laboratory Environment in (PCE-)Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamsteeg, Paul A.; Bierman, Dick J.

    A study of 228 undergraduate psychology students examined the effectiveness of a prototype of "heatlab," a laboratory simulation written in PCE-PROLOG, intended for remedying misconceptions of the concepts "heat" and "temperature." The effect of varying the amount of structure on students' understanding and the possibility of an interaction…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI OSM 200 SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  13. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  14. Retrospective study on the presence and pathogenicity of Dirofilaria repens in 5 dogs and 1 cat from Aosta Vally.

    PubMed

    Tarello, W

    2003-10-01

    Aosta Valley is the only region of Italy free of reported human cases of dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens. Nonetheless, the retrospective analysis of five locally acquired D. repens infections in dogs, seems to indicate that an animal reservoir exist in the area. A feline case imported from Camargue, France, is also described. The most common dermatological signs were erythema, alopecia, crusting, papulae and nodules. All patients had lesional pruritus and dogs were affected by concurrent babesiosis. Eradication of the underlying condition, followed by a therapy with the specific adulticide and microfilaricide drugs led to a complete recovery of microfilaraemia. Increased pet travel and ecological changes are extending the ranges of vector borne, parasitic and zoonotic diseases. This fact pose a unique diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian, since the index of suspicion may be absent outside endemic areas.

  15. Operations and maintenance manual for the light duty utility arm (LDUA) at-tank instrument enclosure (ATIE) (LDUA system 4300)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) At-Tank Instrument Enclosure has completed testing and is ready for operation. This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation and maintenance of the At-Tank Instrument Enclosure.

  16. The Efficacy of ATI Predictive Testing and Remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Alexandra Selman

    2013-01-01

    This project study sought to evaluate the effects of implementing quarterly predictive testing and remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) pass rates of an associate's degree nursing program at a small Midwestern community college. The college's pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has been below both the…

  17. Topographic map of the western region of Dao Vallis in Hellas Planitia, Mars; MTM 500k -40/082E OMKT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosiek, Mark R.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. Contours were derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) compiled on a digital photogrammetric workstation using Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs with orientation parameters derived from an analytic aerotriangulation. The image base for this map employs Viking Orbiter images from orbits 406 and 363. An orthophotomosaic was created on the digital photogrammetric workstation using the DTM compiled from stereo models.

  18. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ATiO{sub 3}–Pr thin films prepared by a photochemical method (where A = Ba and Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, G.; Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Buono-Core, G.E.; Huentupil, Y.; Chornik, B.; Carrasco, C.; Rodríguez, C.A.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A method of photochemical deposition has been used to the preparation of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped Pr(III). • The (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}/Pr(III) films under 375 nm excitation shows emissions attributable to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr ion. • These PL signals decreased above 10 mol% of Pr(III). • Analysis suggests the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap influences in the PL processes. - Abstract: This article reports the characterization and optical properties of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped with Pr at different proportions (0–15 mol%). The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and quartz substrates using a photochemical method and post-annealed at 900 °C. The evaluation of photo-reactivity of the precursor complexes was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that Ba, Ca, Ti, O and Pr are present in the form of perovskite. Under UV light excitation (375 nm) the (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}–Pr films show the characteristic emissions ascribed to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr{sup 3+} ion. The optical measurements show the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap which influence the emission processes.

  20. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  1. 75 FR 52917 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC), as indicated in the Register of Issuing Agency..., and Related Service Companies (ATIS- 0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business...

  2. Acute tubular injury in protocol biopsies of renal grafts: prevalence, associated factors and effect on long-term function.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, W; Hinzmann, K; Erdbruegger, U; Scheffner, I; Broecker, V; Vaske, B; Kreipe, H; Haller, H; Schwarz, A; Mengel, M

    2008-08-01

    Acute tubular injury (ATI) is commonly observed in renal allografts, especially early after transplantation. This study analyzes prevalence and associated clinical conditions of ATI in serial protocol biopsies (pBx) and indication biopsies (iBx), and its impact on long-term graft function. 612 pBx from 204 patients taken at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 151 iBx performed within the first year of transplantation were evaluated. Prevalence of ATI in pBx was 40% (6 weeks), 34% (3 months) and 37% (6 months), and 46% in iBx. ATI was associated with delayed graft function and prolonged cold ischemia time in pBx, and with acute rejections in iBx. The GFR at 1 and 2 years after transplantation correlated inversely with the frequency of ATI in both pBx and iBx (p < 0.001). Prevalence of chronic changes at 6 months was not significantly related to ATI (patients without ATI: 36%, patients with multiple ATI findings: 54%). ATI is linked to inferior long-term graft function. While this suggests lack of recovery from ATI with permanent allograft damage, the underlying molecular mechanisms need yet to be uncovered. Prevention of the potential pathogenetic factors identified in this study might be the key point to attain good long-term graft function.

  3. Frequency-domain theory of high-order above-threshold ionization based on nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bingbing; Gao Lianghui; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Guo Dongsheng

    2007-06-15

    High-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) is investigated in the frequency domain, based on a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theoretical approach. The transition matrix element of high-order ATI is expressed as a superposition of products of generalized Bessel functions, which represent probability amplitudes of finding electrons with given energies. From the frequency-domain viewpoint the high-order ATI can be described simply as an ATI followed by laser-assisted collision (LAC), and the features of high-order ATI reflect mainly the characteristics of LAC. We investigate thoroughly the LAC, finding that the plateau can be simulated by a simple classical model. We also discuss the correspondence between the time- and frequency-domain pictures of rescattering ATI.

  4. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (g) Warranty administrator enterprise...-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (i) Warranty guarantor... Source Enterprise Identifier Code Type 0-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC....

  5. Radar and satellite area-time-integral techniques for estimating convective precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Reinke, Don

    1990-01-01

    The application of the area-time-integral (ATI) method (Doneaud et al, 1984) to radar and satellite measurements is reviewed. Results are presented from the calculation of ATI values from radar observations based on low-elevation-angle and low-altitude CAPPI data. Also, results from a satellite ATI calculation using IR images from a GEO platform are given. The results suggest that the radar and satellite applications produce good consistency.

  6. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  7. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses.

  8. Synthetic and Structural Studies of Titanium Aminotroponiminate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Steinhuebel, Dietrich P.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    1999-12-27

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of Ti(III) and Ti(IV) aminotroponiminate complexes are described. Six-coordinate [TiMe(2)(Me(2)ATI)(2)] and [TiPh(2)(Me(2)ATI)(2)] were synthesized and structurally characterized, where Me(2)ATI is N,N'-dimethylaminotroponiminate. The mono-alkyl complexes [TiClR(Me(2)ATI)(2)], R = Me, CH(2)SiMe(3), were prepared, and treatment of the former, generated in situ, with PhMgCl yielded the alkyl-aryl complex [TiMePh(Me(2)ATI)(2)]. The solid state structures of most of these complexes were determined and reveal slightly distorted, trigonal-prismatic coordination geometries. Attempts to prepare alkyl complexes containing beta-hydrogen atoms resulted instead in the isolation of [Ti(Me(2)ATI)(3)] or [Ti(2)Cl(2)(Me(2)ATI)(4)], depending on the alkyl reagent and stoichiometry. Because of the modest steric requirements of the {Ti(Me(2)ATI)(2)}(2+) fragment, five-coordinate Ti(IV) complexes were only generated with a bulky sigma-2pi donor ligand, [Ti(N-(2,6)-i-Pr(2)C(6)H(3))(Me(2)ATI)(2)] being a specific example. Attempts to prepare the isoelectronic oxo analogue afforded only dimeric [Ti(2)O(2)(Me(2)ATI)(4)]. Comparison of the metrical parameters for these complexes with those in the literature containing aryloxide and benzamidinate ligands indicate that the {Ti(Me(2)ATI)(2)}(2+) fragment is quite electron releasing. PMID:11671337

  9. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses. PMID:25366173

  10. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  11. Final Four Landing Sites for the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory will land at Mawrth Vallis, Holden, Gale, or Eberswalde Craters (locations important to the potential habitability of Mars) after 4 community workshops and the consideration of more than 50 candidates over the past 4 years.

  12. Landing Sites Under Consideration for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J.; Watkins, M.; Kipp, D.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Griffes, J.; Parker, T.; Kirk, R.; Fergason, R.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Milliken, R.; Sun, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Detailed scientific investigations of target materials and surface characteristics are focusing on four potential landing sites (Holden, Gale and Eberswalde craters and Mawrth Vallis) for the Mars Science Laboratory.

  13. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Dielectric properties of the lamellar niobates and titanoniobates AM{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} and ATiNbO{sub 5} (A = H, K, M. = Ca, Pb), and their condensation products Ca{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19} and Ti{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, M.; Mallouk, T.E.; Kim, C.H.

    1999-06-01

    The dielectric properties of layer perovskites in the Dion-Jacobson series, and of related lamellar oxides were measured. Most of these compounds show significant dielectric dispersion and high loss, which are attributed to both grain and grain boundary atomic displacements. The dielectric constant of HPb{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}, however, is {approximately}150 between 1 kHz and 10 MHz, and its dielectric loss is <0.1 over the same range. Topochemical dehydration of HTiNbO{sub 5} to Ti{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} eliminates the loss components associated with intra- and intergrain proton movement. HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} undergoes a similar topochemical dehydration reaction to make a new metastable phase, Ca{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}, for which a structural model is proposed. Above 550 C, Ca{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19} decomposes to a mixture of microcrystalline CaNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Unlike HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}, HPb{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} does not dehydrate topochemically, but transforms directly to a mixture of Pb{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 13} and PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}.

  15. A Community of Writers: Peer Tutor Training for Writing Center Techniques Which Foster Dialogue in the Writing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Linda; Johnson, Candice

    After much trial and error, the Agricultural Technical Institute of the Ohio State University (ATI/OSO) discovered that training of writing lab tutors can best be done through collaboration of the Writing Lab Coordinator with the "Development of Tutor Effectiveness" course offered at the institute. The ATI/OSO main computer lab and secondary lab…

  16. Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2013-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…

  17. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  18. Art and Technology Integration Project: Year 1 Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Elliott; And Others

    This report provides a progress report on the Art and Technology Integration Project (ATI), a partnership of the Westside and Grand Island Public Schools, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art (NMAA), and the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). The ATI project focuses on long-range assessment of the integration of the…

  19. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  20. Arabidopsis ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 Is Involved in Autophagy-Dependent Vesicular Trafficking of Plastid Proteins to the Vacuole[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Simon; Honig, Arik; Levanony, Hanna; Peled-Zehavi, Hadas; Galili, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagy has been extensively studied in various organisms, but knowledge regarding its functions in plants, particularly in organelle turnover, is limited. We have recently discovered ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (ATI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that following carbon starvation it is localized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated bodies that are subsequently transported to the vacuole. Here, we show that following carbon starvation ATI1 is also located on bodies associating with plastids, which are distinct from the ER ATI bodies and are detected mainly in senescing cells that exhibit plastid degradation. Additionally, these plastid-localized bodies contain a stroma protein marker as cargo and were observed budding and detaching from plastids. ATI1 interacts with plastid-localized proteins and was further shown to be required for the turnover of one of them, as a representative. ATI1 on the plastid bodies also interacts with ATG8f, which apparently leads to the targeting of the plastid bodies to the vacuole by a process that requires functional autophagy. Finally, we show that ATI1 is involved in Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance. Taken together, our results implicate ATI1 in autophagic plastid-to-vacuole trafficking through its ability to interact with both plastid proteins and ATG8 of the core autophagy machinery. PMID:25281689

  1. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  2. Academic and nursing aptitude and the NCLEX-RN in baccalaureate programs.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary Ann; Harris, Debra; Tracz, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    Accurately predicting NCLEX-RN® success has a positive impact on all nursing education stakeholders. This study focused on the ability to predict NCLEX-RN pass rates on the basis of prenursing academic aptitude variables and the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) nursing aptitude program. The ATI predictors were the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) and fi ve ATI subject tests: Fundamentals, Medical Surgical, Nursing Care of Children, Mental Health, and Maternal Newborn. The prenursing variables comprised the prenursing grade point average, a prerequisite communication course, and the ATI TEAS composite subscores of TEAS Reading, TEAS Math, TEAS Science, and TEAS English. This study included participants from four baccalaureate nursing programs in the California State University system. Results of canonical correlation, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression revealed a significant correlation among prenursing, ATI scores, and NCLEXRN fi rst-try pass rates. Prediction of NCLEX-RN success rate using standardized testing data was supported, with the strongest predictors being the ATI Medical Surgical and ATI Mental Health tests.

  3. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  4. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  5. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [Everglades agricultural area and the west north central peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures derived from HCMM data were compared with to those obtained by GOES satellite and the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) calculated. For two dates, the HCMM temperatures appear to be about 5 C lower than the GOES temperatures. The ATI for excessively-drained to well-drained mineral soils was greater than for drained organic soils possibly because of long periods of low rainfall during late 1980 and early 1981. Organic soils cropped to sugar cane showed lower ATI after a severe killing freeze. With dead leaves, there was less transpiration and more solar radiation probably reached the dark soil surface. This would explain the larger diurnal temperature amplitude observed.

  6. Fast Sampling and Analysis of Offgas Dioxins/Furans Using a Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C. G.; Rees, R. T.; Reick, K. G.; Montgomery, J. L.; Battleson, D. M.; LeFever, J.; Sears, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    The United States Department of Energy is using or evaluating several Alternatives-to- Incineration (ATI) technologies for treating hazardous wastes and low-level mixed wastes. ATI treatment technologies may have the potential for generating gaseous or other emissions of polychlorinated dioxins/furans, a class of highly toxic compounds which are regulated to very low levels. At present, the emission limit for dioxins/furans from hazardous waste incinerators is 0.2 ng TEQ/dscm (0.4 ng TEQ/dscm w/TC). Emissions from ATI technologies are expected to be subject to similar restrictions.

  7. Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.

    PubMed

    Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G

    2015-07-01

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction. PMID:26125386

  8. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  9. 3D Reconstruction of the Source and Scale of Buried Young Flood Channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Gareth A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  10. Cerberus Fossae, Elysium, Mars: a source for lava and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2003-07-01

    Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Marte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian.

  11. Cerberus Fossae, Elysium, Mars: A source for lava and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plescia, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Matte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine-to-lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Gaines, A M; Kendall, D C; Allee, G L; Usry, J L; Kerr, B J

    2011-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val-to-Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13- to 32-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 162 pigs weaned at 17 d of age (8 pens/treatment) were used, and a Val-deficient basal diet containing 0.60% l-Lys·HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed the basal diet was inferior to a corn-soybean meal control containing only 0.06% l-Lys·HCl, but was fully restored with the addition of 0.146% l-Val to the basal diet (68% SID Val:Lys). In Exp. 2, 54 individually housed barrows (21.4 kg) were utilized in a 14-d growth assay. Pigs were offered a similar basal diet (1.10% SID Lys), ensuring Lys was marginally limiting with no supplemental l-Val (55% SID Val:Lys). The basal diet was fortified with 4 graded levels of l-Val (0.055% increments) up to a ratio of 75% SID Val:Lys. In Exp. 3, 147 barrows (13.5 kg) were fed identical diets, only with 1 additional level at a SID Val:Lys of 80% and fed for 21 d. In Exp. 2 and 3, a high protein, control diet was formulated to contain 1.10% SID Lys and 0.20% l-Lys·HCl. In Exp. 2, linear effects on ADG (713, 750, 800, 796, and 785 g/d; P = 0.05) and G:F (P = 0.07) were observed with increasing SID Val:Lys, characterized by improvements to a ratio of 65% and a plateau thereafter. In Exp. 3, quadratic improvements in ADG (600, 629, 652, 641, 630, and 642 g/d; P = 0.08) and G:F (P = 0.07) were observed with increasing SID Val:Lys, as performance increased to a ratio of 65% but no further improvement to a ratio of 80%. Pigs fed the control diet did not differ from those fed a ratio of 65% SID Val:Lys in Exp. 2, but did have improved G:F in Exp. 3 (P = 0.03). To provide a more accurate estimate of the optimum SID Val:Lys, data from Exp. 2 and 3 were combined. With single-slope broken-line methodology, the minimum ratio estimate was 64 and 65% SID Val:Lys for ADG and G:F, respectively. With combined requirement estimates, the

  13. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  14. 48 CFR 252.246-7006 - Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, GS1 Company Prefix, Allied Committee 135 NATO Commercial... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC)), as indicated in the Register of Issuing...

  15. The area-time-integral technique to estimate convective rain volumes over areas applied to satellite data - A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Miller, James R., Jr.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Laybe, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    The use of the area-time-integral (ATI) technique, based only on satellite data, to estimate convective rain volume over a moving target is examined. The technique is based on the correlation between the radar echo area coverage integrated over the lifetime of the storm and the radar estimated rain volume. The processing of the GOES and radar data collected in 1981 is described. The radar and satellite parameters for six convective clusters from storm events occurring on June 12 and July 2, 1981 are analyzed and compared in terms of time steps and cluster lifetimes. Rain volume is calculated by first using the regression analysis to generate the regression equation used to obtain the ATI; the ATI versus rain volume relation is then employed to compute rain volume. The data reveal that the ATI technique using satellite data is applicable to the calculation of rain volume.

  16. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  17. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  18. Low cost, combined radio frequency and electrostatic protection for electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Attenuation Technology Inc. (ATI) has developed a series of ferrite attenuators for protecting electroexplosive devices (EED's) from inadvertent actuation due to RF exposure. ATI's first attenuator was fabricated using the MN 67 ferrite formulation. That attenuator protected EED's from both pin-to-pin and pin-to-case RF exposure. Those attenuators passed MIL STD 1385B testing when used in electric blasting caps (EBC), electric squibs, and firing line filters made for the US Navy.

  19. Demonstration of real-time automatic target identification from a surrogate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Peter; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo; Cowell, Jason; Smart, Karen; Pearce, Dan

    2006-05-01

    Airborne surveillance and targeting sensors are capable of generating large quantities of imagery, making it difficult for the user to find the targets of interest. Automatic target identification (ATI) can assist this process by searching for target-like objects and classifying them, thus reducing workload. ATI algorithms, developed in the laboratory by QinetiQ, have been implemented in real-time on ruggedised processing capable of flight. A series of airborne tests has been carried out to assess the performance of the ATI under real world conditions, using a Wescam EO/IR turret as the source of imagery. The tests included examples of military vehicles in urban and rural scenarios, with varying degrees of hide and concealment. Tests were conducted in different weather conditions to assess the robustness of the sensor and ATI combination. This paper discusses the tests carried out and the performance of the ATI achieved as a function of the test parameters. Conclusions are drawn as to the current state of ATI and its applicability to military requirements.

  20. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  1. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  2. Knockdown of Drosha in human alveolar type II cells alters expression of SP-A in culture: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Chroneos, Zissis C; DiAngelo, Susan L; Thomas, Neal J; Noutsios, Georgios T; Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Howrlylak, Judie A; Umstead, Todd M; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in surfactant metabolism and lung innate immunity. SP-A is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells (ATII), one of the two cell types of the distal lung epithelium (ATII and ATI). We have shown that miRNA interactions with sequence polymorphisms on the SP-A mRNA 3′UTRs mediate differential expression of SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene variants in vitro. In the present study, we describe a physiologically relevant model to study miRNA regulation of SP-A in human ATII. For these studies, we purified and cultured human ATII on an air-liquid interface matrix (A/L) or plastic wells without matrix (P). Gene expression analyses confirmed that cells cultured in A/L maintained the ATII phenotype for over 5 days, whereas P-cultured cells differentiated to ATI. When we transfected ATII with siRNAs to inhibit the expression of Drosha, a critical effector of miRNA maturation, the levels of SP-A mRNA and protein increased in a time dependent manner. We next characterized cultured ATII and ATI by studying expression of 1,066 human miRNAs using miRNA PCR arrays. We detected expression of >300 miRNAs with 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in ATII vs. ATI, 12 of which predicted to bind SP-A 3′UTRs, indicating that these may be implicated in SP-A downregulation in ATI. Thus, miRNAs not only affect SPA expression, but also may contribute to the maintenance of the ATII cell phenotype and/or the trans-differentiation of ATII to ATI cells, and may represent new molecular markers that distinguish ATII and ATI. PMID:25058539

  3. Further studies to extend and test the area-time-integral technique applied to satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Vonderhaar, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'variable-threshold approach'. In the former approach, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are most closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts. Results thus far have indicated that a strong correlation exists between the rain volumes and the satellite ATI values, but the optimum threshold for this relationship seems to differ from one geographic location to another. The difference is probably related to differences in the basic precipitation mechanisms that dominate in the different regions. The average rainfall rate associated with each cloudy pixel is also found to vary across the spectrum of ATI values. Work on the second, or 'variable-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values was essentially suspended during this period due to exhaustion of project funds. Most of the ATI work thus far has dealt with cloud clusters from the Lagrangian or 'floating-target' point of view. For many purposes, however, the Eulerian or 'fixed-target' perspective is more appropriate. For a very large target area encompassing entire cluster life histories, the rain volume-ATI relationship would obviously be the same in either case. The important question for the Eulerian perspective is how small the fixed area can be made while maintaining consistency in that relationship.

  4. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  5. Relationships Between the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), Fluvial Channels, and the Dichotomy Boundary Southeast of Nicholson Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, B. A.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) data to investigate the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and its relationship to fluvial channels southeast of Nicholson Crater. In this area the MFF shows small-scale layering and is draped over Labou Vallis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay

    1997-01-01

    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  8. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  9. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  10. The Organized Contradictions of Professional Development and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, Neil; Pacha, Joseph; Baker, Paul; Gardner, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    "One of the most persistent findings from research on school improvement is, in fact, the symbiotic relationship between professional development and school improvement efforts" (Hawley & Valli, 1999, p. 129). These researchers, and others in the field, argue that there must be a direct relationship between the professional development of…

  11. Developing a Reflective Practitioner through the Connection between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's ("Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques." State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; "Peabody J Educ" 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in…

  12. Eridania Paleolakes Basin Floor: A new Landing Site for the next Mars 2020 Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; McBride, K. S.; Coradini, M.

    2014-07-01

    A new landing site for Mars 2020 is presented: Eridania basin. This area i) is the floor of the closed basin originating the Ma’adim Vallis; ii) shows clear clay-bearing sedimentary signatures; iii) fully respects the safety landing constraints.

  13. The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth.

    PubMed

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Zerrahn, J-E; Tauson, A-H; Hansen, C F

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. On a subsample of 72 sows, additional measurements were made: sow BW and BF were measured on d 17 and litter weight was measured on d 10 and 17, and blood and urine samples were collected weekly. The litter size at weaning was not affected by the dietary Val:Lys ( = 0.23) and, on average, the sows weaned 13.0 ± 1.1 piglets. Average daily gain of the litter (2.93 ± 0.53 kg/d; = 0.84), litter weight at weaning ( = 0.67), the average milk yield (11.3 ± 1.4 kg/d; = 0.49), and milk contents of fat ( = 0.57), protein ( = 0.18), and lactose ( = 0.20) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. Increasing the dietary Val:Lys increased the milk concentration of Val ( < 0.05) and Ile ( < 0.01). The change in sow BW and BF were similar for all sows from d 2 to 17, d 17 to 25, and d 2 to 25 ( > 0.05). During lactation, sows, on average, had a BW and back fat loss of 22.1 ± 12.7 kg and 2.9 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. Plasma concentrations of glucose ( = 0.26), lactate ( = 0.95), urea N ( = 0.84), NEFA ( = 0.24), and creatinine ( = 0.42); urine concentration of creatinine ( = 0.57); and concentrations of AA in whole blood ( > 0.05) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. In conclusion, there was no effect of increasing the total dietary Val:Lys above 0.84:1 on sow metabolism and litter performance during lactation.

  14. Extensive phyllosilicate-bearing layer identified in northwestern Noachis Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S. L.; Seelos, F. P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2009-12-01

    Noachis Terra is a highland cratered plain on Mars, extending from 20°S to 80°S latitude and 55°W to 30°E longitude. Evidence for a widespread phyllosilicate-bearing layer has been identified in a distinct region in northwest Noachis Terra, bound by Coprates and Eos Chasma to the north, Thaumasia Planum to the west and the Argyre basin to the south. Uzboi Vallis, a major Martian valley system, cuts through Noachis Terra and is the eastern boundary of our region of interest. In northwest Argyre a laterally extensive phyllosilicate-bearing deposit has been identified directly below a thin cap-rock. A layer of similar composition has been identified in the walls of eastern Coprates Chasma, although at significantly greater depth. It has been suggested that these outcrops represent the same material unit. If so, then the same phyllosilicate-bearing layer should be observable in the walls of valley systems and craters in the intervening Noachis Terra region, increasing with depth towards the north. Two small valley systems incise NW Noachis: Her Desher Vallis and Nirgal Vallis. Nirgal Vallis is a tributary of Uzboi Vallis, joining the larger system to the south of Holden crater. Her Desher Vallis is an isolated valley that does not seem to connect to any craters or larger valleys. CRISM multispectral mapping observations (mosaicked at ~230 m/pixel) indicate that a phyllosilicate-bearing layer is exposed along the length of both valley systems and in the interior rims of many craters in the region. Phyllosilicates have been positively identified in 20-40 m/pixel resolution CRISM hyperspectral targeted observations of the walls of Her Desher Valles and Nirgal Vallis; as indicated by the mapping data, there is a distinct phyllosilicate-bearing layer located only a few meters below the surface volcanics and extending laterally along the walls. A similar phyllosilicate-bearing layer is also identified running laterally in the interior walls of some nearby craters

  15. Limnologic Analysis of Gusev Crater Paleolake, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin, Edmond A.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.

    1997-12-01

    The survey of the hydrogeologic system formed by Gusev crater and Ma'adim Vallis (Aeolis subquadrangle of Mars) points out evidence for the existence of an ice-covered lake in Gusev crater. A first lake was formed by the drainage of the aquifer in the region surrounding Gusev before the entry of Ma'adim Vallis in the crater. The existence of a former lake in Gusev is deduced from the morphology of the Ma'adim delta. Its comparison with terrestrial Antarctic analogs argues for the presence of an ice-covered lake in Gusev at the time that the southern part of the crater's rampart was breached by Ma'adim first release, and for a subice-lacustrine construction of the valley's delta. Our survey shows that Ma'adim Vallis may have entered Gusev crater as late as Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian as part of a second lake episode. The relationship between the variation of the Gusev lake water-level, the volume of the lake, and the surface of the lake bed is established by our bathymetric model. The elevation of the former lake is deduced from the elevation of the mesa-like structures in the delta of Ma'adim Vallis. Furthermore, the correlation of the crater frequency of Gusev rampart with Mars' stratigraphic age shows that lakes may have occupied Gusev crater over a period of time covering 2 Gyrs., from the formation of the crater to the last episode of water release from Ma'adim Vallis. Though it is most likely that the lake was episodical, the recurrence of abundant water in Gusev crater makes this site a high priority for missions, either for martian resource exploration, or for the search of life.

  16. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  17. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Matthew B; Vichot, Alfred A; Cantley, Lloyd G; Moeckel, Gilbert W

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI). We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD), and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker), CD163 (M2 marker), and HLA-DR (M1 marker) and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+) whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+). M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. PMID:25404860

  18. N-terminal Proteomics and Ribosome Profiling Provide a Comprehensive View of the Alternative Translation Initiation Landscape in Mice and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Gawron, Daria; Van Criekinge, Wim; Menschaert, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator methionine decoded near-cognate start codons besides the existence of N-terminal extended protein variants at the level of the proteome. Various newly identified aTIS were confirmed by mutagenesis, and meta-analyses demonstrated that aTIS reside in strong Kozak-like motifs and are conserved among eukaryotes, hinting to a possible biological impact. Finally, TargetP analysis predicted that the usage of aTIS often results in altered subcellular localization patterns, providing a mechanism for functional diversification. PMID:24623590

  19. Analytic Model for Description of Above-Threshold Ionization by an Intense, Short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anthony F.; Frolov, M. V.; Knyazeva, D. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Geng, J.-W.; Peng, L.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    We present an analytic model for above-threshold ionization (ATI) of an atom by an intense, linearly-polarized short laser pulse. Our quantum analysis provides closed-form formulas for the differential probability of ATI, with amplitudes given by a coherent sum of partial amplitudes describing ionization by neighboring optical cycles near the peak of the intensity envelope of a short laser pulse. These analytic results explain key features of short-pulse ATI spectra, such as the left-right asymmetry in the ionized electron angular distribution, the multi-plateau structures, and both large-scale and fine-scale oscillation patterns resulting from quantum interferences of electron trajectories. The ATI spectrum in the middle part of the ATI plateau is shown to be sensitive to the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the active electron owing to contributions from multiple-return electron trajectories. An extension of our analytic formulas to real atoms provides results that are in good agreement with results of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He and Ar atoms. Research supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1208059, by RFBR Grant No. 13-02-00420, by Ministry of Ed. & Sci. of the Russian Fed. Proj. No. 1019, by NNSFC Grant Nos. 11322437, 11174016, and 11121091, and by the Dynasty Fdn. (MVF & DVK).

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (Principal Investigator); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

  1. Electrophysiological and neuropsychological effects of a central alpha 2-antagonist atipamezole in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mervaala, E; Alhainen, K; Helkala, E L; Partanen, J; Jousmäki, V; Väyrynen, M; Heinonen, E; Riekkinen, P

    1993-05-31

    We studied the electrophysiological and neuropsychological effects of acute modulation of central noradrenergic (NA) transmission using a specific alpha 2-antagonist atipamezole (ATI) in sic healthy volunteers. ATI had effects on resting EEG, auditory event-related potentials and neuropsychological tests. Quantitative EEG revealed increased total power in frontal, parietal and temporo-occipital areas without significant changes in the mean or peak frequencies. Event-related potentials showed no effects on the active attention-related processing negativity or the passive mismatch negativity, but frontally recorded mean amplitude of target-P300 was decreased. Neuropsychological tests after ATI revealed improvement in Digit Span, more errors in Word Recognition task, and no effects on Moss spatial recognition task. In healthy subjects with intact NA systems and without any attention deficit, ATI produced evident NA overactivity. ATI decreased the spontaneous thalamocortical oscillation of EEG and improved focused attention (Digit Span). It impaired, however, more divided attention (decreased mean P300 amplitude, increased errors in Word Recognition). PMID:8101086

  2. Cationic aluminum alkyl complexes incorporating aminotroponiminate ligands.

    PubMed

    Korolev, A V; Ihara, E; Guzei, I A; Young, V G; Jordan, R F

    2001-08-29

    The synthesis, structures, and reactivity of cationic aluminum complexes containing the N,N'-diisopropylaminotroponiminate ligand ((i)Pr(2)-ATI(-)) are described. The reaction of ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(2) (1a-e,g,h; R = H (a), Me (b), Et (c), Pr (d), (i)Bu (e), Cy (g), CH(2)Ph (h)) with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] yields ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlR(+) species whose fate depends on the properties of the R ligand. 1a and 1b react with 0.5 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to produce dinuclear monocationic complexes [([(i)Pr(2)-ATI] AlR)(2)(mu-R)][(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2a,b). The cation of 2b contains two ((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlMe(+) units linked by an almost linear Al-Me-Al bridge; 2a is presumed to have an analogous structure. 2b does not react further with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)]. However, 1a reacts with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to afford ((i Pr(2)-ATI)Al(C(6)F(5))(mu-H)(2)B(C(6)F(5))(2) (3) and other products, presumably via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer and ligand redistribution of a [((i)()Pr(2)-ATI)AlH][(C(6)F(5))(4)] intermediate. 1c-e react with 1 equiv of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield stable base-free [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] complexes (4c-e). 4c crystallizes from chlorobenzene as 4c(ClPh).0.5PhCl, which has been characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state the PhCl ligand of 4c(ClPh) is coordinated by a dative PhCl-Al bond and an ATI/Ph pi-stacking interaction. 1g,h react with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5g,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][(BC(6)F(5))(4)] intermediates. 1c,h react with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to yield ((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(C(6)F(5)) (5c,h) via C(6)F(5)(-) transfer of [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)AlR][RB(C(6)F(5))(3)] intermediates. The reaction of 4c-e with MeCN or acetone yields [((i)Pr(2)-ATI)Al(R)(L)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] adducts (L = MeCN (8c-e), acetone (9c-e)), which undergo associative intermolecular L exchange. 9c-e undergo slow beta-H transfer to afford the dinuclear dicationic alkoxide complex [(((i

  3. Predicting NCLEX-RN success in a diverse student population.

    PubMed

    Alameida, Marshall D; Prive, Alice; Davis, Harvey C; Landry, Lynette; Renwanz-Boyle, Andrea; Dunham, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Many schools of nursing have implemented standardized testing using platforms such as those developed by Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) to better prepare students for success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses® (NCLEX-RN). This study extends and replicates the research on standardized testing to predict first-time pass success in a diverse student population and across two prelicensure program types. The final sample consisted of 589 students who graduated between 2003 and 2009. Demographic data, as well as academic performance and scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor, were analyzed. The findings in this study indicate that scores on the ATI RN Comprehensive Predictor were positively, significantly associated with first-time pass success. Students in jeopardy of failing the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt can be identified prior to graduation and remediation efforts can be strengthened to improve their success.

