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Sample records for atlanta metropolitan area

  1. Assessing the Impacts of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport on Particulate Matter and Ozone in Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Alper; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine, through modeling, the impact of aircraft emissions on regional air quality, especially in regard to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) as well as ozone and other pollutants. For this, we focused on Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport which is the busiest airport in the world based on passenger traffic (AIC, 2003). Hartsfield-Jackson serves the metropolitan Atlanta area where air quality does not meet national standards. Emissions from mobile and industrial sources (including several large electric power generating utilities) are the major contributors to the area's air pollution. In this study, we assessed the impact of Hartsfield-Jackson Airport on air quality around Atlanta, Georgia, and compared it to the impacts of other emission sources in the area. The assessment was built upon other, related air quality studies involving both field and modeling components. To achieve the objectives, first a detailed inventory was developed for aircraft and other emissions at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then, air quality simulations were performed to relate these emissions to regional air quality around Atlanta. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) was used as the modeling platform. The period of August 11-20 2000 was selected as the episode to be modeled in this study. Prior modeling of this episode during the Fall Line Air Quality Study (FAQS) and availability of additional PM(2.5) measurements for evaluation played a major role in this selection. Meteorological data for this episode as well as emission data for sources other than aircrafts were already available from FAQS.

  2. Increasing spatiotemporal resolution of several major pollutant species in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosius, A. L.; Luong, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The American Lung Association cited Atlanta, Georgia, as one of the top 20 most polluted U.S. cities in 2014. Heavy air and ground transportation traffic contribute to the production of carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and tropospheric ozone (O3) for the Atlanta Metropolitan Area (AMA). Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport contributes significantly to the emission of these pollutants and their precursors. This study focuses on enhancing spatiotemporal resolution of CO2, PM, and O3in near-surface (ground to 50m) air columns by using Arduino-based sensors. The city of Decatur, due to its proximity to the airport, is the study site for the investigation of target pollutant concentrations. The results of this study, combined with other metropolitan air quality data sets, can be used to verify projected trends and append seasonal data. An understanding of the pollutant concentration distributions throughout the near-surface air column is vital to providing insight into the fluctuation of urban area pollutants.

  3. Environmental Public Health Tracking: Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange-Atlanta (HEXIX-Atlanta: A cooperative Program Between CDC and NASA for Development of an Environmental Public Health Tracking Network in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is coordinating HELIX- Atlanta to provide information regarding the five-county Metropolitan Atlanta Area (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinett) via a network of integrated environmental monitoring and public health data systems so that all sectors can take action to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. The HELIX-Atlanta Network is a tool to access interoperable information systems with optional information technology linkage functionality driven by scientific rationale. HELIX-Atlanta is a collaborative effort with local, state, federal, and academic partners, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified the following HELIX-Atlanta initial focus areas: childhood lead poisoning, short-latency cancers, developmental disabilities, birth defects, vital records, respiratory health, age of housing, remote sensing data, and environmental monitoring, HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified and evaluated information systems containing information on the above focus areas. The information system evaluations resulted in recommendations for what resources would be needed to interoperate selected information systems in compliance with the CDC Public Health Information Network (PHIN). This presentation will discuss the collaborative process of building a network that links health and environment data for information exchange, including NASA remote sensing data, for use in HELIX-Atlanta.

  4. Time and distance barriers to mammography facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Foster, Stephanie; Flanagan, Barry; Dent, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    To a great extent, research on geographic accessibility to mammography facilities has focused on urban-rural differences. Spatial accessibility within urban areas can nonetheless pose a challenge, especially for minorities and low-income urban residents who are more likely to depend on public transportation. To examine spatial and temporal accessibility to mammography facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area by public and private transportation, we built a multimodal transportation network model including bus and rail routes, bus and rail stops, transfers, walk times, and wait times. Our analysis of travel times from the population-weighted centroids of the 282 census tracts in the 2-county area to the nearest facility found that the median public transportation time was almost 51 minutes. We further examined public transportation travel times by levels of household access to a private vehicle. Residents in tracts with the lowest household access to a private vehicle had the shortest travel times, suggesting that facilities were favorably located for women who have to use public transportation. However, census tracts with majority non-Hispanic black populations had the longest travel times for all levels of vehicle availability. Time to the nearest mammography facility would not pose a barrier to women who had access to a private vehicle. This study adds to the literature demonstrating differences in spatial accessibility to health services by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Ameliorating spatial inaccessibility represents an opportunity for intervention that operates at the population level.

  5. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  6. Investigation into the use of satellite data in aiding characterization of particulate air quality in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Alston, Erica J; Sokolik, Irina N; Doddridge, Bruce G

    2011-02-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, GA. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intracity PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. PM2.5 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) have higher values in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. Most (80%) of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index (AI) is below 0.5 with little differences between spring and summer. Using this value as a constraint of the carbonaceous aerosol signal in the urban area, aerosol transport events such as wildfire smoke associated with higher positive AI values can be identified. The results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the air quality index (AQI) through the use of multiyear AOD records for a specific area. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are used to classify the AOD into different AQI codes and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent most of a specific AQI category. For example, 80% of cases of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 and 0.6. The development of AOD thresholds provides a useful tool for evaluating air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  7. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  8. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  9. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  10. Fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations in streams of the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, May-October 1994 and 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Frick, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The Metropolitan Atlanta area has been undergoing a period of rapid growth and development. The population in the 10-county metropolitan area almost doubled from about 1.5 million people in 1970 to 2.9 million people in 1995 (Atlanta Regional Commission, written commun., 2000). Residential, commercial, and other urban land uses more than tripled during the same period (Frick and others, 1998). The Chattahoochee River is the most utilized water resource in Georgia. The rapid growth of Metropolitan Atlanta and its location downstream of the headwaters of the drainage basin make the Chattahoochee River a vital resource for drinking-water supplies, recreational opportunities, and wastewater assimilation. In 1978, the U.S. Congress declared the natural, scenic, recreation, and other values of 48 miles of the Chattahoochee River from Buford Dam to Peachtree Creek to be of special national significance. To preserve this reach of the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Congress created the Chattahoochee River National Recreational Area (CRNRA), which includes the Chattahoochee River downstream from Buford Dam to the mouth of Peachtree Creek and a series of park areas adjacent to the river in northern Metropolitan Atlanta Even with this protection, waters of the Chattahoochee River and many of its tributaries in Metropolitan Atlanta did not meet water-quality standards set for designated uses during 1994 and 1995 (fig. 1 and table 1). Much of the degradation of water quality has been associated with areas undergoing rapid urban growth and sprawling suburban development. The resulting conversion of mostly forested land to urban land has multiple adverse effects on water quality. Degradation of water quality may be caused by a number of factors including an increase in nutrient concentrations, sediment and sedimentbound contaminant concentrations (e.g., metals and pesticides) (Frick and others, 1998), and fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations (Center for Watershed

  11. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  12. EPA to Sign Memorandum of Understanding with Atlanta Metropolitan State College

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Wednesday, April 22, 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will enter into agreement with Atlanta Metropolitan State College (AMSC) to promote environmental sustainability. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) will provi

  13. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  16. Preliminary flood-frequency relations for urban streams, Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, Harold G.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban streams in metropolitan Atlanta. The method is based on adjustments to the natural stream flood-frequency and rainfall-frequency characteristics of the local area as defined by urban flood studies in other areas. The effects of urbanization on flood-peak runoff are estimated from the percentage of drainage basin that is impervious and the percentage of drainage area served by storm sewers. Equation are presented for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood peak discharges for basin sizes from 0.5 to 100 square miles in the Atlanta metro area. Data from 12 urban streams in the Atlanta area were used to obtain a qualitative verification of the 2- and 100-year estimating equations. Hydrologic data are presently being collected for a study that will provide a data base for use in hydrologic models to develop more reliable urban flood-frequency relations. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Declining Black Access to College in Metropolitan Atlanta. Working Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Faith

    Examination of college enrollment in Atlanta, Georgia, showed the starkest contrasts between White gains and Black declines of any of the five metropolitan regions studied by the University of Chicago's Metropolitan Opportunity Project: while there were no declines in enrollment for White or Hispanic students, there were substantial declines for…

  18. Metropolitan area of Chicago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The metropolitan area of Chicago is encompassed in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S190-B photograph taken on September 18, 1973 from the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. The surrounding major cities of Aurora and Joliet, Illinois; Hammond, Gary and East Chicago, Indiana, are easily delineated.

  19. The Distribution of Segregation in Atlanta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    A prediction from ecological theory relating the distribution of residential segregation between inner and outer zones of a metropolitan area to conditions of population growth, expansion, etc. was tested using 1960 data on the Atlanta standard metropolitan statistical area. (JM)

  20. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  1. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  2. Ground-water resources of the south metropolitan Atlanta region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Peck, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the nine county south metropolitan Atlanta region were evaluated in response to an increased demand for water supplies and concern that existing surface water supplies may not be able to meet future supply demands. Previous investigations have suggested that crystalline rock in the study area has low permeability and can not sustain well yields suitable for public supply. However, the reported yield for 406 wells drilled into crystalIine rock units in this area ranged from less than 1 to about 700 gallons per minute, and averaged 43 gallons per minute. The reported flow from 13 springs ranged from 0.5 to 679 gallons per minute. The yield of 43 wells and flow from five springs was reported to exceed 100 gallons per minute. Most of the high-yielding wells and springs were near contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithologic and weathering properties. The high-yielding wells and springs are located in a variety of topographic settings: hillsides, upland draws, and hilltops were most prevalent. The study area, which includes Henry, Fayette, Coweta, Spalding, Lamar, Pike, Meriwether, Upson and Talbot Counties, is within the Piedmont physiographic province except for the southernmost part of Talbot County, which is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In the Piedmont, ground-water storage occurs in joints, fractures and other secondary openings in the bedrock, and in pore spaces in the regolith. The most favorable geologic settings for siting highyielding wells are along contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithology and permeability, major zones of fracturing such as the Towaliga and Auchumpkee fault zones, and other numerous shear and microbreccia zones. Although most wells in the study area are from 101 to 300 feet deep, the highest average yields were obtained from wells 51 to 100 feet deep, and 301 to 500 feet deep. Of the wells inventoried, the average diameter of well casing was largest for wells located on hills and

  3. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitan Atlanta, 1998–2005

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Mark D.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine an accurate estimate of the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) using current standard diagnostic modalities. Study design We obtained data on infants with CHD delivered during 1998–2005 identified by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, an active, population-based birth defects surveillance system. Physiologic shunts in infancy and shunts associated with prematurity were excluded. Selected infant and maternal characteristics of the cases were compared with those of the overall birth cohort. Results From 1998–2005 there were 398 140 births, of which 3240 infants had CHD, for an overall prevalence of 81.4/10 000 births. The most common CHD were muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and secundum atrial septal defect, with prevalence of 27.5, 10.6, and 10.3/10 000 births, respectively. The prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cyanotic CHD, was twice that of transposition of the great arteries (4.7 vs. 2.3/10 000 births). Many common CHD were associated with older maternal age and multiple-gestation pregnancy; several were found to vary by sex. Conclusion This study, using a standardized cardiac nomenclature and classification, provides current prevalence estimates of the various CHD subtypes. These estimates can be used to assess variations in prevalence across populations, time or space. PMID:18657826

  4. Metropolitan Areas as Redistributors of Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.; McHugh, Kevin E.

    This paper reports on a demographic study that focuses on the patterns of migration to and from specific metropolitan areas which contribute to nonmetropolitan growth and decline. For background, the paper examines some general properties of the United States migration system. Then the concept of metropolitan areas as redistributors of population…

  5. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  6. 78 FR 68777 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation...-routes) in the Atlanta, GA area. The new routes would support the Atlanta Optimization of Airspace and..., GA area. Since there are no published routes currently available for aircraft to use...

  7. Modeling the Effect of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrate Load Using SWAT in an Urban Watershed of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrate (NO3-) contamination in both surface and ground waters as a result of failing or high density systems. In metropolitan Atlanta, more than 26% of homes are on OWTS and this percentage is expected to increase wi...

  8. Fight or Flight? Immigration, Competition, and Language Assistance Resources in Metropolitan Atlanta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasawa, Beth

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino/a immigrant population increases, racial conflict historically understood in terms of Black and White in the U.S. South has expanded to include new contestants in metro-Atlanta public schools. By examining market and sociological competition theoretical perspectives, this study investigates how language assistance resource…

  9. Gender Inequality in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, David A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from General Social Surveys and Census Bureau sources, 1964-94, indicate that nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas are similar in married women's labor force participation and gender differences in earnings. Nonmetro areas have higher occupational sex segregation and slightly less egalitarian gender attitudes. Gender stratification has…

  10. 75 FR 2582 - Proposed Modification of the Atlanta, GA, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., in Covington, GA, as published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63818), FR... Federal Aviation Administration Proposed Modification of the Atlanta, GA, Class B Airspace Area; Public... Friday, December 4, 2009, concerning a proposal to revise Class B airspace at Atlanta, GA, (74 FR...

  11. Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area photographed from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Detroit River separates Detroit from Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The largest body of water is Lake Erie. The smaller body of water is Lake St. Clair. This photograph was taken with the Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B five-inch Earth terrain camera.