  4. Influence of artificial saliva compositions on tribological characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; Kolmas, Joanna; Jałbrzykowski, Marek; Olchowik, Rafał; Dąbrowski, Jan R

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of implant materials on the example of the Ti-6Al-4V (a-Ti) titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes were prepared on the basis of pyrophosphates and mucins dissolved in saline buffer. The results of the presented tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under research varied from each other, while much similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the human saliva environment and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. The microscopic observations of surfaces of the a-Ti samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear. Infrared microspectroscopy studies of surfaces of the a-Ti samples after friction revealed the presence of secondary lubricating films based on mucin found in the artificial saliva solutions.

  5. Interaction between wheat alpha-amylase/trypsin bi-functional inhibitor and mammalian digestive enzymes: Kinetic, equilibrium and structural characterization of binding.

    PubMed

    Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Ali, Ishtiaq; Bonfili, Laura; Cecarini, Valentina; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2016-12-15

    Alpha-amylase/trypsin bi-functional inhibitors (ATIs) are non-gluten protein components of wheat and other cereals that can hypersensitise the human gastrointestinal tract, eventually causing enteropathies in predisposed individuals. These inhibitory proteins can act both directly by targeting specific pro-inflammatory receptors, and indirectly by impairing the activity of digestive enzymes, the latter event causing the accumulation of undigested peptides with potential immunogenic properties. Herein, according to a concerted approach based on in vitro and in silico methods we characterized kinetics, equilibrium parameters and modes of binding of the complexes formed between wheat ATI and two representative mammalian digestive enzymes, namely trypsin and alpha-amylase. Interestingly, we demonstrated ATI to target both enzymes with independent binding sites and with moderately high affinity. PMID:27451220

  6. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process.

  7. Dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Tosa, V.; Nam, C.H.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of dynamical medium depletion in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) in left/right asymmetry of photoelectron energy spectra is analyzed. Based on a classical analysis of high-order ATI electrons produced by few-cycle laser pulses, calculated asymmetry maps of electron spectra reproduce very well the experimental results reported in Lindner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004)], utilized for determining the Guoy phase shift of few-cycle laser pulses. The anomalous behavior of the high-energy part of the ATI electron spectra is, then, fully understood in terms of earlier medium depletion occurring in the leading edge of the laser pulse. In order to correctly reproduce the experimental findings a physical temporal envelope of the laser pulse, which only vanishes at the infinity, plays a crucial role.

  8. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats-strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  9. Anesthetic effects of a three-drugs mixture--comparison of administrative routes and antagonistic effects of atipamezole in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and butorphanol (BUT) produced anesthetic duration of around 40 minutes (min) in ICR mice. We reported that this anesthetic mixture produced almost the same anesthetic effects in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of drugs has been widely used in mice. However, various injectable routes of the anesthetic mixture may cause different anesthetic effects. First, we examined effects of the anesthetic mixture by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) injection compared to IP injection. After injection of the anesthetic mixture, administration of atipamezole (ATI) induced mice recovery from anesthesia. Secondly, we examined how different dosage and optimum injection timing of ATI affected mice recovery from anesthesia. We used an anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs under anesthesia. Usually, drugs from SC injection work more weakly than IP or IV injection. However, we found no significant differences of anesthetic duration among the three different injection routes. Antagonistic effects of ATI (0.3 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) worked equally when administered at 30 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. Antagonistic effects of ATI (1.5 mg/kg) were stronger than ATI (0.3 mg/kg) at 10 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. The anesthetic mixture is a useful drug to induce nearly the same anesthetic effects by different injection routes and has an antagonist of ATI which helps mice quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:25223384

  10. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats—strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  11. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    PubMed

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  12. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8–1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  13. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  14. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R S; Moreno, S R F; Lima-Filho, G L; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  15. A real-time spoken-language system for interactive problem-solving, combining linguistic and statistical technology for improved spoken language understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Cohen, Michael H.

    1993-09-01

    Under this effort, SRI has developed spoken-language technology for interactive problem solving, featuring real-time performance for up to several thousand word vocabularies, high semantic accuracy, habitability within the domain, and robustness to many sources of variability. Although the technology is suitable for many applications, efforts to date have focused on developing an Air Travel Information System (ATIS) prototype application. SRI's ATIS system has been evaluated in four ARPA benchmark evaluations, and has consistently been at or near the top in performance. These achievements are the result of SRI's technical progress in speech recognition, natural-language processing, and speech and natural-language integration.

  16. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  18. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  19. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; Edgar, Lauren A.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  20. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  1. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates. PMID:23470730

  2. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  4. Landscape evolution as evidence for climate change on Mars from orbital stereo DTMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, A. W.; Muller, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using high resolution stereo pairs (CTX) and stereo camera (HRSC) imagery sent back from Mars, it was found that Mamers Vallis, a fretted valley located at mid- latitudes, can be better understood with morphological and (crater) statistical analysis. Interpreted lateral moraines suggest a change in height of 200m on the valley floor south of a mound located at 37.85degN 16.90degE. Volumetric analyses show that the 32 km2 area near the mound lost ~6.4 billion cubic metres of water ice from sublimation. Until recently, the lack of surface coverage by high resolution (≤12.5m/pixel) instruments in orbit around Mars limited the age dating of young surfaces to small area statistics. In addition, a deficiency of Digital Terrain Models (DTM) of Mamers Vallis had not previously allowed for volumetric analyses of water ice loss. Using high resolution mosaics and a CTX DTM to examine glacial features and morphologies, we have shown that Mamers Vallis was affected by volatile migration in the Late Amazonian (37.7 to 288 Ma). The findings from these recent data add to the history of obliquity driven climate change and glacial migration on Mars.

  5. Fluvial drainage systems: Margaritifer Sinus and Agyre (NC, NE) quadrangles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1984-04-01

    Fluvial drainage systems, delineated by mapping on stereo pairs of Viking Orbiter images, have developed in various-sized basins in the Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19) and Agyre (MC-26) Quadrangles, Mars. The Ladon Valles system is the largest, draining into and through two multi-ringed impact basins. Smaller fluvial basins to the southeast of the Ladon structural basin appear to have internal drainage. An intermediate-scale fluvial basin containing Himera Vallis extends along a north-south axis at 22 W and opens northward toward outflow channels south of Margaritifer Chaos. Stereo-pair mapping was extended furhter to the east, in MC-19 Ne, Se, and MC-26 NE, to investigate sources of outflow to the Ares Vallis system. The direction of flow in the channel at the northeast quadrant of the Ladon Basin is unresolved at present because of the poor quality of images available to form stereo pairs. However, an easterly drainage basin boundary running north-south along longitude 9 W, and extending westward at latitude 32-35 S, encloses a series of longitudinal drainage systems. Both the Parana Valles-Loire Vallis system and the Samara Valles system appear to drain in a northwesterly direction. The Samara flows to the Himera drainage basin, and the Parana-Loire to the northeast Ladon channel area.

  6. Geomorphology and geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley types and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-04-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  7. An examination of along-track interferometry for detecting ground moving targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.; Chapin, Elaine; Muellerschoen, Ron; Hensley, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is an interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique primarily used to measure Earth-surface velocities. We present results from an airborne experiment demonstrating phenomenology specific to the context of observing discrete ground targets moving admidst a stationary clutter background.

  8. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Not Subject to This Part 1. Advance Technology Institute (ATI), Charleston, South Carolina 2... Technology/Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation/Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 12..., Illinois 14. Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois 15. Institute for Defense Analysis,...

  9. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  10. Evaluation of bursal depth as an indicator of age class of harlequin ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, D.D.; Esler, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We contrasted the estimated age class of recaptured Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) (n = 255) based on bursal depth with expected age class based on bursal depth at first capture and time since first capture. Although neither estimated nor expected ages can be assumed to be correct, rates of discrepancies between the two for within-year recaptures indicate sampling error, while between-year recaptures test assumptions about rates of bursal involution. Within-year, between-year, and overall discrepancy rates were 10%, 24%, and 18%, respectively. Most (86%) between-year discrepancies occurred for birds expected to be after-third-year (ATY) but estimated to be third-year (TY). Of these ATY-TY discrepancies, 22 of 25 (88%) birds had bursal depths of 2 or 3 mm. Further, five of six between-year recaptures that were known to be ATY but estimated to be TY had 2 mm bursas. Reclassifying birds with 2 or 3 mm bursas as ATY resulted in reduction in between-year (24% to 10%) and overall (18% to 11%) discrepancy rates. We conclude that age determination of Harlequin Ducks based on bursal depth, particularly using our modified criteria, is a relatively consistent and reliable technique.

  11. Attitudes and Achievement in Biology: An Investigation of the Effects of Student Attributes and Teaching Styles on Attitudes and Achievement in Secondary School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, John Hamilton

    Using a specially-constructed category system (CATS), biology lessons are analyzed for attribute-treatment interaction (ATI) and the data submitted to analysis. Relationships between fifteen individual predictors (general ability, four personality factors, two cognitive preferences, treatment, and seven first-order attribute-treatment…

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  13. 75 FR 4337 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information will... number. Forest Service Title: Agreement to Initiate (ATI) and Exchange Agreement (EA). OMB Control Number... between the Secretary of Agriculture (acting by and through the Forest Service) and a non-Federal...

  14. Vector Along-Track Interferometry for Ocean Current mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Imel, David; Madsen, Soren

    1996-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of measuring Along-Track Interferometric (ATI) vector ocean velocities using the azimuth beamwidth of the SAR antenna to obtain angular diversity, at the expense of spatial resolution. A simple model of the measurement is introduced for point targets and moving ocean surfaces to help interpret the velocity measurements.

  15. Apoptosis induced by ozone and oxysterols in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmider, Beata; Loader, Joan E.; Murphy, Robert C.; Mason, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of ozone-induced lung cell injury is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that ozone induces lipid peroxidation and that these peroxidased lipids produce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxysterols are lipid peroxide formed by the direct effect of ozone on pulmonary surfactant and cell membranes. We studied the effects of ozone and the oxysterol 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and its metabolite cholestan-6-oxo-3,5-diol (6-oxo-3,5-diol) on human alveolar epithelial type I-like cells (ATI-like cells) and type II cells (ATII cells). Ozone and oxysterols induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in ATI-like cells. They also generated reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Ozone and β-epoxide were strong inducers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) protein expressions. Furthermore, we found higher sensitivity of ATI-like cells than ATII cells exposed to ozone or treated with β-epoxide or 6-oxo-3,5-diol. In general the response to the cholesterol epoxides was similar to the effect of ozone. The importance of understanding the response of human ATI-like cells and ATII cells to oxysterols may be useful for further studies, because these compounds may represent useful biomarkers in other diseases. PMID:20219673

  16. Attitudes and Aptitude in Learning French. Research Bulletin No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, R. C.

    This address to school counselors discusses the role of aptitude and attitudes in learning French as a second language with attention to the senior elementary and high school levels. The Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) and the Attitude Motivation Inventory (ATI) were administered to students. The MLAT and abilities it is designed to assess…

  17. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  18. The Interaction of Cognitive Styles with Varying Levels of Feedback in Multimedia Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe

    1996-01-01

    Study of 105 Brunei secondary school students investigating interactive effects of feedback levels using aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) approach and cognitive styles (field dependent-independent (FDI) in multimedia presentations found differences between no feedback (NF) and knowledge of results (KOR), NF and elaborated feedback (EF), none…

  19. Motivational Factors and Predictors for Attending a Continuing Education Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachioni, Meire; Nascimento Ordonez, Tiago; Lima da Silva, Thais Bento; Tavares Batistoni, Samila Sathler; Sanches Yassuda, Mônica; Caldeira Melo, Ruth; Rodrigues da Costa Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Lopes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the stated motives of participants who enrolled in a program at the Open University for the Elderly (UnATI, in Portuguese), identify correlations between the stated motives and sociodemographic data, and find a set of predictors related to the listed motives. A total of 306 middle-aged and elderly adults aged 50 or…

  20. Women Empowerment through Access to Information: The Strategic Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyelude, Adetoun A.; Bamigbola, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been steady increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to improve their socioeconomic status to be able to cope and also contribute effectively in this period of economic crisis. ATI (access to information) provision is a vital factor in empowerment, thus, many organizations, such as library,…

  1. An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Approach to Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieft, Marleen; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we propose to link the study of writing-to-learn to the theory of aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI). In an experimental study we examined the effects of a course on ''Writing-to-learn about literary stories'' consisting of writing tasks adapted to either a planning or a revising writing strategy. We hypothesized that the…

  2. Aptitude-Treatment Interactions during Creativity Training in E-Learning: How Meaning-Making, Self-Regulation, and Knowledge Management Influence Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Lin, Chun Fu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs) is to find the interactions between treatments and learners' aptitudes and therefore to achieve optimal learning. This study aimed at understanding whether the aptitudes of meaning-making, self-regulation, and knowledge management (KM) would interact with the treatment of 17-week KM-based training…

  3. Interpersonal and Relational Orientation among Pre-Service Educators: Differential Effects on Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators' interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three…

  4. Educating Diverse Populations. Selected Papers. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    The papers in this document illustrate the need for educators to recognize the diverse populations they serve. Edmund W. Gordon and Stephanie Shipman discuss the confusion surrounding Aptitude/Treatment/Interaction (ATI) research and the educational equity controversy. They argue for educational programs which more appropriately address the…

  5. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  6. Asymmetry of above-threshold ionization of metal clusters in two-color laser fields: A time-dependent density-functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.S.; Bandrauk, A.D.; Ullrich, C.A.

    2004-06-01

    Above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of small metal clusters (e.g., Na{sub 4} and Na{sub 4}{sup +}) are calculated numerically using a spherical jellium model and time-dependent density functional theory for two-color (1064 and 532 nm) ultrashort (25 fs) laser pulses as a function of phase difference between the two fields. ATI spectra and ionized electron fluxes are obtained in the two opposite directions of the linearly polarized laser fields. The asymmetry, defined as the difference in electron yield, is shown to depend strongly on the carrier-envelope phase of the second-harmonic (2{omega}) field. The ATI spectra allow one to identify the range of kinetic energies of the ionized electrons where the asymmetry mainly occurs. Comparisons are made between calculations with and without self-interaction correction and also with previous exact numerical solutions of the one-electron systems H and H{sub 2}{sup +} [A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3562 (2000)] where such asymmetry effects had first been observed. We find that ATI spectra in the clusters generally have much longer energy plateaus than in previously studied one-electron systems, with cutoffs up to 30-40 times the ponderomotive energy U{sub p}. In high-harmonic generation spectra, on the other hand, no extended plateaus are observed.

  7. Pisum sativum wild-type and mutant stipules and those induced by an auxin transport inhibitor demonstrate the entire diversity of laminated stipules observed in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    About a quarter of angiosperm species are stipulate. They produce stipule pairs at stem nodes in association with leaves. Stipule morphology is treated as a species-specific characteristic. Many species bear stipules as laminated organs in a variety of configurations, including laterally free large foliaceous, small, or wholly leaf-like stipules, and as fused intrapetiolar, opposite, ochreate or interpetiolar stipules. In Pisum sativum, the wild-type and stipule-reduced and cochleata mutants are known to form free large, small, and leaf-like stipules, respectively. Auxin controls initiation and development of plant organs and perturbations in its availability and distribution in the meristems, caused by auxin transport inhibitor(s) (ATIs), lead to aberrations in leaf development. The effect(s) of ATI(s) on stipule development are unexplored. To study the effect of the ATI 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on stipule morphogenesis, P. sativum explants were grown in vitro in presence of a sublethal concentration of NPA. The NPA-treated shoots produced fused stipules of all the different types described in angiosperms. The observations indicate that (a) the gene sets for stipule differentiation may be common in angiosperms and (b) the interspecies stipule architectural differences are due to mutations, affecting gene expression or activity that got selected in the course of evolution. PMID:22456952

  8. Measurement of tidal current fields with SRTM along track interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, H.; Breit, H.; Eineder, M.; Flament, P.; Romeiser, R.

    2003-04-01

    Although the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, http://www.dfd.dlr.de/srtm/) SAR interferometer was designed to deliver Digital Elevation Models from across track interferometry it turned out that it contained also an Along Track Interferometer (ATI). The paper describes how the ATI can be used to determine the velocity of moving ground objects. These may be cars, trains and ships but the focus of the paper is on the measurement of fast tidal ocean surface currents. The big advantage of the SAR-ATI method over buoys is that the measurement covers a large area and "images" of surface currents can be obtained.The advatage over the well established altimeter measurements is the much higher geometrical resolution and that it works close to coasts and in river outflows. Finally, the advantages over coastal radars is that a spaceborne system can deliver data from round the world. In the paper the results from two test sites, near Brest in France and in the Dutch Waddenzee, will be presented. Comparisons of the SRTM current fields with available current models of these areas show both a very good agreement. The ATI-method will be used in future SAR missions like TerraSAR-X to provide high resolution current maps from many interesting parts of the world.

  9. Confidence in Their Own Ability: Postgraduate Early Childhood Students Examining Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores reflections of a group of postgraduate early childhood students in relation to their self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education. Participant self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education were measured using an adapted version of the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) and an adapted version of the…

  10. Teachers' Meanings: Transcending the Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' meanings regarding teaching have been of interest to researchers for the last two decades and in the higher education literature there is some consensus for the way in which these are represented. One procedure for investigating aspects related to teachers' meanings is the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) which was originally…

  11. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA.

  12. Access to Information and Freedom of Information Requests: Neglected Means of Data Production in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walby, Kevin; Larsen, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Access to information (ATI) and freedom of information (FOI) mechanisms are now relevant features of governments in many liberal democracies today. Citizens, organizations, and permanent residents in several countries across the globe can request unpublished information from federal, provincial, state, county, and municipal government agencies.…

  13. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects of Variations in Direct Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, Terence C.; Peterson, Penelope L.

    1981-01-01

    Two teachers each taught a 2-week fractions unit to two classes of grades 4-5 students. Each teacher taught one class using direct instruction and the other using a small-group variation of direct instruction. Regression analysis on achievement showed significant aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) and significant teacher effects. (Author/RL)

  14. The Influence of Direct Instruction on Student Self-appraisals: A Hierarchical Analysis of Treatment and Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Treatment and aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effects were assessed on grade 3 student self-appraisal data relating to self-esteem, attitude, anxiety, and locus of control. In particular, parent instruction in learning skills resulted in significantly higher average scores on student self-esteem and attitude and lower scores on anxiety.…

  15. The Approaches to Teaching Inventory: A Critique of Its Development and Applicability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan H. F.; Eley, Malcolm G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) is structured as two main scales, reflecting a teacher-centred information-transmission approach versus a student-centred conceptual-change approach, each subdivided into intention and strategy subscales. Its use in higher education investigations is increasing and, by default, it is assuming…

  16. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  17. Role of primary human alveolar epithelial cells in host defense against Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-08-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-kappaB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-kappaB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  18. Role of Primary Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Host Defense against Francisella tularensis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B.; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-κB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  19. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  20. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely correspond to the General Soil Map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils. Areas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also correspond well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model shows both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  1. Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mutze, Kathrin; Vierkotten, Sarah; Milosevic, Jadranka; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2) and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker), exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC), whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair. PMID:26035385

  2. Selection of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Cook, R. A.; Moore, H. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft will land on a depositional fan near the mouth of the catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis (19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W). This site offers the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types from the ancient cratered highlands, intermediate-age ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits. Analyses of these rocks by Pathfinder instruments will enable first-order scientific questions to be addressed, such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early environment, as well as their subsequent evolution on Mars. Constraints imposed by: (1) spacecraft and rover designs (which are robust), (2) entry, descent, and landing, (3) scientific potential at various sites, and (4) safety were important considerations in site selection. Engineering constraints require a 70 km by 200 km smooth, flat (low slopes) area located between 10 deg and 20 deg N that is below 0 km elevation, with average radar reflectivity, little dust, and moderate rock abundance. Three regions on Mars are between 10 deg and 20 deg N and below 0 km elevation: Chryse, Amazonis, and Isidis-Elysitun. Science considerations favor sites at the mouths of outflow channels (grab bag sites offer an assay of rock types on Mars), highland sites (early crustal differentiation and climate), and sites covered with dark (unoxidized) material. Sites are considered safe if they are clearly below 0 km elevation, appear acceptably free of hazards in high-resolution (less than 50 m/pixel) Viking orbiter images and have acceptable reflectivity and roughness at radar wavelengths, thermal inertia, rock abundance, red to violet ratio, and albedo. Recent 3.5-cm wavelength radar observations were used to verify elevation, reflectivity, and roughness within the landing ellipses. Three sites meet all of these criteria: Ares Vallis, Tritonis Lacus, and Isidis. Although Isidis appears to be safer than Tritonis and Ares, the greater scientific potential

  3. Mineralogical characterization of Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites from THEMIS and TES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2009-10-01

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments are used to assess the mineralogic and dust cover characteristics of landing regions proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Candidate regions examined in this study are Eberswalde crater, Gale crater, Holden crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, Nili Fossae Trough, and south Meridiani Planum. Compositional units identified in each region from TES and THEMIS data are distinguished by variations in hematite, olivine, pyroxene and high-silica phase abundance, whereas no units are distinguished by elevated phyllosilicate or sulfate abundance. Though phyllosilicate minerals have been identified in all sites using near-infrared observations, these minerals are not unambiguously detected using either TES spectral index or deconvolution analysis methods. For some of the sites, small phyllosilicate outcrop sizes relative to the TES field of view likely hinder phyllosilicate mineral detection. Porous texture and/or small particle size (<˜60 μm) associated with the phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces may also contribute to non-detections in the thermal infrared data sets, in some areas. However, in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, low phyllosilicate abundance (<10-20 areal %, depending on the phyllosilicate composition) is the most likely explanation for non-detection. TES data over Mawrth Vallis indicate that phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces also contain significant concentrations (>15%, possibly up to ˜40%) of a high-silica phase such as amorphous silica or zeolite. High-silica phase abundance over phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces in Mawrth Vallis is higher than that of surrounding surfaces by 10-15%. With the exception of these high-silica surfaces in Mawrth Vallis, regions examined in this study exhibit similar bulk mineralogical compositions to that of most low-albedo regions on Mars; the MSL scientific payload

  4. Selection of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Cook, R. A.; Moore, H. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1997-02-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft will land on a depositional fan near the mouth of the catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis (19.5°N, 32.8°W). This site offers the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types from the ancient cratered highlands, intermediate-age ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits. Analyses of these rocks by Pathfinder instruments will enable first-order scientific questions to be addressed, such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early environment, as well as their subsequent evolution on Mars. Constraints imposed by (1) spacecraft and rover designs (which are robust), (2) entry, descent, and landing, (3) scientific potential at various sites, and (4) safety were important considerations in site selection. Engineering constraints require a 70 km by 200 km smooth, flat (low slopes) area located between 10° and 20°N that is below 0 km elevation, with average radar reflectivity, little dust, and moderate rock abundance. Three regions on Mars are between 10° and 20°N and below 0 km elevation: Chryse, Amazonis, and Isidis-Elysium. Science considerations favor sites at the mouths of outflow channels (grab bag sites offer an assay of rock types on Mars), highland sites (early crustal differentiation and climate), and sites covered with dark (unoxidized) material. Sites are considered safe if they are clearly below 0 km elevation, appear acceptably free of hazards in high-resolution (<50m/pixel) Viking orbiter images and have acceptable reflectivity and roughness at radar wavelengths, thermal inertia, rock abundance, red to violet ratio, and albedo. Recent 3.5-cm wavelength radar observations were used to verify elevation, reflectivity, and roughness within the landing ellipses. Three sites meet all of these criteria: Ares Vallis, Tritonis Lacus, and Isidis. Although Isidis appears to be safer than Tritonis and Ares, the greater scientific potential at Ares Vallis resulted in

  5. Trickle Down Theories: A Comparison of Gullies in Three Regions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, E.; Gilmore, M.

    2001-12-01

    Gullies were identified in Mars Orbiting Camera (MOC) images, and have been attributed to flowing water (Malin&Edgett, Science 288). These gullies emanate directly from the ground and are visible in the walls of canyons and craters; thus the gullies are likely to be the result of groundwater. As on Earth, the depths of these gullies are likely controlled by the presence of an impermeable layer. Our goal is to examine the morphology and depth of the gullies to determine the nature of this controlling layer. Images from Hale Crater, Nirgal Vallis and Dao Vallis were compared, all of which contain gullies but are situated in different latitudes in the southern hemisphere and different geologic settings. The morphologies of these gullies were examined, especially the relationship between the alcove and the channel of the gullies to the surrounding rock layers exposed. Depths of the features in the images were calculated using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Once the MOLA profiles were identified and graphed, the profiles were mechanically manipulated using Photoshop to overlay the path the satellite would have scanned in the MOC image. If the small-scale features of the MOLA profile as well as the large-scale features could be correlated accurately, the match was considered a success. In the north wall of Nirgal Vallis, the majority of the gullies emanate consistently ~260+/-30 meters below the surface, with one image containing a gully with a depth of 640+/-10 meters. Dao Vallis shows a greater variation in gully depth than Nirgal Vallis, from as deep as 1131+/-63 meters below the surface to as shallow as 67+/-5 meters. Many of the Dao images contain multiple gullies with origins at different depths. Images from Hale Crater contain gullies both on the central peak and on the northern wall; the depths of these are variable and originate from near the surface to depths of 348+/-64 meters. In Nirgal Vallis, gullies that emanate from a consistent depth lie

  6. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  7. Development and validation of a homogeneous mobility shift assay for the measurement of infliximab and antibodies-to-infliximab levels in patient serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-Long; Ohrmund, Linda; Hauenstein, Scott; Salbato, Jared; Reddy, Rukmini; Monk, Patrick; Lockton, Steven; Ling, Nicholas; Singh, Sharat

    2012-08-31

    Antibody-based drugs such as infliximab (IFX) are effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other immune-mediated disorders. The development of antibodies against these drugs may result in unfavorable consequences, including the loss of drug efficacy, hypersensitivity reactions, and other adverse events. Therefore, accurate monitoring of serum drug and anti-drug antibody levels should be an important part of therapy for patients being treated with an antibody-based drug. Current methods for the assessment of anti-drug antibodies and drug levels, involving various bridging ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques, are limited by their sensitivity, interference, and/or complexity. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a non-radiolabeled homogeneous mobility shift assay (HMSA) to measure the antibodies-to-infliximab (ATI) and IFX levels in serum samples. Full method validation was performed on both the ATI- and IFX-HMSA, and the clinical sample test results were also compared with those obtained from a bridging ELISA method to evaluate the difference in performance between the two assays. Validation of the ATI-HMSA revealed a lower limit of quantitation of 0.012 μg/mL in serum. The linear range of quantitation was 0.029-0.54 μg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precision was less than 20% of coefficient of variation (CV), and the accuracy (% error) of the assay was less than 20%. In serum samples, ATI as low as 0.036 μg/mL can be measured, even in the presence of 60 μg/mL of IFX in the serum. Sera from 100 healthy subjects were tested to determine the cut point of the assay. ATI-positive samples that had been previously analyzed by using a bridging ELISA from 100 patients were also measured by the new method. There was a high correlation between the two methods for ATI levels (p<0.001). Significantly, the new method identified five false-positive samples from the bridging ELISA method. Validation of the mobility shift IFX assay also

  8. Pharmacodynamic Impact of Carboxylesterase 1 Gene Variants in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Treated with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Peter; Ferrero, Laura; Bjerre, Ditte; Bruun, Niels E.; Egfjord, Martin; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in the carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) may contribute to the efficacy of ACEIs. Accordingly, we examined the impact of CES1 variants on plasma angiotensin II (ATII)/angiotensin I (ATI) ratio in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) that underwent ACEI dose titrations. Five of these variants have previously been associated with drug response or increased CES1 expression, i.e., CES1 copy number variation, the variant of the duplicated CES1 gene with high transcriptional activity, rs71647871, rs2244613, and rs3815583. Additionally, nine variants, representatives of CES1Var, and three other CES1 variants were examined. Methods Patients with CHF, and clinical indication for ACEIs were categorized according to their CES1 genotype. Differences in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between genotype groups after ACEI dose titration, expressed as the least square mean (LSM) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were assessed by analysis of variance. Results A total of 200 patients were recruited and 127 patients (63.5%) completed the study. The mean duration of the CHF drug dose titration was 6.2 (SD 3.6) months. After ACEI dose titration, there was no difference in mean plasma ATII/ATI ratios between subjects with the investigated CES1 variants, and only one previously unexplored variation (rs2302722) qualified for further assessment. In the fully adjusted analysis of effects of rs2302722 on plasma ATII/ATI ratios, the difference in mean ATII/ATI ratio between the GG genotype and the minor allele carriers (GT and TT) was not significant, with a relative difference in LSMs of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43–1.07; P = 0.10). Results of analyses that only included enalapril-treated patients remained non-significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple parallel comparisons (difference in LSM 0.60 [95% CI 0.37–0.98], P = 0.045). Conclusion These findings indicate that the included single variants of CES1 do not significantly influence plasma ATII/ATI ratios in CHF

  9. Hydrographs of a Martian flood from the breach of Galilaei Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Neil M.

    2015-05-01

    Spectacular floods were spawned on Mars when large craters filled to overtopping and catastrophically breached. The wealth of data now available permits quantitative analysis of these ancient floods. Galilaei Crater is examined here, along with the likely sources of its water and the processes that formed Tana Vallis, its 1-km-deep outflow channel. Laser altimetry data, stereo-photogrammetry, and scaled images are used to reconstruct the lake volume and the geometry of the preserved breach. It is theorized that surface flows from Hydaspis Chaos eroded the rim and floor of Galilaei Crater and partly filled the basin, leading to degradation of the underlying cryosphere. Groundwater released from a confined aquifer then slowly filled Galilaei Crater until the enclosed lake overtopped its rim. The resulting flood breached the crater wall, rapidly drained the lake, and eroded Tana Vallis. The drainable lake volume was ≥ 1.110 × 1013 m3, based on laser altimetry data from Mars Global Surveyor. This volume was 90% of the volume in Lake Superior in the Great Lakes. Using the reconstructed breach and channel geometry, methods used to analyze terrestrial dam breaches were applied to produce hydrographs of lake stage and discharge. Peak flood discharge in Tana Vallis likely ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 × 107 m3 s- 1. Mean channel incision rates are estimated at 0.333, 0.133, and 0.0667 m min- 1 for scenarios in which Tana Vallis formed in 2, 5, and 10 days. For the 5-day breach erosion scenario, stream power per unit streambed area at the time of peak discharge was estimated at > 3.5 × 105 W m- 2. The volume of material eroded to form the vallis was only ~ 3% of the lake volume that drained in 5 days. Open-channel calculations were performed to compare with the dam breach hydrographs for Tana Vallis. The channel as seen today never flowed bank full or even at three-fourths its maximum depth because the implied flows would have exceeded peak discharges from the crater breach. I

  10. Transferring patients with Ebola by land and air: the British military experience.

    PubMed

    Ewington, Ian; Nicol, E; Adam, M; Cox, A T; Green, A D

    2016-06-01

    The Ebola epidemic of 2014/2015 led to a multinational response to control the disease outbreak. Assurance for British aid workers included provision of a robust treatment pathway including repatriation back to the UK. This pathway involved the use of both land and air assets to ensure that patients were transferred quickly, and safely, to a high-level isolation unit in the UK. Following a road move in Sierra Leone, an air transportable isolator (ATI) was used to transport patients for the flight and onward transfer to the Royal Free Hospital. There are several unique factors related to managing a patient with Ebola virus disease during prolonged evacuation, including the provision of care inside an ATI. These points are considered here along with an outline of the evacuation pathway. PMID:27177575

  11. Transferring patients with Ebola by land and air: the British military experience.

    PubMed

    Ewington, Ian; Nicol, E; Adam, M; Cox, A T; Green, A D

    2016-06-01

    The Ebola epidemic of 2014/2015 led to a multinational response to control the disease outbreak. Assurance for British aid workers included provision of a robust treatment pathway including repatriation back to the UK. This pathway involved the use of both land and air assets to ensure that patients were transferred quickly, and safely, to a high-level isolation unit in the UK. Following a road move in Sierra Leone, an air transportable isolator (ATI) was used to transport patients for the flight and onward transfer to the Royal Free Hospital. There are several unique factors related to managing a patient with Ebola virus disease during prolonged evacuation, including the provision of care inside an ATI. These points are considered here along with an outline of the evacuation pathway.