  12. Business Conditions in Michigan Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Paul J.

    The study culminating in this report analyzed business conditions in eleven Michigan metropolitan areas during a ten-year period from the late 60s to the late 70s. Focus is on the need for an overview of the effects of cyclical swings, but it does not try to identify the causes of variation in performance. Short-run business conditions are…

  13. Metropolitan Orlando area computerized signal system

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, F.R. ); Allen, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Florida's Orlando metropolitan area, which has a population measuring 1 million, is among the fastest growing areas in the nation. The city's weather and popular attractions draw 9 to 10 million tourists annually, half of them arriving in their own cars. Add to this the 1.1 million automobiles already on the streets, and the traffic problems become a nightmare. The Orlando metropolitan area has approximately 550 operational traffic signals, with an increasing number of new signals added each year to control the city's expanding growth. A central, computerized signal system has been conceived as one of the solutions necessary to cope with this tremendous traffic growth. The system is flexible, expandable, and capable of meeting future technical challenges. This article describes the steps that led to the feasibility study, design, and implementation of the Orlando area computerized signal system.

  14. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  15. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  20. Flood Preparedness Planning: Metropolitan Phoenix Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    were to illustrate preparedness planning concepts for non- flash flood metropolitan areas and to advance the state-of-the-art in the analysis procedures...rivers and washes, in particular those of a flash flood nature, are not addressed herein. Specifically, the study is bounded by: the Salt River from...from flash floods in small tributary streams and washes below the reservoirs, low flow releases, and developmental disturbances. Salt cedars and

  1. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  2. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  4. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  5. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex. PMID:26588663

  6. View of Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is seen in this Skyalb 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. Also in the picture are Scottsdale, Paradise Valley, Tempe, Mesa, Laveen, Komatke, Salt River Indian Reseravation, and part of the Gila River Indian Reservation. Features which can be detected from the photograph include: cultural patterns defined by commercial, industrial, agricultural and residential areas; transportation networks consisting of major corridors, primary, secondary, and feeder streets; major urban developments on the area such as airports, Squaw Peak CIty Park, Turf Paradise Race Track and the State Fair grounds.

  7. Increased tornado hazard in large metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The tornado climate was compared between large metropolitan areas and neighbouring non-metro cities using modern tornado reports in the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) archives. Twenty large metro areas in the higher-risk region of the U.S. were used to boost sample sizes hence robustness of results. Observational biases were minimised by using the most densely populated zips. The analysis found 50% greater tornado frequency and a thicker-tailed severity distribution in metro areas compared to the non-metro cities. These differences are significant at the 1% level. Regarding tornado frequency, the primary question is whether the raised occurrence rates in metro areas are due to observation biases or real differences in tornado climate. Past studies found no relative biases at the population densities used here, whereas there are two potential urban drivers of tornadogenesis. First, the urban heat island raises the storm severity above and downwind of main urban areas, as recorded in precipitation and lightning datasets. Second, the increased surface roughness over metro areas raises low-level shear which in turn has been found to be favourable for tornadogenesis. Modification of convective storms over large metro areas is the more plausible explanation of raised tornado frequency. The drivers of a thicker-tailed tornado severity distribution in metro areas are less certain. Potential causes include: increased debris-loading in metro tornadoes; modification of storms' lower boundary layer by increased surface roughness in metro areas; the reduced density of damage indicators in non-metro cities.

  8. Confirmation of the Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Stream Base-Flow Nitrogen Concentrations in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Hoghooghi, Nahal; Radcliffe, David E; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Clarke, John S

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater and lawn fertilizer potentially contribute to degraded water quality in urban watersheds. Previously we described a study from 2011 to 2012 in which we examined the effect of the density of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) on nitrogen concentrations in 24 small streams in metropolitan Atlanta. Our objective in this study was to confirm that the impact on water quality that we observed was due to OWTS and not lawn fertilizer. We sampled the same 24 streams again in 2013 and 2014, representing watersheds ranging in area from 0.18 to 8.8 km. We conducted regression analysis of the effect of OWTS and season, used dual-isotope analysis (nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate) to identify sources and determine the effect of denitrification and mixing, and conducted stream walks to identify areas where animals had access to the streams. Twelve streams were characterized as high-density (HD, more than 75 systems km) OWTS and 12 as low-density (LD, less than 75 systems km) OWTS. Water samples were collected three times a year under base-flow conditions, from November 2011 to July 2014, and analyzed for nitrate (NO-N), ammonium (NH-N), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Total nitrogen and NO-N concentrations increased linearly with increasing OWTS density above a threshold of about 75 OWTS km. Dual-isotope analysis of NO showed that stream NO originated predominantly from OWTS in HD watersheds and from a combination of animal waste and perhaps organic N in LD watersheds. Stream walks showed that livestock had access to some of the LD streams with high N concentrations. Our results confirm that HD OWTS can significantly degrade water quality at the watershed scale.

  9. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  10. Acid aerosols in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, Thomas; Zelenka, Michael P.; Lawrence, Philip M.; Houston, Robert M.; Burton, Robert

    This article presents data on ambient concentrations of selected acidic aerosols at four existing monitoring sites in the Pittsburgh PA metropolitan area. The data were collected by staff of the Allegheny County Health Department, Division of Air Quality during the summer and fall of 1993. The sampling protocol was focused on obtaining 24 h-average ammonia, ammonium, acidic sulfates, and particle strong acids data on a 2 to 3 day cycle. The data were obtained using Harvard University School of Public Health's "Short-HEADS" annular denuder sampling train. The Pittsburgh area is of interest because it is downwind of a major regional source of sulfur and nitrogen emissions from coal-burning power plants: the Ohio River Valley. The data presented here indicate that ground-level concentrations of acidic aerosols in Pittsburgh are highly correlated spatially and that many pollutants are higher on days when ground-level wind direction vectors indicate that wind is coming from the southwest rather than from the Pittsburgh source area itself. The monitoring site that is most upwind of the Pittsburgh source area - South Fayette - has particle strong acid levels about twice those of sites closer in to the Pittsburgh central business district.

  11. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  17. 78 FR 70895 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish 14 RNAV Q-routes and modify 4 Q-routes in support of the Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM)...

  18. 75 FR 15415 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 26, Atlanta, Georgia, Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 26, Atlanta, Georgia, Area Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the...

  19. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  20. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  1. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  2. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  3. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  4. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  5. No Easy Answers: Persistent Poverty in the Metropolitan Washington Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joan Paddock

    This paper examines the extent and nature of poverty in Metropolitan Washington, D.C., how it compares to poverty in other similar metropolitan areas, and what can be done to reduce the numbers of persons suffering from persistent poverty in Washington. According to 1970 and 1980 U.S. Census Bureau data, poverty in the Washington, D.C.,…

  6. EPA Approves Redesignation of Atlanta Area to Attainment for the 1997 Annual Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Standard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that it is taking final action to approve the state of Georgia's request to redesignate the Atlanta Area to attainment for the 1997 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) standard. This fi

  7. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  8. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  9. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  10. Atlanta Ranks 3rd on EPAs Energy Star Top Cities List of Most Buildings in the U.S.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its seventh-annual list of the top 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified buildings in 2014 and the city of Atlanta ranks third. EPA's Energy Star Top C

  11. The Emergency Medical Services Survey of Metro Atlanta Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKalb Tech. Inst., Clarkston, GA.

    A survey was conducted in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area to determine emergency medical services (EMS) employer needs for persons with basic emergency medical technician (EMT) skills and higher paramedic skills. Information was gathered through a telephone survey to which 24 (60 percent) of the 40 EMS employers in the area responded. The…

  12. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  13. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  14. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  15. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  16. Characterization of aerosol composition and sources in the greater Atlanta area by aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Weber, R. J. J.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    An important and uncertain aspect of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is that it is often associated with anthropogenic pollution tracers. Prior studies in Atlanta suggested that 70-80% of the carbon in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is modern, yet it is well-correlated with the anthropogenic CO. In this study, we deployed a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at multiple sites in different seasons (May 2012-February 2013) to characterize the sources and chemical composition of aerosols in the greater Atlanta area. This area in the SE US is ideal to investigate anthropogenic-biogenic interactions due to high natural and anthropogenic emissions. These extensive field studies are part of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology study (SCAPE). The HR-ToF-AMS is deployed at four sites (~ 3 weeks each) in rotation: Jefferson Street (urban), Yorkville (rural), roadside site (near Highway 75/85), and Georgia Tech site (campus), with the urban and rural sites being part of the SEARCH network. We obtained seven HR-ToF-AMS datasets in total. During the entire measurement period, the ACSM is stationary at the GIT site and samples continuously. We perform positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM data to deconvolve the OA into different components. While the diurnal cycle of the total OA is flat as what have been previously observed, the OA factors resolved by PMF analysis show distinctively different diurnal trends. We find that the "more-oxidized oxygenated OA" (MO-OOA) constitutes a major fraction of OA at all sites. In summer, OA is dominated by SOA, e.g., isoprene-OA and OOA with different degrees of oxidation. In contrary, biomass burning OA is more prominent in winter data. By comparing HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM data during the same sampling periods, we find that the aerosol time series are highly correlated, indicating the

  17. Immigration and foreign people in six Italian metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Golini, A; Strozza, S

    1998-01-01

    "The study deals with size, main features (citizenship, sex and age) and legal status (settled and semi-settled legal migrants, illegal or irregular migrants) of [the] foreign population in six Italian metropolitan areas (Rome, Milan, Turin, Naples, Bologna and Palermo). Available data and their reliability are first analysed. The six metropolitan provinces reveal a very high concentration of foreign population, Rome and Milan in particular. The general picture is that of an increasing concentration of foreign residents in the capital city, but at the same time of the growing scattering in the metropolitan municipalities. Estimates for illegal or irregular migrants, obtained by applying the shares of illegality [emerging] from sample surveys to the regular stock, suggest that the percentage of illegal and irregular immigrants is particularly high in the provinces of Rome and Naples and is mainly connected with flows from Eastern Europe and North Africa." (EXCERPT)

  18. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  19. Resettlement Case Study: Impacted East Coast Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The resettlement experiences of a Vietnamese refugee family in an East Coast metropolitan area with a large refugee influx is studied. The report is in the form of a journal written by a family member, but is actually a composite of real experiences based on information gathered from interviews with individuals knowledgeable about refugee…

  20. [Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1986-04-01

    The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982. (summary in ENG)

  1. Law and Order in the Metropolitan Area: Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Matthew, Jr.

    One of the major objectives of the University Urban Interface Program (UUIP) at the University of Pittsburgh was to develop some long-range goals for the city of Pittsburgh to improve the community. This document is specifically concerned with law and order in the metropolitan area with regard to reforms needed in the machinery. If people were to…

  2. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  3. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in streams at low flow in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of urban development on pesticide concentrations in streams under low-flow conditions, water samples were collected at stream sites along an urban land use gradient in six environmentally heterogeneous metropolitan areas of the United States. In all six metropolitan areas, total insecticide concentrations generally increased significantly as urban land cover in the basin increased, regardless of whether the background land cover in the basins was agricultural, forested, or shrub land. In contrast, the response of total herbicide concentrations to urbanization varied with the environmental setting. In the three metropolitan areas with predominantly forested background land cover (Raleigh-Durham, NC, USA; Atlanta, GA, USA; Portland, OR, USA), total herbicide concentrations increased significantly with increasing urban land cover. In contrast, total herbicide concentrations were not significantly related to urban land cover in the three remaining metropolitan areas, where total herbicide concentrations appeared to be strongly influenced by agricultural as well as urban sources (Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI, USA; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, USA), or by factors not measured in the present study, such as water management (Denver, CO, USA). Pesticide concentrations rarely exceeded benchmarks for protection of aquatic life, although these low-flow concentrations are likely to be lower than at other times, such as during peak pesticide-use periods, storm events, or irrigation discharge. Normalization of pesticide concentrations by the pesticide toxicity index - an index of relative potential toxicity - for fish and cladocerans indicated that the pesticides detected at the highest concentrations (herbicides in five of the six metropolitan areas) were not necessarily the pesticides with the greatest potential to adversely affect aquatic life (typically insecticides such as carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and fipronil). ?? 2008 SETAC.

  4. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  5. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  6. 76 FR 34576 - Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area; OMB Approval of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 1 and 93 RIN 2120-AI17 Washington, DC Metropolitan... certain information collection. The rule titled ``Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules... Operations Airspace and AIM, 800 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone (202)...

  7. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  8. Epidemic process over the commute network in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival.

  9. 75 FR 39052 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BUDGET 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Correction In... Statistical Areas and New England City and Town Areas, in the last line of paragraph (a), ``75'' should read... column, in paragraph (f), in the first and second lines, ``Metropolitan and Metropolitan Statistical...