  12. Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.; Bucksbaum, P.H. Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa 02-668 Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics , Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 Physics Department and Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 )

    1995-02-01

    A generalized strong-field approximation is formulated to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. We apply it to determine angular distributions of electrons in above-threshold ionization (ATI). The theory treats the effects of an electron rescattering from its parent ion core in a systematic perturbation series. Probability amplitudes for ionization are interpreted in terms of quasiclassical electron trajectories. We demonstrate that contributions from the direct tunneling processes in the absence of rescattering are not sufficient to describe the observed ATI spectra. We show that the high-energy portion of the spectrum, including recently discovered rings (i.e., complex features in the angular distributions of outgoing electrons) are due to rescattering processes. We compare our quasiclassical results with exact numerical solutions.

  13. The advanced thermionics initiative. program update

    SciTech Connect

    Lamp, T.R.; Donovan, B.D. )

    1993-01-20

    The United States Air Force has had a long standing interest in thermionic space power dating back to the early 1960s when a heat pipe cooled thermionic converter was demonstrated through work at the predecessor to Wright Laboratory (WL). With the exception of the short hiatus in the mid-70s, Air Force thermionics work at Wright Laboratory has continued to the present time with thermionic technology programs including the burst power thermionic phase change concepts, heat pipe cooled planar diodes, and advanced in-core concept developments such as composite materials, insulators and oxygenation. The Advanced Thermionics Initiative (ATI) program was organized to integrate thermionic technology advances into a converter suitable for in-core reactor applications in the 10 to 40 kWe power range. As an advanced thermionics technology program, the charter and philosophy of the ATI program is to provide the needed advanced converter concepts in support of national thermionic space power programs.

  14. The advanced thermionics initiative...program update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Thomas R.; Donovan, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Air Force has had a long standing interest in thermionic space power dating back to the early 1960s when a heat pipe cooled thermionic converter was demonstrated through work at the predecessor to Wright Laboratory (WL). With the exception of the short hiatus in the mid-70s, Air Force thermionics work at Wright Laboratory has continued to the present time with thermionic technology programs including the burst power thermionic phase change concepts, heat pipe cooled planar diodes, and advanced in-core concept developments such as composite materials, insulators and oxygenation. The Advanced Thermionics Initiative (ATI) program was organized to integrate thermionic technology advances into a converter suitable for in-core reactor applications in the 10 to 40 kWe power range. As an advanced thermionics technology program, the charter and philosophy of the ATI program is to provide the needed advanced converter concepts in support of national thermionic space power programs.

  15. Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süßmann, F.; Zherebtsov, S.; Plenge, J.; Johnson, Nora G.; Kübel, M.; Sayler, A. M.; Mondes, V.; Graf, C.; Rühl, E.; Paulus, G. G.; Schmischke, D.; Swrschek, P.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-09-01

    High-speed, single-shot velocity-map imaging (VMI) is combined with carrier-envelope phase (CEP) tagging by a single-shot stereographic above-threshold ionization (ATI) phase-meter. The experimental setup provides a versatile tool for angle-resolved studies of the attosecond control of electrons in atoms, molecules, and nanostructures. Single-shot VMI at kHz repetition rate is realized with a highly sensitive megapixel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera omitting the need for additional image intensifiers. The developed camera software allows for efficient background suppression and the storage of up to 1024 events for each image in real time. The approach is demonstrated by measuring the CEP-dependence of the electron emission from ATI of Xe in strong (≈1013 W/cm2) near single-cycle (4 fs) laser fields. Efficient background signal suppression with the system is illustrated for the electron emission from SiO2 nanospheres.

  16. Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1Fo autoionizing state in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Martín, F.; Bachau, H.; Berry, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3P1 state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green’s-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L2 -integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L2 -integrable B -spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p Fo1 autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6eV . This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

  17. Assessing lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative training in couple and family therapy: establishing the validity of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Christi R; Carlson, Thomas S; Toomey, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI-F), which assesses faculty members' perceptions of the level of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative training that occurs in clinical programs. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI-F and three convergent validity items utilizing a sample of 117 faculty members from accredited family therapy programs. The findings provide empirical support for the relationship between including classroom content on LGB affirmative therapy and faculty members' beliefs about LGB individuals and relationships. Specifically, faculty members who report more positive beliefs about LGB clients appear to be more likely to include LGB affirmative therapy content in the courses they teach.

  18. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  19. Sequence and relative timing of large lakes in Gale crater (Mars) after the formation of Mount Sharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Parker, Tim; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Mangold, Nicolas; Lewis, Kevin; Newsom, Horton

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of lake levels in Gale crater is important to define the hydrologic and climatic history experienced by the sedimentary deposits found by Curiosity. We propose that there were at least three major lake stands within Gale, each persisted >1000 years, and all occurred after Mount Sharp reached close to its current topographic form. Deltaic deposits off the southern rim of Gale, derived from incision of Farah Vallis, and corresponding deposits off the southern flank of Mount Sharp define the highest lake level, which had a mean depth of 700 m. Canyons similar in form to Farah Vallis enter into craters and/or the crustal dichotomy near Gale from the south, suggesting that the highest lake was supplied by a large-scale flow system. The next lake level, established after a period of drying and rewetting, is defined by four deltaic features, three sourced from Mount Sharp and one from the western rim of Gale, as well as the termination of gullies around the northern rim of Gale. This second lake level had a mean depth of 300 m. The presence of the gullies suggests more locally sourced water. Lake levels then rose another 100 m, as evidenced by two deltaic deposits derived from the rim of Gale and the termination of a second set of gullies. Post-lake, reduced hydrologic activity continued, evidenced by a time of fan building (including Peace Vallis). The sequence of events suggests an episodic shift through time from relatively wet regional conditions to a drier environment with local runoff.

  20. Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Andrew C.; Hallsworth, Claire

    1994-05-01

    The composition of heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones may be heavily influenced by processes operating during transport, deposition and diagenesis. As a consequence, conventional heavy mineral data may not be a reliable guide to the nature of sediment source material. Certain features of heavy mineral suites, however, are inherited directly from the source area without significant modification, such as the varietal characteristics of individual mineral species. This paper describes an alternative approach to varietal studies that concentrates on relative abundances of minerals that are stable during diagenesis and have similar hydraulic behaviour. Ratios of apatite to tourmaline, TiO 2 minerals to zircon, monazite to zircon, and chrome spinel to zircon provide a good reflection of the source rock characteristics, because they are comparatively immune to alteration during the sedimentary cycle. These ratios are described as index values (ATi, RZi, MZi and CZi, respectively). This approach avoids some of the practical problems associated with varietal studies, such as the need to make subjective decisions about mineral properties or to use advanced analytical techniques that may not be accessible to the analyst. It also makes use of more components of the heavy mineral suite and thus provides a more balanced view of provenance characteristics. The use of these ratios is illustrated with examples from Upper Jurassic sandstones in the Outer Moray Firth area of the UK continental shelf and Triassic sandstones from onshore and offshore UK. Heavy mineral indices, notably ATi and MZi, show marked variations in Upper Jurassic Piper sandstones of the Outer Moray Firth. Main Piper sandstones have lower ATi and MZi values compared with Supra Piper sandstones, indicating significant stratigraphic evolution of provenance. The UK Triassic shows major regional variations in a number of index values, including ATi, MZi and CZi, demonstrating that sediment was supplied from

  1. Comparison of two techniques for selection of master gutta-percha cone using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, João Manoel; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; De-Bem, Samuel Henrique Câmara; Alfredo, Edson; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2013-01-01

    This study used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the fit of the master gutta-percha cone at time of cone fit, gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and the filling material volume in relation to the canal at the apical limit of the working length. Root canals of 20 maxillary central incisors were prepared with rotary instruments and distributed into two groups (n=10). The gutta-percha cone tip was either plasticized (apical thermal impression technique - ATI) or not (conventional technique - CT), and its apical fit was checked. The apical 1 mm of working length was examined with a micro-CT, canals were filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and new micro-CT scans were obtained. In CT, gutta-percha filled 35.83 ± 15.05% of the canal at cone selection and 38.72 ± 11.64% after filling. In ATI, these values were 23.14 ± 7.74% and 26.98 ± 20.40%, respectively. Gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and filling material volume in relation to the canal were, respectively, 61.28 ± 11.64% and 87.76 ± 9.98% for CT, and 73.00 ± 20.41% and 89.96 ± 9.08% for ATI. No significant difference was found between cone selection and after canal filling, for either CT (p=0.593) or ATI (p=0.4975). The techniques did not differ significantly with respect to gutta-percha volume in the filling material (p=0.132) and filling material volume in relation to the canal (p=0.612). An ideal fit of the master gutta-percha cone at working length was not achieved regardless of the cone selection technique, and the material-filled area was similar for both techniques.

  2. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  3. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  4. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3' end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  5. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health.

  6. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  7. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health. PMID:26520058

  8. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K.; Lieu, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  9. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  10. The effects of dune slopes and material heterogeneity on the thermal behavior of dune fields in Mars' Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, P. M.; Putzig, N. E.; Van Kooten, S.; Fenton, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the effects of slopes on the thermal properties of three dune fields in Mars' southern hemisphere. Although slope has important thermal effects, it is not the main driver of observed apparent thermal inertia (ATI) for these dunes. Comparing the ATI seasonal behavior as derived from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data with that modeled for compositional heterogeneities, we found that TES results correlate best with models of duricrust overlying and/or horizontally mixing with fines. We measured slopes and aspects in digital terrain models created from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of dunes within Proctor, Kaiser, and Wirtz craters. Using the MARSTHERM web toolset, we incorporated the slopes and aspects together with TES albedo, TES thermal inertia, surface pressure, and TES dust opacity, into models of seasonal ATI. Models that incorporate sub-pixel slopes show seasonal day and night ATI values that differ from the TES results by 0-300 J m-2 K-1 s-½. In addition, the models' day-night differences are opposite in sign from those of the TES results, indicating that factors other than slope are involved. We therefore compared the TES data to model results for a broad range of horizontally mixed and two-layered surfaces to seek other possible controls on the observed data, finding that a surface layer of higher thermal inertia is a likely contributor. However, it is clear from this study that the overall composition and morphology of the dune fields are more complex than currently available models allow. Future work will combine slopes with other model parameters such as multi-layered surfaces and lateral changes in layer thickness. Coupling these improvements with broader seasonal coverage from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) at more thermally favorable times of day would allow more accurate characterization of dune thermal behavior.

  11. Constructive inter-track interference (CITI) codes for perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Davey, Paul J.; Kurihara, Yoshitake

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents new modulation codes to reduce the effect of adjacent track interference (ATI) also known as inter-track interference (ITI). New modulation codes, that is constructive inter-track interference (CITI) codes and partial response (PR) targets, are investigated using computer simulation in perpendicular magnetic channel. CITI codes have been found to increase the resilience of the perpendicular magnetic channel in the presence of ITI and jitter with no increased decoding complexity.

  12. Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Irwin, R. P., III; Wilson, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping in Margaritifer Terra (Fig. 1) yields important new information regarding the inventory, sources, and sinks of water during the Noachian and early Hesperian on Mars [1-7]. Drainage in southwest Margaritifer Terra is dominated by the segmented Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) meso-scale outflow system that traverses northward along the southwestern flank of the Chryse trough [4-9]. Mapping of lower Uzboi Vallis through Ladon basin highlights the extent and complexity of sedimentary deposits associated with the ULM system [5-13].

  13. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  14. Granodiorite and alkaline suite at Gale crater: continental crust on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Fabre, C.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P.; Rapin, W.; Fisk, M.; Le Deit, L.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Stolper, E.; Beck, P.; Wray, J.; Bridges, J. C.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of felsic igneous float rocks ranging from granodiorite to trachy andesite and trachyte during the first part of the traverse up to sol 550. They are the first in-situ evidence of low density early Noachian crust on Mars, sampled by Peace Vallis river cross-cutting the crater wall over a 2-3km thick vertical section, below the basaltic regolite.

  15. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  16. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  17. Mineral abundances at the final four curiosity study sites and implications for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Carter, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Loizeau, D.; Murchie, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    A component of the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) involved the presence of phyllosilicates as the main astrobiological targets. Gale crater was selected as the MSL landing site from among 4 down selected study sites (Gale, Eberswalde and Holden craters, Mawrth Vallis) that addressed the primary scientific goal of assessing the past habitability of Mars. A key constraint on the formation process of these phyllosilicate-bearing deposits is in the precise mineralogical composition. We present a reassessment of the mineralogy of the sites combined with a determination of the modal mineralogy of the major phyllosilicate-bearing deposits of the four final study sites from the modeling of near-infrared spectra using a radiative transfer model. The largest abundance of phyllosilicates (30-70%) is found in Mawrth Vallis, the lowest one in Eberswalde (<25%). Except for Mawrth Vallis, the anhydrous phases (plagioclase, pyroxenes and martian dust) are the dominant phases, suggesting formation conditions with a lower alteration grade and/or a post-formation mixing with anhydrous phases. The composition of Holden layered deposits (mixture of saponite and micas with a total abundance in the range of 25-45%) suggests transport and deposition of altered basalts of the Noachian crust without major chemical transformation. For Eberswalde, the modal mineralogy is also consistent with detrital clays, but the presence of opaline silica indicates that an authigenic formation occurred during the deposition. The overall composition including approximately 20-30% smectite detected by MSL in the rocks of Yellow-knife Bay area interpreted to be material deposited on the floor of Gale crater by channels (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/news/msl20130312.html) is consistent with the compositions modeled for the Eberswalde and Holden deltaic rocks. At Gale, the paucity, the small diversity and the low abundance of nontronite do not favor a complex and

  18. Treatises on the paleohydrology of Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Justin Claus

    2002-10-01

    A paleotopographic reconstruction has revealed the potential existence of an ancient enormous drainage basin and productive regional aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region. The basin model addresses a fundamental question in martian paleohydrology: Where did the massive amount of water required to carve the catastrophic outflow channels come from? These gigantic channels are typified in the recently discovered northwestern slope valleys (NSVs). The paleohydrologic implications for the NSVs are enormous, as they represent: (1)previously undocumented Noachian and early Hesperian martian catastrophic floods, (2)a watershed to the northwest of Tharsis, possibly related to the early development of the circum-Chryse system of outflow channels, a watershed to the northeast that records flooding as recent as the early Amazonian, and (3)a potential source of water for a northern plains ocean and/or paleolakes. In addition to catastrophic outflows, Hesperian and Amazonian hydrological activity resulted in the formation of sapping valleys, such as Abus Vallis. An investigation of Wet Beaver Creek, Arizona, revealed geological, hydrogeological, and geomorphic similarities between Wet Beaver Creek and Abus Vallis, Mars. As such, one may infer lithological and hydrological similarities as well. Wet Beaver Creek represents geological and climatological conditions that result in rapid, sometimes dynamic, formation of sapping channels. Sapping channels that occur along the highland-lowland boundary scarp, such as Abus Vallis, may now also be explained in terms of rapid formation during short-term periods of global climatic change, as well as by hypersaline aquifers and hydrothermal processes. The dark slope streaks on Mars may represent yet another type of hydrogeomorphic process, different from the NSVs and Abus Vallis. In light of Mars Global Surveyor-based geographic, geologic, and morphologic considerations, spring discharge is a viable explanation for the

  19. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  20. Developing a Reflective Practitioner Through the Connection Between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-02-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's (Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques. State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; Peabody J Educ 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in performing and guiding educational research, and existing research in the field of teacher education pertaining to reflective practitioners, explicit connections are made between the two paradigms. These connections illustrate the importance of integrating authentic research experiences into the teacher education curriculum outside the context of methods courses, much like models established in the sciences.

  1. The new Martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I. K.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Sagan, C.; Blunck, J.; Kuiper, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters generally of diameters greater than 100 km have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named feature are displayed.

  2. View of Florence, Italy area from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Florence, Italy area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The view extends from the Ligurian Sea, an extension of the Mediterranian Sea, across the Apennine Mountians to the Po River Vally. Florence (Firenze) is near the center of the land mass. The mouth of the Arno River is at the center of the coastline. The city of Leghorn (Livorno) is on the coast just south of the Arno River. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film.

  3. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  4. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  5. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  6. Be aware of the Adjusted Treatment Index.

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    The authors of the interim report relating to the Review of Operational Productivity in NHS providers, published in June of this year, are, as many will know, developing a set of Adjusted Treatment Index (ATI) metrics, and are also to publish a model of their interpretation of what an estates department should look like in terms of its operational productivity and cost. This article argues that the underlying reason for the past failures was the creation of static 'point-value' metrics similar to the ATIs proposed, and that this can only be overcome by designing and populating a series of non-linear dynamic simulation models with feedback control of an organisation's estate in relation to its asset base and condition with respect to time, together with the resultant financial capital and revenue consequences. It concludes by calling on IHEEM's Council to urgently make representation to the authors of the June 2015 report, and suggests that the Institute's members be fully involved in the design, testing, and interpretation, of the estates model and ATIs. IHEEM's Technology Platforms are ideally placed to play a central role in this. PMID:26750025

  7. [Acid phosphatase of leukocytes in patients with diffuse toxic goiter in evaluating the stage of the disease].

    PubMed

    Vaiuta, N P; Livshits, A Kh; Mendeleev, I M

    1987-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (AP) of lymphocytes and neutrophils was examined cytochemically in 23 patients with associated diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) and thyrotoxicosis during thiamazol treatment, in 20 persons with a DTG remission, and in 5 patients with postradiation and postoperative hypothyroses. AP activity with multiple-granule distribution of the enzyme was high in the majority of the patients with thyrotoxicosis, decreasing with thiamazol treatment. Thyrotoxicosis recurred in 4 out of 11 patients whose lymphocytes had an increased amount of AP during a DTG remission. In 9 patients with normal AP content, no relapses were noted during a DTG remission. Two patients with iatrogenic hypothyroses associated with high lymphocytic AP activity manifested elevated titres of antithyroglobulin immunoglobulins (ATI). In 3 patients with normal content of cellular AP, the ATI titre was low. Cellular AP, a non-specific marker of immunogenesis activity, makes it possible to presumably differentiate the stages of DTG and to evaluate to a definite degree the character of a remission. The preserved high activity of lymphocytic AP in patients with a DTG remission is a prognostically unfavourable factor as regards thyrotoxicosis relapses. The high titre of ATI and activity of lymphocytic AP attest to the predominant autoimmune component of such hypothyroses in part of DTG patients. The authors stress that such patients should receive combined thyroid and glucocorticoid therapy.

  8. Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Following Pediatric Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Psycho-Educational Intervention for Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Li, Yimei; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study objective is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a web-based intervention for parents (AfterTheInjury.org [ATI]) in promoting emotional recovery following pediatric injury. Methods 100 children with injuries requiring medical attention and their parents were randomly assigned to the intervention or usual care. Efficacy outcomes included parent knowledge and child and parent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Results All parents in the intervention group completed the intervention (directed use of ATI) in the hospital. 56% reported using ATI online post-discharge, and 100% of these parents found it helpful. Parent knowledge increased immediately post-intervention, but there was no significant intervention impact on parent knowledge or PTSS at a 6-week follow-up. Relationships between knowledge and PTSS were identified. Conclusions Brief web-based interventions introduced during child hospitalization are a feasible strategy to reach many parents following pediatric injury. Preventing psychological symptoms may require more than parental education alone. PMID:23912164

  9. The isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation adopt similar conformation in the selectivity filter in TREK-2.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Zhuo; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2015-12-01

    TREK-2 (TWIK-related K(+) channel-2), a member of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, tunes cellular excitability via conducting leak or background currents. In TREK-2, the isoforms generated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) mechanism exhibit large divergence in unitary conductance, but similar in selectivity to K(+). Up to now, the structural basis for this similarity in ion selectivity is unknown. Here, we report that externally applied Ba(2+) inhibits the currents of TREK-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The blocking effect is blunted by elevated extracellular K(+) or mutation of S4 K(+) binding site, which suggests that the inhibitory mechanism of Ba(2+) is due to its competitive docking properties within the selectivity filter (SF). Next, we demonstrate that all the ATI isoforms exhibit analogous behaviors upon the application of Ba(2+) and alteration of extracellular pH (pHo), which acts on the outer position of the SF. These results strongly support the notion that all the ATI isoforms of TREK-2 possess resembled SF conformation in S4 site and the position defined by pHo, which implicates that neither the role of N-terminus (Nt) nor the unitary conductance is associated with SF conformation. Our findings might help to understand the detail gating mechanism of TREK-2 and K2P channels. PMID:26271386

  10. Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Milosevic, D. B.

    2013-04-15

    Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salieres et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)]. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

  11. Breaking the In Vitro Alveolar Type II Cell Proliferation Barrier while Retaining Ion Transport Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hong; Cheluvaraju, Chaitra; Jones, Lisa C.; Liu, Xuefeng; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Schlegel, Richard; Boucher, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar type (AT)I and ATII cells are central to maintaining normal alveolar fluid homeostasis. When disrupted, they contribute to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Research on ATII cells has been limited by the inability to propagate primary cells in vitro to study their specific functional properties. Moreover, primary ATII cells in vitro quickly transdifferentiate into nonproliferative “ATI-like” cells under traditional culture conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that normal and tumor cells grown in culture with a combination of fibroblast (feeder cells) and a pharmacological Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) exhibit indefinite cell proliferation that resembled a “conditionally reprogrammed cell” phenotype. Using this coculture system, we found that primary human ATII cells (1) proliferated at an exponential rate, (2) established epithelial colonies expressing ATII-specific and “ATI-like” mRNA and proteins after serial passage, (3) up-regulated genes important in cell proliferation and migration, and (4) on removal of feeder cells and Rho kinase inhibitor under air–liquid interface conditions, exhibited bioelectric and volume transport characteristics similar to freshly cultured ATII cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that this novel coculture technique breaks the in vitro ATII cell proliferation barrier while retaining cell-specific functional properties. This work will allow for a significant increase in studies designed to elucidate ATII cell function with the goal of accelerating the development of novel therapies for alveolar diseases. PMID:24191670

  12. Intensity dependence of nonsequential double ionization of helium in IR+XUV two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Facheng; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yujun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Wang, Bingbing

    2016-10-01

    By applying the frequency-domain theory, we investigate the dependence of momentum spectra on laser intensity in a nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of helium in infrared (IR) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) two-color laser fields. We find that the two-color laser fields play distinct roles in an NSDI process, where the IR laser field mainly determines the width of each band, and the XUV laser field mainly plays a role on the NSDI probability. Furthermore, an NSDI process can be decoupled into a two-step process: an above-threshold ionization (ATI), followed by a laser-assisted collision (LAC). It is found that, the IR laser field is responsible for broadening the peak in the ATI process and providing additional momenta to the two ionized electrons in the LAC process; while the XUV laser field plays a crucial role on the strength of the spectrum in the ATI process, and influences the radii of orbits in momentum space in the LAC process.

  13. Utility of Iron Staining in Identifying the Cause of Renal Allograft Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingchun; Doshi, Mona; Khan, Salman; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ping L

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is associated with iron/heme deposition in proximal renal tubules and related acute tubular injury (ATI). Here we report the utility of iron staining in differentiating causes of renal allograft dysfunction in patients with a history of sickle cell disease. Case 1: the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction two years after renal transplant. Her renal biopsy showed ATI, supported by patchy loss of brush border and positive staining of kidney injury molecule-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells, where diffuse increase in iron staining (2+) was present. This indicated that ATI likely resulted from iron/heme toxicity to proximal tubules. Electron microscope confirmed aggregated sickle RBCs in glomeruli, indicating a recurrent SCN. Case 2: four years after renal transplant, the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction and became positive for serum donor-specific antibody. His renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and diffuse positive C4d stain in peritubular capillaries. Iron staining was negative in the renal tubules, implying that TMA was likely associated with acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR, type 2) rather than recurrent SCN. These case reports imply that iron staining is an inexpensive but effective method in distinguishing SCN-associated renal injury in allograft kidney from other etiologies. PMID:26697257

  14. Remote sensing of the mountain cryosphere using texture filters and apparent thermal inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenning, A.; Fieguth, P.; Long, S.; Peña, M. A.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers on Earth, and analog landforms on Mars, constitute hidden water resources and components of the cryosphere that are difficult to map or characterize using remote sensors. We utilize two innovative approaches in this field, (1) texture filters and (2) thermal features, in particular apparent thermal inertia (ATI), in order to investigate ice-debris landforms and in particular rock glaciers in the semi-arid Andes. Even though the ridge-and-furrow surface patterns are probably the most characteristic morphological features of rock glaciers, our study is the first to apply texture filters to the problem of remotely-sensed rock glacier detection. Gabor filters are designed to detect zebra-like patterns and are therefore an obvious choice for this study. Texture features derived from a Gabor filterbank were calculated from panchromatic IKONOS orthoimagery and used to discriminate rock glacier and other debris surfaces utilizing four classification methods of varying complexity: generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM), support vector machine (SVM), and tree ensembles (Bundling). Bundling outperformed the other methods in most situations studied, achieving an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 0.72-0.80 in different spatial cross-validation scenarios. This study focused on a narrow area of interest that cannot be easily identified as non-rock glacier area based on topographic criteria, and therefore significantly better results are expected in practical mapping situations in combination with terrain attributes as predictors. Thermal remote sensing has been of limited use in mountain cryospheric studies. In addition to land surface temperature (LST), ATI is of particular interest in this context. Thermal inertia is a single thermophysical material property that determines the amplitude of temperature variations at the surface of a periodically heated half-space, and shows promise in discriminating different

  15. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  16. Columbia Hills, Mars: Aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Whelley, P.L.; Neakrase, L.D.V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bridges, N.T.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Di, K.; Foley, D.J.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K.; Knudson, A.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Li, R.; Michaels, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places, into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim. Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Columbia Hills, Mars: aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Whelley, Patrick L.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Di, Kaichang; Foley, Daniel J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knudson, Amy; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Li, Ron; Michaels, Timothy; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Thompson, Shane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts.

  18. Complex depositional systems in Hydraotes Chaos, Mars: An example of sedimentary process interactions in the Martian hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, Gian Gabriele; Mosangini, Claudia

    1998-09-01

    Hydraotes Chaos is a complex basin located between the equatorial areas of chasma, east of Valles Marineris and the Chryse basin. The interactions in time and space of several sedimentary processes dominate the geological history of the chaos. The basin formed after the middle Noachian. The outflow channels related to the chaos probably flowed, during an early stage, to the south (Hydraotes channel) and to the north (Simud and Tiu Valles). After the capture of the southern Hydraotes channel by the chasma areas, the floods reversed direction and flowed northward into Hydraotes Chaos. Deltaic and lacustrine environments formed at this stage. The main consequence of the filling of the basin was the activation of Tiu Vallis. This scenario probably occurred intermittently several times during favorable climatic conditions. During these periods the water was liquid at the surface or, at least, with a frozen top layer. The major pieces of evidence for lacustrine sedimentation are: (1) terraces, (2) multiple strandlines and raised beaches, and (3) sediment drape on the basin floor. Hydraotes Chaos was the transition from the chasma areas next to Valles Marineris and the Chryse Basin. Its geological setting suggests that the water was released to Tiu Vallis episodically (during a large span of time, upper Noachian to middle Amazonian) from lakes.

  19. Sediment History Preserved in Gale Crater Central Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    While many of the layered outcrops in craters and chasms on Mars are seen as stair-stepped series of cliffs and benches composed of similar materials with similar thicknesses, other layer outcrops are expressed on relatively smooth, rounded slopes as alternating light and dark bands. The best example of this variety of layered sedimentary material is found in southern Holden Crater. Holden is located at 26.5oS, 33.9oW, and has a diameter of 141 km (88 mi). The context picture above, shows that a valley, Uzboi Vallis, enters the crater on its southwestern side. Not too far from where Uzboi Vallis meets Holden Crater, rounded slopes and buttes consisting of alternating light and dark bands are seen. The origin of these layers is not known, but like those found in other craters on Mars, they might have resulted from deposition of sediment in a lake that would have occupied Holden Crater. Alternatively, these are materials deposited by falling out of the air, the same way that volcanic ash is deposited on Earth. The Viking mosaic (above) images are illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The MOC image (top left) is illuminated from the upper left. North is up.

  20. Geotourism, as a new approuch to expeloit geomorphical and geological attractions of mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, M.; Arezoo, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tourism is an industorial with cultural and social relationship beside minimal Enviromental contamination with income and economic scale that now is very important. Natural attractive places of each country have a famous role in absorbing & attracting the tourism. Iran is one of country with natural attractive & specific places that with historical civil that can use to attract the torism. Ecotouris is tourist that without damaging enviroment travels in nature. Some of tourist travel to see the science appearance and have scientific view. In adjacent of Hamdan and in SW of it there are place that in addiation to historical and cultural attractive has natural unique attractive so can absorb each Ecotourist. In Geologic & Geographic view this area is specific that can attract each Ecotourist that like natural science.This zone is reflecting of adjacent between,urban,rorul,tribial life & Metamophism,Magmatism , partial Melting , faulting and folding of layers. The new and famous researches carry out in thise area have suitable data with adjacent to Hamadan,Alvand Elevation,suitable way for claiming , security, Abundant water,agricultur greenvisage in this area that have cause to this place be a important &attractive place for Ecotourist & place for build a station,specially for Geotourism goals. valleys (case study Simin vally , south a Hamedan) Key words : Ecotourism , Geotourism , Simin Vally , igneous and Metamorphic Rocks , Migmati

  1. Mineral Mapping of High Priority Landing Sites for MSL and Beyond Using Mars Express OMEGA and HRSC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Bibring, J.; Poulet, F.; Mangold, N.; Loizeau, D.; Hauber, E.; Altieri, F.; Carrozzo, G.

    2008-12-01

    High priority candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission have been proposed by various researchers, their significance based largely on spectroscopic and geomorphic evidence for aqueous processes. Specifically, seven candidate landing sites are under consideration for MSL at the time of this writing: Mawrth Vallis, Nili Fossae, southern Meridiani Planum, Eberswalde Crater, Holden Crater, Gale Crater, and Miyamoto Crater. While only one of these sites can be visited by MSL, the other sites remain among the most compelling localities on Mars for future in-situ exploration by ESA's ExoMars mission or an international Mars sample return mission. We have produced regional scale mineral maps of these sites using data from the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA). Visible images from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) are used as a map base. OMEGA infrared band parameters are used to identify and map pyroxene, olivine, oxides, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and other hydrated phases. OMEGA visible channel data also provide color information, which gives an estimate of dust cover and additional insights into the mineralogy of altered deposits. The dustiest site is Gale Crater and the least dusty is Nili Fossae. The strongest signature of phyllosilicates occurs in Mawrth Vallis, followed by Nili Fossae. However, Nili Fossae also has some of the strongest olivine signatures on the planet. One fundamental difference between the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis sites is that in Mawrth Vallis, phyllosilicate-bearing, light-toned rocks contain no evidence for primary phases in OMEGA data, but in the Nili Fossae area, phyllosilicates, olivine, and pyroxene are mixed at the subpixel level. South Meridiani Planum shows hydrated plains in contact with ancient, pyroxene-bearing, slightly altered, older bedrock. Patchy deposits of phyllosilicates are found in Miyamoto Crater, but their geologic context is

  2. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  3. Polypharmacology within CXCR4: Multiple binding sites and allosteric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Jesús M.; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I.; Borrell, José I.; Teixidó, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    CXCR4 is a promiscuous receptor, which binds multiple diverse ligands. As usual in promiscuous proteins, CXCR4 has a large binding site, with multiple subsites, and high flexibility. Hence, it is not surprising that it is involved in the phenomenon of allosteric modulation. However, incomplete knowledge of allosteric ligand-binding sites has hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. For example, it is known that lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops, so called pepducins, such as pepducin ATI-2341, modulate CXCR4 activity using an agonist allosteric mechanism. Nevertheless, there are also examples of small organic molecules, such as AMD11070 and GSK812397, which may act as antagonist allosteric modulators. Here, we give new insights into this issue by proposing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose that CXCR4 has minimum two topographically different allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site would be in the intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) where pepducin ATI-2341 would bind to CXCR4, and the second one, in the extracellular side of CXCR4 in a subsite into the main orthosteric binding pocket, delimited by extracellular loops n° 1, 2, and the N-terminal end, where antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397 would bind. Prediction of allosteric interactions between CXCR4 and pepducin ATI-2341 were studied first by rotational blind docking to determine the main binding region and a subsequent refinement of the best pose was performed using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamics. For the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites of the identified binding region was performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 (agonists and antagonists) allosteric

  4. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  5. Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

  6. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  7. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  8. Infection of mice with influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus alters alveolar type II cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Christian C.; Woods, Parker S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease of great importance to public health. Alveolar type II (ATII) respiratory epithelial cells are central to normal lung function and are a site of influenza A virus replication in the distal lung. However, the consequences of infection for ATII cell function are poorly understood. To determine the impact of influenza infection on ATII cells we used C57BL/6-congenic SP-CGFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the surfactant protein-C (SP-C) promoter, which is only active in ATII cells. Most cells isolated from the lungs of uninfected SP-CGFP mice were GFP+ but did not express the alveolar type I (ATI) antigen podoplanin (PODO). ATII cells were also EpCAM+ and α2,3-linked sialosaccharide+. Infection with influenza A/WSN/33 virus caused severe hypoxemia and pulmonary edema. This was accompanied by loss of whole lung GFP fluorescence, reduced ATII cell yields, increased ATII cell apoptosis, reduced SP-C gene and protein expression in ATII cell lysates, and increased PODO gene and protein levels. Flow cytometry indicated that infection decreased GFP+/PODO− cells and increased GFP−/PODO+ and GFP−/PODO− cells. Very few GFP+/PODO+ cells were detectable. Finally, infection resulted in a significant decline in EpCAM expression by PODO+ cells, but had limited effects on α2,3-linked sialosaccharides. Our findings indicate that influenza infection results in a progressive differentiation of ATII cells into ATI-like cells, possibly via an SP-C−/PODO− intermediate, to replace dying or dead ATI cells. However, impaired SP-C synthesis is likely to contribute significantly to reduced lung compliance in infected mice. PMID:25595651

  9. A New Method for High-Resolution Apparent Thermal Inertia Mapping of Mars: Application to Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, M.; Mège, D.; Gurgurewicz, J.; Ciążela, J.

    2014-12-01

    The minerals absorb and reflect thermal infrared (TIR) light of the different wavelengths depending on their composition and structure. Thus, every rock absorbs and reflects different wavelengths in TIR and has its own spectral signature. The TIR images are used in the thermal inertia mapping and in its approximation called apparent thermal inertia (ATI). We present the methodology and the high-resolution apparent thermal inertia maps for selected parts of Valles Marineris (Mars). ATI was calculated from surface albedo (A) and diurnal temperature difference (∆T) following the equation: ATI = (1 - A) / ∆T. Albedo was computed by dividing reflected radiation (IR) by incident radiation (II): A = IR / II. After introducing: II = F • cosIA, where F stands for solar constant and IA for incident angle (°), it develops to: A = IR / (F • cosIA). This formula allows us to calculate A on a horizontal surface. Calculating A on an inclined surface requires corrections of IA against relief characteristics (slopes, aspects): IAC = (IA - arctan(tans • cos(e + t • 15° - 180°))), where s is slope (°), e - aspect (°) and t - local solar time (h). A correction was made also for ∆T. The calibration process was more complex because it involved changes in incident radiation (II) over a given time interval (∆T = T13:00 - T6:00). II is a function of: Martian tilt, eccentricity, perihelium longitude, solar longitude (Ls, in °), latitude (φ, in °), local solar time and relief characteristics. Total II, integrated over the time interval, can be calculated following the equation [1]. The results were compared to the existing thermal inertia maps of Mars.

  10. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal

  11. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  12. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  13. Octreotide acetate decreases pancreatic complications after pancreatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Amirata, E; Livingston, D H; Elcavage, J

    1994-10-01

    Octreotide acetate (Sandostatin) has been reported to decrease pancreatic related morbidity after pancreatic resections. This study examined the use of octreotide after pancreatic trauma. The charts of all patients treated for pancreatic injuries from June 1988 to February 1992 were reviewed (n = 28). The mean age of the patients was 29 years (range 16 to 61). The mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident in 7 patients, gunshot wounds in 14, and stab wounds in 7. The mean (+/- SD) abdominal trauma index (ATI) was 33 +/- 14 and injury severity score (ISS) was 22 +/- 12. Pancreatic injuries were graded as grade I (contusion) in 6 patients, grade II (parenchymal injury) in 18, and grade III (ductal injury) in 4. Seven patients (6 grade II and 1 grade III) were treated with prophylactic octreotide acetate, 150 micrograms to 300 micrograms per day, beginning on day 1. There were no pancreatic complications in this group. Of the remaining 21 patients, 6 (29%) developed 9 pancreatic complications: fluid collections in 3, fistula in 4, pseudocyst in 1, and pancreatitis in 1. Three patients had grade III, 1 had grade II, and 2 had grade I injuries. There were no differences in ATI, ISS, or grade of pancreatic injury between patients who were treated with octreotide and those who were not. No complications were associated with the use of octreotide. In conclusion, pancreatic complications occurred frequently (21%) following pancreatic trauma and resulted in significant morbidity. In this nonrandomized series of patients with equivalent ATI, ISS, and pancreatic grade injuries, the prophylactic use of octreotide was associated with no pancreatic complications and no negative sequelae.

  14. Dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Realgar-Indigo naturalis as an effective treatment for promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Liu, Ping; Song, Jun-Hong; Liang, Yang; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Fang; Wang, Bing-Shun; Mao, Jian-Hua; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2008-03-25

    To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe a combination of plant species/minerals, called formulae, based on clinical experience. Nearly 100,000 formulae have been recorded, but the working mechanisms of most remain unknown. In trying to address the possible beneficial effects of formulae with current biomedical approaches, we use Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), which has been proven to be very effective in treating human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as a model. The main components of RIF are realgar, Indigo naturalis, and Salvia miltiorrhiza, with tetraarsenic tetrasulfide (A), indirubin (I), and tanshinone IIA (T) as major active ingredients, respectively. Here, we report that the ATI combination yields synergy in the treatment of a murine APL model in vivo and in the induction of APL cell differentiation in vitro. ATI causes intensified ubiquitination/degradation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) oncoprotein, stronger reprogramming of myeloid differentiation regulators, and enhanced G(1)/G(0) arrest in APL cells through hitting multiple targets compared with the effects of mono- or biagents. Furthermore, ATI intensifies the expression of Aquaglyceroporin 9 and facilitates the transportation of A into APL cells, which in turn enhances A-mediated PML-RARalpha degradation and therapeutic efficacy. Our data also indicate A as the principal component of the formula, whereas T and I serve as adjuvant ingredients. We therefore suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formulae at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels may be a good strategy in exploring the value of traditional medicine.

  15. Management of full-thickness duodenal laceration in the damage control era: evolution to primary repair without diversion or decompression.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, John; Fabricant, Loic; Anton, Amy; Ham, Bruce; Schreiber, Martin; Mullins, Richard

    2011-06-01

    The management of duodenal laceration (DL) is controversial. We sought to determine the influence of damage control (DC) on the use of decompression/diversion/exclusion (DDE) techniques and the risk of duodenal-related complications (DRC). We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with full-thickness DL surviving more than 72 hours in the years 1989 to 2009. Forty-one patients with a median duodenal organ injury scale of 3 and a mean abdominal trauma index (ATI) of 45 ± 24 underwent laparotomy. Twenty-five patients (61%) were treated with DC and 16 (39%) with fascial closure (FC). Although the ATI of the patients treated with DC was greater than the ATI of the patients treated with FC (56 ± 23 vs 28 ± 17, P < 0.001), DRCs were equivalent (two vs three, nonsignificant). Twenty-one patients were treated in the first decade and 20 in the second decade. Between the first and second decades, there were trends toward an increased use of DC (52 to 70%, nonsignificant) and a decreased use of DDE (52 to 35%, nonsignificant) with a significant reduction in DRC (5 vs 0, P = 0.04). Among the 18 patients (44%) who underwent DDE procedures there were 2 DRCs (11%) related to DDE. Among the 23 patients who did not have DDE, there were three DRCs (13%), including two obstructions, one partial and one complete. When DC is used after DL, DDE may be unnecessary. Diversion is recommended, however, when the duodenum is at risk for obstruction after primary repair.

  16. The positional specificity of EXXK motifs within an amphipathic α-helix dictates preferential lysine modification by acrolein: implications for the design of high-density lipoprotein mimetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Kim, Sea H; Patel, Arti B; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Iavarone, Anthony T; Hura, Gregory L; Bielicki, John K

    2012-08-14

    Despite the ability of acrolein to damage proteins, factors governing its reactivity with the ε-amino group of lysine are poorly understood. We used a small 26-mer α-helical peptide (ATI-5261) to evaluate the influence of acidic glutamate (E) residues on site-specific lysine modification by acrolein and if this targeting played a major role in inhibiting the cholesterol efflux activity of the peptide. Exposure of ATI-5261 to acrolein resulted in N-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino) (FDP)-lysine adducts at positions 5 and 25 and led to a concentration-dependent reduction in cholesterol efflux activity (55 ± 7 and 83 ± 3% decrease with 5:1 and 20:1 acrolein:peptide molar ratios, respectively). Amino acid substitution (K → R) experiments and mass spectrometry revealed neither K5 nor K25 was preferentially modified by acrolein, despite the location of K5 within a putative EXXK motif. Moreover, both lysine residues remained equally reactive when the lipidated peptide was exposed to acrolein. In contrast, placement of EXXK in the center of ATI-5261 resulted in site-specific modification of lysine. The latter was dependent on glutamate, thus establishing that acidic residues facilitate lysine modification and form the molecular basis of the EXXK motif. Preferential targeting of lysine, however, failed to augment the inhibitory effect of the aldehyde. Overall, the inhibitory effects of acrolein on cholesterol efflux activity were largely dependent on the number of lysine residue modifications and cross-linking of α-helical strands that restricted dissociation of the peptide to active forms.

  17. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  18. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  19. Spark anodization of titanium-zirconium alloy: surface characterization and bioactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay; McQuillan, A James; Sharma, Lavanya A; Waddell, John Neil; Shibata, Yo; Duncan, Warwick John

    2015-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been popularly used as implant biomaterial for decades. Recently, titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloy has been developed as an alternative implant material with improved strength in load bearing areas. Surface modification is one of the key factors to alter the surface properties to hasten osseointegration. Spark anodic oxidation (anodization) is one such method that is reported to enhance the bone formation around implants. This study aims to anodize TiZr and study its surface characteristics and cytocompatibility by cell culture experiments using osteoblast-like cells. Titanium (Ti) and TiZr discs were anodized in an electrolyte containing DL-α-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate (CA) at 300 V. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy and goniometry. Using osteoblast-like cells viability, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization was assessed. The anodized surfaces demonstrated increased oxygen, entrapped calcium and phosphorous from the electrolyte used. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of anatase in the oxide layer. Average roughness increased and there was a significant decrease in contact angle (P < 0.01) following anodization. The anodized TiZr (aTiZr) surfaces were more nano-porous compared to anodized Ti (aTi). No significant difference was found in the viability of cells, but after 24 h the total number of cells was significantly higher (P < 0.01). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposits were significantly higher on anodized surfaces compared to machined surfaces (P < 0.05, ANOVA). Anodization of TiZr resulted in a more nanoporous and hydrophilic surface than aTi, and osteoblast biocompatibility appeared comparable to aTi.

  20. SHARAD Investigation of the Interaction Between Volcanism and Deep Water Release in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Situated between the equator and 12°N and extending from 130° to 180°E, Elysium Planitia is considered to be the youngest volcanic plain on Mars. Recent crater counts on individual lava units argue for multiple phases of activity over the last 230 Myrs, with the most recent volcanic features dating to just ~2 Ma. The region also contains the youngest outflow channels on the planet. Multiple channel systems which are present across the region are interpreted to have been carved by the release of deep ground water (>1 km) from the broadly east-west trending Cerberus Fossae graben system. Elysium Planitia is therefore a region of high scientific interest, as it represents an ideal site to investigate the interaction of lava and water both below and on the surface of Mars. Extensive geologic mapping of Elysium Planitia has provided detailed information concerning the stratigraphy of the major volcanic units in addition to the classification of other landforms attributed to volcanic (e.g. small shields), fluvial (e.g. outflow channels) and aeolian (e.g. yardangs) activity. Orbital sounding radar provides a means to take this work to the next level through the mapping of buried surfaces associated with a contrast in dielectric permittivity and thus can be used to investigate the 3-D structure of the subsurface. Previous studies using the SHARAD radar sounder onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have identified multiple subsurface reflectors below the plains of Elysium Planitia. We will present our investigation of SHARAD data covering the eastern portion of this region of Mars - an area that includes the upstream reaches of Marte Vallis and the eastern extent of Cerberus Fossae. Our subsurface mapping shows remarkable correlations with published geologic maps produced using visible orbital datasets. These similarities allow us to use SHARAD data to make estimates of the average permittivity values and imply density measurements of the volcanic units. We will

  1. Sand Flux Results for Aeolian Dunes at Current and Candidate Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, M.; Urso, A.; Yingling, W.

    2015-12-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on Mars today. It has also been demonstrated the rapid aeolian abrasion of sedimentary deposits that potentially host ancient habitable environments may provide the best mechanism for exposing samples containing relatively undegraded organics (Farley et al. 2014). Thus, current processes operating on the surface of Mars are highly relevant to our understanding of the past. Here, we discuss new sand flux results of active dune across Mars, including several current and candidate landing sites with Meridiani Planum, Gale crater, Valles Marineris, and Mawrth Vallis. For this task, we have utilized multi-temporal images acquired annually by the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pixel) along with co-located HiRISE Digital Terrain Models. Falling dunes in Coprates Chasma (Mars 2020 candidate landing site) measuring 6-10 meters in height were detected migrating on average 0.5 m per Earth year, yielding crest fluxes of 3.1 m3 m-1 yr-1 (units hereafter assumed). Barchans near the MSL rover at Gale crater have slightly lower fluxes of 1.2, while earlier work in Endeavour crater, the current site of the Opportunity Rover, showed dome dunes with fluxes as high as 13 (average of 6.8; Chojnacki et al. 2015). New results of Mawrth Vallis (Mars 2020 candidate) dunes suggest these high rates are not uncommon, as barchans there possess average fluxes of 11.5. Assuming ripple reptation rates are 1/10th that of crest fluxes, total flux (saltation plus reptation) would range 3.2 to 12.7 m3 m-1 yr-1 for all sites studied herein. Active dunes and the abrasion susceptibility (Sa) of local rocks are relevant to assess how sand fluxes modify the landscape. Using the methodology and assumptions (Sa for basalt, mean trajectory height etc.) described in Bridges et al. (2012), we estimated abrasion rates of local basaltic bedrock. For example, sand blasting at Mawrth Vallis is estimated to produce 2-8 μm/yr for flat ground and 15

  2. Modulation of K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channel sensitivity to carvedilol by alternative mRNA translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Kisselbach, J; Seyler, C; Schweizer, P A; Gerstberger, R; Becker, R; Katus, H A; Thomas, D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The β-receptor antagonist carvedilol blocks a range of ion channels. K2P2.1 (TREK1) and K2P10.1 (TREK2) channels are expressed in the heart and regulated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) of their mRNA, producing functionally distinct channel variants. The first objective was to investigate acute effects of carvedilol on human K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels. Second, we sought to study ATI-dependent modulation of K2P K+ current sensitivity to carvedilol. Experimental Approach Using standard electrophysiological techniques, we recorded currents from wild-type and mutant K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells. Key Results Carvedilol concentration-dependently inhibited K2P2.1 channels (IC50,oocytes = 20.3 μM; IC50,HEK = 1.6 μM) and this inhibition was frequency-independent. When K2P2.1 isoforms generated by ATI were studied separately in oocytes, the IC50 value for carvedilol inhibition of full-length channels (16.5 μM) was almost 5-fold less than that for the truncated channel variant (IC50 = 79.0 μM). Similarly, the related K2P10.1 channels were blocked by carvedilol (IC50,oocytes = 24.0 μM; IC50,HEK = 7.6 μM) and subject to ATI-dependent modulation of drug sensitivity. Conclusions and Implications Carvedilol targets K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channels. This previously unrecognized mechanism supports a general role of cardiac K2P channels as antiarrhythmic drug targets. Furthermore, the work reveals that the sensitivity of the cardiac ion channels K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 to block was modulated by alternative mRNA translation initiation. PMID:25168769

  3. Setting a benchmark for the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) V: striving for first-semester success in nursing school.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Marie N; Blake, Barbara J; Long, Janice M; Yanosky, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Every nursing school strives to admit students who will be successful in completing their program and passing the NCLEX(®). Many schools use standardized testing, such as the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) V, as part of their admission criteria. This study was conducted to set an institutional benchmark of the TEAS V composite score, as recommended by the test developers. Having a benchmark would help the authors' school of nursing to identify students who were more likely to be successful during the first semester of their nursing studies. Using past students' composite TEAS V scores and ATI RN Fundamentals of Nursing 2010 Assessment results, a benchmark was identified.

  4. Thermal mapping of mountain slopes on Mars by application of a Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marta; Mège, Daniel; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Ciazela, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    Thermal inertia (P) is an important property of geologic surfaces that essentially describes the resistance to temperature (T) change as heat is added. Most remote sensing data describe the surface only. P is a volume property that is sensitive to the composition of the subsurface, down to a depth reached by the diurnal heating wave. As direct measurement of P is not possible on Mars, thermal inertia models (Fergason et al., 2006) and deductive methods (the Apparent Thermal Inertia: ATI and Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia: DATI) are used to estimate it. ATI is computed as (1 - A) / (Tday - Tnight), where A is albedo. Due to the lack of the thermal daytime images with maximum land surface temperature (LST) and nighttime images with minimum LST in Valles Marineris region, the ATI method is difficult to apply. Instead, we have explored the DATI technique (Sabol et al., 2006). DATI is calculated based on shorter time (t) intervals with a high |ΔT/Δt| gradient (in the morning or in the afternoon) and is proportional to the day/night temperature difference (ATI), and hence P. Mars, which exhibits exceptionally high |ΔT/Δt| gradients due to the lack of vegetation and thin atmosphere, is especially suitable for the DATI approach. Here we present a new deductive method for high-resolution differential apparent thermal inertia (DATI) mapping for areas of highly contrasted relief (e.g., Valles Marineris). Contrary to the thermal inertia models, our method takes local relief characteristics (slopes and aspects) into account. This is crucial as topography highly influences A and ΔT measurements. In spite of the different approach, DATI values in the flat areas are in the same range as the values obtained by Fergason et al. (2006). They provide, however, more accurate information for geological interpretations of hilly or mountainous terrains. Sabol, D. E., Gillespie, A. R., McDonald, E., and Danilina, I., 2006. Differential Thermal Inertia of Geological Surfaces. In

  5. Unified description of low-order above-threshold ionization on and off axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed unified description of low-order above-threshold ionization (Becker et al 2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 204022; 2015 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48 151001) is revisited and extended. By considering the rescattering electron energies and angles at the classical cutoffs and the contributions of particular quantum-orbit solutions, it is shown that summing both the backward- and the forward-scattering contributions, within the low-frequency approximation, it is possible to reproduce the observed features of the ATI spectra both for low and high energies and both on and off the laser-polarization axis in the momentum plane.

  6. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  7. Photoelectron interference fringes by super intense x-ray laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2009-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra of H- produced by circularly polarized strong high-frequency laser pulses are theoretically studied. An oscillating substructure in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) peaks is observed, which extends the validity of the earlier findings in the 1D calculations [K. Toyota et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 043418 (2007)] and 3D calculations for linear polarization [O. I. Tolstikhin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032712 (2008)]. Its origin is due to an interference between a pair of photoelectron wave packets created in the rising and falling part of the pulse, which appears clearly in the stabilization regime.

  8. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  9. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Solomon, S C; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-03-13

    The first 18 tracks of laser altimeter data across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft show that the planet at latitudes north of 50 degrees is exceptionally flat; slopes and surface roughness increase toward the equator. The polar layered terrain appears to be a thick ice-rich formation with a non-equilibrium planform indicative of ablation near the periphery. Slope relations suggest that the northern Tharsis province was uplifted in the past. A profile across Ares Vallis channel suggests that the discharge through the channel was much greater than previously estimated. The martian atmosphere shows significant 1-micrometer atmospheric opacities, particularly in low-lying areas such as Valles Marineris.

  10. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  11. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  13. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  14. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Solomon, S C; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-03-13

    The first 18 tracks of laser altimeter data across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft show that the planet at latitudes north of 50 degrees is exceptionally flat; slopes and surface roughness increase toward the equator. The polar layered terrain appears to be a thick ice-rich formation with a non-equilibrium planform indicative of ablation near the periphery. Slope relations suggest that the northern Tharsis province was uplifted in the past. A profile across Ares Vallis channel suggests that the discharge through the channel was much greater than previously estimated. The martian atmosphere shows significant 1-micrometer atmospheric opacities, particularly in low-lying areas such as Valles Marineris. PMID:9497281

  15. [Paleopathology of the natural mummies of the inner Abruzzo region (XVIII-XIX century)].

    PubMed

    Ventura, Luca; Miranda, Gaetano; Mercurio, Cinzia; Ciocca, Francesca; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-01-01

    The inner Abruzzo region is a land of mountains and highlands with cold, dry climate, in which we started a systematic search of human remains. The five natural mummies found in the friary of San Giorgio degli Osservanti in Goriano Valli showed excellent preservation. Paleopathologic investigations demonstrated goiter, prostatic hyperplasia, arteriosclerosis, pneumonia, pulmonary silicoanthracosis, and two neoplasms. The series from the church of the Santissima Trinità in Popoli includes at least eight mummified bodies buried in a crypt. During a preliminary investigation we studied a 35-40 year old nobleman with poor dental status, costal fractures and a renal stone. The recovery of mummified human remains in the church of San Sebastiano in Navelli yielded 206 individuals. The initial paleopathologic analysis identified parodontal disease, fractures, tumors, degenerative joint diseases and traces of post-mortem examination. The presence of so many subjects represents a rich cultural heritage, confirming the great paleopathologic interest of the region.

  16. Possible Frost Mounds in an Ancient Martian Lake Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Pollard, Wayne H.

    2000-05-01

    Circular to elongated mounds are observed in Gusev crater in the Aeolis subquadrangle of Mars. They are arranged in a large cluster and show different stages of evolution, from fresh to scar structures. Their morphology and morphometric ratios are comparable to those of terrestrial frost mounds. This study shows how the paleolacustrine environment of the Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater hydrogeologic system may have provided a suitable environment for the formation of frost mounds. Alternate hypotheses of formation including volcanism, fluvial erosion, and eolian erosion are discussed. Other features such as heavings, curvilinear troughs, hills, ridges, and depressions support the idea of a sediment/ice interaction. The typology of the mounds and plausible mechanisms for their formation are proposed. Their presence could support the model of a massive water body in Gusev during the Amazonian and provide indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of their formation.

  17. Smectite deposits in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars, identified using CRISM hyperspectral reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, V. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Murchie, S. L.; Powell, K. E.

    2016-05-01

    The ~100 m wide Marathon Valley crosscuts the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the 22 km diameter, Noachian-age Endeavour impact crater on Mars. Single-scattering albedo spectra retrieved from three Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) Full-Resolution Targeted (FRT, regularized to 18 m/pixel) and two Along Track Oversampled (ATO, regularized to 12 m/pixel) observations indicate the presence of Fe3+-Mg2+ smectite exposures located in Marathon Valley with combination vibration metal-OH absorption strength comparable to smectite spectral signatures in Mawrth Vallis. The Opportunity rover was directed to the exposures and documented the presence of Shoemaker formation impact breccias that have been isochemically altered, likely by fracture-controlled aqueous fluids.

  18. Web-based Data Information and Sharing System Using Mars Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, M.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Colton, S.; Coleman, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    It is well known within the planetary science community that a considerable amount of time can be dedicated to Mars data preparation before one is able to actually conduct remote sensing analyses. A prototype system developed at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) reduces such time by optimizing the process of locating, preparing, and retrieving MOLA PEDR, MOLA MEGDR and Themis VIS/IR datasets. A graphical user interface allows for searching data spatially, temporally, or by keywords. Spatial searches are done either by drawing a box around a map location or by entering coordinate values in planetographic/planetocentric latitude and west/east longitude coordinate systems. Temporal searches may be conducted by searching for specific Themis IR and VIS release dates. Key word searches may be conducted by searching for a particular MOLA PEDR orbit number. The retrieved data is provided in either a native format (such as ASCII for MOLA PEDR datasets) or in a format selected by the user and based on the chosen value-added product. In the case of MOLA PEDR datasets, the user can choose between two interpolation methods (Delaunay-based or natural neighbor) and may receive data in a TIFF or raster grid format. Natural neighbor interpolation produces fewer artifacts, but it is computationally intensive. The time required (minutes or tens of minutes compared with fractions of seconds used by the first method) makes it necessary to provide the user with an email notification once the interpolated dataset becomes available. The interpolated data provide effective resolution that approaches ~150 m compared to the PEDR resolution of ~300 m. In the case of Themis IR and VIS, data may be provided as one B/W single band image or as three-band color composite image in several raster formats. This system was successfully used to analyze Walla Walla Vallis (approximately 305.3 to 305.6E, 9.4S to 9.9S) and Aromatum Chaos/Ravi Vallis (approximately 315E to 322E, 1N

  19. General geology and geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, A.W.; Gaddis, L.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Soderblom, L.A.; Tanaka, K.L.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) spacecraft landed on relatively young (late Hesperian-early Amazonian; 3.1-0.7 Ga) plains in Chryse Planitia near the mouth of Ares Vallis. Images returned from the spacecraft reveal a complex landscape of ridges and troughs, large hills and crater rims, rocks and boulders of various sizes and shapes, and surficial deposits, indicating a complex, multistage geologic history of the landing site. After the deposition of one or more bedrock units, depositional and erosional fluvial processes shaped much of the present landscape. Multiple erosional events are inferred on the basis of observations of numerous channels, different orientations of many streamlined tails from their associated knobs and hills, and superposition of lineations and streamlines. Medium- and small-scale features, interpreted to be related to late-stage drainage of floodwaters, are recognized in several areas at the landing site. Streamlined knobs and hills seen in Viking orbiter images support this inference, as they seem to be complex forms, partly erosional and partly depositional, and may also indicate a series of scouring and depositional events that, in some cases, further eroded or partially buried these landforms. Although features such as these are cited as evidence for catastrophic flooding at Ares Vallis, some of these features may also be ascribed to alternative primary or secondary depositional processes, such as glacial or mass-wasting processes. Close inspection of the landing site reveals rocks that are interpreted to be volcanic in origin and others that may be conglomeratic. If such sedimentary rocks are confirmed, fluvial processes have had a greater significance on Mars than previously thought. For the last several hundred million to few billion years, eolian processes have been dominant. Dunes and dune-like features, ventifacts, and deflation and exhumation features around several rocks probably are the most recent landforms. The relatively pristine

  20. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  1. Repeated Aqueous Flooding from the Cerberus Fossae: Evidence for Very Recently Extant, Deep Groundwater on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Grier, Jennifer A.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2002-09-01

    The geomorphology and topography of the Cerberus Plains region of Mars show three spatially and temporally distinct, young, aqueous flood channel systems. Flood geomorphology in each of these channels, as seen in Mars Orbiter Camera images, consists of streamlined forms, longitudinal lineations, and a single occurrence of transverse dunes, features similar to those in the flood-carved terrain of the Channeled Scabland in the northwestern United States. As additional geomorphic evidence of flooding, small cones (interpreted as phreatic) are found preferentially in the channels or at their distal ends. Glaciers, lava flows, and CO 2-charged density flows are each inconsistent with these geomorphic features. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data show two of the three channel systems (Athabasca Valles and an unnamed northern channel system) emanating from the Cerberus Fossae; we suggest that the third channel system (Marte Vallis) also originated at the fissures. The discharges for two of the three systems (Athabasca Valles and Marte Vallis) have been estimated from surface topography to have been on the order of 10 6 m 3/s. Crater counts indicate that the channels are not only young (extreme Late Amazonian), but also were carved asynchronously. Geomorphic evidence suggests that two of the channels (Athabasca and Marte Valles) experienced more than one flood. Emanation from volcanotectonic fissures instead of chaotic terrain distinguishes these Cerberus Plains channels from the larger, older circum-Chryse channels. Groundwater must have collected in a liquid state prior to flood onset to flow at the estimated discharge rates. Lack of large-scale subsidence near the channels' origination points along the Cerberus Fossae indicates that this groundwater was at least several kilometers deep.

  2. Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  3. Surface Properties of the Mars Science Laboratory Candidate Landing Sites: Characterization from Orbit and Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Golombek, M. P.; Parker, T. J.

    2012-09-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  4. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures With Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  5. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  6. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Benarroz, M O; Fonseca, A S; Rocha, G S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M O; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2008-02-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1 hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  7. Resonancelike enhancement in high-order above-threshold ionization of polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Okunishi, M.; Hao, X.; Ito, Y.; Chen, J.; Yang, Y.; Lucchese, R. R.; Zhang, M.; Yan, B.; Li, W. D.; Ding, D.; Ueda, K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the resonance-like enhancement (RLE) in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of the polyatomic molecules C2H4 and C2H6 . In the spectrum-intensity maps, strong and weak RLE areas emerge alternatively for both C2H4 and C2H6 but in different sequences. Theoretical calculations using the strong-field approximation reproduce the experimental observation and analysis shows that the different characteristics of the two molecules can be attributed to interference effects of molecular orbitals with different symmetries. For C2H4 , the RLE structures are attributed to C-C centers of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) orbital. For C2H6 , in contrast, the C-C centers of the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals do not contribute to the RLE due to destructive interference but the hydrogen centers of the bonding HOMO-1 orbital give rise to the multiple RLE regions. In addition, clear experimental evidence of the existence of two types of the RLE and their dependence on the parity of ground state is shown. Our result, which strongly supports the channel-closing mechanism of the RLE, for the first time reveals the important role of low-lying orbitals and the differing roles of different atomic centers in the high-order ATI spectrum of molecules.

  8. Velocity estimation of slow moving targets in AT-InSAR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, A.; Pascazio, V.; Schirinzi, G.