  10. Principal faults in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Summary -- This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, documents and refines the locations of principal faults mapped in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area in previous studies. Numerous subsurface faults have been documented beneath the Houston metropolitan area at depths of 3,200 to 13,000 feet. Some of these subsurface faults have affected shallower sediments, offset the present land surface (which has resulted in substantial, costly damage), and produced recognizable fault scarps. Evidence from previous studies indicates that these faults are natural geologic features with histories of movement spanning tens of thousands to millions of years. Present-day scarps reflect only the most recent displacements of faults that were active long before the present land surface of the area was formed. The precision of previously mapped fault locations was enhanced by overlaying mapped faults on a digital elevation model (DEM) of Harris County derived using light detection and ranging (Lidar). Lidar is a high-precision, laser-based system that enables collection of high-resolution topographic data. Previously mapped faults were adjusted to coincide with surface features that clearly indicate faults, which were made visible by the high-resolution topography depicted on the Lidar-derived DEM. Results of a previous study, supported by this study, indicate that faults in the southeastern part of the metropolitan area primarily occur in well-defined groups of high fault density. Faults in northern and western parts of the metropolitan area tend to occur either individually or in pairs with little tendency to cluster in high-density groups.

  11. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  12. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  13. Influence of septic systems on stream base flow in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin near Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Septic systems were identified at 241,733 locations in a 2,539-square-mile (mi2) study area that includes all or parts of 12 counties in the Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area. Septic system percolation may locally be an important component of streamflow in small drainage basins where it augments natural groundwater recharge, especially during extreme low-flow conditions. The amount of groundwater reaching streams depends on how much is intercepted by plants or infiltrates to deeper parts of the groundwater system that flows beyond a basin divide and does not discharge into streams within a basin. The potential maximum percolation from septic systems in the study area is 62 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), of which 52 ft3/s is in the Chattahoochee River Basin and 10 ft3/s is in the Flint River Basin. These maximum percolation rates represent 0.4 to 5.7 percent of daily mean streamflow during the 2011–12 period at the farthest downstream gaging site (station 02338000) on the Chattahoochee River, and 0.5 to 179 percent of daily mean streamflow at the farthest downstream gaging site on the Flint River (02344350). To determine the difference in base flow between basins having different septic system densities, hydrograph separation analysis was completed using daily mean streamflow data at streamgaging stations at Level Creek (site 02334578), with a drainage basin having relatively high septic system density of 101 systems per square mile, and Woodall Creek (site 02336313), with a drainage basin having relatively low septic system density of 18 systems per square mile. Results indicated that base-flow yield during 2011–12 was higher at the Level Creek site, with a median of 0.47 cubic feet per second per square mile ([ft3/s]/mi2), compared to a median of 0.16 (ft3/s)/mi2, at the Woodall Creek site. At the less urbanized Level Creek site, there are 515 septic systems with a daily maximum percolation rate of 0.14 ft3/s, accounting for 11 percent of the base flow in

  14. Size-resolved, real-time measurement of water-insoluble aerosols in metropolitan Atlanta during the summer of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Roby; Bergin, Michael H.; Weber, Rodney; Sullivan, Amy

    During the month of August 2004, the size-resolved number concentration of water-insoluble aerosols (WIA) from 0.25 to 2.0 μm was measured in real-time in the urban center of Atlanta, GA. Simultaneous measurements were performed for the total aerosol size distribution from 0.1 to 2.0 μm, the elemental and organic carbon mass concentration, the aerosol absorption coefficient, and the aerosol scattering coefficient at a dry (RH=30%) humidity. The mean aerosol number concentration in the size range 0.1-2.0 μm was found to be 360±175 cm -3, but this quantity fluctuated significantly on time scales of less than one hour and ranged from 25 to 1400 cm -3 during the sample period. The mean WIA concentration (0.25-2.0 μm) was 13±7 cm -3 and ranged from 1 to 60 cm -3. The average insoluble fraction in the size range 0.25-2.0 μm was found to be 4±2.5% with a range of 0.3-38%. The WIA population was found to follow a consistent diurnal pattern throughout the month with concentration maxima concurring with peaks in vehicular traffic flow. WIA concentration also responded to changes in meteorological conditions such as boundary layer depth and precipitation events. The temporal variability of the absorption coefficient followed an identical pattern to that of WIA and ranged from below the detection limit to 55 Mm -1 with a mean of 8±6 Mm -1. The WIA concentration was highly correlated with both the absorption coefficient and the elemental carbon mass concentration, suggesting that WIA measurements are dominated by fresh emissions of elemental carbon. For both the total aerosol and the WIA size distributions, the maximum number concentration was observed at the smallest sizes; however the WIA size distribution also exhibited a peak at 0.45 μm which was not observed in the total population. Over 60% of the particles greater than 1.0 μm were observed to be insoluble in the water sampling stream used by this instrumentation. Due to the refractive properties of black

  15. Frequency of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and pregnancy outcomes by maternal race-ethnicity, and the effect on the prevalence of trisomy 21, Metropolitan Atlanta, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Olney, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of trisomy 21 has been reported to differ by race-ethnicity, however, the results are inconsistent and the cause of the differences is unknown. Using data from 1996 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), we analyzed the use of prenatal cytogenetic testing and the subsequent use of elective termination among pregnancies affected with any MACDP-eligible birth defect and trisomy 21, by maternal race-ethnicity. We then examined whether these factors could explain the observed differences in the prevalence of trisomy 21 among race-ethnicity groups. Among all pregnancies with birth defects, prenatal cytogenetic testing as well as elective terminations after an abnormal prenatal cytogenetic test result were observed less frequently among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.78, respectively). In pregnancies affected by trisomy 21, both the Hispanic and the non-Hispanic black populations had more live births (89.5% and 77.8%, respectively) and fewer elective terminations (5.7% and 15.2%, respectively) compared to the non-Hispanic white population (63.0% live births, 32.3% elective terminations). After adjusting for elective terminations, non-Hispanic white mothers had a higher live birth prevalence of trisomy 21 compared to non-Hispanic black (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.76) or Hispanic mothers (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86). Overall, our data suggest that factors associated with decisions made about the use of prenatal testing, and about pregnancy management after testing, might play a large role in the race-ethnicity differences observed in the live birth prevalence of trisomy 21.

  16. Pharmacogenomics in diverse practice settings: implementation beyond major metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Elizabeth H; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Morales, Chelsea T; Howlett, Kevin; Burke, Wylie; Woodahl, Erica L

    2015-01-01

    Aim The limited formal study of the clinical feasibility of implementing pharmacogenomic tests has thus far focused on providers at large medical centers in urban areas. Our research focuses on small metropolitan, rural and tribal practice settings. Materials & methods We interviewed 17 healthcare providers in western Montana regarding pharmacogenomic testing. Results Participants were optimistic about the potential of pharmacogenomic tests, but noted unique barriers in small and rural settings including cost, adherence, patient acceptability and testing timeframe. Participants in tribal settings identified heightened sensitivity to genetics and need for community leadership approval as additional considerations. Conclusion Implementation differences in small metropolitan, rural and tribal communities may affect pharmacogenomic test adoption and utilization, potentially impacting many patients. PMID:25712186

  17. Ryan White CARE Act and Eligible Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Title I of the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act provides emergency assistance to eligible metropolitan areas (EMAs) to provide a continuum of care and services to people living with HIV disease. This article presents the results of a 2000-2001 survey of the 51 Title I Planning Councils. EMAs are serving significant numbers of females, with black and Hispanic persons constituting a majority of people served in 33 EMAs. Among the difficult to serve are substance abusers, people with chronic mental illness, multi-diagnosed people, the homeless, black males who have sex with males, and Hispanic persons. PMID:12500476

  18. Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Yang, Xiaohua; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. Therefore, air quality information is important for public. In particular, the Shanghai metropolitan area is well known as megacity having severe air pollution episodes. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is applied for on-line integrated meteorology and atmospheric composition forecasting for the Shanghai region of China. The model setup includes the urban Building Effects Parameterization module, describing different types of urban districts with its own morphological and aerodynamical characteristics. The model is running in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales for selected periods in summer and winter having both elevated pollution levels as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these periods, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric and chemical/aerosols patterns. The formation and development of meteorological (air and surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, boundary layer height) and chemical/aerosol patterns (concentration and deposition) due to influence of the metropolitan area is evaluated. The impact of Shanghai region on regional-to-urban scales as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are estimated.

  19. SUMMERTIME AMBIENT FORMALDEHYDE IN FIVE U.S. METROPOLITAN AREAS: NASHVILLE, ATLANTA, HOUSTON, PHILADELPHIA, TAMPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we briefly review the atmospheric chemistry and previous intercomparison measurements for HCHO, with special reference to the diffusion scrubber-Hantzsch reaction based fluorescence instrument used in the field studies reported herein. Then we discuss summertime HC...

  20. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    PubMed Central

    Klas, Regina; Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male), with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15); all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%), school difficulties (39.6%), and midlevel hearing problems (32%). Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%). The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3%) to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%), as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%). A significant relationship (p = 0.0000) between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens. PMID:25992085

  1. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  2. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater

  3. Using Passive Sampling Devices to Assess Chemistry and Toxicity in Streams from six U.S Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, G. L.; Cuffney, T.; Tate, C.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. population is growing by almost 3 million people a year with concomitant increase in urban development. Increased urbanization causes changes to watersheds which may affect aquatic biota by altering the physical and chemical environment. We deployed semi-membrane-permeable-devices (SPMDs) for 30 days to passively sample hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) from 180 streams in six major metropolitan areas in the U.S.: Atlanta, Georgia, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, Denver, Colorado, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Portland, Oregon, and Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina. SPMD extracts were tested with two assays: (1)Fluoroscan which estimates PAH concentration (pyrene index) by exposing samples to UV light and (2)P450RGS which measures induction of CYP1A a liver enzyme involved in detoxification of organic contaminants. There was a strong positive relation between urban intensity and both the pyrene index and CYP1A in streams from all six metropolitan areas indicating higher HOC concentrations and greater potential toxicity at higher urbanization levels. Invertebrate community responses as measured by EPT taxa richness and benthic index of biotic integrity were also significantly and negatively correlated with both the pyrene index and CYP1A. Our results suggest that toxicity may be a factor in degradation of invertebrate communities in urban environments.

  4. Local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Many cities around the world are located in mountainous areas. Understanding local circulations in mountainous urban areas is important for improving local weather and air quality prediction as well as understanding thermally forced mesoscale flow dynamics. In this study, we examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model. Ulaanbaatar lies in an east-west-oriented valley between the northern base of Mt. Bogd Khan and the southern base of branches of the Khentiin Nuruu mountain range. Idealized summertime fair-weather conditions with no synoptic winds are considered. In the daytime, mountain upslope winds, up-valley winds, and urban breeze circulation form and interact with each other. Mountain upslope winds precede up-valley winds. It is found that the transition of upslope winds to downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan occurs and the downslope winds in the afternoon strengthen due to urban breezes. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds are prominent and strong channeling flows form over the city. The sensitivities of local circulations to urban fraction, atmospheric stability, and soil water content are examined. As urban fraction increases, daytime up-valley winds over the city and daytime downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan strengthen. Daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city strengthen with increasing atmospheric stability. As soil water content decreases, daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city weaken. The daytime urban atmospheric boundary-layer height is found to be sensitive to atmospheric stability and soil water content. This study is a first attempt to examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area and demonstrates that the city alters mountain slope winds and up-/down-valley winds.

  5. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  6. Federal Outlays in Fiscal 1978: A Comparison of Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas. Rural Development Research Report No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendler, Charles I.; Reid, J. Norman

    The study described the patterns of government outlay to U.S. metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas for 86% of the $499 billion of federal outlays and loan guarantees made in fiscal 1978 to individual counties in the 50 states. Between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas there were considerable variations in outlays to programs in seven…

  7. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    PubMed

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants.

  8. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    PubMed

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  9. Aerosol Optical Thickness Variability in the New York Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepert, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    In July 2003 this field study was performed as part of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Summer Program "Institute for Climate and Planets". The spatial variability of aerosol spectral optical thickness (AOT) in the New York Metropolitan area was measured with a hand held sun photometer "Microtops II". Measurements were taken on board of a cruise ship around Manhattan, and several transects from North to South and East to West within New York City including on top of the Empire State Building. These data are compared to other available ground observations of urban aerosols and to satellite data from MODIS. Consequences of the spatial variability of the effect of urban aerosols on climate will be discussed.

  10. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  11. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  12. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  13. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time System Management Information Program § 511.313 Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. (a... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information...

  14. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  15. Women Workers in Regional Areas and in Large States and Metropolitan Areas, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been summarized on labor force participation and unemployment rates in 1971, of women 16 years of age and over, in the various census regions of the United States and in 10 large States and 20 large Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's); separate data also have been summarized for women of…

  16. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations.