    2007-10-01

    Along Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AT-InSAR) systems use more than one SAR antennas (typically two), mounted on the same platform and displaced along the platform moving direction, to detect slow ground moving targets. The phase of the ATI signal is related to the target motion parameters and may thus be used to estimate the radial velocity. In this paper we approach the velocity estimation problem using statistical techniques based on the statistical distribution of the measured interferometric phases. We analyze the radial velocity estimation with respect to ATI system parameters, such as velocity values, the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), the clutter to noise ratio (CNR), considering a deterministic target whose velocity is estimated using a Gaussian model. This model allows to take into account the lack of knowledge of the target radar cross section (RCS) values and provides an analytical form for the interferometric phase probability density function. Simulations results show that the adoption of Maximum Likelihood (ML) techniques, to perform a joint estimation of velocity and SCR, and multi-channel configurations, to overcome ambiguities problems, provide very good velocity estimation accuracy.

  9. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE. PMID:20014840

  10. Non-celiac wheat sensitivity: differential diagnosis, triggers and implications.

    PubMed

    Schuppan, Detlef; Pickert, Geethanjali; Ashfaq-Khan, Muhammad; Zevallos, Victor

    2015-06-01

    Non allergy-non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) has become a common and often overrated diagnosis. Skepticism mainly relates to patients with prominent intestinal symptoms in the absence of general or intestinal signs of inflammation. There is consensus that the major wheat sensitivities, celiac disease and wheat allergy, have to be ruled out which may be difficult for wheat allergy. The non-inflammatory intolerances to carbohydrates, mainly lactose and FODMAPs (fermentable oligi-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols), which cause bloating or diarrhoea, can usually be excluded clinically or by simple tests. Recent studies and experimental data strongly indicate that NCWS exists in a substantial proportion of the population, that it is an innate immune reaction to wheat and that patients often present with extraintestinal symptoms, such as worsening of an underlying inflammatory disease in clear association with wheat consumption. Wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) have been identified as the most likely triggers of NCWS. They are highly protease resistant and activate the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex in monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells of the intestinal mucosa. Non-gluten containing cereals or staples display no or little TLR4 stimulating activity. Wheat ATIs are a family of up to 17 similar proteins of molecular weights around 15 kD and represent 2-4% of the wheat protein. With oral ingestion they costimulate antigen presenting cells and promote T cell activation in celiac disease, but also in other immune-mediated diseases within and outside the GI tract.

  11. Alternative transcription initiation leads to expression of a novel ALK isoform in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Thomas; Lee, William; Obenauf, Anna C.; Ran, Leili; Murali, Rajmohan; Zhang, Qi Fan; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Hu, Wenhuo; Scott, Sasinya N.; Shah, Ronak H.; Landa, Iñigo; Button, Julia; Lailler, Nathalie; Sboner, Andrea; Gao, Dong; Murphy, Devan A.; Cao, Zhen; Shukla, Shipra; Hollmann, Travis J.; Wang, Lu; Borsu, Laetitia; Merghoub, Taha; Schwartz, Gary K.; Postow, Michael A.; Ariyan, Charlotte E.; Fagin, James A.; Zheng, Deyou; Ladanyi, Marc; Busam, Klaus J.; Berger, Michael F.; Chen, Yu; Chi, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes by mechanisms other than genetic aberrations such as mutations, translocations, or amplifications is largely undefined. Here we report a novel isoform of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) that is expressed in ~ 11% of melanomas and sporadically in other human cancer types, but not in normal tissues. The novel ALK transcript initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation (ATI) site in ALK intron 19, and was termed ALKATI. In ALKATI-expressing tumours, the ATI site is enriched for H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II, chromatin marks characteristic of active transcription initiation sites1. ALKATI is expressed from both ALK alleles, and no recurrent genetic aberrations are found at the ALK locus, indicating that the transcriptional activation is independent of genetic aberrations at the ALK locus. The ALKATI transcript encodes three proteins with molecular weights of 61.1, 60.8 and 58.7 kilodaltons, consisting primarily of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. ALKATI stimulates multiple oncogenic signalling pathways, drives growth-factor-independent cell proliferation in vitro, and promotes tumorigenesis in vivo in mouse models. ALK inhibitors can suppress the kinase activity of ALKATI, suggesting that patients with ALKATI-expressing tumours may benefit from ALK inhibitors. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of oncogene activation in cancer through de novo alternative transcription initiation. PMID:26444240

  12. Energy Conversion Programs at Wright Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Thomas R.; Donovan, Brian D.

    1994-07-01

    The United States Air Force has had a long standing interest in energy conversion dating back to the early 1960s when a heat pipe cooled thermionic converter was demonstrated through work at the predecessor to Wright Laboratory (WL). With the exception of the short hiatus in the mid-70s, Air Force thermionics work at Wright Laboratory has continued to the present time with thermionic technology programs including the burst power thermionic phase change concepts, heat pipe cooled planar diodes, and advanced in-core concept developments such as composite materials, insulators and dual gases. The Advanced Thermionics Initiative (ATI) program was organized to integrate thermionic technology advances into a converter suitable for in-core reactor applications in the 10 to 40 kWe power range. As an advanced thermionics technology program, the charter and philosophy of the ATI program is to provide the needed advanced converter concepts in support of national thermionic space power programs. This paper also summarizes the advanced out-of-core thermionic technology program: The Thermionics Critical Technology (TCT) Investigation. Converter design parameters, specifications, and performance testing data is summarized. Converters fabricated by Loral Electro Optical Systems (Loral EOS) under this program have exceeded performance requirements, and have demonstrated efficiencies as high as 14%.

  13. Ethnographic Assessment of an Alternative to Incarceration for Women with Minor Children

    PubMed Central

    Goshin, Lorie S.

    2015-01-01

    Allowing criminal justice-involved women to remain with their children in the community may decrease some of the negative intergenerational effects of incarceration. Little is known about potential program models to safely support community co-residence in this population. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the historical development of and life within a supportive housing alternative to incarceration (ATI) program for women with minor children and how they impact the health and social needs of resident families. Participants included 8 current and former adult tenant, 12 of the their resident children, 3 program staff, the program administrator, and 5 prosecutors who originally conceptualized it. Women also reported information about their 8 non-resident children. Analysis revealed three major themes: “The Cycle,” “This is My Home,” and “This Doesn’t Go With That.” While the program built on a core value of family preservation, results illustrate that keeping families together is only the beginning. Clinical and research implications for co-residence ATI programs are discussed in relation to the uniqueness of this context and population. PMID:26460706

  14. Ethnographic assessment of an alternative to incarceration for women with minor children.

    PubMed

    Goshin, Lorie S

    2015-09-01

    Allowing criminal justice-involved women to remain with their children in the community may decrease some of the negative intergenerational effects of incarceration. Little is known about potential program models to safely support community coresidence in this population. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the historical development of and life within a supportive housing alternative to incarceration (ATI) program for women with minor children and the health and social needs of resident families. Participants included 8 current and former adult tenants, 12 of their resident children, 3 program staff, the program administrator, and 5 prosecutors who originally conceptualized it. Women also reported information about their 8 nonresident children. Analysis revealed 3 major themes: "The Cycle," "This is My Home," and "This Doesn't Go With That." While the program built on a core value of family preservation, results illustrate that keeping families together is only the beginning. Clinical and research implications for coresidence ATI programs are discussed in relation to the uniqueness of this context and population.

  15. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  16. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2006-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  17. Expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit in human respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwagerus, Elena; Sladek, Svenja; Buckley, Stephen T; Armas-Capote, Natalia; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Harvey, Brian J; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Using human airway epithelial cell lines (i.e. NCI-H441 and Calu-3) as well as human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI) cells in primary culture, we studied the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit (δ-ENaC) to transepithelial sodium transport in human lung in vitro. Endogenous δ-ENaC protein was present in all three cell types tested; however, protein abundance was low, and no expression was detected in the apical cell membrane of these cells. Similarly, known modulators of δ-ENaC activity, such as capsazepine and icilin (activators) and Evans blue (inhibitor), did not show effects on short-circuit current (I SC), suggesting that δ-ENaC is not involved in the modulation of transcellular sodium absorption in NCI-H441 cell monolayers. Over-expression of δ-ENaC in NCI-H441 cells resulted in detectable protein expression in the apical cell membrane, as well as capsazepine and icilin-stimulated increases in I SC that were effectively blocked by Evans blue and that were consistent with δ-ENaC activation and inhibition, respectively. Consequently, these observations suggest that δ-ENaC expression is low in NCI-H441, Calu-3, and ATI cells and does not contribute to transepithelial sodium absorption.

  18. Comparison of infliximab drug measurement across three commercially available ELISA kits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Monique Wei Meng; Connor, Susan; Ng, Watson; Toong, Catherine Mei-Ling

    2016-10-01

    The monitoring of infliximab drug levels aids in the management of several autoimmune diseases, notably inflammatory bowel disease. Several commercial kits are now available and approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for the measurement of infliximab levels, but there have been limited verification or comparison studies to date. Finding an assay that most accurately measures infliximab is essential for optimal drug titration and patient management. We performed this study to compare the performance of the Grifols Promonitor, Theradiag Lisatracker and R-Biopharm Ridascreen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Preparations of serum containing known concentrations of infliximab were assayed using each kit, including in the presence of interference from anti-infliximab antibodies, autoantibodies and other biological agents. The Lisatracker kit provided the most accurate determination of infliximab drug levels, however it yielded false positive results at low concentrations of infliximab. The average coefficients of variation (CVs) for the kits were 8% for Lisatracker, 5% for Ridascreen and 11% for Grifols. Infliximab measurements across all kits were affected by interference from antibodies to infliximab (ATI). This study identified the Lisatracker kit as the most accurate in quantifying infliximab levels, although it was limited by false positive results at low concentrations of infliximab as well as interference from ATI. This has important implications for the monitoring and management of patients receiving infliximab therapy. PMID:27567230

  19. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE.

  20. [Aero-transport of a MDR-TB affected patient with bio-containment systems].

    PubMed

    Lastilla, M; Bisetti, R; Autore, A; Aragonese, F; Di Stefano, M; Sarlo, O

    2007-01-01

    The Italian Air Force medical service, in order to attend to its duty, has to deal with the search, rescue and aero-medical evacuation of the wounded and sick. Due to the increase of air transportation, the likelihood of contracting disease, such as haemorrhagic fevers has risen and it is necessary to know how to treat a patient abroad suffering from severe infectious disease without running any risk either for the medical personnel or for the air crew. The military sanitary service of the Air Force has been preparing for this purpose through a meticulous preparation in Italy and in the USA in order to satisfy these need and through the use of stretchers specifically designed to transport highly contagious patients: Aircraft Transit Isolators (ATIs) and Stretcher Transit Isolators (STIs). These particular medical tools are provided by filter HEPA and they are completely insulated in a PVC envelope. The former (ATI) is used to transport the patient by airplane, the latter is used for road travel. Last January 24th the first real mission was performed transporting a severe TBC-MDR (case) from Alghero to Milan. All went well and the patient left the hospital of Sondalo two months later. PMID:17598993

  1. An empirical assessment of the Above the Influence advertising campaign.

    PubMed

    Scheier, Lawrence M; Grenard, Jerry L; Holtz, Kristen D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Above the Influence (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall intercepts from geographically dispersed regions of the country. Theoretical impetus for the campaign combines elements of the theory of reasoned action (TRA), persuasion theory, and the health belief model. A series of structural equation models were tested with four randomly drawn cross-validation samples (N = 3,000). Findings suggest that awareness of ATI is associated with greater anti-drug beliefs, fewer drug use intentions, and less marijuana use. Congruent with the TRA, changes in beliefs and intentions are intermediate steps linking campaign awareness with behavior. This study provides further evidence of positive campaign effects and may strengthen reliance on mass media health persuasion campaigns as a useful adjunct to other programs targeting youth. PMID:22455104

  2. Optimal learning in a virtual patient simulation of cranial nerve palsies: The interaction between social learning context and student aptitude

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, TERESA R.; LYONS, REBECCA; CHUAH, JOON HAO; KOPPER, REGIS; LOK, BENJAMIN C.; CENDAN, JUAN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation in medical education provides students with opportunities to practice interviews, examinations, and diagnosis formulation related to complex conditions without risks to patients. Aim To examine differences between individual and team participation on learning outcomes and student perspectives through use of virtual patients (VPs) for teaching cranial nerve (CN) evaluation. Methods Fifty-seven medical students were randomly assigned to complete simulation exercises either as individuals or as members of three-person teams. Students interviewed, examined, and diagnosed VPs with possible CN damage in the Neurological Exam Rehearsal Virtual Environment (NERVE). Knowledge of CN abnormalities was assessed pre- and post-simulation. Student perspectives of system usability were evaluated post-simulation. Results An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effect was detected; at pre-test scores ≤50%, students in teams scored higher (83%) at post-test than did students as individuals (62%, p = 0.02). Post-simulation, students in teams reported greater confidence in their ability to diagnose CN abnormalities than did students as individuals (p = 0.02; mean rating = 4.0/5.0 and 3.4/5.0, respectively). Conclusion The ATI effect allows us to begin defining best practices for the integration of VP simulators into the medical curriculum. We are persuaded to implement future NERVE exercises with small teams of medical students. PMID:22938679

  3. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  4. Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1-electron atomic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchkovskii, Serguei; Muller, H. G.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling atomic processes in intense laser fields often relies on solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). For processes involving ionisation, such as above-threshold ionisation (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG), this is a formidable task even if only one electron is active. Several powerful ideas for efficient implementation of atomic TDSE were introduced by H.G. Muller some time ago (Muller, 1999), including: separation of Hamiltonian terms into tri-diagonal parts; implicit representation of the spatial derivatives; and use of a rotating reference frame. Here, we extend these techniques to allow for non-uniform radial grids, arbitrary laser field polarisation, and non-Hermitian terms in the Hamiltonian due to the implicit form of the derivatives (previously neglected). We implement the resulting propagator in a parallel Fortran program, adapted for multi-core execution. Cost of TDSE propagation scales linearly with the problem size, enabling full-dimensional calculations of strong-field ATI and HHG spectra for arbitrary field polarisations on a standard desktop PC.

  5. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  6. [Aero-transport of a MDR-TB affected patient with bio-containment systems].

    PubMed

    Lastilla, M; Bisetti, R; Autore, A; Aragonese, F; Di Stefano, M; Sarlo, O

    2007-01-01

    The Italian Air Force medical service, in order to attend to its duty, has to deal with the search, rescue and aero-medical evacuation of the wounded and sick. Due to the increase of air transportation, the likelihood of contracting disease, such as haemorrhagic fevers has risen and it is necessary to know how to treat a patient abroad suffering from severe infectious disease without running any risk either for the medical personnel or for the air crew. The military sanitary service of the Air Force has been preparing for this purpose through a meticulous preparation in Italy and in the USA in order to satisfy these need and through the use of stretchers specifically designed to transport highly contagious patients: Aircraft Transit Isolators (ATIs) and Stretcher Transit Isolators (STIs). These particular medical tools are provided by filter HEPA and they are completely insulated in a PVC envelope. The former (ATI) is used to transport the patient by airplane, the latter is used for road travel. Last January 24th the first real mission was performed transporting a severe TBC-MDR (case) from Alghero to Milan. All went well and the patient left the hospital of Sondalo two months later.

  7. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost

  8. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  9. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  10. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  11. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  12. Studying the NE Eridania sedimentary sequence through the Mars 2020 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Coradini, M.; McBride, K. S.

    2014-04-01

    The landing sites we are proposing for the next Mars 2020 rover span between 28°29'30"S-28°53'0"S Latitude and 178°56'30"W°178°28'0"W Longitude, i.e. on the NE floor of a 1.1×106 km2 closed drainage basin [1]. This area, see Fig. 1, belongs to the bigger (3×106 km2) Eridania basin that gave birth to the Ma'adim Vallis through catastrophic overflow, and presenting a water table between 950 and 1250 m [1,2,3]. The crater counting chronology for this area gives an age between Early to Middle Noachian [4]. By means of OMEGA [5] and CRISM [6] data, a large clay-bearing sedimentary unit has been identified over almost the entire margin of the Eridania basin [7]. On our specific site, i.e. the NE margin of the Eridania basin, sequences of aqueous minerals are observed. Such sedimentary minerals are accessible through erosional windows into the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. The top-down mineral sequence identified on the landing sites area presents an unaltered capping unit that is overlying an Al-rich clay stratum (see Fig. 2) akin to Al-smectite and/or kaolins with a <1 m thickness. A third sedimentary Fe-rich clay layer (akin to the nontronite smectite) is found, presenting a thickness of <10 m and overlying a mineral at the base of the exposed strata, which could be either a zeolite (favoured scenario) or a hydrated sulfate. On Earth, the thicknesses and compositions of the clay-rich strata have been used to constrain the paleoclimate [8,9], hence, the in situ exploration of the proposed sedimentary sequences at Eridania would provide fundamental observables of the early era (> 3.8 Ga) during which liquid water was durably stable at the surface. The most valuable candidates for ancient Martian microbial life sustainability and preservation are longlasting environments, characterized by the presence of ponding water [10,11,12]: hence, the proposed site presents a high exobiological potential that is just waiting to be unveiled. Besides

  13. Nontronite dissolution rates and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainey, S. R.; Hausrath, E. M.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Milliken, R. E.

    2014-02-01

    The Fe-rich smectite nontronite M+1.05[Si6.98Al1.02][Al0.29Fe3.68Mg0.04]O20(OH)4 has been detected using orbital data at multiple locations in ancient terrains on Mars, including Mawrth Vallis, Nilli Fossae, north of the Syrtis Major volcanic plateau, Terra Meridiani, and the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), Gale Crater. Given the antiquity of these sites (>3.0 Ga), it is likely that nontronite has been exposed to the martian environment for long periods of time and therefore provides an integrated record of processes in near surface environments including pedogenesis and diagenesis. In particular, nontronite detected at Mawrth Vallis is overlain by montmorillonite and kaolinite, and it has been previously suggested that this mineralogical sequence may be the result of surface weathering. In order to better understand clay mineral weathering on Mars, we measured dissolution rates of nontronite in column reactors at solution pH values of 0.9, 1.7, and 3.0, and two flow rates (0.16 ml/h and 0.32 ml/h). Solution chemistry indicates stoichiometric dissolution at pH = 0.9 and non-stoichiometric dissolution at pH = 1.7 and 3.0. Mineral dissolution rates based on elemental release rates at pH = 1.7 and 3.0 of Ca, Si and Fe follow the order interlayer > tetrahedral > octahedral sites, respectively. The behavior of all experiments suggests far from equilibrium conditions, with the exception of the experiment performed at pH 3.0 and flow rate 0.16 ml/h. A pH-dependent dissolution rate law was calculated through Si release from experiments that showed no dependence on saturation (far from equilibrium conditions) under both flow rates and is r = 10-12.06 (±0.123) · 10-0.297 (±0.058)·pH where r has the units mol mineral m-2 s-1. When compared to dissolution rates from the literature, our results indicate that nontronite dissolution is significantly slower than dissolution of the primary phases present in basalt under acidic conditions, suggesting that once

  14. ExoMars 2018: the four final candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Flahaut, Jessica; Vago, Jorge L.; Hauber, Ernst; Bridges, John C.

    2015-04-01

    December 2014. The Aram Dorsum site comprises Noachian layered sedimentary rocks with a prominent inverted channel system (>80 km long). Potential targets include the inverted channel, the channel margins, a channel transition unit, and pits present within the floodplain. The Hypanis Vallis site lies near two fluvial fan/deltaic systems at the termination of Hypanis and Sabrina Valles. Potential targets include mainly outcrops of expected fine-grained sediments on the smooth transition unit that surrounds the delta/fan, and units around the rim of Magong crater. The Mawrth Vallis site contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates detected on the Martian surface, in Noachian terrain [8]. Potential targets include the mineralogically diverse clay-rich outcrops and ancient channels. The Oxia Planum site lies on Fe/Mg phyllosilicates-rich exposures associated to layered rocks that may be related to the Mawrth Vallis sequence. Potential targets include the clay-rich outcrops as well as channels and inverted channels and delta-fan deposits. New data are being actively acquired by the HiRISE, CRISM and HRSC teams to support the ExoMars 2018 landing site selection process. The ellipses are large and new data are important for characterizing the potential targets and evaluating the safety of the sites. The proposing teams, the ExoMars project team and the LSSWG will continue their analysis and comparison of the sites, aiming to complete the certification of at least one site by September 2016 -- in time for the start of the mission's Critical Design Review (CDR). The final selection of the landing site is expected within 2017. References: [1] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/48088-mission-overview/ [2] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/53462-call-for-exo mars-2018-landing-site-selection/ [3] ExoMars 2018 LSSWG recommendation: http://exploration.esa.int/mars/54707-recommendation-for-the-narrowing-of-exomars-2018-landing-sites/

  15. A recent, equatorial, periglacial environment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Viking era, Mars' recent climatic history was held to be cold and dry with little evidence for long-lived liquid water near the surface; signs of a past wetter, warmer climate were confined to ancient Noachian or Hesperian-aged terrains. Recent missions have revealed contemporary near-surface water-ice to be abundant at high latitudes, and a population of mid-latitude fluvial-like gullies that appear to have formed by transient melting of ice or snow. Thus today's view of Mars' recent surface evolution is one of global permafrost existing within a framework of climate change, the timescales of which are governed by obliquity cycles with periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, in recent mapping work of the equatorial Elysium Planitia region using the latest very high resolution images of Mars (HiRISE; 25cm/pixel) we have found evidence for longer-lived, geologically recent liquid water at the martian surface. This suggests that there was a recent period when the climate was warmer than current obliquity cycle-based models predict. The Elysium Planitia region of Mars is both geologically young (late Amazonian period; <100 Ma) and hosts a variety of landforms that are morphologically similar to those of periglacial and permafrost environments on Earth. The region was exposed to massive flooding from deep underground sources during the late Amazonian, as demonstrated by the distinctive fluvial morphologies seen in the outflow channel Athabasca Vallis. These floods would have provided both the source of ice and particulate material required for a periglacial or permafrost landscape and there was probably a long-lived, but slowly freezing, lake or sea in the downstream Elysium basin. However, the provenance of the materials and landforms of this region is disputed: many authors still regard the Athabasca Vallis and Elysium basin as being flood lava provinces, with effusive volcanic materials reoccupying earlier flood landscapes (a classic

  16. Geomorphic constraints on the geologic history of Gale Crater (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, M. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Hayes, A. G.; Williams, R. M.; Calef, F. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Parker, T. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater near the Peace Vallis (PV) alluvial fan system. Gale is located on the crustal dichotomy of Mars between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the smoother northern lowlands. Recent crater counts on Gale's ejecta give an age estimate of ~3.6 Ga, corresponding to the Early Hesperian or possibly the Late Noachian (Le Deit et al., 2012). In the region to the south of Gale are similarly-sized craters (e.g. Hershel and Wien) that appear substantially more degraded, are partially to nearly buried, and have subtle rims, indicating that they likely pre-date Gale. Farah Vallis (FV), a large v-shaped channel incised into the southwestern rim of Gale, may have been part of a large regional drainage system (~270,000 km2) originating near Hershel Crater. Ejecta from Gale appear to have partly buried this valley network, implying it was active before the formation of Gale itself (Irwin et al., 2005). Gale also contains an ~5 km high central mound composed of layered material, whose age based on crater counts and superposition relationships, is ~3.6 to 3.8 Ga (Thomson et al., 2011). Here, we use crater counting and geomorphological relationships from mapped features within Gale to extend the work of others in providing a chronology of Gale's multi-stage geologic history. Using CTX imagery we have identified several large fan/delta features within Gale, in addition to those previously identified. These features, combined with topographic benches and morphologic changes from canyons to local fan deposition, suggest a series of large lakes. The largest (-2100 m) would have filled Gale entirely, and the smallest would have been a shallow lake at the distal end of the PV fan. The simplest interpretation, and the one supported by the geomorphology, is that Gale was sourced in part with water from FV and then progressively fell, creating weak shoreline features at several elevations. In addition, we performed a crater

  17. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  18. The potential of hydrodynamic analysis for the interpretation of Martian fluvial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Schumann, Guy; Neal, Jeffrey; Lin, Shih-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    After liquid water was identified as the agent of ancient Martian fluvial activities, the valley and channels on the Martian surface were investigated by a number of remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In particular, the stereo DTMs and ortho images from various successful orbital sensors are being effectively used to trace the origin and consequences of Martian hydrological channels. For instance, to analyze the Martian fluvial activities more quantitatively using the topographic products, Burr et al. (2003) employed 1D hydrodynamic models such as HEC-RAS together with the topography by MOLA to derive water flow estimates for the Athabasca Valles area on Mars [1]. Where extensive floodplain flows or detailed 2D bathymetry for the river channel exist, it may be more accurate to simulate flows in two dimensions, especially if the direction of flow is unclear a priori. Thus in this study we demonstrated a quantitative modeling method utilizing multi-resolution Martian DTMs, constructed in line with Kim and Muller's (2009) [2] approach, and an advanced hydraulics model LISFLOOD-FP (Bates et al., 2010) [3], which simulates in-channel dynamic wave behavior by solving for 2D shallow water equations without advection. Martian gravitation and manning constants were adjusted in the hydraulic model and the inflow values were iteratively refined from the outputs of the coarser to the finer model. Then we chose the target areas among Martian fluvial geomorphologies and tested the effectiveness of high resolution hydraulic modeling to retrieve the characteristics of fluvial systems. Test sites were established in the Athabasca Valles, Bahram Vallis, and Naktong Vallis respectively. Since those sites are proposed to be originated by different fluvial mechanisms, it is expected that the outputs from hydraulics modeling will provide important clues about the evolution of each fluvial system. Hydraulics modeling in the test areas with terrestrial simulation parameters was also

  19. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals’ current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  20. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array.

    PubMed

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets' motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:27314350

  1. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  2. Traffic flow in a Manhattan-like urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model of vehicular traffic in a Manhattan-like urban system is proposed. In this model, the origin-destination trips and traffic lights have been considered. The system exhibits three different states, i.e. moving state, saturation state and global deadlock state. With a grid coarsening method, vehicle distribution in the moving state and the saturation state has been studied. Interesting structures (e.g. windmill-like ones, T-shirt-like ones, Y-like ones) have been revealed. A metastability of the system is observed in the transition from the saturation state to the global deadlock state. The effect of an advanced traveller information system (ATIS), the traffic light period and the traffic light switch strategy have also been investigated.

  3. MTP Observations During the ATTREX Integration and Test Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    MTP temperature calibration is excellent and agrees with the MMS calbration (or MMS agrees with MTP, since its calibration was com pleted long before that of MMS!) center dot Having radiosondes laun ched from the Global Hawk base is extremely important for accurate tem pe rature calibration in radiosonde - sparse oceanic regions center. The MTP measurement of the cold-point will make an important contribution to the future ATTREX field campaigns because the demonstrated sp ati al variation of cold- point requires continuous measurements which only the MTP can provide. Profiling with the aircraft is not adequate. The MTP-measured isentropes will be important in studying atmospheric dynamics in the TTL, and how t his dynamics affects both the composition and (possibly) the thermal structure of the TTL.

  4. System design description for the LDUA common video end effector system (CVEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-27

    The Common Video End Effector System (CVEE), system 62-60, was designed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to provide the control interface of the various video end effectors used on the LDUA. The CVEE system consists of a Support Chassis which contains the input and output Opto-22 modules, relays, and power supplies and the Power Chassis which contains the bipolar supply and other power supplies. The combination of the Support Chassis and the Power Chassis make up the CVEE system. The CVEE system is rack mounted in the At Tank Instrument Enclosure (ATIE). Once connected it is controlled using the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center.

  5. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Johnson, L. R.; Laybe, P.; Reinke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of 18 convective clusters demonstrates that the extension of the Area-Time-Integral (ATI) technique to the use of satellite data is possible. The differences of the internal structures of the radar reflectivity features, and of the satellite features, give rise to differences in estimating rain volumes by delineating area; however, by focusing upon the area integrated over the lifetime of the storm, it is suggested that some of the errors produced by the differences in the cloud geometries as viewed by radar or satellite are minimized. The results are good and future developments should consider data from different climatic regions and should allow for implementation of the technique in a general circulation model.

  6. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rain volume estimation over fixed and floating areas was investigated using rapid scan satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data, called the Area Time Integral (ATI) technique. The radar and rapid scan GOES satellite data were collected during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) and North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP). Six multicell clusters and cells were analyzed to the present time. A two-cycle oscillation emphasizing the multicell character of the clusters is demonstrated. Three clusters were selected on each day, 12 June and 2 July. The 12 June clusters occurred during the daytime, while the 2 July clusters during the nighttime. A total of 86 time steps of radar and 79 time steps of satellite images were analyzed. There were approximately 12-min time intervals between radar scans on the average.

  7. Intelligent transportation systems strategic plan: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This interim report on an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Plan has been developed as documentation of the process of offering a vision for ITS and recommending an outline for organizational structure, infrastructure, and long-term planning for ITS in Kentucky. This plan provides an overview of the broad scope of ITS and relationships between various Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) functional areas and ITS user service areas. Three of the functional areas of ITS have been addressed in this interim report with sections devoted to mission, vision, goals, and potential technology applications. Within each of the three areas, recommendations have been made for applications and technologies for deployment. A more formalized business plan for ITS will be developed to recommend specific projects for implementation. Those three functional areas are: (1) Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS), (2) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), and (3) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  8. Prediction of a switchable two-dimensional electron gas at ferroelectric oxide interfaces.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Manish K; Wang, Yong; Jaswal, Sitaram S; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y

    2009-07-01

    The demonstration of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures has stimulated intense research activity in recent years. The 2DEG has unique properties that are promising for applications in all-oxide electronic devices. For such applications it is desirable to have the ability to control 2DEG properties by external stimulus. Here, based on first-principles calculations we predict that all-oxide heterostructures incorporating ferroelectric constituents, such as KNbO3/ATiO3 (A=Sr, Ba, Pb), allow creating a 2DEG switchable between two conduction states by ferroelectric polarization reversal. The effect occurs due to the screening charge at the interface that counteracts the depolarizing electric field and depends on polarization orientation. The proposed concept of ferroelectrically controlled interface conductivity offers the possibility to design novel electronic devices. PMID:19659167

  9. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets’ motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:27314350

  10. An application of artificial intelligence to automatic telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes (APT's) allow an astronomer to be removed form the telescope site in both time and space. APT's 'execute' an observation program (a set of observation requests) expressed in an ASCII-based language (ATIS) and collect observation results expressed in this same language. The observation program is currently constructed by a Principal Astronomer from the requests of multiple users; the execution is currently controlled by a simple heuristic dispatch scheduler. Research aimed at improving the use of APT's is being carried out by the Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) project at NASA Ames. The overall goal of the ERE project is the study and construction of systems that integrate planning, scheduling, and control. This paper discusses the application of some ERE technical results to the improvement of both the scheduling and the operation of APT's.

  11. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  12. California Smart Traveler System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The report describes how audiotex and videotex information systems can be used to develop new modes of public transportation (e.g., parataxis or single-trip carpools) and how these new modes can be integrated with conventional transit, paratransit and ridesharing modes to reduce traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, air pollution and mobility problems at a low cost to taxpayers. This report also describes how these telephone-based information services can be used to develop low-cost, user-friendly Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) that will tell drivers and riders the 'best' ways to get between any two points in an area via either private vehicle or public transportation. The proposed California Smart Traveler (CST) System will enable travelers to obtain more timely and accurate information on which to base their local or regional travel decisions.

  13. Grain Boundary Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Allvac 718Plus(Trademark) Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Garg, Anita; Lin, Peter; Provenzano, virgil; Heard, Robert; Miller, Herbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain Boundary Engineering can enhance the population of structurally-ordered "low S" Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries in the microstructure. In some alloys, these "special" grain boundaries have been reported to improve overall resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and creep resistance. Such improvements could be quite beneficial for superalloys, especially in conditions which encourage damage and cracking at grain boundaries. Therefore, the effects of GBE processing on high-temperature mechanical properties of the cast and wrought superalloy Allvac 718Plus (Allvac ATI) were screened. Bar sections were subjected to varied GBE processing, and then consistently heat treated, machined, and tested at 650 C. Creep, tensile stress relaxation, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests were performed. The influences of GBE processing on microstructure, mechanical properties, and associated failure modes are discussed.

  14. To Pluto by way of a postage stamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Terrile, Richard J.; Weinstein, Stacy S.

    1994-01-01

    In this time of constrained budgets, the primary question facing planetary explorers is not 'Can we do it?' but 'Can we do it cheaply?' Taunted by words on a postage stamp, a group of mission designers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is struggling to find a cheap way to go to Pluto. Three primary goals were set by the science community: (1) imaging of Pluto and Charon, (2) mapping their surface composition, and (3) characterizing Pluto's atmosphere. The spacecraft will be designed around these primary goals. With the help of the Advanced Technology Insertion (ATI) process $5 million was alloted for two years to shop for lightweight components and subsystems using new technology never tried on a planetary mission. The process for this search and development is described.

  15. Super VGA Primitives Graphics System.

    1992-05-14

    Version 00 These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and itsmore » memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores.« less

  16. Event-Based Tone Mapping for Asynchronous Time-Based Image Sensor.

    PubMed

    Simon Chane, Camille; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Posch, Christoph; Benosman, Ryad B

    2016-01-01

    The asynchronous time-based neuromorphic image sensor ATIS is an array of autonomously operating pixels able to encode luminance information with an exceptionally high dynamic range (>143 dB). This paper introduces an event-based methodology to display data from this type of event-based imagers, taking into account the large dynamic range and high temporal accuracy that go beyond available mainstream display technologies. We introduce an event-based tone mapping methodology for asynchronously acquired time encoded gray-level data. A global and a local tone mapping operator are proposed. Both are designed to operate on a stream of incoming events rather than on time frame windows. Experimental results on real outdoor scenes are presented to evaluate the performance of the tone mapping operators in terms of quality, temporal stability, adaptation capability, and computational time. PMID:27642275

  17. Event-Based Tone Mapping for Asynchronous Time-Based Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Simon Chane, Camille; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Posch, Christoph; Benosman, Ryad B.

    2016-01-01

    The asynchronous time-based neuromorphic image sensor ATIS is an array of autonomously operating pixels able to encode luminance information with an exceptionally high dynamic range (>143 dB). This paper introduces an event-based methodology to display data from this type of event-based imagers, taking into account the large dynamic range and high temporal accuracy that go beyond available mainstream display technologies. We introduce an event-based tone mapping methodology for asynchronously acquired time encoded gray-level data. A global and a local tone mapping operator are proposed. Both are designed to operate on a stream of incoming events rather than on time frame windows. Experimental results on real outdoor scenes are presented to evaluate the performance of the tone mapping operators in terms of quality, temporal stability, adaptation capability, and computational time.

  18. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals' current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  19. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array.

    PubMed

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets' motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  20. Event-Based Tone Mapping for Asynchronous Time-Based Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Simon Chane, Camille; Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Posch, Christoph; Benosman, Ryad B.

    2016-01-01

    The asynchronous time-based neuromorphic image sensor ATIS is an array of autonomously operating pixels able to encode luminance information with an exceptionally high dynamic range (>143 dB). This paper introduces an event-based methodology to display data from this type of event-based imagers, taking into account the large dynamic range and high temporal accuracy that go beyond available mainstream display technologies. We introduce an event-based tone mapping methodology for asynchronously acquired time encoded gray-level data. A global and a local tone mapping operator are proposed. Both are designed to operate on a stream of incoming events rather than on time frame windows. Experimental results on real outdoor scenes are presented to evaluate the performance of the tone mapping operators in terms of quality, temporal stability, adaptation capability, and computational time. PMID:27642275

  1. A Unified Theory For The WORM Sensitivity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.

    1988-02-01

    The sensitivity function ▵R of WORM media often is a function of the incident energy (E) and pulsewidth (t), as well as incident power (P), of the write laser. A unified theory is developed to include all variables. It models the sensitivity function as ▵R (E,P,t) = AR (Y,t) [1 - X at (Y,t)/X], where X is the dominant and Y the secondary variable which determines media performance. ▵R(Y,t) is the saturation and X at(Y t) is the threshold behavior. The theory is applied to five distinct types of organic,T 'inorganic, and textured WORM media. The results are discussed and recommendations for test planning are made.

  2. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  3. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  4. Hazard of pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment: Prioritization by structural approaches and prediction of ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are recognized as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) since they are detected in the environment in increasing amount, mainly in aquatic compartment, where they may be hazardous for wildlife. The huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points requires tools able to quickly highlight the potentially most hazardous and toxic pharmaceuticals, focusing experiments on the prioritized compounds. In silico tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on structural molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points necessary to prioritize existing, or even not yet synthesized chemicals for their potential hazard. In the present study, new externally validated QSAR models, specific to predict acute toxicity of APIs in key organisms of the three main aquatic trophic levels, i.e. algae, Daphnia and two species of fish, were developed using the QSARINS software. These Multiple Linear regressions - Ordinary Least Squares (MLR-OLS) models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors calculated by free PaDEL-Descriptor software and selected by Genetic Algorithm. The models are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a wide structural applicability domain. They were applied to predict acute toxicity for a large set of APIs without experimental data. Then predictions were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a trend, driven by the combination of toxicities for all the studied organisms, was highlighted. This trend, named Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI), allowed the raking of pharmaceuticals according to their potential toxicity upon the whole aquatic environment. Finally a QSAR model for the prediction of this Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI) was proposed to be applicable in QSARINS for the screening of existing APIs for their potential hazard and the a priori chemical design of not environmentally hazardous APIs.

  5. Free aluminium extraction from various reference materials and acid soils with relation to plant availability.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana; Bujdos, Marek; Medved', Ján

    2006-12-15

    The single extractions with 15 extractants (agents) (H(2)O, KCl, NH(4)Cl, NH(4)F, CaCl(2), BaCl(2), CuCl(2), LaCl(3), Na(2)S(2)O(4), (NH(4))(2)C(2)O(4), Na(4)P(2)O(7), NTA, EDTA, DTPA, HCl), the optimised BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and the solid phase extraction (SPE) by the chelating ion-exchanger Iontosorb Salicyl (cellulose resin containing covalently bound salicylic acid functional groups) were used for the partitioning of Al in very acid soil samples taken from an area influenced by acid mine solutions. The precision, accuracy and repeatibility for all steps of the optimised BCR SEP were checked on the various reference materials (CRM 483 sewage sludge amended soil, CRM BCR 701 freshwater sediment, SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 Montana soils). Also the new indicative values of the optimised BCR SEP fractional Al concentrations were obtained for these reference materials. The aluminium amounts obtained by the used extraction procedures were valuated and discussed from the aspect of the Al concentration in the plants (grass) growing on the same studied soils. The aluminium toxicity indexes (ATI) calculated for the studied soils, the BaCl(2) and acetic acid soil extracts and the grass stems and roots were used for the assessment of the Al toxicity to the plants. The ATI value was defined as the ratio of the nutrient cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) concentration sum to the Al concentration. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LOQ=0.2mgl(-1)) and the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LOQ=0.03mgl(-1)) were used for the aluminium quantification. PMID:18970873

  6. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  7. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  8. Sequential CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Reactivation from Distinct Cellular Reservoirs following Perturbation of Elite Control

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Sarah A.; Mlcochova, Petra; Maldarelli, Frank; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Elite Controllers may reveal insights into virus persistence given they harbour small reservoir sizes, akin to HIV non-controllers treated early with combination antiretroviral therapy. Both groups of patients represent the most promising candidates for interventions aimed at sustained remission or ‘cure’. Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in the latter group leads to stochastic rebound of virus, though it is unclear whether loss of elite control is also associated with similar rebound characteristics. Methods We studied three discrete periods of virus rebound during myeloma related immune disruption over 2.5 years in an elite controller who previously underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the absence of any antiretroviral therapy. Single genome sequencing of the V1-V4 region of env in PBMC and plasma was performed and phylogenies reconstructed. Average pairwise distance (APD) was calculated and non-parametric methods used to assess compartmentalisation. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on genotypic algorithms. Results 122 single genome sequences were obtained (median 26 sequences per rebound). The initial rebounding plasma env sequences following ASCT represented two distinct lineages, and clustered with proviral DNA sequences isolated prior to ASCT. One of the lineages was monophyletic, possibly indicating reactivation from clonally expanded cells. The second rebound occurred 470 days after spontaneous control of the first rebound and was phylogenetically distinct from the first, confirmed by compartmentalisation analysis, with a different cellular origin rather than ongoing replication. By contrast, third rebound viruses clustered with second rebound viruses, with evidence for ongoing evolution that was associated with lymphopenia and myeloma progression. Following ASCT a shift in tropism from CXCR4-tropic viruses to a CCR5-tropic population was observed to persist through to the third rebound. Conclusions Our data

  9. Hazard of pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment: Prioritization by structural approaches and prediction of ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are recognized as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) since they are detected in the environment in increasing amount, mainly in aquatic compartment, where they may be hazardous for wildlife. The huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points requires tools able to quickly highlight the potentially most hazardous and toxic pharmaceuticals, focusing experiments on the prioritized compounds. In silico tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on structural molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points necessary to prioritize existing, or even not yet synthesized chemicals for their potential hazard. In the present study, new externally validated QSAR models, specific to predict acute toxicity of APIs in key organisms of the three main aquatic trophic levels, i.e. algae, Daphnia and two species of fish, were developed using the QSARINS software. These Multiple Linear regressions - Ordinary Least Squares (MLR-OLS) models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors calculated by free PaDEL-Descriptor software and selected by Genetic Algorithm. The models are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a wide structural applicability domain. They were applied to predict acute toxicity for a large set of APIs without experimental data. Then predictions were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a trend, driven by the combination of toxicities for all the studied organisms, was highlighted. This trend, named Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI), allowed the raking of pharmaceuticals according to their potential toxicity upon the whole aquatic environment. Finally a QSAR model for the prediction of this Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI) was proposed to be applicable in QSARINS for the screening of existing APIs for their potential hazard and the a priori chemical design of not environmentally hazardous APIs. PMID:27568576

  10. Authentic Mars Research in the High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortekaas, Katie; Leach, Dani

    2015-01-01

    As a 11th and 12th grade Astrobiology class we were charged with developing a scientific research question about the potential for life on Mars. We narrowed our big picture question to, 'Where should the next Mars rover land in order to study the volcanic and water features to find evidence of past or present extremophiles on Mars?'After a lot of searching through images on JMARS (although not extensive due to high school time constraints) we narrowed our interest to three areas of Mars we thought could be good candidates to land a rover there to do further research. We know from extremophiles on Earth that microscopic life need water and energy. It seems reasonable that Mars would be no different. We developed a research question, 'Does Kasei Valles, Dzigai Vallis and Hecate Tholus have volcanic features (lava flow, fractures, volcanoes, cryovolcanoes) and water features (layers of ice, hematite, carbonate, chaos)?'This question is important and interesting because by having a deeper understanding of whether these places have evidence of volcanic and water features, we will be able to decide where the best place to land a future rover would be. Evidence of volcanic and water features are important to help determine where to land our rover because in those areas, temperatures could have been warm and the land could be wet. In these conditions, the probability of life is higher.We individually did research through JMARS (CTX, THEMIS) in order to establish if those three areas could contain certain land features (volcanic and water features) that could possibly lead to the discovery of extremophiles. We evaluated the images to determine if the three areas have evidence of those volcanic and water features.Although we are not experts at identifying features we believe we have evidence to say that all three areas are interesting, astrobiologically, but Dzigai Vallis shows the most number of types of volcanic and water features. More importantly, through this process we

  11. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  12. Introducing and discussing a novel diagrammatic representation of impact crater dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprarelli, Graziella

    2014-07-01

    Impact craters on the surface of Mars are degraded by erosion and infilling due to combinations of geological processes. These result in modifications of relative crater dimensions, including diameter increase and reduction of rim-floor depths. In principle, the longer a crater is exposed to geological processes, the more pronounced the modifications. Visualization and analysis of these effects are achieved by plotting the measured depths (M) of impact craters vs the corresponding theoretical depths (predicted: P) calculated from the crater diameters using depth/Diameter power laws. This type of diagram is referred to as MPD (measured depth vs predicted depth diagram). The advantage of using the MPD representation consists in the fact that the data plot along linear regressions, more easily interpreted than standard depth vs diameter diagrams. As an example of application of the method, the MPD was used to discriminate different generations of impact craters in Terra Sabaea into four groups: T0 (fresh craters), T1, T2 and T3 (from younger to older), all located on the most ancient geological unit in the area (Npld). Other units in the area are Hpl3 and Hr, impacted only by craters belonging to group T0, suggesting that these units are stratigraphically correlated. The data of 5 craters in superposition relationships with the eastern reaches of Evros Vallis, one of the major valley networks in the area, were plotted in the diagram and assigned each to a regression depending on the location of their data points in relation to the prediction bands of the regressions. The craters superposed to the valley all belonged to T0, indicating that Evros Vallis has the same relative age of units Hpl3 and Hr. A conceptual discussion of the results demonstrates that MPD statistics (a) are unaffected by the procedures used to acquire depths and diameters of impact craters and by the power laws used, and (b) can be interpreted irrespective of the sequence or combination of

  13. Megafans as Hydrous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin; Miller, R. McG.; Allen, C. C.; Kreslavsky, M. H.; Eckardt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscale sedimentary environment known as the megafan, is a low-angle, partial cone of fluvial sediment generated where a river enters an unconfined basin where it begins the process of avulsing over wide areas. In shifting to different positions, the river lays down a partial cone of sediment and establishes a characteristic radial pattern of paleo courses. The apparent paucity of sedimentary bodies obviously tied to martian outflow channels may also relate to the difficulty of recognition due to their sheer size and featurelessness. However, the existence of megafans on Mars is being examined now that their ubiquity and characteristics on Earth are better understood. Accordingly we suggest two likely candidates on Mars: Maja Valles fluvial cone and Amazonis Planitia fluvial sedimentary bodies. Two cryptic examples from Amazonis Planitia may be important for understanding subsurface hydrous accumulation. For at least some of its history, discharges from Mangala Valles likely resulted in megafans. Distances from the end of Mangala Valles to the northern (low) margin of the planitia are very large, a fact that has suggested that fluvial emplacement was unlikely. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. Megafans emanating from Marte, Mangala and Labou valles have probably contributed to hydrous near-subsurface environments--in their distal

  14. The University Scientist's Role in Promoting Collaborative K-12 Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, D.; Brown, L. L.; Carlsen, W. S.

    2004-12-01

    Comprehensive K-12 science teacher professional development is dependent upon the successful interaction between the university and K-12 communities (National Research Council, 2001), which can be realized through partnerships between university scientists and K-12 science teachers. This paper will identify some best practices of university scientists in the professional development of science teachers, first by citing the professional development and science education literature (Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; National Research Council, 1996a, 1996b), and then by highlighting how these best practices were actualized in summer workshops for science educators offered at Penn State. Each summer the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium supports seven one-week courses for secondary science teachers taught by university scientists from disciplines representative of NASA's research interests. Approximately 100 teachers enroll in these two-credit, graduate-level workshops from a variety of locations and contexts throughout the United States. These summer courses share a number of important features (duration, general format, teacher recruitment and admission, location, number of participants, etc.), making them a unique dataset for comparative research on science teacher professional development. By recognizing the role of university scientists relating to both practice and standards of professional development, we identify areas in which teachers could be empowered to lead and, alternatively, where scientists and administrators should improve and continue to direct-- both supporting a culture of collaboration that builds K-12 science teacher capacity (Fullan, 2001, 2003; Hawley & Valli, 1999). In our observations and analysis of the evaluations, three best practices, as defined by the literature, appeared to distinguish the exceptional workshops: First, teachers give high marks and make affirmative comments about workshops with clearly presented curricular

  15. Physical Diversity of Phyllosilicate Deposits at the MSL Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The identification of phyllosilicates on Mars implies aqueous activity at the time of their formation and is important for understanding the history of Martian water and the past habitability of Mars. In addition, a significant fraction of the global water budget of Mars may be locked into clay mineral deposits within the Martian crust. As a result, six out of seven final landing sites being considered for the Mars Science Laboratory are sites where phyllosilicates have been identified in CRISM and OMEGA data. The physical characteristics of these materials, as identified using thermal inertia data, are an important component for understanding the geologic history of these deposits. Thermal inertia values provide information regarding effective particle size and help to constrain the possible presence of duricrust, rocks, and exposed bedrock at these locations. These identified physical characteristics suggest the degree of resistivity to erosion, which has implications for the post-emplacement modification of these deposits. At the aforementioned six locations (Nili Fossae Trough, Holden Crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, southern Meridiani Planum, and Gale crater) the physical properties were quantified using THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data to characterize the physical properties at each site and identify the presence or absence of physical diversity among these materials. I identified a wide range of surface properties at these locations ranging from indurated surfaces intermixed with unconsolidated aeolian material (thermal inertia of 150-460 J m-2 K-1 s- 1/2) at Mawrth Vallis, to exposures of in-place bedrock and the presence of rocky material (thermal inertia exceeding 800 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) in Gale crater. In addition, the surface texture and morphologic features observed in high-resolution visible images (such as narrow-angle MOC, HiRISE, and CTX) are dissimilar across these phyllosilicate exposures, and confirm the interpretation of thermal inertia

  16. Complex and Perplexing Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A variegated mottled texture is readily apparent in this terrain located NW of the volcano, Elysium Mons. The Hrad Vallis (the Armenian word for Mars) channel system can be seen sauntering across the bumpy landscape of Utopia Planitia. The upper branch of Hrad Vallis has a large chunk of material on its floor; this chunk appears to have been rafted away from the material on the far left of the image (moved from left to right). This unusual because the channel flows toward the left. This material may be lava flows. Many craters in this region of the planet have their interiors filled with material. Pedestal craters (craters with ejecta blankets perched higher than the surrounding plains) are also found in these regions. These observations seem to imply that this region was once buried and has now been uncovered (exhumed). The exact causes and timing of these events are unknown.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a

  17. DOE-Imaging grant FG02-06ER15829, entitled "Developing Laser-Induced Re-Collision Electron Self-Diffraction" Brief summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V. Litvinyuk, and Itzik Ben-Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Our principal goal was the experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Key steps along the development of this experimental technique have been accomplished and reported in the publications listed in this brief report. We started with measuring 3D electron momenta spectra in aligned nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Chakra Maharjan (Ph.D. student of Lew Cocke) was a lead researcher on this project. Although Chakra succeeded in obtaining those spectra, we were scooped by the publication of identical results in Science by the NRC Ottawa group. Our results were never published as a refereed article, but became a part of Chakra's Ph.D. dissertation. That Science paper was the first experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Chakra also worked on wavelength dependence of 3D ATI spectra of atoms and molecules using tunable OPA pulses. Another Ph.D. student, Maia Magrakvelidze (her GRA was funded by the grant), started working on COLTRIMS experiments using OPA pulses (1800 nm wavelength). After some initial experiments it became apparent that COLTRIMS did not yield sufficient count rates of electrons in the high-energy part of the spectrum to see diffraction signatures with acceptable statistics (unfavorable scaling of the electron yield with laser wavelength was partly to blame). Nevertheless, Maia managed to use COLTRIMS and OPA to measure the angular dependence of the tunneling ionization rate in D{sub 2} molecules. Following the initial trial experiments, the decision was made to switch from COLTRIMS to VMI in order to increase the count rates by a factor of {approx}100, which may have given us a chance to see LIED. Research Associate Dr. Sankar De (his salary was funded by the grant), in collaboration with Matthias Kling's group (then at MPQ Garching), proceeded to design a special multi-electrode VMI spectrometer for capturing high-energy ATI electrons and to install it in place of COLTRIMS inside our

  18. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  19. Meter-Scale Characteristics of Martian Channels and Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Malin, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor images, with resolutions as high as 1.5 m pixel, enable characterization of martian channels and valleys at resolutions one to two orders of magnitude better than was previously possible. A major surprise is the near-absence of valleys a few hundred meters wide and narrower. The almost complete absence of fine-scale valleys could be due to lack of precipitation, destruction of small valleys by erosion, or dominance of infiltration over surface runoff. V-shaped valleys with a central channel, such as Nanedi Vallis, provide compelling evidence for sustained or episodic flow of water across the surface. Larger valleys appear to have formed not by headward erosion as a consequence of groundwater sapping but by erosion from water sources upstream of the observed sections. The freshest appearing valleys have triangular cross sections, with talus from opposing walls meeting at the center of the valley. The relations suggest that the width of the valleys is controlled by the depth of incision and the angle of repose of the walls. The flat floors of less fresh-appearing valleys result primarily from later eolian fill. Several discontinuous valleys and lines of craters suggest massive subsurface solution or erosion. The climatic implications of the new images will remain obscure until the cause for the scarcity of fine-scale dissection is better understood. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Preservation of biosignatures in clay-rich systems: implications for Martian exobiology .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; D'Elia, M.; Licchelli, D.; Orofino, V.; Fonti, S.; Marzo, G. A.

    Searching for traces of extinct and/or extant life on the surface of Mars is one of the major objectives for remote-sensing and in-situ exploration of the planet. In a recent paper we have studied the infrared (IR) spectral modifications induced by thermal processing on differently preserved carbonate fossils, in order to discriminate them from their abiotic counterparts. The main conclusion of the study has been that terrestrial fossils after a billion years are so altered that it becomes impossible to trace their biotic origin. Since it is reasonable to assume that the putative Martian fossils should be at least 3.5 billions years old, this would imply that our spectroscopic method could not be able to detect them, if their degradation rate were the same as that we have found in usual conditions for the terrestrial fossils. However, due to the different climate evolution of the two planets, there is the possibility of having two different degradation rates, much lower for Mars than for Earth. In this work we show that our method is quite effective for fossils collected in protective layers of clays and that IR spectroscopy, coupled with thermal processing, can be a useful tool for discriminating between abiotic and biotic (fossil) carbonate samples collected on the Martian surface especially in phyllosilicate-rich regions such as Mawrth Vallis.

  1. Apollinaris Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the Apollinaris Patera Region of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the 80-km-wide central caldera of Apollinaris, a plume of young flows extending south down the flank of the volcano, a cliff and chaotic terrain west of the volcano, and the surrounding younger deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation (north and east). A patera (Latin for shallow dish or saucer) is a volcano of broad areal extent with little vertical relief. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 12 degrees S. to 6 degrees S. and from longitude 182 degrees to 189 degrees; Mercator projection. Apollinaris Patera is an isolated volcano (about 400 km across) lying on the Martian highlands just north of Gusev impact crater and the termination of Ma'adim Vallis. After the main edifice was built, eruption continued on the volcano's southern flank to form a broad ridge overlapping the original shield. Breakdown of ice-rich materials formed chaos on its western edge. Finally the friable materials (possible ash?) of the Medusae Fossae Fm were deposited.

  2. Planet Mars from Viking Orbiter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This color picture of Mars was made from three frames shuttered nine seconds apart by the Viking 1 Orbiter on June 18. Each of the three pictures was taken through a different filter - red, green and violet. Color reconstruction was done at the Image Processing Facility of the U. S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. Just below the center of the picture and near the morning terminator is the large impact basin Argyre. Interior of the basin is bright, suggesting ground frost or a ground haze. Bright area south of Argyre probably is an area of discontinuous frost cover near the south pole. The pole, itself, is in the dark at lower left. North of Argyre, the 'Grand Canyon' of Mars, called Vallis Marineris, can be seen near the terminator. Markings elsewhere on the planet are mostly due to differences in brightness; however, color differences are present, suggesting compositional differences. Area at the top is the eastern side of the Tharsis volcanic region and is bright because of cloud activity. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 107), by James Schultz.

  3. From the South Pole to the Northern Plains: The Argyre Planitia Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Grant, J. A.; Anderson, F. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    Parker (1985, 1994) first described evidence for catastrophic flooding from a large lake or sea within Argyre Planitia through the Uzboi-Holden- Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system during the Noachian. The channel connection to Argyre had been recognized during the mid-1970s, based primarily on Russian orbiter images taken at that time. The most critical reviews of these inferences related to the relative timing of the plains materials, sinuous ridges, and debris aprons in southern Argyre, and the connection, via Uzboi Vallis, of ponding within Argyre to flooding through the Chryse Trough. The prevailing "competing" hypothesis for formation of materials within Argyre is that they are a result of south circumpolar glacial processes, with glacial scour and stagnation producing the pitting and sinuous ridges (eskers) on the basin floor rather than lacustrine erosion and deposition followed much later by a process akin to rock glacier formation of the debris aprons in a colder Amazonian climate. Argyre was part of a larger surface hydrological system that also included two large valley networks draining the Margaritifer Sinus region northwest of Argyre. The morphometry of these systems suggest a combination of precipitation and groundwater sapping, with surface runoff for their formation.

  4. Fluvial Drainage Basins and Valley Networks: Eastern Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The fluvial drainage of the eastern Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19NE, SE) and northeastern Argyre (MC-26NE) Quadrangles is dominated by two major longitudinal valley networks, the Parana/Loire system on the east, and the Samara Himera system to the west. It is believed that both of these drainages are through-going to the northwest and debouch into Margaritifer Chaos (general location: 12S, 22.5W). The Parana/Loire drainage is bounded on the east in part by an ancient multi-ringed impact basin. The Parana multi-digitate network drains northwest into a depositional basin, and impact basin floor, characterized by positive relief chaos. It is believed that Loire Vallis heads in the basin; thus Parana and Loire Valles may be treated as one system. Samara Valles heads in the northeastern Argyre Quadrangle and extends as a major truck valley to the northwest. Samara Valles cuts through the hills forming one of the concentric rings of the Ladon impact basin and joins the Himera drainage to trend in a more northerly direction to Margaritifer Chaos. The downstream portion of Himera is considered to be part of the Samara

  5. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  6. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  7. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  8. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime and Climate from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Kraft, M. D.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bridges, N. T.

    1999-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in data from the Mars Pathfinder lander and from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions, one inferred to represent winds from the northeast which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions, and a second wind pattern oriented approx. 90 degrees to the first. This latter wind could be from the W-NW or from the E-SE and was responsible for cutting the ventifacts and modifying the crater rims. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, in which the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  9. Dunes on Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03047 Dunes on Plains

    These dunes are located on the plains around Doanus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 62.3S, Longitude 335.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible. PMID:1620774

  12. Retrieval of the Martian surface reflectance by means of Principal Component analysis and Target Transformation using OMEGA/Mex data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geminale, A.; Grassi, D.; Altieri, F.; Serventi, G.; Carli, C.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Sgavetti, M.; Orosei, R.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Frigeri, A.

    The aim of this work is to extract the surface contribution in the Martian visible/near-infrared spectra removing the atmospheric components by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and target transformation (TT). The developed technique is suitable for separating spectral components in a data set large enough to enable an effective usage of statistical methods, in support to the more common approaches to remove the gaseous component. Data collected by imaging spectrometers, such as the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) instrument on board the ESA mission Mars Express (MEx), are particularly suitable for this purpose since it includes in the same session of observation a large number of spectra with different content of aerosols, gases and mineralogy. The methodology presented in this work has been applied to the analysis of OMEGA sessions over Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis regions, which have been already widely studied because of the presence of hydrated minerals. Once the surface reflectance, free from atmospheric contributions, has been obtained, the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) has been applied to spectra showing the hydrated phase. Silicates and iron-bearing hydrated minerals have been identified by means of the electronic transitions of Fe2+ between 0.8-1.2 mu m, while at longer wavelengths the hydrated mineralogy is identified by overtones of the OH group.

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume.

  14. Meter-Scale Slopes of Candidate MSL Landing Sites from Point Photoclinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Ross A.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2012-09-01

    Photoclinometry was used to analyze the small-scale roughness of areas within the proposed Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing ellipses. The landing ellipses presented in this study are those in Eberswalde crater, Gale crater, and Holden crater (the Mawrth Vallis site could not be measured due to its albedo variations). We were able to constrain surface slopes on length scales comparable to the HiRISE image resolution (0.25 meters/pixel). The MSL mission has various engineering constraints that each candidate landing ellipse must satisfy. These constraints indicate that the statistical value of the slopes at one, two, and five meter baselines are an important criterion. We used our technique to estimate surface slopes across large swaths of each image, and built up slope statistics for the images in each landing ellipse. We are confident that all three final MSL landing site ellipses that could be measured in this study are within the small-scale roughness constraints. Our results have provided input into the landing hazard assessment process.

  15. SHARAD soundings and surface roughness at past, present, and proposed landing sites on Mars: Reflections at Phoenix may be attributable to deep ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Mellon, Michael T.; Holt, John W.; Brothers, T. Charles

    2014-08-01

    We use the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to search for subsurface interfaces and characterize surface roughness at the landing sites of Viking Landers 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, the Phoenix Mars lander, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, and three other sites proposed for Curiosity. Only at the Phoenix site do we find clear evidence of subsurface radar returns, mapping out an interface that may be the base of ground ice at depths of ~15-66 m across 2900 km2 in the depression where the lander resides. At the Opportunity, Spirit, and candidate Curiosity sites, images and altimetry show layered materials tens to hundreds of meters thick extending tens to hundreds of kilometers laterally. These scales are well within SHARAD's resolution limits, so the lack of detections is attributable either to low density contrasts in layers of similar composition and internal structure or to signal attenuation within the shallowest layers. At each site, we use the radar return power to estimate surface roughness at scales of 10-100 m, a measure that is important for assessing physical properties, landing safety, and site trafficability. The strongest returns are found at the Opportunity site, indicating that Meridiani Planum is exceptionally smooth. Returns of moderate strength at the Spirit site reflect roughness more typical of Mars. Gale crater, Curiosity's ultimate destination, is the smoothest of the four proposed sites we examined, with Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, and Mawrth Vallis exhibiting progressively greater roughness.

  16. Observations at the Mars Pathfinder site: Do they provide "unequivocal" evidence of catastrophic flooding?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Kargel, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    After Mars Pathfinder landed at the mouth of Ares Vallis, a large channel that drains into the Chryse Planitia basin, the mission reports unanimously supported the interpretation that the lander site is the locus of catastrophic flooding by noting that all aspects of the scene are consistent with this interpretation. However, alternatives cannot be ruled out by any site observations, as all aspects of the scene are equally consistent with other interpretations of origin, namely, ice and mass-flow processes subsequently modified by wind erosion. The authors discuss alternative explanations for the geologic history of the channel based on a regional view of the circum-Chryse channels from Viking images (our best broad-scale information to date) and the local view from the recent Pathfinder landing site. Mega-indicators of channel origin, the regional geomorphology, geology, and planetary climatic conditions, taken together suggest some combination of flood, mass flow, glacial, and eolian processes. The macro-indicators of channel origin (sedimentologic) are also not indicative of one process of emplacement, either as single criteria or taken cumulatively. Finally, the micro-indicators of channel origin (geochemical and mineralogic composition) do not provide very tight constraints on the deposits' possible origins other than that water was in some way involved.

  17. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  18. Exploring Gusev Crater with Spirit: Review of science objectives and testable hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Grin, E.A.; Carr, M.H.; Sutter, B.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Farmer, J.D.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.O.; DesMarais, D.J.; Kramer, M.G.; Newsom, H.; Barber, C.; Thorsos, I.; Tanaka, K.L.; Barlow, N.G.; Fike, D.A.; Urquhart, M.L.; Grigsby, B.; Grant, F.D.; de Goursac, O.