  17. Fuel-based fine particulate and black carbon emission factors from a railyard area in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Mike; Russell, Armistead

    2013-06-01

    Railyards have the potential to influence localfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm; PM2.5) concentrations through emissions from diesel locomotives and supporting activities. This is of concern in urban regions where railyards are in proximity to residential areas. Northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, Inman and Tilford railyards are located beside residential neighborhoods, industries, and schools. The PM2.5 concentrations near the railyards is the highest measured amongst the state-run monitoring sites (Georgia Environmental Protection Division, 2012; http://www.georgiaair.org/amp/report.php). The authors estimated fuel-based black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emission factors for these railyards in order to help determine the impact of railyard activities on PM2.5 concentrations, and for assessing the potential benefits of replacing current locomotive engines with cleaner technologies. High-time-resolution measurements of BC, PM2.5, CO2, and wind speed and direction were made at two locations, north and south of the railyards. Emissions factors (i.e., the mass of BC or PM2.5 per gallon of fuel burned) were estimated by using the downwind/upwind difference in concentrations, wavelet analysis, and an event-based approach. By the authors' estimates, diesel-electric engines used in the railyards have average emission factors of 2.8 +/- 0.2 g of BC and 6.0 +/- 0.5 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. A broader mix of railyard supporting activities appear to lead to average emission factors of 0.7 +/- 0.03 g of BC and 1.5 +/- 0.1 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. Railyard emissions appear to lead to average enhancements of approximately 1.7 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and approximately 0.8 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 of BC in neighboring areas on an annual average basis. Uncertainty not quantified in these results could arise mainly from variability in downwind/upwind differences, differences in emissions of the diverse zones within the

  18. View of northeast Oklahoma and metropolitan Tulsa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of northeast Oklahoma and the metropolitan Tulsa area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Arkansas River meanders across the southern (lower portion) of the photograph passing through Tulsa as it flows southeastward. Oologah Reservoir, the long body of water, is located northeast of Tulsa. Lake Hudson is the body of water in the right corner of the picture. Keystone Reservoir is to the west and upstream from Tulsa. Westward from Tulsa U.S. 64 makes a 45 degree bend as it turns northwest to cross the Keystone Reservoir. The thin white line over the Oologah Reservoir is a highway bridge. Bartlesville is on U.S. 75 near the north (top) corner of the picture. The Tulsa International Airport is immediately northeast of downtown Tulsa. Several smaller airfields are visible in the surrounding area. Toll roads and other major highways are clearly v

  19. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  20. Cost-effective optical transponders for deployed metropolitan area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.

  1. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  2. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects.

    PubMed

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-10-06

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions.

  3. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    PubMed Central

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions. PMID:26400198

  4. Daily Mean Temperature and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    adverse effect of high temperatures on nephrolithiasis. Citation: Tasian GE, Pulido JE, Gasparrini A, Saigal CS, Horton BP, Landis JR, Madison R, Keren R, for the Urologic Diseases in America Project. 2014. Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:1081–1087; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307703 PMID:25009122

  5. Isolation of Campylobacters from the canals of Bangkok metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dhamabutra, N; Kamol-Rathanakul, P; Pienthaweechai, K

    1992-06-01

    The 100 ml of canal water samples of 36 canals in Bangkok Metropolitan Area were examined in three periods starting from July-September 1988, November 1988-January 1989 and February-April 1989. Each time the 52 water samples were checked. Of 156 water samples, 116 strains of Campylobacter species were isolated. They were 63.79 per cent (74 strains) of C. cryaerophila and 36.21 per cent (42 strains) of C. cryaerophila-like organisms. The differentiation was determined by urease activity test. C. cryaerophila was isolated from 44.23 per cent (23 strains), 51.19 per cent (27 strains) and 46.15 per cent (24 strains) and also C. cryaerophila-like organism from 28.85 per cent (15 strains), 19.23 per cent (10 strains) and 32.69 per cent (17 strains) of the 52 samples during each period respectively. Since C. cryaerophila and C. cryaerophila-like are aerotolerant Campylobacter, they grow well in aerobic conditions at 25 degrees-36 degrees C. On the contrary, thermophilic Campylobacter such as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis require atmosphere containing 5 per cent O2, 10 per cent CO2, 85 per cent N2 and temperature at 36 degrees-42 degrees C, so the environment in the canals is unfavorable for their growth. The etiological role of C. cryaerophila in pathogenesis in humans is still unknown, and requires furthers study. This study shows that canals can be an important source of these two Campylobacter species that might be potential pathogens in the future.

  6. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  7. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  8. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  9. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  10. Present Direction of Court Decisions Regarding Metropolitan Area Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1972-01-01

    Examines, from a practical viewpoint, the problems and issues related to metropolitanizing public schools by judicial decree. Reviews the significant relevant cases and extracts the controlling principles from them. Applies those principles in an effort to answer some fundamental practical questions. (Author)

  11. The Use of GIS and Remotely Sensed Data in Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Watts, Carol; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project in collaboration with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of metropolitan Atlanta, GA. Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors, including PM(sub 2.5). Thus, HELIX-Atlanta is focusing on methods for characterizing population exposure to PM(sub 2.5) for the Atlanta metropolitan area that could be used in ongoing surveillance. NASA/MSFC is working with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) concentrations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma on the aggregated grid level as well as the individual level at the geographic locations of the patients' residences.

  12. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  13. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  14. Map Showing Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago, Marilyn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 68 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (24 percent) of the San Juan metropolitan area is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area, where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility indicate that the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area are be at greatest risk.

  15. Trends in pyloric stenosis incidence, Atlanta, 1968 to 1982.

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, E J; Edmonds, L D

    1987-01-01

    Four studies reported an increasing incidence of pyloric stenosis during the late 1970s from geographically diverse areas of the United Kingdom. It was suggested that the increased incidence might be related to changes in infant feeding practices. We used data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population based birth defects registry, to examine the secular trends and descriptive epidemiology of pyloric stenosis in a North American city. For the period 1968 to 1982, the incidence of pyloric stenosis was 1.33 per 1000 live births; there was no evidence of an increasing trend for either race or sex specific rates of pyloric stenosis. The descriptive epidemiology of the pyloric stenosis cases showed higher rates for males, whites, and infants of higher birth weight. We found no increasing trend in pyloric stenosis incidence in Atlanta, despite well documented changes in US infant feeding practices (an increased prevalence of breast feeding) during the 1970s. PMID:3656370

  16. Effects of Urbanization on Floods in the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven L.; Sayre, Douglas M.

    1973-01-01

    Rainfall and runoff data from drainage basins in the Houston metropolitan area and a 60-year rainfall record for the National Weather Service station, Houston-City, were used to simulate 60 annual flood peaks at 26 sites. Selected frequency characteristics, based on these simulated annual peaks, are related to drainage area and percentage of impervious area. These relations, which may be used to estimate the flood characteristics at ungaged sites, indicate that in the Houston metropolitan area, complete urbanization increases the magnitude of a 2-year flood nine times and increases the magnitude of a 50-year flood five times.

  17. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  18. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney; Stephenson, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  19. Atlanta Ranks 4th on EPAs List of Cities with the Most Energy Star Certified Buildings/Energy efficiency leads to a stronger economy and healthier environmen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced its eighth-annual Top Cities list, which ranks the 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified commercial buildings in the preceding calendar year with Atlan

  20. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gordon, J.D.; Mitchell, R.N.; Gaylord, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones fault zone. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yeild and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. The major streams in the study area are the Colorado River, Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  1. A Study of the Role of Clouds in the Relationship Between Land Use/Land Cover and the Climate and Air Quality of the Atlanta Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Project ATLANTA is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization affect climate and air quality. In this project the role that clouds play in this relationship was studied. Through GOES satellite observations and RAMS modeling of the Atlanta area, we found that in Atlanta (1) clouds are more frequent than in the surrounding rural areas; (2) clouds cool the surface by shading and thus tend to counteract the warming effect of urbanization; (3) clouds reflect sunlight, which might other wise be used to produce ozone; and (4) clouds decrease biogenic emission of ozone precursors, and they probably decrease ozone concentration. We also found that mesoscale modeling of clouds, especially of small, summertime clouds, needs to be improved and that coupled mesoscale and air quality models are needed to completely understand the mediating role that clouds play in the relationship between land use/land cover change and the climate and air quality of Atlanta. It is strongly recommended that more cities be studied to strengthen and extend these results.

  2. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven U.S. metropolitan areas: Data summary of a National Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Patrick W.; Calhoun, Dan L.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn; Falcone, James A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents data collected as a part of a synoptic survey of stream sediment contaminants, associated watershed characteristics and invertebrate responses in laboratory sediment toxicity tests from 98 streams (sites) in seven metropolitan study areas across the continental United States. The report presents methods, data, and sediment-quality guidelines, including the derivation of a new sediment pyrethroid probable effects concentration, for the purposes of relating measured contaminants to land use and toxicity evaluation. The study evaluated sites that ranged in their degree of relative urbanization within the study areas of Atlanta, Boston, Dallas-Fort Worth, Denver, Milwaukee-Green Bay, Salt Lake City, and Seattle-Tacoma. In all, 108 chemical analytes quantified in the study are presented, by class and number of individual compounds, as follows: polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (28), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) (18), polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclors) (3), pyrethroid insecticides (14), fipronil compounds (4), priority trace and other major elements (41). The potential of these sediments to cause toxicity to sediment-dwelling invertebrates was evaluated using two standard sediment toxicity tests: a 28-day growth and survival toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and a 10-day growth and survival toxicity test with the midge Chironomus dilutus. Further, approximately 95 relevant watershed and reach-level characteristics were generated and are presented to aid in interpretation and explanation of contaminant and toxicity patterns. Interpretation of the findings of this study, including the relationships with urbanization and other factors, the relationship between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry in the seven study areas, and the sources and occurrence of pyrethroid insecticides, are discussed in detail in a forthcoming series of journal articles.

  3. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.M.; Butler, H.S.; Benton, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Buck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. The report for the 1979 water year completes the Dallas urban project. Hydrologic data contained in this report and in all previous reports of the Dallas and Fort Worth metropolitan areas are being used to prepare an interpretive report entitled ' Effects of urbanization on floods in the Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan areas, ' which will be released in 1981. (USGS)

  4. Evaluation of Public and Private Training Programs in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul E.; Wall, Robert E.

    A study compared private and public training programs in the Baltimore (Maryland) metropolitan area. Survey instruments were sent to 105 individuals who had been identified as either directing or coordinating a job training program in the Baltimore area. Seventy-six usable survey instruments were returned (a 72 percent response rate). There was…

  5. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  6. History of the negotiations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Alper, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    This work chronicles events leading to a recommendation that an agency be created by compact among Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia to provide a regional rail-transportation system. The body of text describes the process through which framers of the compact finally brought the recommendation to fruition. Many issues arose during the course of negotiations, but each was resolved satisfactorily, leading to a successful political instrument that has enabled the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to design and construct a rapid-rail transit system for the metropolitan area.

  7. [Metropolitan and regional health planning: dilemmas of the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Nico; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum e; Barboza, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between metropolitan and regional health planning based on the processes of regionalization and the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil. The method used was a case study in two stages, namely during initial implementation of the Pact for Health (2007) and the Regional Administration Committees (CGR) and in 2010. Municipal and regional health systems managers and the director of the Metropolitan Agency were interviewed, and records were analyzed from ten years of meetings of the Regional Inter-Administration Committee and the Regional Development Council. Four issues emerged: financing and infrastructure; health services utilization; inefficiency of the Regional Health Administration's instruments and decision-making levels; and the relationship between different levels in the Administration. Metropolitan health management remained as an underlying issue, appearing only incidentally or tangentially to regional management. Despite some limitations, the CGR has been legitimized as a space for regional health management.

  8. The Transportation Energy and Carbon Footprints of the 100 Largest U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon; Brown, Marilyn A

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the automobile and truck travel based energy and carbon footprints of the largest 100 U.S. metropolitan areas. The footprints are based on the estimated vehicle miles traveled and the transportation fuels consumed. Results are presented on an annual basis and represent end use emissions only. Total carbon emissions, emissions per capita, and emissions per dollar of gross metropolitan product are reported. Two years of annual data were examined, 2000 and 2005, with most of the in-depth analysis focused on the 2005 results. In section 2 we provide background data on the national picture and derive some carbon and energy consumption figures for the nation as a whole. In section 3 of the paper we examine the metropolitan area-wide results based on the sums and averages across all 100 metro areas, and compare these with the national totals and averages. In section 4 we present metropolitan area specific footprints and examine the considerable variation that is found to exist across individual metro areas. In doing so we pay particular attention to the effects that urban form might have on these differences. Finally, section 5 provides a summary of major findings, and a list of caveats that need to be borne in mind when using the results due to known limitations in the data sources used.

  9. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION:...

  10. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  11. Method to Select Metropolitan Areas of Epidemiologic Interest for Enhanced Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current Speciation Trends Network (STN) covers most major U.S. metropolitan areas and a wide range of particulate matter (PM) constituents and gaseous co-pollutants. However, using filter-based methods, most PM constituents are measured ...

  12. A STUDY OF THE NEED FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RALPH B.

    A POPULATION INCREASE OF 71 PERCENT IS EXPECTED IN UTAH BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980. THE GREATEST GROWTH IS EXPECTED IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA. THE COLLEGE AGE GROUP (18 TO 21 YEARS) WILL INCREASE BY 80 PERCENT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970. IF CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES ARE USED, THE PROPOSED JUNIOR COLLEGE COULD EXPECT AN ENROLLMENT OF APPROXIMATELY…

  13. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  14. Segregation in the Boston Metropolitan Area at the End of the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Guy

    This report shows that 30 years after the enactment of the federal fair housing law and despite favorable circumstances, housing markets in the Boston metropolitan area remain strongly segregated. The report is based on Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data and census data. The HMDA data provide information about the race, ethnicity, income,…

  15. HIV among injection drug users in large US metropolitan areas, 1998.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Lieb, Spencer; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah; Keem, Marie; Friedman, Risa; Flom, Peter L

    2005-09-01

    This article estimates HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users (IDUs) in 95 large US metropolitan areas to facilitate social and policy analyses of HIV epidemics. HIV prevalence rates among IDUs in these metropolitan areas were calculated by taking the mean of two estimates: (1) estimates based on regression adjustments to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing data and (2) estimates based on the ratio of the number of injectors living with HIV to the number of injectors living in the metropolitan area. The validity of the resulting estimates was assessed. HIV prevalence rates varied from 2 to 28% (median 5.9%; interquartile range 4.0-10.2%). These HIV prevalence rates correlated with similar estimates calculated for 1992 and with two theoretically related phenomena: laws against over-the-counter purchase of syringes and income inequality. Despite limitations in the accuracy of these estimates, they can be used for structural analyses of the correlates, predictors and consequences of HIV prevalence rates among drug injectors in metropolitan areas and for assessing and targeting the service needs for drug injectors.

  16. Employment Profiles of Women and Minorities in 23 Metropolitan Areas, 1974. Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Joan, Ed.

    This study, which analyzes employment patterns of women and minorities in 23 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs), is based on reports (required by the EEOC--Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) from private employers (EEO-1 Reports) and State and local governments (EEO-4 Reports). For each SMSA, EEO-1 data are presented for 1970…

  17. Educational Attainment in 30 Selected Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1970. Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry T.; Johnson, Charles E., Jr.

    Adults who lived in 30 of the nation's large standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in 1970 had completed a relatively high educational attainment; about 61 percent had completed at least a high school education, including 26 percent who had completed one or more years of college. The data in this report on the educational attainment of…

  18. Flood of May 24-25, 1981, in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.C.; Reeves, W.E.; Lear, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data pertaining to the magnitude and areal extent of flooding that occurred on May 24-25, 1981, along Shoal, Walnut, and Little Walnut Creeks in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area are presented in this atlas.  The flood boundary maps and other flood data provide a technical data base for land-use planning.

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

    VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE FOR A PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF A STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) ARE REVIEWED, AS WELL AS THE DATA AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT THESE APPROACHES. TWO "NAIVE" MODELS ARE RECOMMENDED FOR USE AS BENCH MARKS AGAINST WHICH TO COMPARE MORE SOPHISTICATED APPROACHES--THE "NO CHANGE"…

  20. OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

    A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

  1. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  2. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  3. Current Land Subsidence in the Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas, Derived from GPS Observations (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, T.; Wang, G.; Jia, X.; Jiang, J.; Lee, D.

    2014-12-01

    This article summarizes recent land subsidence that has occurred in the Houston metropolitan area. Subsidence measurements derived from observations at 11 borehole extensometers and 90 GPS sites during the past 20 years (1993-2012) were investigated in this study. Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY-OASIS software package (V6.2) was applied to calculate daily positions of GPS antennas. GPS and extensometer observations indicate that the overall subsidence rate in the Houston metropolitan area has been decreasing since the 1970s, which was when groundwater withdrawal regulations started to be enforced by the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District (HGSD). Currently, the subsidence in the southeast of the Houston metropolitan area has almost ceased. Slight rebound has been observed at several sites along the Houston Ship Channel area since 2005. Nonetheless, a relatively small area within the Houston Ship Channel area that runs northwest from approximately Texas City to League City has continued to subside. There is some evidence that suggest that this subsidence is the result of local oil and gas withdrawal rather than groundwater withdrawal. Subsidence also continues in the west and northwest of the Houston metropolitan area, where groundwater regulations have only recently been implemented. The maximum rate is 2.5 cm/year. It is evident that the groundwater withdrawal regulations enforced by HGSD have successfully reduced the subsidence in the Houston metropolitan area. Long-term GPS observations also indicate that subsidence rates vary spatially and temporally depending on local groundwater withdrawals and the clay-to-sand ratio in subsurface sediments. The ground water and aquifer systems respond slowly to human actions. It took almost two decades (1980s and 1990s) to halt the subsidence in the east part of the Houston metropolitan area after groundwater regulations were implemented in the late

  4. Population Change Within Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas: Lessons from New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan E.

    According to the results of an in-depth study of the process of population change in New York State, the less densely settled an area, the more likely it is to grow in the 1970's. This is more evidence of the recent major U.S. demographic phenomenon of a revival of population growth in non-metropolitan areas. Population data for the sixty-two…

  5. Secondary Mortgage Market: Information on Underwriting and Home Loans in the Atlanta Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    program which must be used in connection with the insuring of loans in these areas. Finally, HUD states that gentrification may reverse the rate of...decline of an older neighborhood assuming it is not subject to heavy commercial or industrial encroachment. Gentrification occurs when people move into

  6. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  7. An Empirical Examination of Characteristics of Mexican Migrants to Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Frank L.; Moon, Zola K.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines differences between those Mexican migrants choosing metropolitan destinations and those choosing destinations outside metropolitan areas of the United States. Using general estimating equations, the study presents data indicating that since the 1960s migrants choosing rural destinations are less fluent in English, slightly…

  8. Miami, Florida metropolitan area as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A view looking east shows the cities from Hollywood to Homestead in the greater Miami area. The photograph is centered directly over the city of Miami at approximately 25.5 degrees north and 80.5 degrees west. The average elevation of the area is 6 feet above mean sea level. Extensive drainage has taken place since the late 19th century to prevent massive flooding. The Miami River is one of the main drainage structures and is visible as a straight diagonal line near the center of the picture. Many of the small lakes in the lower portion of the view are catch ponds for runoff water. Many of the major roads are visible: Highway A1A follows the coast and ends at Miami Beach. Interstate 95 parallels the coast. The Taniami trail to the west across the Everglades (center-bottom) links Miami Beach to the mainland.

  9. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  10. Abandoned or Reserve Water Supplies, Metropolitan District Commission Service Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Supply; Charles River Supply Location; In West Roxbury and Dedham. along the Charles River below Cow Island Pond, adjacent to Sawmill Brook...would reduce the yield of Woburn’s wells at Horn Pond Treatment Prior to Removal from Service: Zeolite filters. Watershed in which Supply is...road de-icing practices continue In area PtMpod dry. not Zeolite Pll- Town of Winchester Department of reuaed for fear tars

  11. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  12. Model-predicted concentrations of toxic air pollutants in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCourtney, M.; Pratt, G.; Wu, C.Y.

    1998-12-31

    The availability of sophisticated emission inventory methods, air dispersion models and personal computers has opened the door to developing more comprehensive studies of air concentrations of various pollutants. As part of a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency, a current emission inventory and the Industrial Source Complex short-term dispersion model, version 3 (ISCST3) were used to estimate the ambient concentrations of several toxic compounds throughout the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A detailed emission inventory was developed of point, area and mobile sources in seven contiguous metropolitan counties that account for approximately half the population of Minnesota. Of specific interest were those sources that emit at least one of the eight Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methyl chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene. Emission rates were calculated for 69 industrial point sources; mobile sources, including on-road vehicles and non-road vehicles (such as aircraft, locomotives, commercial marine, agricultural, recreational, and lawn and garden equipment); and area sources, which consisted of dry cleaners, architectural surface coatings, commercial/consumer solvent products, residential fossil fuel combustion, automobile refinishing, residential wood burning, public-owned treatment works, landfills and gas stations. The ISCST3 model was used to estimate the 24-hour and annual average concentrations of the selected pollutants throughout the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area. Three sets of receptors were developed: a fine receptor grid with 500 meter spacing in the urban core, a coarse receptor grid with 5000 meter spacing covering the metropolitan area, and discrete receptors located 100 meters in each of four directions around each point source.

  13. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  14. A Comparison of Homeless Male Veterans in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas in Nebraska: A Methodological Caveat.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Bhatia, Subhash C; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This study explored differences between homeless male veterans in metropolitan and micropolitan cities in Nebraska on sociodemographic, housing, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics as well as health service use. A convenience sample of 151 homeless male veterans (112 metropolitan, 39 micropolitan) were recruited from Veterans Affairs facilities and area shelters in Omaha, Lincoln, Grand Island, and Hastings in Nebraska. Research staff conducted structured interviews with homeless veterans. Results showed that compared to homeless veterans in metropolitans, those in micropolitans were more likely to be White, unmarried, living in transitional settings, and were far more transient but reported greater social support and housing satisfaction. Veterans in micropolitans also reported more medical problems, diagnoses of anxiety and personality disorders, and unexpectedly, were more likely to report using various health services and less travel time for services. Together, these findings suggest access to homeless and health services for veterans in micropolitan areas may be facilitated through Veterans Affairs facilities and community providers that work in close proximity to one another. Many homeless veterans in these areas are transient, making them a difficult population to study and serve. Innovative ways to provide outreach to homeless veterans in micropolitan and more rural areas are needed.

  15. A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

  16. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  17. Strong capping inversion over the Tokyo metropolitan area associated with airborne Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro

    2006-10-01

    Lidar measurements in the Tokyo metropolitan area showed that the optical thickness of airborne Asian dust rapidly increased on the morning of April 28, 2005, owing to the arrival of a thick Asian dust layer (ADL), which settled on the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Radiosonde measurements showed that atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere increased considerably after the arrival of the ADL to the extent that the increment rate reached 12 K/day. Strong capping inversion (CI) was thus formed between the ADL and the PBL with the maximum rate of 0.1 K/m. It was mainly caused by the appearance of a deep isentropic layer that well corresponded to the ADL, indicating that the Asian dust-laden heated and well-mixed air layer led to the temperature increment and consequently induced the CI. The CI inhibited the PBL evolution and caused a higher aerosol concentration in the PBL in the metropolitan area.

  18. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  19. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  20. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  1. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  2. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  3. Public school segregation and juvenile violent crime arrests in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established an association between residential segregation and violent crime in urban America. Our study examines whether school-based segregation is predictive of arrests of juveniles for violent crimes in U.S. metro areas. Using Census, Uniform Crime Report, and Common Core data for 204 metro areas, a measure of school-based racial segregation, Theil's entropy index, is decomposed into two components: between- and within-district segregation. Findings reveal evidence of a significant interaction term: Within-district segregation is inversely associated with arrests for juvenile violence, but only in metropolitan areas with higher than average levels of between-district segregation.

  4. Climate change adaptation through urban heat management in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2013-07-16

    This study explores the potential effectiveness of metropolitan land cover change as a climate change adaptation strategy for managing rising temperatures in a large and rapidly warming metropolitan region of the United States. Through the integration of a mesoscale meteorological model with estimated land cover data for the Atlanta, Georgia region in 2010, this study quantifies the influence of extensive land cover change at the periphery of a large metropolitan region on temperature within the city center. The first study to directly model a metropolitan scale heat transfer mechanism, we find both enhanced tree canopy and impervious cover in the suburban zones of the Atlanta region to produce statistically significant cooling and warming effects in the urban core. Based on these findings, we conclude that urban heat island management both within and beyond the central developed core of large cities may provide an effective climate change adaptation strategy for large metropolitan regions.

  5. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains.

  6. A Remote Sensing Approach for Urban Environmental Decision-Making: An Atlanta, Georgia Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Howell, Burgess F.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Unquestionably, urbanization causes tremendous changes in land cover and land use, as well as impacting a host of environmental characteristics. For example, unlike natural surfaces, urban surfaces have very different thermal energy properties whereby they store solar energy throughout the day and continue to release it as heat well after sunset. This effect, known as the 'Urban Heat Island', serves as a catalyst for chemical reactions from vehicular exhaust and industrial activities leading to the deterioration in air quality, especially exacerbating the production of ground level ozone. 'Cool Community' strategies that utilize remote sensing data, are now being implemented as a way to reduce the impacts of the urban heat island and its subsequent environmental impacts. This presentation focuses on how remote sensing data have been used to provide descriptive and quantitative data for characterizing the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area - particularly for measuring surface energy fluxes, such as the thermal or "heat" energy that emanates from different land cover types across the Atlanta urban landscape. In turn, this information is useful for developing a better understanding of how the thermal characteristics of the city surface affect the urban heat island phenomena and, ultimately, air quality and other environmental parameters over the Atlanta metropolitan region. Additionally, this paper also provides insight on how remote sensing, with its synoptic approach, can be used to provide urban planners, local, state, and federal government officials, and other decision-makers, as well as the general public, with information to better manage urban areas as sustainable environments.

  7. Urban effects on low-level clouds around the Tokyo metropolitan area on clear summer days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tadao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-03-01

    The frequency distribution of low-level clouds was estimated around the Tokyo metropolitan area on summer days without regional-scale cloud cover using NOAA satellite images from 1200 to 1500 LST during an 11-year period. The urban area is determined by the NDVI obtained by the same satellite. The low-level cloud frequency is higher over this large urban area than over rural areas in the early afternoon, especially over the radially extending urban areas along major highways or railways from the metropolis. We can conclude that the frequency of the low-level clouds is enhanced over the urban area, since the cloud frequency is negatively well correlated with the NDVI and their peaks fit well within a shift of about 2 km. The frequency of low-level clouds, however, is quite low in the coastal zone, even in the urban area, because of sea breezes.