    2003-01-01

    Gusev Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit mission. Located at the outlet of Ma'adim Vallis and 250 km south of the volcano Apollinaris Patera, Gusev is an outstanding site to achieve the goals of the MER mission. The crater could have collected sediments from a variety of sources during its 3.9 Ga history, including fluvial, lacustrine, volcanic, glacial, impact, regional and local aeolian, and global air falls. It is a unique site to investigate the past history of water on Mars, climate and geological changes, and the potential habitability of the planet, which are central science objectives of the MER mission. Because of its complex history and potential diversity, Gusev will allow the testing of a large spectrum of hypotheses with the complete suite of MER instruments. Evidence consistent with long-lived lake episodes exist in the landing ellipse area. They might offer a unique opportunity to study, for the first time, Martian aqueous sediments and minerals formed in situ in their geological context. We review the geological history and diversity of the landing site, the science hypotheses that can be tested during the MER mission, and the relevance of Gusev to the MER mission objectives and payload. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetary Science, Volume 22; Conference, Houston, TX, Mar. 18-22, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of Phobos Mission Gamma ray spectra from Mars, comparison of volcanic and modified landforms from Tharsis Montes on Mars, polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars, new evidence of lacustrine basins on Mars, flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex on Mars, interpretation of canyon materials and flood sources on Kasei Valles on Mars, geochemistry of Manson Impact structure rocks, micrometer-sized glass spheres in Apollo 16 soil 61181, isotopic abundances in Pesyanoe of solar-type xenon, mineralogy of 12 large 'chondritic' interplanetary dust particles. Also discussed are: trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles, evolution of isotopic signatures in lunar regolith nitrogen, pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon, origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion, origin of yellow glasses associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments, trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks, mineralization on the moon, relation between diogenite cumulates and eucrite magmas.

  20. Aqueous history of Mars as inferred from landed mission measurements of rocks, soils, and water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2016-09-01

    The missions that have operated on the surface of Mars acquired data that complement observations acquired from orbit and provide information that would not have been acquired without surface measurements. Data from the Viking Landers demonstrated that soils have basaltic compositions, containing minor amounts of salts and one or more strong oxidants. Pathfinder with its rover confirmed that the distal portion of Ares Vallis is the site of flood-deposited boulders. Spirit found evidence for hydrothermal deposits surrounding the Home Plate volcanoclastic feature. Opportunity discovered that the hematite signature on Meridiani Planum as seen from orbit is due to hematitic concretions concentrated on the surface as winds eroded sulfate-rich sandstones that dominate the Burns formation. The sandstones originated as playa muds that were subsequently reworked by wind and rising groundwater. Opportunity also found evidence on the rim of the Noachian Endurance Crater for smectites, with extensive leaching along fractures. Curiosity acquired data at the base of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater that allows reconstruction of a sustained fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine system prograding into the crater. Smectites and low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified in the lacustrine deposits. Phoenix, landing above the Arctic Circle, found icy soils, along with low concentrations of perchlorate salt. Perchlorate is considered to be a strong candidate for the oxidant found by the Viking Landers. It is also a freezing point depressant and may play a role in allowing brines to exist at and beneath the surface in more modern periods of time on Mars.

  1. Relative Time-scale for Channeling Events Within Chaotic Terrains, Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, D.

    1985-01-01

    A relative time scale for ordering channel and chaos forming events was constructed for areas within the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Transection and superposition relationships of channels, chaotic terrain, and the surfaces surrounding them were used to create the relative time scale; crater density studies were not used. Channels and chaos in contact with one another were treated as systems. These systems were in turn treated both separately (in order to understand internal relationships) and as members of the suite of Martian erosional forms (in order to produce a combined, master time scale). Channeling events associated with chaotic terrain development occurred over an extended geomorphic period. The channels can be divided into three convenient groups: those that pre-date intercrater plains development post-plains, pre-chasma systems; and those associated with the development of the Vallis Marineris chasmata. No correlations with cyclic climatic changes, major geologic events in other regions on Mars, or triggering phenomena (for example, specific impact events) were found.

  2. A potential Mars 2020 rover landing site at a delta in Magong Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Platz, T.; Le Deit, L.; van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the upcoming NASA 2020 Mars rover mission we identified a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km×20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. Weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates were detected at central delta cliff sections. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater remnants of an approximately 1m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from an adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terra in analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  3. Exploring the Mars' surface composition with the PFS instrument, and the BED spectral library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, Alessandro; Helbert, Jorn; D'Amore, Mario

    The Planetary Fourier Experiment (PFS) on board the ESA Mars Express mission is routinely observing the red planet since the beginning of 2004, and collected more than one million Mar-tian spectra. The spectrometer measures the radiation emerging from the planet simultaneously in the Long Wavelength Channel (LWC) between 5 and 45 µm, and in the Short Wavelength Channel (SWC), in the 1 to 5 µ spectral intervals. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) is a spectral library containing true emissivity measurements of planetary analogues, covering the whole 3 to 50 µm spectral range in four grain size separates: 0-25, 25-63, 63-125, 125-250 µm, to efficaciously represent the variety of grain sizes composition of a typical planetary surface. By means of a principal component (factor) analysis and a target transformation technique, we separated the atmospheric from the pure superficial contribution to the calibrated PFS LWC spectra. The surface emissivity spectrum was modelled with a linear deconvolution algorithm, using the BED entries as endmembers. Among the investigated Martian regions, are Syrtis Major and Mawrth Vallis, where the phyllosilicates detection from other remote sensing instru-ments (Omega on Mars Express and CRISM on the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) were confirmed and better characterized in terms of singular mineral abundances. The study carried on shows that having multiple grain sizes endmembers in the used spectral library, significantly increases the accuracy of the results.

  4. Assessing Layered Materials in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.

    2001-01-01

    The recent analysis of high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of layered outcrops in equatorial regions reinforces two important ideas, which will probably eventually become paradigms, about Mars: 1) It has had a long, complex geologic history marked by change, as manifested in the different layers observed, and 2) Standing bodies of water existed for substantial lengths of time, indicating clement conditions possibly conducive to life. Although observations of layering and evidence for lakes and oceans has been reported for years based on Mariner 9 and Viking data, the MOC data show that this layering is much more pervasive and complex than previously thought. These layered sites are ideal for studying the geologic, and possibly biologic, history of Mars. Here, a layered site within Gale Crater is advocated as a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) target. This is one of the few layered areas within closed depressions (e.g., other craters and Vallis Marineris) that meets the landing site constraints and is accessible to both MER A and B.

  5. Sulfate Formation From Acid-Weathered Phylosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Most phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during the planet's earliest Noachian era, then Mars underwent a global change making the planet's surface more acidic [e.g. 1]. Prevailing acidic conditions may have affected the already existing phyllosilicates, resulting in the formation of sulfates. Both sulfates and phyllosilicates have been identified on Mars in a variety of geologic settings [2] but only in a handful of sites are these minerals found in close spatial proximity to each other, including Mawrth Vallis [3,4] and Gale Crater [5]. While sulfate formation from the acidic weathering of basalts is well documented in the literature [6,7], few experimental studies investigate sulfate formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates [8-10]. The purpose of this study is to characterize the al-teration products of acid-weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments. We focus on three commonly identified phyllosilicates on Mars: nontronite (Fe-smectite), saponite (Mg-smectite), and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1, and references therein]. This information will help constrain the formation processes of sulfates observed in close association with phyllosilicates on Mars and provide a better understanding of the aqueous history of such regions as well as the planet as a whole.

  6. Radial rift and block tectonics around the Tharsis bulge: Introductional postulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although the Vallis Marineris canyon and radial fossae grabens have been extensively studied, their origin and formation mechanism is still the subject of numerous questions. Possible rift formation is only one point of view and does not explain the rifting mechanism and the radial pattern of these structures around the Tharsis bulge. Both active and passive rifting must be taken into account. According to the active mechanism the building of a colcanic complex like the Tharsis bulge is caused by the rising of a huge mantle plume and adjoining extrusions which tap the generated magma. The surrounding fossae and valley structures are caused by more passive crustal rifting due to tensional failure of the surface layers. The main rising mantle plume activated and regenerated failure patterns radial to the centre of activity. These radial zones of weakness are then most easily utilized by the rising mantle plume. Deep zones of weakness regulate the penetration and distribution of hot mantle rock into upper levels while, contrarily, the effective impingement of the hot mantle plume into the lithosphere opens up new weakness zones.

  7. Drainage evolution in the Margaritifer Sinus region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John A.; Parker, Timothy J.

    2002-09-01

    Margaritifer Sinus, Mars, records a complex history of water transport, storage, and release extending from the late Noachian into at least the mid-Hesperian. Collection, transport, and discharge of water were accomplished by systems of differing character flanking opposite sides of the Chryse Trough. Drainage on the western side of the trough was via the segmented Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer mesoscale outflow system that heads in Argyre Basin and incises and fills as it crosses ancient multiringed impact basins. By contrast, Samara and Parana-Loire Valles, two of the largest and best integrated valley systems on Mars, dominated drainage on the eastern trough flank. Valley morphometry suggests formation was due to precipitation-recharged groundwater sapping. All systems discharged into Margaritifer Basin, located along the Chryse Trough axis, and caused ponding that persisted into the early Hesperian. The Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer system dominated discharge that was coincident with widespread geomorphic activity on Mars. As channel and valley formation ended, some water in Margaritifer Basin infiltrated the subsurface. Collapse and release of water began shortly thereafter and persisted into mid-Hesperian times, thereby forming Margaritifer and Iani Chaos and incising Ares Vallis.

  8. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  9. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  10. Surficial Geology of the Spirit Rover Traverse in Gusev Crater: Dry and Desiccating Since the Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit rover landed successfully in a low albedo portion of Gusev crater at 14.5692 deg S, 175.4729 deg E on January 3, 2004 and has traversed about 3.5 km over 180 sols through cratered plains to Bonneville crater and the Columbia Hills. Gusev, a 160 km diameter Noachian crater that lies at the terminus of the 900 km long Ma'adim Vallis, was selected as a landing site to search for evidence of previous liquid water flow and/or ponding. Although no clear evidence of fluvial or lacustrine activity has been identified in the cratered plains (excepting rocks in the Columbia Hills), their surficial geology strongly limits any warmer and/or wetter period of Mars history (e.g., observed at Meridiani Planum) to be pre-Late Hesperian. This paper will review the surficial geology of Gusev crater as observed along the traverse by Spirit with special reference to the derived gradation history that strongly argues for a dry and desiccating environment since the Late Hesperian.

  11. Spirit at Gusev Crater: Preliminary Observations, Potential Processes and Hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Crumpler, L.; Grin, E. A.; Milam, K.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Grotzinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    Spirit landed in a flat plain in Gusev crater with local undulations at meters scales generated by ridges covered with blocks, some of them looking rounded. Several, flat-topped, mesas are visible in the far field in direction of Ma adim Vallis. A set of north/south oriented hills reaches approximately 150 m elevation to the east of the landing site (LS). A dipping brighter unit with possibly some scarps is associated with it. This setting could be consistent with layering observed on the MOC images of the hills, local exposure of material with variable dust cover, or deflated or allochtonous material. Numerous small depressions are visible from LS referred to as "Columbia Memorial Station"* (CMS). Floors are partially filled with finer-grained, high albedo material. At least one of them, nicknamed "Sleepy Hollow"* (approximately 30 m diameter) may be an eroded secondary impact crater. It is unclear if they can all be related to small impact structures. Some of them are elongated and aligned with the ridges. The morphology of rocks and soil at this Gusev Crater is presented. Evidence of dynamic aeolian action along this Crater is also discussed.

  12. Possible sub-glacial eruptions in the Galaxias Quadrangle, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Galaxias Quadrangle of Mars (MTM 35217), 33.0-35.5°N, 216.0-218.0°W which are consistent with this area having been covered by an ancient ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Volcanic activity was initiated by the intrusion of several large dikes measuring ∼50-100 m wide and protruding up to ∼35 m above the present-day surface. These dikes appear to have originated from Elysium Planitia ∼600 km to the SE. In one instance, a dike (at an elevation of -3750 m) appears to have produced a subglacial mound (referred to here as "Galaxias Mons 2") that evolved into an extrusive eruption and produced copious volumes of melt water that carved an outflow channel that extends almost 300 km to the north. At a lower elevation (-3980 m), a second putative dike may have failed to break the surface of the ice sheet and formed Galaxias Mons as a laccolithic intrusion. We numerically model the formation of Galaxias Mons and find that at least 200 m of ice may once have existed at this latitude at the time of the dike intrusions. Such a conclusion supports the idea that enigmatic small domes in the area may be pingoes. Collectively, these observations suggest that the previous interpretations for the origin of near-by Hrad Vallis as a sub-aerial eruption may need to be revised.

  13. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael D.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Bridges, Nathan T.

    2000-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in the vicinity of the Mars Pathfinder (MPR landing site data from the lander and in data from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions. One is inferred to represent winds from the northeast, which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions. A second wind blowing from the ESE was responsible for modifying the crater rims and cutting some of the ventifacts. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, and the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis flooding events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  14. Spectral Masking in Mixtures of Mars-Relevant Minerals: Comparison of Laboratory End Members and Natural Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull-Hearth, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, visible- to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy has revealed an array of hydrated minerals on the surface of Mars. However, one of the major limitations of VNIR spectroscopy is how it responds to mixtures of minerals. Based on differences in optical constants, some phases can mask others in mixture, even when the first phase is more abundant. Here, we report on a laboratory study to measure the impact of mixtures on the VNIR spectra of hydrated/hydroxylated iron oxide and sulfate phases that are relevant to Mars geochemistry. Pure endmembers of hydrated/hydroxylated iron oxide and sulfate phases are synthesized in the lab, then mixed in known ratios, and measured via VNIR spectroscopy and XRD to assess the percentages of each mineral needed to mask others. Laboratory mixtures are then compared to natural mixtures from the Río Tinto/Río Odiel system and acid mine drainage (AMD) systems of southeastern Pennsylvania. Finally, both laboratory and natural mixtures are be compared to CRISM VNIR data from key iron-phase regions on Mars, including Aram Chaos, Mawrth Vallis, and Noctis Labyrinthus.

  15. The Diversity of Martian Volcanic Features as Seen in MOC Images and MOLA Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    This project focused on the evolution of the summit areas of Martian volcanoes. By using data collected from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instruments, we tried to better understand the diversity of constructional volcanism on Mars, and hence further understand eruption processes. We investigated the styles of volcanism on the major volcanic constructs (Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes), and also studied the role of magma-volatile interactions within the shallow subsurface of these volcanoes and the surrounding areas. Theoretical models for internal processes within volcanoes, including the thermal influences of dike intrusions on pre-existing volatiles, were developed based on our identification of landform distributions. Our work provided new insights into the diversity of volcanism on Mars, and the distribution of Martian volatiles in space and time. Highlights of our results include: 1) The identification of large ash deposits at the summit of Arsia Mons; 2) The study of a large flank eruption on Elysium Mons and the estimation of the effusion rate needed to produce the observed lava channel; 3) The quantitative description of dike intrusion into volatile-rich terrain to explain the origin of Hrad Vallis; 4) The identification of constructional ridges on top of very young lava flows from Olympus Mons, with the interpretation that these ridges were formed by very recent phreatomagmatic eruptions; and 5) The characterization of the dimensions and slope distributions on 18 volcanic edifices on Mars.

  16. Topological Phases in Perovskite Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Rokyeon; Yu, Jaejun; Jin, Hosub

    Quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator is a new state of matter characterized by gapless edge states and insulating bulk states. Because the edge states are topologically protected and therefore robust against non-magnetic perturbations, it has a potential to be utilized in spintronics devices. Quauntum vally Hall (QVH) phase, on the other hand, is another class of topological state exhibiting valley-contrasting Berry curvature and spin splitting, which could yield novel transport properties, such as valley Hall effect and valley spin Hall effect. We propose a new kind of perovskite (111) heterostructures which can host both QSH and QVH phases with appropriate choices of composing elements. By carrying out first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that a Dirac cone emerges in a particular choice of heterostructure, and a sizable spin-orbit coupling turns the system into the QSH phase. In addition, the QVH phase with different Berry phases and spin textures in each valley is shown to be realized in the heterostructure with broken inversion symmetry. We porpose that these perovskite heterostructures can provide a feasible platform for spintronics, valleytronics, and topological engineering of the two-dimensional electron system.

  17. Using a terrestrial paleosol sequence to evaluate a weathering origin for clays on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B. H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Soils provide abundant geochemical sources of energy for life, and when soils are buried as paleosols, their mineralogy and geochemistry can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and paleoclimates. Here we analyze how the clay mineralogy and spectral properties of the paleosol sequence preserved in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in eastern Oregon relate to environmental and climatic conditions at the time of soil formation. This 440-meter thick volcaniclastic deposit contains over 500 individual clay-rich (30-90%) paleosols. The deposits span 15 My around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, a period of global cooling. The paleosol mineralogy reflects this climatic shift by transitioning from kaolinites, to smectites, to poorly-crystalline phases, with local variations due to environmental variables like water saturation, pH, salinity, and organic content. Analog studies of this and other paleosol sequences are helping us to better understand surface environments and climates on ancient Mars. Possible paleosol sequences on Mars are best exemplified by the regionally extensive clay-rich deposits in the region of Mawrth Vallis. Using our terrestrial analogs, we can interpret the mineralogy and physical stratigraphy at Mawrth. Under a paleosol framework, the Mawrth clays are consistent with regional paleosols formed under a temperate climate, with local variations due to chemical gradients in a wetlands-like surface environment, providing many energy pathways for life and high preservation potential.

  18. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  19. The Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exoproteome: determination of the complete repertoire of Type-Three Secretion System effectors and identification of other virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, is a major pathogen of fisheries worldwide. Several virulence factors have been described, but the type-three secretion system (T3SS) is recognized as having a major effect on virulence by injecting effectors directly into fish cells. In this study we used high-throughput proteomics to display the differences between in vitro secretome of A. salmonicida wild-type (wt, hypervirulent, JF2267) and T3SS-deficient (isogenic ΔascV, extremely low-virulent, JF2747) strains in exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results Results confirmed the secretion of effectors AopH, AexT, AopP and AopO via T3SS, and for the first time demonstrated the impact of T3SS in secretion of Ati2, AopN and ExsE that are known as effectors in other pathogens. Translocators, needle subunits, Ati1, and AscX were also secreted in supernatants (SNs) dependent on T3SS. AopH, Ati2, AexT, AopB and AopD were in the top seven most abundant excreted proteins. EF-G, EF-Tu, DnaK, HtpG, PNPase, PepN and MdeA were moderately secreted in wt SNs and predicted to be putative T3 effectors by bioinformatics. Pta and ASA_P5G088 were increased in wt SNs and T3-associated in other bacteria. Ten conserved cytoplasmic proteins were more abundant in wt SNs than in the ΔascV mutant, but without any clear association to a secretion system. T1-secreted proteins were predominantly found in wt SNs: OmpAI, OmpK40, DegQ, insulinase ASA_0716, hypothetical ASA_0852 and ASA_3619. Presence of T3SS components in pellets was clearly decreased by ascV deletion, while no impact was observed on T1- and T2SS. Our results demonstrated that the ΔascV mutant strain excreted well-described (VapA, AerA, AerB, GCAT, Pla1, PlaC, TagA, Ahe2, GbpA and enolase) and yet uncharacterized potential toxins, adhesins and enzymes as much as or even more than the wt strain. Other putative important virulence factors were not detected. Conclusions We

  20. Selection and Assessment of Predictions of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Moore, H. J.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Cook, R. A.; Parker, T. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The successful landing of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft on Mars allows the review of the process of selecting the landing site and assessing predictions made for the site based on Viking and Earth-based data. Selection of the landing site for Mars Pathfinder was a two-phase process. The first phase took place from October 1993 to June 1994 and involved: initial identification of engineering constraints, definition of environmental conditions at the site for spacecraft design, and evaluation of the scientific potential of different landing sites. This phase culminated with the first "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas on April 18-19, 1994, in which suggested approaches and landing sites were solicited from the entire scientific community. A preliminary site was selected by the project for design purposes in June 1994. The second phase took place from July 1994 to March 1996 and involved: developing criteria for evaluating site safety using images and remote sensing data, testing of the spacecraft and landing subsystems (with design improvements) to establish quantitative engineering constraints on landing site characteristics, evaluating all potential landing sites on Mars, and certification of the site by the project. This phase included a second open workshop, "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington" held in Spokane and Moses Lake September 24-30, 1995 and formal acceptance of the site by NASA Headquarters. Engineering constraints on Pathfinder landing sites were developed from the initial design of the spacecraft and the entry, descent and landing scenario. The site must be within 5 degrees of the subsolar latitude at the time of landing (15N for maximum solar power and flexible communications with Earth. It also must be below 0 km elevation to enable enough time for the parachute to bring the lander

  1. Origin of Rebound Plasma HIV Includes Cells with Identical Proviruses That Are Transcriptionally Active before Stopping of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Coffin, John M.; Mellors, John W.; Lederman, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Keele, Brandon F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the origin of HIV variants during viral rebound may provide insight into the composition of the HIV reservoir and has implications for the design of curative interventions. HIV single-genome sequences were obtained from 10 AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent analytic antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). Rebounding variants were compared with those in pre-ART plasma in all 10 participants and with on-ART peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated DNA and RNA (CA-RNA) in 7/10 participants. The highest viral diversities were found in the DNA and CA-RNA populations. In 3 of 7 participants, we detected multiple, identical DNA and CA-RNA sequences during suppression on ART that exactly matched plasma HIV sequences. Hypermutated DNA and CA-RNA were detected in four participants, contributing to diversities in these compartments that were higher than in the pre-ART and post-ATI plasma. Shifts in the viral rebound populations could be detected in some participants over the 2- to 3-month observation period. These findings suggest that a source of initial rebound viremia could be populations of infected cells that clonally expanded prior to and/or during ART, some of which were already expressing HIV RNA before treatment was interrupted. These clonally expanding populations of HIV-infected cells may represent an important target for strategies aimed at achieving reservoir reduction and sustained virologic remission. IMPORTANCE Antiretroviral therapy alone cannot eradicate the HIV reservoir, and viral rebound is generally rapid after treatment interruption. It has been suggested that clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells is an important mechanism of HIV reservoir persistence, but the contribution of these clonally proliferating cells to the rebounding virus is unknown. We report a study of AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent treatment interruption and compared rebounding plasma virus with that

  2. Out of the Reservoir: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of a Novel Cowpox Virus Isolated from a Common Vole

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Donata; Franke, Annika; Jenckel, Maria; Tamošiūnaitė, Aistė; Schluckebier, Julia; Granzow, Harald; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Stefan; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Höper, Dirk; Goller, Katja; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The incidence of human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections has increased significantly in recent years. Serological surveys have suggested wild rodents as the main CPXV reservoir. We characterized a CPXV isolated during a large-scale screening from a feral common vole. A comparison of the full-length DNA sequence of this CPXV strain with a highly virulent pet rat CPXV isolate showed a sequence identity of 96%, including a large additional open reading frame (ORF) of about 6,000 nucleotides which is absent in the reference CPXV strain Brighton Red. Electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the vole isolate, in contrast to the rat strain, forms A-type inclusion (ATI) bodies with incorporated virions, consistent with the presence of complete ati and p4c genes. Experimental infections showed that the vole CPXV strain caused only mild clinical symptoms in its natural host, while all rats developed severe respiratory symptoms followed by a systemic rash. In contrast, common voles infected with a high dose of the rat CPXV showed severe signs of respiratory disease but no skin lesions, whereas infection with a low dose led to virus excretion with only mild clinical signs. We concluded that the common vole is susceptible to infection with different CPXV strains. The spectrum ranges from well-adapted viruses causing limited clinical symptoms to highly virulent strains causing severe respiratory symptoms. In addition, the low pathogenicity of the vole isolate in its eponymous host suggests a role of common voles as a major CPXV reservoir, and future research will focus on the correlation between viral genotype and phenotype/pathotype in accidental and reservoir species. IMPORTANCE We report on the first detection and isolation of CPXV from a putative reservoir host, which enables comparative analyses to understand the infection cycle of these zoonotic orthopox viruses and the relevant genes involved. In vitro studies, including whole-genome sequencing as well as in

  3. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in a Miocene oxygen minimum zone, Trinidad, West Indies: A test of the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Coimbra, João C.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2014-10-01

    turnover of both ostracodal and foraminiferal assemblages were compared and contrasted quantitatively using a total assemblage turnover index (ATI) and the paleoenvironmental importance evaluated. The correlated between-sample ATI is for both groups lowest within the OMZ.

  4. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that

  5. Improving Thermal IR Sensor-Derived Soil Moisture Mapping of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, SE Arizona using Soil Texture and Vegetation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S.; Scheidt, S. P.; Tischler, M.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture studies, especially those in semi-arid environments, are critical in understanding weather, climate, agricultural productivity, society impact, and national security. However, studying this type of environment is often difficult and costly due to remote locations, rapid dry-down following precipitation events, and required specialized equipment. In order to overcome these obstacles, remotely sensed data has been employed with limited success, as these measurements are at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of 10 km or more [e.g, 1]. Recent approaches of retrieving soil moisture have shown promise by utilizing the sensor-derived apparent thermal inertia (ATI) of the surface from higher spatial resolution imagers, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; 1 km) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER; 90 m) [e.g, 2]. We attempt to improve the ATI algorithm by analyzing comparisons between the sensor-derived values and in-situ field data from the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. Modeled soil moisture was derived from a 10-year time series of archival MODIS data and 2 day/night acquisitions of ASTER data, accommodating for differences in scale. To accomplish this task: 1) high spatial resolution soil moisture maps were created, 2) the algorithm results were validated with an extensive open-source network of in-situ rain and 5 cm depth soil moisture gauge data, and 3) the soil moisture retrievals were adjusted for heterogeneous soils and vegetation cover. A proxy for soil texture is derived from associated mineral maps, produced by linear spectral deconvolution of emissivity [3 and 4] and validated by the open source WGEW soil maps. Vegetation influence is determined from VNIR data using standard band ratios. The results of this analysis will aim to improve the algorithm, and more accurately derive soil moisture by accounting for soil texture and

  6. Genome Wide assessment of Early Osseointegration in Implant-Adherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalji, Ghadeer N.

    Objectives: To determine the molecular processes involved in osseointegration. Materials and methods: A structured literature review concerning in vitro and in vivo molecular assessment of osseointegration was performed. A rat and a human model were then used to identify the early molecular processes involved in osseointegration associated with a micro roughened and nanosurface superimposed featured implants. In the rat model, 32 titanium implants with surface topographies exhibiting a micro roughened (AT-II) and nanosurface superimposed featured implants (AT-I) were placed in the tibiae of 8 rats and subsequently harvested at 2 and 4 days after placement. Whereas in the human model, four titanium mini-implants with either a moderately roughened surface (TiOblast) or super-imposed nanoscale topography (Osseospeed) were placed in edentulous sites of eleven systemically healthy subjects and subsequently removed after 3 and 7 days. Total RNA was isolated from cells adherent to retrieved implants. A whole genome microarray using the Affymetrix 1.1 ST Array platform was used to describe the gene expression profiles that were differentially regulated by the implant surfaces. Results: The literature review provided evidence that particular topographic cues can be specifically integrated among the many extracellular signals received by the cell in its signal transduction network. In the rat model, functionally relevant categories related to ossification, skeletal system development, osteoblast differentiation, bone development and biomineral tissue development were upregulated and more prominent at AT-I compared to AT-II. In the human model, there were no significant differences when comparing the two-implant surfaces at each time point. However, the microarray identified several genes that were differentially regulated at day 7 vs. day 3 for both implant surfaces. Functionally relevant categories related to the extracellular matrix, collagen fibril organization and

  7. Characterisation of sites of astrobiology interest for Mars landers and sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, D. E. S.; Monaghan, E. P.; Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    priority sites and a safe-haven. The sites chosen are Mawrth Vallis (21.6°N, 344.0°E) and Vernal Crater (5.9°N, 355.3°E), and a safe-haven in Eastern Meridiani (0° N, 3.7°E). The entire length of Mawrth Vallis is of interest, not least because the source is unknown. It doesn't begin in chaotic terrain like the majority of outflow channels. Weathered phyllosilicates are prevalent and their variety, concentration and surface area are currently unmatched compared to anywhere on Mars. They exist in layered outcrops. Structures in Vernal Crater are strongly suggestive of spring deposits, which would have a high potential for preservation of biosignatures. Other key features of interest at this site include probable lake-shore and regional fluvial deposits, lacustrine layers and evidence of methane activity. Eastern Meridiani has been nominated as a potential safe-haven. The science interest of this site includes many diverse layers, evidence of phyllosilicates, and excavation of underlying material by cratering. General references: G. Neukum, R. Jaumann et al., HRSC: The High Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express, in Mars Express: The scientific payload, edited by A. Wilson, pp. 17-35, ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004; R. Jaumann, G. Neukum, T. Behnke, T.C. Duxburry, K. Eichentopf, S. van Gasselt, B. Giese, K. Gwinner, E. Hauber, H. Hoffmann, A. Hoffmeister, U. Köhler, K.D; Matz, T.B. McCord, V. Mertens, J. Oberst, R. Pischel, D. Reiß, E. Ress, T. Roatsch, P. Saiger, F. Scholten, G. Schwarz, K. Stephan, M. Wählisch, and the HRSC; Co-Investigator Team: The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment on Mars Express: Instrument Aspects and Experiment Conduct from Interplanetary; Cruise through Nominal Mission, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 928-952, 2007.