  8. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from nine sites in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1981-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data were collected April through September 1980, from nine urbanrunoff sites in the Denver metropolitan area, and are presented in this report. The sites consist of two single-family residential areas, two multi-family residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multi-family residential area, one native area (open space), and two detention ponds. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, coliform bacteria, solids, and trace elements) and basin-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model, Version II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff pollution loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semi-arid regions. (USGS)

  9. Space-time variations of human capital assets across U.S. metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the changing structure of human capital in U.S. metropolitan regions from 1980 to 2000. Data are drawn from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Intensive empirical investigation leads to three main conclusions. First, forms of human capital in the United States are becoming more oriented to labor tasks that call for cognitive-cultural skills. Second, cognitive-cultural skills are accumulating most intensively in large metropolitan areas. Third, physical or practical forms of human capital are increasingly being relegated to smaller metropolitan areas. That said, important residues of human capital, focused on physical or practical tasks, remain a durable element of the economies of large metropolitan areas. I offer a brief theoretical explanation of these results.

  10. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  11. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  12. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  13. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  14. Atlanta Public Schools French Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    This teacher's guide specifies language skills and related areas of knowledge needed for communicating in the target language. Discussion of the philosophy governing the Atlanta language program includes an examination of student eligibility, program articulation, teaching methods, testing, teaching materials, resources, and equipment for use in…

  15. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  16. A Dynamic Optimization Technique for Siting the NASA-Clark Atlanta Urban Rain Gauge Network (NCURN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Taylor, Layi

    2003-01-01

    NASA satellites and ground instruments have indicated that cities like Atlanta, Georgia may create or alter rainfall. Scientists speculate that the urban heat island caused by man-made surfaces in cities impact the heat and wind patterns that form clouds and rainfall. However, more conclusive evidence is required to substantiate findings from satellites. NASA, along with scientists at Clark Atlanta University, are implementing a dense, urban rain gauge network in the metropolitan Atlanta area to support a satellite validation program called Studies of PRecipitation Anomalies from Widespread Urban Landuse (SPRAWL). SPRAWL will be conducted during the summer of 2003 to further identify and understand the impact of urban Atlanta on precipitation variability. The paper provides an. overview of SPRAWL, which represents one of the more comprehensive efforts in recent years to focus exclusively on urban-impacted rainfall. The paper also introduces a novel technique for deploying rain gauges for SPRAWL. The deployment of the dense Atlanta network is unique because it utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to optimize deployment of the rain gauges. These computer aided systems consider access to roads, drainage systems, tree cover, and other factors in guiding the deployment of the gauge network. GIS and DSS also provide decision-makers with additional resources and flexibility to make informed decisions while considering numerous factors. Also, the new Atlanta network and SPRAWL provide a unique opportunity to merge the high-resolution, urban rain gauge network with satellite-derived rainfall products to understand how cities are changing rainfall patterns, and possibly climate.

  17. Shallow ground-water quality in the Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, S.M.; Montgomery, D.L.; Ayotte, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from 29 wells across the Boston metropolitan area indicate that shallow ground water in recently urbanized settings often contains trace amounts of nutrients, fuel, and industrial-based organic compounds. Most of the samples that contained detectable amounts of organic compounds also had elevated levels of iron and total dissolved solids. Nitrate was detected in 83 percent of the samples, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate was exceeded in just one sample. Low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 76 percent of the samples, with as many as 13 different VOCs detected in a single sample. The concentration of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in one sample was 267 micrograms per liter, which exceeds the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection drinking-water guideline of 70 micrograms per liter. Chloroform and MTBE were the two most frequently detected VOCs. MTBE was detected at the same frequency in ground water in the Boston metropolitan area as in other urban areas of New England. Chloroform is detected at higher frequency in old, densely populated areas in New England than in more recently developed, less densely populated areas. Pesticide detections were few, but only at trace concentrations, and none of the concentrations exceeded any drinking-water standard.

  18. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  19. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  20. State and metropolitan area-based amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Laurie; Rechtman, Lindsay; Jordan, Heather; Ritsick, Maggie; Sanchez, Marchelle; Sorenson, Eric; Kaye, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop state and metropolitan area-based surveillance projects to describe the characteristics of those with ALS and to assist with evaluating the completeness of the National ALS Registry. Because the literature suggested that ethnic/racial minorities have lower incidence of ALS, three state and eight metropolitan areas were selected to over-represent ethnic/racial minorities to have a sufficient number of minority patients. Project activities relied on reports from medical providers and medical records abstraction. The project areas represented approximately 27% of the U.S. population. The combined racial and ethnic distribution of these areas is 64.4% white, 16.0% African-American, 6.7% Asian, and 28.3% Hispanic. Most neurologists did not diagnose or provide care for ALS patients. The number of unique patients reported was close to expected (5883 vs. 6673). Age and gender distribution of patients was similar to the literature. The crude average annual incidence rate was 1.52 per 100,000 person-years, CI 1.44–1.61, and the 2009 prevalence rate was 3.84 per 100,000 population, CI 3.70–3.97. In conclusion, this study represents the largest number of clinically diagnosed ALS patients reported by neurologists in the U.S. Comparison of these data with those in the National ALS Registry will help evaluate the completeness of administrative databases. PMID:26399278

  1. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  2. Head-high, airborne pollen grains from different areas of metropolitan Delhi.

    PubMed

    Malik, P; Singh, A B; Babu, C R; Gangal, S V

    1990-05-01

    A survey of airborne pollen grains from four zones of metropolitan Delhi was conducted for 1 year (February 1988-January 1989) at human height level (5'-6'). Sampling was carried out in different inhabited areas in the four zones using Burkard Volumetric Personal Samplers. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals, three times a day (7, 14, & 20 h) for 15 min. Poaceae, Ricinus, Cheno-Amaranth, Morus, Artemisia, Myrtaceae, Parthenium, Prosopis and Cannabis are important pollen contributors to the atmosphere, especially at lower heights. In general, pollen concentration was low at human height. Quantitative zonal variations have been recorded within an urban city.

  3. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  4. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.B.; Wood, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1978 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Newton Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Duck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas, Texas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for ten storm periods during the 1978 water year. (USGS)

  5. On Scaling of Scientific Knowledge Production in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants) compared to larger cities. The latter result is indicative of the critical mass required to establish a scientific center in a particular discipline. Finally, we observe that the largest cities publish much less than the scaling law would predict, indicating that the largest cities are relatively unattractive locations for scientific research. PMID:25353686

  6. High-ozone events in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1983 and 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Chameides, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of ozone levels and meterological parameters were analyzed to determine the relative importance of transport-related processes and photochemical production in causing high-ozone events in and around the Atlanta metropolitan area. Back-trajectories calculated by the Branching Air Trajectory Model indicate that the air associated with high-ozone events had often traveled a significant distance within the previous 3 days: for days with ozone levels above 100 ppbv, half of the calculated trajectories showed that the air had traveled over 600 km, with half of those coming from the northwest quadrant. Six-hour vector-averaged winds were used to find that the concentrations of ozone in the air leaving the metropolitan area averaged 20-40 ppbv more than that entering the area.

  7. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  8. A Climatological Analysis of Ground Level Ozone Across the St. Louis Metropolitan Area During 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Adam

    Ground level ozone is a harmful air pollutant to humans and is not directly emitted. It is formed from the combination of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of warm temperatures and sunlight. The St. Louis metropolitan area is home to different types of industry and the citizens of the area rely on the interstate network to commute to and from work. A spatial analysis of the St. Louis metropolitan area's 2012 ozone season (April 1 - October 31) was conducted to investigate the relationships between ground level ozone and meteorological and climatological variables at the micro- and synoptic scales. Previous studies addressed these relationships but may not have accounted for the issue of autocorrelation. The some of the study variables experienced autocorrelation; however, by calculating the effective sample size the issue of autocorrelation was addressed. High maximum temperatures, little to no precipitation, low average wind speeds at the surface, coupled with dominant anticyclones/high pressure and little moisture aloft were found to be associated with the 40 days during which Federal ozone exceedances occurred. The days with the most exceedance were Fridays (8) while the fewest were observed on Sundays (3). Like most summers, the greatest number of exceedance days occurred during the month of July (16). Precursors to ozone, and persistent ozone itself, also led to extended periods of high ozone. All of these factors, combined with emissions from vehicles and from industry, led to days on which the surface air quality may have been detrimental to human health.

  9. tir- and stx-Positive Escherichia coli in Stream Waters in a Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, James A.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which may include the enteropathogenic E. coli and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli, are a significant cause of diarrheal disease among infants and children in both developing and developed areas. Disease outbreaks related to freshwater exposure have been documented, but the presence of these organisms in the urban aquatic environment is not well characterized. From April 2002 through April 2004 we conducted weekly surveys of streams in the metropolitan Baltimore, Md., area for the prevalence of potentially pathogenic E. coli by using PCR assays targeting the tir and stx1 and stx2 genes. Coliforms testing positive for the presence of the tir gene were cultured from 653 of 1,218 samples (53%), with a greater prevalence associated with urban, polluted streams than in suburban and forested watershed streams. Polluted urban streams were also more likely to test positive for the presence of one of the stx genes. Sequence analysis of the tir amplicon, as well as the entire tir gene from three isolates, indicated that the pathogenic E. coli present in the stream waters has a high degree of sequence homology with the E. coli O157:H7 serotype. Our data indicate that pathogenic E. coli are continually deposited into a variety of stream habitats and suggest that this organism may be a permanent member of the gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals in the metropolitan Baltimore area. PMID:15870341

  10. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  11. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we explicitly address the impacts of urban irrigation on the local hydrological cycle by integrating a previously developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Canopy Models (WRF-UCM) over the semiarid Los Angeles metropolitan area. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of urban irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, vegetated pixels show a shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The cooling effects of irrigation on daily peak air temperatures are evident over all three urban types, with the largest influence over low-intensity residential areas (average cooling of 1.64°C). The evaluation of model performance via comparison against CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System) evapotranspiration (ET) estimates indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the month of July, tracking day-to-day variability of ET with notable consistency. In the nonirrigated case, CIMIS-based ET fluctuations are significantly underestimated by the model. Our analysis shows the importance of accurate representation of urban irrigation in modeling studies, especially over water-scarce regions such as the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We also illustrate that the impacts of irrigation on simulated energy and water cycles are more critical for longer-term simulations due to the interactions between irrigation and soil moisture fluctuations.

  12. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission.

  13. Seismic microzoning in the metropolitan area of Port - au-Prince - complexity of the subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, R.; Bertil, D.; Belvaux, M.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.; Prepetit, C.; Jean-Philippe, J.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude 7.3 earthquake that struck Haiti in January 12, 2010 has caused a lot of damages in surrounding areas epicenter. These damages are due to a lack of knowledge of the Haitian subsoil. To overcome this problem, the LNBTP, the BME and BRGM have agreed to implement a project of seismic microzonation of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince which is financed by the Fund for the reconstruction of the country. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for knowledge of seismic risk. It is based on a collection of geological, geotechnical, geophysical and measures and recognition and the campaign of numerous sites. It describes a class of specific soils with associated spectral response. The objective of the microzoning is to identify and map the homogeneous zones of lithology, topography, liquefaction and ground movements. The zoning of lithological sites effect is to identify and map areas with geological and geomechanical consistent and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each area, seismic movements adapted to the ground. This zoning is done in about five steps: 1- Cross-analysis of geological, geotechnical and geophysical information; 2- Such information comprise the existing data collected and the data acquired during the project; 3- Identification of homogeneous areas. 4- Definition of one or more columns of representative soils associated with each zone; 5 - Possible consolidation of area to get the final seismic zoning. 27 zones types were considered for the study of sites effects after the analysis of all geological, geotechnical and geophysical data. For example, for the formation of Delmas, there are 5 areas with soil classes ranging from D to C. Soil columns described in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince are processed with the CyberQuake software, which is developed at the BRGM by Modaressi et al. in 1997, to calculate their response to seismic rock solicitation. The seismic motion is determined by 4

  14. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  15. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin and Houston. Studies were completed in the Fort Worth metropolitan area at the end of the 1977 water year, and in the Dallas metropolitan area at the end of the 1979 water year. The study in the San Antonio area was completed at the end of the 1981 water year.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing streamflow network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The Texas Department of Water Resources ended its participation in the project in 1979, and the city of San Antonio funded the program through the 1981 water year.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the city of San Antonio and the U.S Geological Survey.The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178720, Lorence Creek at Thousand Oaks Blvd., San Antonio, station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio, are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Hater Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent watersheds. The West Elm watershed is still predominately rural but is undergoing extensive urbanization in some areas. The East Elm watershed is relatively stable and undeveloped.The objectives of the San Antonio urban hydrology study are:To provide data showing the effects of various stages

  16. Model experiments on climate change in the Tokyo metropolitan area using regional climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a possibility that the future atmospheric warming leads to more frequent heavy rainfall in the metropolitan area, thereby increasing the risk of floods. As part of REsearch Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, we started numerical model experiments for investigating the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in water hazard assessments in the metropolitan area by the use of regional climate scenarios. The model experiments adopt dynamical downscaling techniques. Future climate projections obtained from regional climate model simulations at 20 km horizontal grid spacing are downscaled into finer grids (less than 5 km resolutions) of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0 modified by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED-RAMS). Prior to performing the dynamical downscaling experiments, the NIED-RAMS model biases are evaluated by comparing long-term surface meteorological observations with results of the model simulations that are carried out by using the Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA) data and Japan Meteorological Agency Meso-Scale Model outputs as the initial and boundary conditions.

  17. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  18. Gender differences in psychological reactions to Hurricane Sandy among New York Metropolitan Area residents.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a natural disaster of large proportions--a category 3 storm at its peak intensity that struck New York Metropolitan Area on October, 2012. The death and destruction caused by a hurricane can rise numerous of mental health vulnerabilities such as, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Gender has been identified as one critical variable that can impact vulnerability to adverse effects of trauma, as well as how these reactions are managed. The present research provides an evaluation of gender differences regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms, recollections of national disasters and fears of future negative life events. It also aims to explore information seeking and sources of assistance that were utilized during Hurricane Sandy. An online survey sample of 1,000 people from New York Metropolitan Area completed a battery of self-report questionnaires four weeks after the storm. Results revealed that recollections of national disaster and fear of future events were found to be significantly different among women compared to men. Additionally, women were more inclined toward information seeking through Facebook than men, although no gender differences emerged when examining sources of support. The results indicate that disaster practitioners should tailor gender sensitive interventions.

  19. An agent-based model for domestic water management in Valladolid metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GaláN, José M.; López-Paredes, Adolfo; Del Olmo, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the combination of agent-based modeling and simulation constitutes a useful methodological approach to dealing with the complexity derived from multiple factors with influence in the domestic water management in emergent metropolitan areas. In particular, we adapt and integrate different social submodels, models of urban dynamics, water consumption, and technological and opinion diffusion, in an agent-based model that is, in turn, linked with a geographic information system. The result is a computational environment that enables simulating and comparing various water demand scenarios. We have parameterized our general model for the metropolitan area of Valladolid (Spain).The model shows the influence of urban dynamics (e.g., intrapopulation movements, residence typology, and changes in the territorial model) and other socio-geographic effects (technological and opinion dynamics) in domestic water demand. The conclusions drawn in this way would have been difficult to obtain using other approaches, such as conventional forecasting methods, given the need to integrate different socioeconomic and geographic aspects in one single model. We illustrate that the described methodology can complement conventional approaches, providing descriptive and formal additional insights into domestic water demand management problems.

  20. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  1. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides.

  2. Ozone trends in Atlanta, Georgia - Have emission controls been effective?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Richardson, Jennifer L.; Chameldes, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Nine years of summertime ozone data from the Atlanta metropolitan area are analyzed and compared to local emissions of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen oxides. Trends from 1979 to 1987 were studied for the number of days per year ozone exceeded the NAAQS standard, the second-highest ozone level observed per year, and the first quartile summertime average ozone observed, as well as the mean difference between the ozone level observed downwind and upwind of the city. Because this last parameter is sensitive to chemical factors but relatively insensitive to the number of days each year with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, its trend may be best suited for determining how effective emission controls have been in reducing O3 in the Atlanta area. In spite of the fact that sizeable reductions have been claimed for volatile organic carbon emissions over the past several years, the data give no indication that ozone levels have decreased and in fact, imply that summertime ozone production may have increased. The results imply that either emissions have not decreased as much as has been claimed or that ozone is not sensitive to anthropogenic volatile organic carbon emissions.

  3. An integrated approach for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from 100 U.S. metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markolf, Samuel A.; Matthews, H. Scott; Azevedo, Inês L.; Hendrickson, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Cities have become key players in climate change mitigation policy. To develop their climate policies, cities need good assessments of their current and future emissions. We use publically available national datasets to develop an integrated approach for estimating GHG emissions at the metropolitan level over time, between multiple locations, and across sectors. We estimate consistent production-based GHG emissions for the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States in 2014. We find that total 2014 metropolitan CO2 emissions range from 4.1 million metric tons in Lancaster, Pennsylvania to nearly 170 million metric tons in the Houston, Texas; with an overall average of 27 million metric tons. The top 20 absolute emitters and top 20 per capita emitters only overlap for 9 locations. Per capita emissions also show a wide variation: from 5 metric tons per person in the Tucson, Arizona to 65 metric tons per person in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana; with an overall average of 14 metric tons per person. We also compute estimates for 2002 and 2011 and compare to our 2014 emission estimates. Across all locations analyzed, average total emissions increased by 3% and average per capita emissions decreased by 14%. Where possible, we also compare our emission estimates to those reported by the cities in their climate action plans and find an average absolute difference between our estimates and those reported by the cities of 5.6 metric tons CO2 per person, likely due to temporal and scope differences between the two estimates. Our integrated emission estimation approach complements bottom-up approaches typically employed by municipalities and helps practitioners divert their attention and resources away from continuous emission accounting toward more impactful emission mitigation efforts.

  4. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  5. Three-dimensional behaviour of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Itsushi; Wakamatsu, Shinji; Suzuki, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasushi

    The spatial distribution and transport process of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan were investigated from 31 July to 2 August 1979. In the experiment, the vertical profiles of pollutants were observed using four instrumented aircraft. This paper mainly considers the transport process of the polluted air mass using three-dimensional trajectory analysis in which the wind field was determined by objective analysis techniques from pilot-balloon observation data. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area the sea-land breeze circulation is an important factor in photochemical oxidant formation inland when the geostrophic wind is weak. The night-time radiation inversion which persists into the early morning prevents the dispersion of primary pollutants emitted from the big coastal industrial zones around Tokyo Bay. These pollutants are then advected by the land breeze to the Sagami Bay area which acts as storage tank. Conversion of such pollutants results in a high O 3 air mass inland with the penetration of the sea breeze. The sea breeze layer is thermally stable and inhibits vertical mixing of NO x. On the other hand, at the front of the sea breeze zone, a highly turbulent area transports the NO x to 1000-1500 m above mean sea level. Polluted air masses, with O 3 concentration exceeding 100 ppb, were observed at 500-1000 m on both 31 July and 1 August 1979. The maximum O 3 concentration on the 2nd day exceeded that on the 1st day. These high O 3 air masses contained aged pollutant and were entrained into the mixing layer as the depth of the mixing layer increased. This accelerated the formation rate of secondary pollutants. These early morning, high O 3 concentrations, and the storage capacity of the Sagami Bay area, are important factors in the time scale of air pollution phenomena in this region.

  6. Social and Political Factors Predicting the Presence of Syringe Exchange Programs in 96 US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tempalski, Barbara; Flom, Peter L.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Judith J.; McKnight, Courtney; Friedman, Risa

    2007-01-01

    Community activism can be important in shaping public health policies. For example, political pressure and direct action from grassroots activists have been central to the formation of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States. We explored why SEPs are present in some localities but not others, hypothesizing that programs are unevenly distributed across geographic areas as a result of political, socioeconomic, and organizational characteristics of localities, including needs, resources, and local opposition. We examined the effects of these factors on whether SEPs were present in different US metropolitan statistical areas in 2000. Predictors of the presence of an SEP included percentage of the population with a college education, the existence of local AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) chapters, and the percentage of men who have sex with men in the population. Need was not a predictor. PMID:17267732

  7. Assessment of the aerosols distribution in the Bucharest metropolitan area in relation with health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Dida, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite images and in- situ monitoring of particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in an effort to qualitatively assess distribution of aerosols in the greater Bucharest area during 2010-2011 period. It was found that PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols exhibit their highest concentration mostly in the central part mainly due to road traffic as well as in the industrialized parts outside of city's centre. An epidemiological study examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants in metropolitan agglomeration of Bucharest used ambient air pollution measurements like as PM10 and PM2.5 levels as a proxy for personal exposure levels. The measurements of environmental concentrations of particulate matter air pollutants have been correlated with health effects on respiratory health status of school children in urban/periurban areas of Bucharest.

  8. The Basin of Mexico and its metropolitan area: water abstraction and related environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Morán, T.; Rodríguez, R.; Cortes, S. A.

    1999-11-01

    The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin of lacustrine character, with an average elevation of 2200 m above sea level. The watershed covers a vast extension in five states. Mexico City and its metropolitan area are located within this basin. The aquifer system is the main source of water supply for more than 20 million people. Water consumption is about 60 m 3/s. The aquifer supplies about 43 m 3/s from around 1000 wells at 70-200 m depth. Pumping policies have generated subsidence and degradation of the ground water quality in the Basin of Mexico The lacustrian clay layers play an important role in the local hydrogeology, protecting the aquifer from pollution, but the transition and piedmont areas are highly vulnerable to surface pollutants.

  9. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas metropolitan area, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.B.; Wood, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1976 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Newton Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Duck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations, including hydrographs and mass curves, are presented for six storm periods during the 1976 water year. During the 1976 water year, one continuous stream-gaging station and two flood-hydrograph partial-record stations were added to the study area. These stations are located in the Prairie Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  11. Hydrology of Johnson Creek Basin, a Mixed-Use Drainage Basin in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area and through rural and agricultural land in unincorporated Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. Johnson Creek has had a history of persistent flooding and water-quality problems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted streamflow monitoring and other hydrologic studies in the basin since 1941.

  12. 78 FR 9044 - Adequacy Status of the Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Metropolitan Washington DC Area (DC-MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Metropolitan Washington DC Area (DC-MD... EPA's finding, the Washington DC-MD-VA Nonattainment Area for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National...

  13. Air-borne microorganisms in the metropolitan area of Graz, Austria.

    PubMed

    Köck, M; Schlacher, R; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Reinthaler, F F; Eibel, U; Marth, E; Friedl, H

    1998-02-01

    Urban and rural regions are affected by different microorganism loads depending on their structure and utilization. At 7 sampling sites in the metropolitan area of Graz, counts of airborne bacteria as well as yeasts and molds were conducted over a one-year period at two-week intervals. Bacteria and yeasts/molds counts in a village area to the South of Graz dominated by agriculture exceeded the corresponding counts in a suburban residential area fourfold (327 CFU/m3 air-bacteria) and twofold (185 CFU/m3 air-yeasts/molds) respectively. In the vicinity of a composting facility located in the same residential area, microorganism counts exceeded those of the neighboring "unaffected" area by 29% in the case of bacteria and by 54% in the case of yeasts/molds. At an industrial and business site with heavy traffic, the counts are twice that of the area affected by the composting facility (146 CFU/m3 for bacteria and 168 CFU/m3 for yeasts/molds). The proportion of Aspergillus fumigatus is highest in the village area with 23%, compared to 10% in the open land. 49% of the bacteria and 54% of the yeasts and molds can be shown on stages 4-6 of the Andersen-Volumetric-Sampler registering the respirable particle sizes.

  14. Advanced time and wavelength division multiplexing for metropolitan area optical data communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watford, M.; DeCusatis, C.

    2005-09-01

    With the advent of new regulations governing the protection and recovery of sensitive business data, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, there has been a renewed interest in business continuity and disaster recovery applications for metropolitan area networks. Specifically, there has been a need for more efficient bandwidth utilization and lower cost per channel to facilitate mirroring of multi-terabit data bases. These applications have further blurred the boundary between metropolitan and wide area networks, with synchronous disaster recovery applications running up to 100 km and asynchronous solutions extending to 300 km or more. In this paper, we discuss recent enhancements in the Nortel Optical Metro 5200 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform, including features recently qualified for data communication applications such as Metro Mirror, Global Mirror, and Geographically Distributed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS). Using a 10 Gigabit/second (Gbit/s) backbone, this solution transports significantly more Fibre Channel protocol traffic with up to five times greater hardware density in the same physical package. This is also among the first platforms to utilize forward error correction (FEC) on the aggregate signals to improve bit error rate (BER) performance beyond industry standards. When combined with encapsulation into wide area network protocols, the use of FEC can compensate for impairments in BER across a service provider infrastructure without impacting application level performance. Design and implementation of these features will be discussed, including results from experimental test beds which validate these solutions for a number of applications. Future extensions of this environment will also be considered, including ways to provide configurable bandwidth on demand, mitigate Fibre Channel buffer credit management issues, and support for other GDPS protocols.

  15. Wintertime winds in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area in the presence of a temperature inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Temperature inversions are frequently observed in mountainous urban areas and can cause severe air pollution problems especially in wintertime. This study investigates wintertime winds in and around the Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, metropolitan area in the presence of a temperature inversion using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). Ulaanbaatar is located in complex terrain and in a nearly east-west-oriented valley. A wintertime scenario with clear skies, weak synoptic winds, and a temperature inversion under the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system is selected. Local winds are weak in the presence of the temperature inversion. In the daytime, weak mountain upslope winds develop, up-valley winds appear to be stronger in the urban area than in the surrounding areas, and channeling winds are produced in the main valley. The bottom of the temperature inversion layer rises up in the urban area, and winds below the bottom of the temperature inversion layer strengthen. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds develop. Urban effects in the presence of the temperature inversion are examined by comparing the results of simulations with and without the city. It is shown that in the daytime the urban area acts to elevate the bottom of the temperature inversion layer and weaken the strength of the temperature inversion layer. Winds east of the city weaken in the afternoon and down-valley winds develop later in the simulation with the city.