  8. Relationship Between Topography and the Eastern Equatorial Hydrogen Signal on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevy, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Epithermal neutron flux data received from the Neutron Spectrometer, part of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite on board NASA's Mars Odyssey, indicates elevated equatorial hydrogen deposits partially encircle the Schiaparelli Basin. Deconvolution of the hydrogen signal statistically increased the resolution over the spectrometer's original 600 km footprint. The resulting map of hydrogen concentrations was further refined by ignoring all data <8.9% Water Equivalent Hydrogen (WEH). In so doing, this study provides the most detailed map to date of the hydrogen concentration maxima in this region and serves as a guide for future exploration. Projecting the Eastern Equatorial Hydrogen map onto the digital elevation model for the Schiaparelli Basin reveals several areas of interest. For simplification, these areas are identified by clock position relative to Schiaparelli. At the twelve o'clock position, a maximum exceeding 10% WEH occupies the upper, northern slope of a saddle between Henry Crater and unnamed craters west of Henry. Viking images of the nameless craters demonstrate wind streaks from the north veer to the southwest here, following topography. Surface drainage channels are apparent on the slope below the local WEH maximum. The 2:30 maximum lies over Tuscaloosa Crater and Verde Vallis. This >10% WEH maximum has the greatest aerial extent, roughly 200 km in diameter. At 5 o'clock, the fringing range adjacent to Brazos Valles lies within the surficially dark region called Sinus Sabaeus. It should be noted that projection of the albedo map over the terrain reveals dark grains concentrating in low areas, presumably having moved short distances by wind and gravity. The absence or presence of these grains does not seem to affect the measured WEH concentration as the signal's local maximum, about 10.2%, crosses areas of high and low albedo without an increase or decrease in signal strength. At 6 o'clock, two 10.4% WEH maxima line the north-facing slope of another

  9. Mineralogic Context of the Circum-Chryse Planitia Candidate Landing Sites for the ExoMars Rover Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, John; Loizeau, Damien; Quantin, Cathy; Balme, Matt; Poulet, Francois; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The ExoMars rover mission [1] will sample ancient, aqueously altered terrains to search for traces of extinct life and characterize the water history of Early Mars. These objectives translate into site-specific constraints in order to maximize the opportunity to access morphological and/or chemical markers for past aqueous environments and possibly life [2]. Currently, four candidate landing sites are being considered, all located on the margin of Chryse Planitia and all exhibiting hydrous clays within or near the ellipse. Assessing the composition and morphologic/stratigraphic context of these clays is necessary to narrow down possible formation scenarios and help rank the sites according to their relevance to the science goals. This work investigates the aqueous mineralogy of the circum-Chyrse region -where the LS are proposed-, in order to provide a framework for future in-depth investigations. Regional mapping of the clay mineralogy was performed using the OMEGA and CRISM NIR imaging spectrometers [3,4]. Global coverage of the circum-Chryse margin was achieved with OMEGA while detailed mapping was carried out locally with OMEGA and CRISM. Over 250 observations with pixel scales ranging 20 m - 4 km were investigated. Additionally, detailed analysis of the clay chemical composition was carried out using linear unmixing which provided the relative abundances of several Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicate endmembers in the region. The analysis revealed large exposures of dominantly Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates over most of the preserved Noachian-aged margins of Chryse Planitia. These minerals have spectral features which are generally similar to what is found elsewhere on Mars [5], consistent with either vermiculites or smectite-bearing mixed-layered clays [6,7]. A regional outlier exists at and around the Mawrth Vallis LS: the most common clay there is likely Fe-rich nontronite associated with Al-rich phyllosilicates within layered deposits [8,9], indicating a different

  10. Provenance of the Fluvial-deltaic Sedimentary Deposits Within the Eberswalde Crater Catchment, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N.; Warner, N. H.; Rice, M. S.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Eberswalde crater is one of few locations on Mars where a clear source-to-sink sedimentary path can be identified [1]. While the delta in western Eberswalde crater has been extensively studied [e.g., 2-5], few studies have described the catchment geology. [e.g. 6-7]. Here we present a geologic and compositional study of the catchment in order to characterise the source region for the Eberswalde delta. We have used DTMs and images from MRO's Context Camera (CTX) to map the channels that feed the delta at a finer scale than has previously been possible and to identify the headwater regions. We find that all channels begin on local or regional topographic highs, suggesting precipitation or snowmelt as a source of water rather than mobilization of subsurface ice due to hot overlying ejecta from the Holden crater impact [6]. Comparisons of channel depth and estimated Holden crater ejecta thickness throughout the catchment, in addition to our geologic mapping, indicate that the source for the Eberswalde sediments is almost exclusively Holden crater ejecta. One exception is the northern catchment area where channel depths exceed Holden ejecta thicknesses and therefore likely sample underlying Eberswalde ejecta or Holden basin rim material. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of Fe-Mg phyllosilicates in both the Holden crater walls [8] and ejecta [1]. We have also identified Fe-Mg phyllosilicates in a sedimentary deposit in a local basin within the Eberswalde catchment which has been eroded by the main Eberswalde fluvial system [9]. Therefore, there are phyllosilicates within the source sediments for the main deltaic feature within Eberswalde crater. However, some of the channels erode into Noachian-age Eberswalde ejecta and possibly the Holden basin rim. [9-11] have identified a subsurface layer of phyllosilicates that is present throughout the plateau region south of Vallis Marineris, west of Holden and Eberswalde craters, and north of Nirgal Vallis. This layer

  11. THEMIS Observations, Discoveries and Predictions for the MER A Landing Site in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. W.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    THEMIS has "followed the water" and discovered the youngest water flow into the MER A landing site in Gusev crater. This flow has a rumpled looking texture and is interpreted to be viscous material emanating from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis. The flow can be traced for over 150 km across the floor of Gusev. This flow is emplaced on top of the smooth plains material and covers the whole western half of the landing ellipse. The flow does not show up in THEMIS IR indicating that it is mantled with at least a few cm of dust. This flow is either a debris flow (15-40% water volume content) or hyperconcentrated flow (40-80% water volume content) and not a lava flow based on its morphology, geologic setting, and lack of nearby volcanic sources. Debris flow deposits can be differentiated from hyperconcentrated flows on the basis of particle sorting, sedimentary structures, and inferred rheological properties. Access to this deposit will allow sampling of the most recent water related sediment in the basin. A very interesting relationship has been found to exist for many craters in the region of Gusev. These craters contain stacks of layered sedimentary deposits. It should be noted that these craters lack a large inflowing channel system. A similar layered morphology is seen on the floor of Gusev, especially the SE portion of the crater, where a 190 m thick deposit is being eroded. We propose that this material in Gusev is the remnant of a formerly more extensive regional unit related to the layered deposits seen in the many nearby craters. This observation suggests that the region was formerly buried by several hundred meters of material that is now being exhumed. This also implies that Ma'adim Vallis was a superposed channel that cut down from above and across Gusev. We also offer another scenario for Gusev in that it received periodic outwash deposits and may have contained shallow ephemeral playas with short lifetimes and not deep long lived lakes as suggested by some

  12. Valine and isoleucine requirement of 20- to 45-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Waguespack, A M; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2012-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the Val and Ile requirements in low-CP, corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) AA-supplemented diets for 20- to 45-kg pigs. All experiments were conducted for 26 to 27 d with purebred or crossbred barrows and gilts, which were blocked by initial BW. Treatments were replicated with 5 or 6 pens of 3 or 4 pigs per pen. At the beginning of Exp. 1 and the end of all experiments, blood samples were obtained from all pigs to determine plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations. All diets were C-SBM with 0.335% supplemental Lys to achieve 0.83% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, which is the Lys requirement of these pigs. In Exp. 1, 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, or 0.10% L-Val was supplemented to achieve 0.51, 0.53, 0.55, 0.57, 0.59, or 0.61% dietary SID Val, and Thr, Trp, Met, and Ile were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, TSAA:Lys, and Ile:Lys ratios of 0.71, 0.20, 0.62, and 0.60, respectively. Also, supplemental Gly and Glu were added to all diets to achieve 1.66% Gly + Ser and 3.28% Glu, which is equal to the Gly + Ser and Glu content of a previously validated positive control diet that contained no supplemental AA. Treatment differences were considered significant at P < 0.10. Valine addition increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F in pigs fed 0.51 to 0.59% SID Val (linear, P < 0.08), but ADG and ADFI were decreased at 0.61% SID Val (quadratic, P ≤ 0.10). On the basis of ADG and G:F, the SID Val requirement is between 0.56 and 0.58% in a C-SBM diet supplemented with AA. In Exp. 2 and 3, 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08% L-Ile was supplemented to achieve 0.43, 0.45, 0.47, 0.49, or 0.51% dietary SID Ile, and Thr, Trp, Met, and Ile were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, TSAA:Lys, and Val:Lys ratios of 0.71, 0.20, 0.62, and 0.74, respectively. Also, supplemental Gly and Glu were added to achieve 1.66% Gly + Ser and 3.28% Glu as in Exp. 1. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were combined and analyzed as 1 data set. Daily BW gain, ADFI, and G:F were not

  13. Detailed mapping of surface units on Mars with HRSC color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    at Aram Chaos or Terra Meridiani [7-9] is a candidate. Bright deposits have potentially spectral signatures different to the red dust in the visible: sulfates in Juventae Chasma or Aram Chaos [9, 10] and phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis [11] or Nili Fossae [12] are of interest. This abstract is focused on Marwth Vallis only. HRSC spectral data: geometry and color filters The spectral data are image mosaics of five broadband spectral channels centered respectively at 440, 530, 650 and 750 nm for covering the visible range of wavelengths and 970 nm for sensitivity to the electronic absorptions of minerals present in minerals (pyroxenes, olivine). The third channel (nadir image) has a typical pixel size of 12.5 m, 25 m or 50 m. The other channels have a usual pixel size of 50 m, 100 m or 200 m that determines the spatial sampling of the spectral dataset. These data are acquired by five individual cameras oriented with a specific angle to the normal to the surface (-3°, +3°, 0° (nadir), -16° and +16° respectively). Those tilts optimize the use of a single telescope for all cameras in the available room. Thus, a given spectrum results from different proportions of shade at each wavelength. Indeed, subpixel topographic slopes that are oriented toward the instrument represent a higher proportion in the signal. This implies that shade affects the shape of HRSC spectra on a different way from pixel to pixel. This contribution has to be considered when performing spectral analysis. Level-4 color images in Digital Numbers (DNs) are registered adequately and are available to the public through the HRSCview website (http://hrscview.fu-berlin.de). A linear function converts the DNs into radiance factor (I/F). Visual interpretation Color composites Red-Green-blue (RGB) color composites of DNs images contain usable geological information. Dark basaltic sands and bright red dust appear always obvious. Materials generated from interaction of liquid water, like sulfates and

  14. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  15. Reflectance Spectra and Optical Constants of Iron Sulfates For Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, K. M.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Jamieson, C. S.; Dalton, J. B.; Abbey, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present visible and near-infrared (VNIR, λ=0.35 - 5 μm) laboratory reflectance spectra obtained at Mars-relevant temperatures and corresponding optical constants (real and imaginary refractive indices) for iron sulfates that have been observed on Mars, e.g., via Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA spectrometers. Fe-sulfates have also been found by the MER rovers in a variety of forms in Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, suggesting acidic aqueous, evaporation, and dessication processes were at work in these locations. We focus first on the Fe-sulfates szomolnokite and natural samples of jarosite, which have been found as distinct layers within polyhydrated non-Fe sulfate material at Columbus Crater on Mars and as outcrops at Mawrth Vallis. We also present data on five of the following Fe-sulfates in our library: butlerite, copiapite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite, melanterite, parabutlerite, rozenite, and rhomboclase. Determining the exact type of Mars sulfates (Fe- vs. Mg-rich) may lead to more information on the epoch of formation or humidity conditions on Mars during their formation. Therefore, these data will help to fully distinguish between and constrain the abundance and distribution of sulfates on the martian surface, which will lead to improvements in understanding the pressure, temperature, and humidity conditions and how active frost, groundwater, and atmospheric processes once were on Mars. This work was supported by NASA's Mars Fundamental Research Program (NNX10AP78G: PI Pitman) and partly performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Remote detection of past habitability at Mars-analogue hydrothermal alteration terrains using an ExoMars Panoramic Camera emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Gunn, M.; Grindrod, P. M.; Barnes, D.; Crawford, I. A.; Cross, R. E.; Coates, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    A major scientific goal of the European Space Agency's ExoMars 2018 rover is to identify evidence of life within the martian rock record. Key to this objective is the remote detection of geological substrates that are indicative of past habitable environments, which will rely on visual (stereo wide-angle, and high resolution images) and multispectral (440-1000 nm) data produced by the Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument. We deployed a PanCam emulator at four hydrothermal sites in the Námafjall volcanic region of Iceland, a Mars-analogue hydrothermal alteration terrain. At these sites, sustained acidic-neutral aqueous interaction with basaltic substrates (crystalline and sedimentary) has produced phyllosilicate, ferric oxide, and sulfate-rich alteration soils, and secondary mineral deposits including gypsum veins and zeolite amygdales. PanCam emulator datasets from these sites were complemented with (i) NERC Airborne Research and Survey Facility aerial hyperspectral images of the study area; (ii) in situ reflectance spectroscopy (400-1000 nm) of PanCam spectral targets; (iii) laboratory X-ray Diffraction, and (iv) laboratory VNIR (350-2500 nm) spectroscopy of target samples to identify their bulk mineralogy and spectral properties. The mineral assemblages and palaeoenvironments characterised here are analogous to neutral-acidic alteration terrains on Mars, such as at Mawrth Vallis and Gusev Crater. Combined multispectral and High Resolution Camera datasets were found to be effective at capturing features of astrobiological importance, such as secondary gypsum and zeolite mineral veins, and phyllosilicate-rich substrates. Our field observations with the PanCam emulator also uncovered stray light problems which are most significant in the NIR wavelengths and investigations are being undertaken to ensure that the flight model PanCam cameras are not similarly affected.

  17. Acid-sulfate mixtures from Río Tinto, Spain: Spectral masking relationships and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; van Venrooy, Alexis; Caroline Clark, M.; Cvitkovic, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Most sulfate minerals form only in specific pH conditions, making them useful markers of past environmental conditions on Mars. However, interpreting past environments requires a full understanding of the suite of minerals present, a task which is complicated by the fact that some minerals can spectrally mask others in the visible- to near-infrared (VNIR, 0.4-2.5 μm). Here, we report VNIR spectra of two-phase mineral combinations obtained from the Río Tinto acid mine drainage system of southern Spain. Our results show that in VNIR reflectance spectroscopy: (1) copiapite masks rhomboclase and partially masks melanterite; (2) coquimbite masks copiapite, jarosite, and rhomboclase; (3) at wavelengths <1.2 μm, gypsum is consistently masked by copiapite, jarosite, and melanterite, though at wavelengths >1.2 μm, gypsum masks these minerals; (4) unlike copiapite, jarosite, or melanterite, halotrichite masks gypsum completely; (5) in two-phase mixtures of copiapite and jarosite, both phases are evident. No consistent VNIR relationship is observed in two-phase mixtures of melanterite and halotrichite, suggesting that microtextures are likely more important than optical properties in determining VNIR reflectance. We also show that the shorter wavelengths are more sensitive to the presence of both phases: even in mixtures where one phase is masking another, both phases usually impact absorptions in the 0.75-0.95 μm region. This region may therefore be useful in remotely identifying mineral mixtures on Mars. These results have implications for several regions on Mars: most notably, they imply that the jarosite exposures reported at Mawrth Vallis may be jarosite-copiapite mixtures.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbonates and Martian Exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Armando; Delia, Marcella; Fonti, Sergio; Licchelli, Domenico; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Orofino, Vincenzo

    Searching for traces of extinct and/or extant life on the surface of Mars is one of the major objectives for remote-sensing and in-situ exploration of the planet. In a recent paper we have studied the infrared (IR) spectral modifications induced by thermal processing on differently preserved carbonate fossils, in order to discriminate them from their abiotic counterparts. The main conclusion of the study has been that terrestrial fossils after a billion years are so altered that it becomes impossible to trace their biotic origin. Since it is reasonable to assume that the putative Martian fossils should be at least 3.5 billions years old, this would imply that our spectroscopic method could not be able to detect them, if their degradation rate were the same as that we have found in usual conditions for the terrestrial fossils. However, due to the different climate evolution of the two planets, there is the possibility of having two different degradation rates, much lower for Mars than for Earth. In this work we show that our method is quite effective for fossils collected in protective layers of clays and that IR spectroscopy, coupled with thermal processing, can be a useful tool for discriminating between abiotic and biotic (fossil) carbonate samples collected on the Martian surface especially in phyllosilicate-rich regions such as Mawrth Vallis. Further work is currently done in our laboratory on various samples collected from carbonate sediments of the Late Miocene (Messinian) Calcare di Base Formation in northern Calabria (Italy), in order to study their origin.

  19. Mapping Rock and Soil Units in the MPF IMP SuperPan Using a Kohonen Self Organizing Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W.; Merenyi, E.; Murchie, S.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Johnson, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission provided information on a site in the Ares Vallis floodplain. Initial analysis of multispectral data from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) indicated the presence of only a single rock type, the 'gray rock' spectral class and various coated variants thereof (e.g., 'maroon rock'). Continued analysis of the IMP 'SuperPan' mosaic has confirmed multiple examples of a second 'black rock' spectral class existing as small cobbles in the near field and as boulders in the far field. These results are consistent with recent analysis of MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data which indicates that there is likely a mix of both 'Surface Type 1' (ST1) and 'Surface Type 2' (ST2) spectral classes at the MPF landing site. Nominally, the black rock spectral class would correspond to ST1 (basalts) and 'gray rock' would correspond to ST2 (andesites). Orbital remote sensing has also revealed the pervasive presence of layering on Mars. Recently it was suggested that there are extensive outcrops of the black rock spectral class in the SuperPan far field on the flanks of the Twin Peaks and on the rim of Big Crater. These authors suggested that these exposures represented outcrops of black rock from beneath a surficial, flood deposited layer. In this work, we have reexamined the MPF IMP SuperPan mosaic using an artificial neural network self organizing map (SOM) processing architecture in order to classify the distribution of spectral classes within the SuperPan. In this paper, we present initial results from that work and draw specific attention to a subset of the identified spectral classes in order to address questions relating to whether there are extensive exposures of black rock in the IMP far field, what other materials might be exposed in the far field, and what evidence there is for subsurface layering at the MPF landing site.

  20. Palos Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Palos Crater has been suggested as a future landing site for Mars Missions. This crater has a channel called Tinto Vallis, which enters from the south. This site was suggested as a landing site because it may contain lake deposits. Palos Crater is named in honor of the port city in Spain from which Christopher Columbus sailed on his way to the New World in August of 1492. The floor of Palos Crater appears to be layered in places providing further evidence that this site may in fact have been the location of an ancient lake.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  2. Canyon formation constraints on the discharge of catastrophic outburst floods of Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Catastrophic outburst floods carved amphitheater-headed canyons on Earth and Mars, and the steep headwalls of these canyons suggest that some formed by upstream headwall propagation through waterfall erosion processes. Because topography evolves in concert with water flow during canyon erosion, we suggest that bedrock canyon morphology preserves hydraulic information about canyon-forming floods. In particular, we propose that for a canyon to form with a roughly uniform width by upstream headwall retreat, erosion must occur around the canyon head, but not along the sidewalls, such that canyon width is related to flood discharge. We develop a new theory for bedrock canyon formation by megafloods based on flow convergence of large outburst floods toward a horseshoe-shaped waterfall. The model is developed for waterfall erosion by rock toppling, a candidate erosion mechanism in well fractured rock, like columnar basalt. We apply the model to 14 terrestrial (Channeled Scablands, Washington; Snake River Plain, Idaho; and Ásbyrgi canyon, Iceland) and nine Martian (near Ares Vallis and Echus Chasma) bedrock canyons and show that predicted flood discharges are nearly 3 orders of magnitude less than previously estimated, and predicted flood durations are longer than previously estimated, from less than a day to a few months. Results also show a positive correlation between flood discharge per unit width and canyon width, which supports our hypothesis that canyon width is set in part by flood discharge. Despite lower discharges than previously estimated, the flood volumes remain large enough for individual outburst floods to have perturbed the global hydrology of Mars.

  3. Identification of microcrystalline rocks using thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Rogers, D.; Glotch, T. D.; Arnold, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    High-silica deposits on Mars have been discovered from orbit (Holden Crater, Mawrth Vallis) and from landed surface missions to both Gusev Crater (Spirit) and Gale Crater (Curiosity). The character of these silica deposits can be used to understand both the depositional environment (i.e. fumarole vs. sinter) and/or diagenetic process. Initial work has shown that, in the case of opaline silica, there are differences in spectral shape that may be related to surface textural features imparted during formation or post-depositional alteration. Due to the increasing importance of understanding microcrystalline deposits on Mars, here, we study the effects of crystal size and surface roughness on thermal infrared emission spectra of micro- and macro-crystalline quartz. The spectra of chert and macro-crystalline quartz have significant differences in both spectral contrast, and in the rounded doublet between ~1000-1250 cm-1, which can shift and appear less rounded in microcrystalline samples. We find that microcrystalline minerals exhibit naturally rough surfaces compared to their macrocrystalline counterparts at the 10 micron scale; and that this roughness causes distinct spectral differences within the Reststrahlen bands. We find that surface roughness, if rough on the scale of the wavelengths where the wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient (k) is large, can cause not only decreased spectral contrast, but also substantial changes in spectral shape. The spectral shape differences are small enough that the composition of the material is still recognizable, but large enough such that a roughness effect could be detected. We find that my studying the thermal infrared spectral character of the sample, it may be possible to make general inferences about microcrystallinity, and thus aid in the potential reconstruction of sedimentary rock diagenesis.

  4. Groundwater seepage landscapes from local or distal sources in experiments and on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, W. A.; McLelland, S. J.; Parsons, D. R.; Murphy, B. J.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2015-02-01

    Theater-headed valleys can form due to groundwater sapping, but these valleys could also be the result of knick-point (waterfall) erosion generated by overland flow. This morphological ambiguity hampers the interpretation of such valleys on Mars, especially due to insufficient knowledge of material properties, but the climate implications are quite different. Instead of single-valley morphology, metrics of the entire landscape may provide diagnostic insight in the formative hydrological conditions. However, flow patterns and the resulting landscapes are different for different sources of groundwater and poorly understood. We aim to increase our understanding of the formation of the entire landscapes by sapping from different sources of groundwater and to provide a framework of landscape metrics of such systems to aid interpretation of such landscapes. We study sapping from local and distal sources of groundwater in sandbox experiments and combine our results with previous experiments. Key results are that groundwater piracy acts on distally-fed valleys, which results in a sparsely dissected landscape of many small and a few large valleys while locally-fed valleys result in a densely dissected landscape. In addition, distally-fed valleys grow into the direction of the groundwater source while locally-fed channels grow in a broad range of directions and have a strong tendency to bifurcate, particularly on flat horizontal surfaces. As an example, we apply these results to two Martian cases. The valleys of Louros Valles show properties of sapping by a local source and Nirgal Vallis shows evidence of a distal source, which is likely groundwater from Tharsis.

  5. Groundwater seepage landscapes from distant and local sources in experiments and on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, W. A.; McLelland, S. J.; Parsons, D. R.; Murphy, B. J.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    Valleys with theater-shaped heads can form due to the seepage of groundwater and as a result of knickpoint (waterfall) erosion generated by overland flow. This ambiguity in the mechanism of formation hampers the interpretation of such valleys on Mars, particularly since there is limited knowledge of material properties. Moreover, the hydrological implications of a groundwater or surface water origin are important for our understanding of the evolution of surface features on Mars, and a quantification of valley morphologies at the landscape scale may provide diagnostic insights on the formative hydrological conditions. However, flow patterns and the resulting landscapes produced by different sources of groundwater are poorly understood. We aim to improve the understanding of the formation of entire valley landscapes through seepage processes from different groundwater sources that will provide a framework of landscape metrics for the interpretation of such systems. We study groundwater seepage from a distant source of groundwater and from infiltration of local precipitation in a series of sandbox experiments and combine our results with previous experiments and observations of the Martian surface. Key results are that groundwater flow piracy acts on valleys fed by a distant groundwater source and results in a sparsely dissected landscape of many small and a few large valleys. In contrast, valleys fed by a local groundwater source, i.e., nearby infiltration, result in a densely dissected landscape. In addition, valleys fed by a distant groundwater source grow towards that source, while valleys with a local source grow in a broad range of directions and have a strong tendency to bifurcate, particularly on flatter surfaces. We consider these results with respect to two Martian cases: Louros Valles shows properties of seepage by a local source of groundwater and Nirgal Vallis shows evidence of a distant source, which we interpret as groundwater flow from Tharsis.

  6. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  7. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  8. Predictability of Sleep in Patients with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Annie; Ivers, Hans; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Morin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate whether the night-to-night variability in insomnia follows specific predictable patterns and to characterize sleep patterns using objective sleep and clinical variables. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: University-affiliated sleep disorders center. Participants: 146 participants suffering from chronic and primary insomnia. Measurements and Results: Daily sleep diaries were completed for an average of 48 days and self-reported questionnaires once. Three nights were spent in the sleep laboratory for polysomnographic (PSG) assessment. Sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time were derived from sleep diaries and PSG. Time-series diary data were used to compute conditional probabilities of having an insomnia night after 1, 2, or 3 consecutive insomnia night(s). Conditional probabilities were submitted to a k-means cluster analysis. A 3-cluster solution was retained. One cluster included 38 participants exhibiting an unpredictable insomnia pattern. Another included 30 participants with a low and decreasing probability to have an insomnia night. The last cluster included 49 participants exhibiting a high probability to have insomnia every night. Clusters differed on age, insomnia severity, and mental fatigue, and on subjective sleep variables, but not on PSG sleep variables. Conclusion: These findings replicate our previous study and provide additional evidence that unpredictability is a less prevalent feature of insomnia than suggested previously in the literature. The presence of the 3 clusters is discussed in term of sleep perception and sleep homeostasis dysregulation. Citation: Vallières A; Ivers H; Beaulieu-Bonneau S; Morin CM. Predictability of sleep in patients with insomnia. SLEEP 2011;34(5):609-617. PMID:21532954

  9. Automatic classification of spectral units in the Aristarchus plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Le Mouelic, S.; Langevin, Y.

    1999-09-01

    A reduction scheme has been recently proposed for the NIR images of Clementine (Le Mouelic et al, JGR 1999). This reduction has been used to build an integrated UVvis-NIR image cube of the Aristarchus region, from which compositional and maturity variations can be studied (Pinet et al, LPSC 1999). We will present an analysis of this image cube, providing a classification in spectral types and spectral units. The image cube is processed with Gmode analysis using three different data sets: Normalized spectra provide a classification based mainly on spectral slope variations (ie. maturity and volcanic glasses). This analysis discriminates between craters plus ejecta, mare basalts, and DMD. Olivine-rich areas and Aristarchus central peak are also recognized. Continuum-removed spectra provide a classification more related to compositional variations, which correctly identifies olivine and pyroxenes-rich areas (in Aristarchus, Krieger, Schiaparelli\\ldots). A third analysis uses spectral parameters related to maturity and Fe composition (reflectance, 1 mu m band depth, and spectral slope) rather than intensities. It provides the most spatially consistent picture, but fails in detecting Vallis Schroeteri and DMDs. A supplementary unit, younger and rich in pyroxene, is found on Aristarchus south rim. In conclusion, Gmode analysis can discriminate between different spectral types already identified with more classic methods (PCA, linear mixing\\ldots). No previous assumption is made on the data structure, such as endmembers number and nature, or linear relationship between input variables. The variability of the spectral types is intrinsically accounted for, so that the level of analysis is always restricted to meaningful limits. A complete classification should integrate several analyses based on different sets of parameters. Gmode is therefore a powerful light toll to perform first look analysis of spectral imaging data. This research has been partly founded by the French

  10. Geochemical diversity in first rocks examined by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater: Evidence for and significance of an alkali and volatile-rich igneous source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Perrett, G. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Blaney, D. L.; Olilla, A.; Calef, F. J.; Edgar, L.; Elliott, B. E.; Grotzinger, J.; Hurowitz, J.; King, P. L.; Minitti, M. E.; Sautter, V.; Stack, K.; Berger, J. A.; Bridges, J. C.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Forni, O.; Leshin, L. A.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Newsom, H.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Stolper, E. M.; Thompson, L.; VanBommel, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    first four rocks examined by the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer indicate that Curiosity landed in a lithologically diverse region of Mars. These rocks, collectively dubbed the Bradbury assemblage, were studied along an eastward traverse (sols 46-102). Compositions range from Na- and Al-rich mugearite Jake_Matijevic to Fe-, Mg-, and Zn-rich alkali-rich basalt/hawaiite Bathurst_Inlet and span nearly the entire range in FeO* and MnO of the data sets from previous Martian missions and Martian meteorites. The Bradbury assemblage is also enriched in K and moderately volatile metals (Zn and Ge). These elements do not correlate with Cl or S, suggesting that they are associated with the rocks themselves and not with salt-rich coatings. Three out of the four Bradbury rocks plot along a line in elemental variation diagrams, suggesting mixing between Al-rich and Fe-rich components. ChemCam analyses give insight to their degree of chemical heterogeneity and grain size. Variations in trace elements detected by ChemCam suggest chemical weathering (Li) and concentration in mineral phases (e.g., Rb and Sr in feldspars). We interpret the Bradbury assemblage to be broadly volcanic and/or volcaniclastic, derived either from near the Gale crater rim and transported by the Peace Vallis fan network, or from a local volcanic source within Gale Crater. High Fe and Fe/Mn in Et_Then likely reflect secondary precipitation of Fe3+ oxides as a cement or rind. The K-rich signature of the Bradbury assemblage, if igneous in origin, may have formed by small degrees of partial melting of metasomatized mantle.

  11. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  12. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Ancient deltas on Mars: outstanding targets for martian habitability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Fawdon, P.; Grindrod, P. M.; Balme, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Warner, N. H.; Muller, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of putative ancient deltaic sedimentary systems on Mars has been both exciting and controversial. Our excitement is elicted by the potential provided by deltas as evidence for standing bodies of water associated with the deltas, and the resulting implications for both the ancient climate of Mars and ancient habitability. The controversy stems from how confident can we be in the identification of ancient deltaic systems from orbital data, and how robust are our assertions about the habitability potential of such settings. Delta systems in particular are key astrobiological targets because at their distal toes fine-grained sediment (ie., clays) settle from suspension in a lower energy setting and they are commonly characterised by high rates of sedimentation. This leads to high preservation potential of biosignatures. Targeting of future Mars rovers to investigate deltaic landing sites requires better understanding of these issues to reduce exploration risk. In this presentation, we describe the key criteria that enable us to make robust interpretations of deltaic stratigraphy and constrain delta evolution for martian systems. In particular, the past 10 years has seen in a revolution in our process understanding of terrestrial delta systems through a combination of field, experimental and numerical modelling studies. Analysis of martian deltas has much to gain from these results. We go on to consider why deltaic systems offer potential as astrobiological target paleoenvironments. We use the exhumed delta system (Hypanis delta system) at the termination of Hypanis Vallis, 11.8°N, 314.96°E as a case example. This system, situated in Xanthe Terra, comprises layered sedimentary rocks with an overall multi-lobate geometry and associated inverted channel networks. The Hypanis 'delta' is a proposed landing site for the ExoMars rover and also for the NASA 2020 mission.

  15. Indicators and Methods to Understand Past Environments from ExoMars Rover Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Bradak, B.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Ujvari, G.

    2016-03-01

    Great advances are expected during the analysis of drilled material acquired from 2 m depth by ExoMars rover, supported by the comparison to local context, and the joint use of different instruments. Textural information might be less detailed relatively to what is usually obtained at outcrops during classical geological field work on the Earth, partly because of the lack of optical imaging of the borehole wall and also because the collected samples are crushed. However sub-mm scale layering and some other sedimentary features might be identified in the borehole wall observations, or in the collected sample prior to crushing, and also at nearby outcrops. The candidate landing sites provide different targets and focus for research: Oxia Planum requires analysis of phyllosilicates and OH content, at Mawrth Vallis the layering of various phyllosilicates and the role of shallow-subsurface leaching should be emphasized. At Aram Dorsum the particle size and fluvial sedimentary features will be interesting. Hydrated perchlorates and sulphates are ideal targets possibly at every landing sites because of OH retention, especially if they are mixed with smectites, thus could point to even ancient wet periods. Extensive use of information from the infrared wall scanning will be complemented for geological context by orbital and rover imaging of nearby outcrops. Information from the context is especially useful to infer the possible action of past H2O. Separation of the ice and liquid water effects will be supported by cation abundance and sedimentary context. Shape of grains also helps here, and composition of transported grains points to the weathering potential of the environment in general. The work on Mars during the drilling and sample analysis will provide brand new experience and knowledge for future missions.

  16. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  17. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  18. A Case for Hydrothermal Gray Hematite in Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, D. C.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor has detected deposits of coarsegrained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris [1]. Detailed features in the hematite spectral signature of the Sinus Meridiani region show that the spectrum is consistent with emission dominated by crystal c-faces of hematite, implying that the hematite is specular [2]. Gray specular hematite (also known as specularite ) is a particular gray crystalline form that has intergrown, hexagonal plates with a silvery metallic luster. We believe that the key to the origin of specularite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 C. In reviewing the occurrence of gray hematite on Earth, we find no exceptions to this warm temperature requirement [3]. Thermal crystallization on Mars could occur (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in lowtemperature waters, or (2) as direct precipitation from hydrothermal solution. Aram Chaos has unique chaotic terrain that offers more clues to the formation of the hematite than the relatively featureless flat terrain (as seen from orbit) of Sinus Meridiani. Aram Chaos provides the opportunity to look at a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography. This combination of data suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps a lag deposit. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of 3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse

  19. Indicators and Methods to Understand Past Environments from ExoMars Rover Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Bradak, B.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Ujvari, G.

    2016-11-01

    Great advances are expected during the analysis of drilled material acquired from 2 m depth by ExoMars rover, supported by the comparison to local context, and the joint use of different instruments. Textural information might be less detailed relatively to what is usually obtained at outcrops during classical geological field work on the Earth, partly because of the lack of optical imaging of the borehole wall and also because the collected samples are crushed. However sub-mm scale layering and some other sedimentary features might be identified in the borehole wall observations, or in the collected sample prior to crushing, and also at nearby outcrops. The candidate landing sites provide different targets and focus for research: Oxia Planum requires analysis of phyllosilicates and OH content, at Mawrth Vallis the layering of various phyllosilicates and the role of shallow-subsurface leaching should be emphasized. At Aram Dorsum the particle size and fluvial sedimentary features will be interesting. Hydrated perchlorates and sulphates are ideal targets possibly at every landing sites because of OH retention, especially if they are mixed with smectites, thus could point to even ancient wet periods. Extensive use of information from the infrared wall scanning will be complemented for geological context by orbital and rover imaging of nearby outcrops. Information from the context is especially useful to infer the possible action of past H2O. Separation of the ice and liquid water effects will be supported by cation abundance and sedimentary context. Shape of grains also helps here, and composition of transported grains points to the weathering potential of the environment in general. The work on Mars during the drilling and sample analysis will provide brand new experience and knowledge for future missions.

  20. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in