  16. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  17. Multidisciplinary Pediatric Obesity Clinic via Telemedicine Within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Slusser, Wendy; Whitley, Margaret; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Kim, Sion L; Ponturo, Don

    2016-03-01

    Telemedicine has been shown to be effective for rural populations, but little is reported on pediatric obesity care via telemedicine in urban settings. This study aims to assess feasibility and acceptability of multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care via telemedicine within the same metropolitan area in terms of information technology, coordination, patient care, and clinical outcomes. All project notes and communications were reviewed to extract key lessons from implementation. Patient and Provider Satisfaction Questionnaires were conducted to assess overall satisfaction; baseline and follow-up information were collected from chart reviews to evaluate clinical outcomes. Based on the questionnaires, 93% of responding patients (n = 28) and 88.3% of referring providers (n = 17) felt satisfied with the appointment. Chart review indicated a trend for decreased or stabilized body mass index and blood pressure (n = 32). Implementation of telemedicine for tertiary multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care in urban settings is both feasible and acceptable to patients and health care providers.

  18. [A study of factors related to contraceptive dropout: colored women in the metropolitan area of Capetown].

    PubMed

    Strydom, M

    1985-06-01

    There is concern over persons who fail to attend family planning clinics without reason. The represents 1 of the major stumbling blocks to a successful family planning program. The author investigated factors associated with clinic dropout among black women in a metropolitan area (Capetown, South Africa). Almost 1/2 of those who ceased to attend had a good reason for doing so. The main findings regarding the other defaulters included a lack of motivation among black women to prevent uplanned pregnancies through temporary contraception and that the program may not have met all of the public needs. In this regard, specific reference is made to the need of those women who no longer bring their youngest child to the child health clinic as family planning services are usually integrated into such a clinic. (author's modified)

  19. Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

  20. Hazardous air pollutants from mobile sources in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, Isaac; Díaz, Luis; López-Salinas, Esteban

    2005-09-01

    Environmental agencies are currently in the process of implementing a new air management program, which includes the improvement of fuel quality. In this work, exhaust emissions data and estimated relative risk for various fuels testing in-use vehicles, equipped with three different exhaust emission control technologies, are presented. Aromatics, sulfur, and olefins contents; type of oxygenated compound; and Reid vapor pressure were varied. The aim also includes calculating the ozone (O3) forming potential and a relative cancer risk of emissions from current and formulated gasoline blends in Mexico. The proposed gasoline decreases carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitrogen oxides emissions by 18 and 14%, respectively, when compared with gasoline sold in the rest of the country and within ozone nonattainment metropolitan areas in Mexico, respectively.

  1. The 1987 Whittier Narrows Earthquake in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill; Jones, Lucile M.; Davis, Thomas L.; Hutton, L. Katherine; Brady, A. Gerald; Reasenberg, Paul A.; Michael, Andrew J.; Yerkes, Robert F.; Williams, Patrick; Reagor, Glen; Stover, Carl W.; Bent, Allison L.; Shakal, Anthony K.; Etheredge, Edwin; Porcella, Ronald L.; Bufe, Charles G.; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Cranswick, Edward

    1988-03-01

    The Whittier Narrows earthquake sequence (local magnitude, ML = 5.9), which caused over 358-million damage, indicates that assessments of earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles metropolitan area may be underestimated. The sequence ruptured a previously unidentified thrust fault that may be part of a large system of thrust faults that extends across the entire east-west length of the northern margin of the Los Angeles basin. Peak horizontal accelerations from the main shock, which were measured at ground level and in structures, were as high as 0.6g (where g is the acceleration of gravity at sea level) within 50 kilometers of the epicenter. The distribution of the modified Mercalli intensity VII reflects a broad north-south elongated zone of damage that is approximately centered on the main shock epicenter.

  2. The 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauksson, E.; Jones, L.M.; Davis, T.L.; Hutton, L.K.; Brady, A.G.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Michael, A.J.; Yerkes, R.F.; Williams, Pat; Reagor, G.; Stover, C.W.; Bent, A.L.; Shakal, A.K.; Etheredge, E.; Porcella, R.L.; Bufe, C.G.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Cranswick, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Whittier Narrows earthquake sequence (local magnitude, ML=5.9), which caused over $358-million damage, indicates that assessments of earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles metropolitan area may be underestimated. The sequence ruptured a previously unidentified thrust fault that may be part of a large system of thrust faults that extends across the entire east-west length of the northern margin of the Los Angeles basin. Peak horizontal accelerations from the main shock, which were measured at ground level and in structures, were as high as 0.6g (where g is the acceleration of gravity at sea level) within 50 kilometers of the epicenter. The distribution of the modified Mercalli intensity VII reflects a broad north-south elongated zone of damage that is approximately centered on the main shock epicenter.

  3. Rates of DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders Among Adolescents in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2009-01-01

    We present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area in the U.S. and the association of DSM-IV diagnoses to functional impairment and selected demographic correlates. We sampled 4,175 youths aged 11–17 years from households enrolled in large health maintenance organizations. Data were collected using questionnaires and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Impairment was measured using the Child Global Assessment Scale and diagnostic specific impairment in the DISC-IV. 17.1% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for one or more disorders in the past year; 11% when only DISC impairment was considered and 5.3% only using the CGAS. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety (6.9%), disruptive (6.5%), and substance use (5.3%) disorders. The most prevalent specific disorders were agoraphobia, conduct and marijuana abuse/dependence, then alcohol use and oppositional defiant disorder. Younger youths and females had lower odds for any disorder, as did youths from two parent homes. There was increased odds associated with lower family income. Females had greater odds of mood and anxiety disorders, males of disruptive and substance use disorders. There were greater odds of mood and disruptive disorders for older youths. Prevalences were highly comparable to recent studies using similar methods in diverse non-metropolitan populations. We found associations with age, gender, and to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status reported in previous studies. The inclusion of both diagnosis-specific impairment and global impairment reduced prevalence rates significantly. Our results suggest commonality of prevalences and associated factors in diverse study settings, including urban and rural areas. PMID:17107689

  4. Rates of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among adolescents in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-12-01

    We present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area in the US and the association of DSM-IV diagnoses to functional impairment and selected demographic correlates. We sampled 4175 youths aged 11-17 years from households enrolled in large health maintenance organizations. Data were collected using questionnaires and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Impairment was measured using the Child Global Assessment Scale and diagnostic specific impairment in the DISC-IV. 17.1% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for one or more disorders in the past year; 11% when only DISC impairment was considered and 5.3% only using the CGAS. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety (6.9%), disruptive (6.5%), and substance use (5.3%) disorders. The most prevalent specific disorders were agoraphobia, conduct and marijuana abuse/dependence, then alcohol use and oppositional defiant disorder. Younger youths and females had lower odds for any disorder, as did youths from two parent homes. There was increased odds associated with lower family income. Females had greater odds of mood and anxiety disorders, males of disruptive and substance use disorders. There were greater odds of mood and disruptive disorders for older youths. Prevalences were highly comparable to recent studies using similar methods in diverse non-metropolitan populations. We found associations with age, gender, and to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status reported in previous studies. The inclusion of both diagnosis-specific impairment and global impairment reduced prevalence rates significantly. Our results suggest commonality of prevalences and associated factors in diverse study settings, including urban and rural areas.

  5. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  6. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  7. Evaluation of a Pilot Surveillance System: Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange in Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, P.; Shire, J.; Qualters, Judy; Daley, Randolph; Fiero, Leslie Todorov; Autry, Andy; Avchen, Rachel; Stock, Allison; Correa, Adolofo; Siffel, Csaba; Devine, Owen; Gotway, Carol; Crawford; Mitchell, Ken; Pollard, Solomon; Rao, Ravi; Kajumba, Ntale; Rickman, Doug; Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maury; Meyer, Paul; Crosson, Bill; Limaye, Ashutosh; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    CDC and its partners established the Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) demonstration project, to develop linking and analysis methods that could be used by the National Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Network. Initiated in October 2003, the Metropolitan Atlanta-based collaborative conducted four projects: asthma and particulate air pollution, birth defects and ozone and particulate air pollution, childhood leukemia and traffic emissions, and children's blood lead testing and neighborhood risk factors for lead poisoning. This report provides an overview of the HELIX-Atlanta projects' goals, methods and outcomes. We discuss priority attributes and common issues and challenges and offer recommendations for implementation of the nascent national environmental public health tracking network.

  8. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  9. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  10. Epidemiology and surveillance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in two large metropolitan areas in California

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Jhaqueline; Roberts, Eric; Paulukonis, Susan; Collins, Natalie; English, Paul; Kaye, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to provide demographic profiles and incidence estimates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two diverse California metropolitan areas: Los Angeles County (LA) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA). Data were retrospectively collected from multiple sources. Case eligibility criteria included residency in SFBA or LA, and treatment for or diagnosis of ALS between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. Overall incidence rates as well as age-, gender-, race- and ethnicity-specific rates were calculated. We identified 539 ALS cases in SFBA and 545 in LA; 618 were incident cases. Cases were more likely to be male and white. There were considerably more cases (p < 0.05) in LA who were foreign-born (LA, 22%; SFBA, 15%), black (LA, 10%; SFBA, 6%) or Hispanic (LA, 19%; SFBA, 10%). Conversely, the age adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) were higher in SFBA for whites (LA, 1.40; SFBA, 2.49) and Hispanics (LA, 0.66; SFBA, 1.57) compared with LA. General case demographics and incidence rates in these two areas were similar to published studies. However, the differences between the two areas raise questions about how factors such as geography, access to care, and referral patterns may affect case ascertainment and diagnosis. PMID:25822003

  11. On the intensification of precipitation over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Precipitation over the western part of Mexico during the twentieth century has shown a sustained trend towards more intense precipitation events. The number of intense storms over this part of the city has increased from less than ten per year at the beginning of the twentieth century to more than twenty in recent decades. This appears to be the case of precipitation over most of the urban area of the Mexico Valley. The change in the local hydrological cycle appears to be related to the rapid expansion of the urban area during the last century that has more than doubled in fifty years. The Heat Island effect has various effects that affect the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer, the capacity to contain more moisture. On the other hand, the summer moisture flux into the Mexico Valley has increased in recent decades. These various factors contribute to more intense storms forming at the northeastern part of the Valley. As they travel across the urban area, they intensify, particularly at the foothills of the western mountains of the Metropolitan area. Therefore, the dynamical analysis and prediction of these storms need more than just higher spatial resolution models.

  12. Epidemiology and surveillance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in two large metropolitan areas in California.

    PubMed

    Valle, Jhaqueline; Roberts, Eric; Paulukonis, Susan; Collins, Natalie; English, Paul; Kaye, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to provide demographic profiles and incidence estimates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two diverse California metropolitan areas: Los Angeles County (LA) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA). Data were retrospectively collected from multiple sources. Case eligibility criteria included residency in SFBA or LA, and treatment for or diagnosis of ALS between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. Overall incidence rates as well as age-, gender-, race- and ethnicity-specific rates were calculated. We identified 539 ALS cases in SFBA and 545 in LA; 618 were incident cases. Cases were more likely to be male and white. There were considerably more cases (p < 0.05) in LA who were foreign-born (LA, 22%; SFBA, 15%), black (LA, 10%; SFBA, 6%) or Hispanic (LA, 19%; SFBA, 10%). Conversely, the age adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) were higher in SFBA for whites (LA, 1.40; SFBA, 2.49) and Hispanics (LA, 0.66; SFBA, 1.57) compared with LA. General case demographics and incidence rates in these two areas were similar to published studies. However, the differences between the two areas raise questions about how factors such as geography, access to care, and referral patterns may affect case ascertainment and diagnosis.

  13. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  14. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  15. Mitigating "Milliken"? School District Boundary Lines and Desegregation Policy in Four Southern Metropolitan Areas, 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century, law and policy have helped cement tremendous inequities into the structure of our cities. District boundary lines separating multiple, unequal school systems within a single metropolitan (metro) area play a central role in structuring racial and economic isolation. Using data from the National Center for Education…

  16. Census of Population and Housing: 1970. General Demographic Trends for Metropolitan Areas, 1960 to 1970. United States Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication is one of a series of 1970 census reports concerned mainly with population and housing trends in metropolitan areas from 1960 to 1970. The analytical text discusses changes in population growth and distribution and housing in the nation as a whole and by regions. Following the detailed tables are included definitions,…

  17. The Distribution of Public School Teachers by Race and Income Class in an Urban Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toder, Eric Jay

    In this essay, possible mechanisms which may lead to discrimination in the allocation of inputs to public education are discussed. A model of market discrimination in the supply curve for public school teachers is explained and tested using data from the Boston Metropolitan Area. The consequences for the distribution of teacher inputs in the…

  18. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  19. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  20. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  1. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  2. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  3. Intake fraction distributions for benzene from vehicles in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Miranda M.; Soares, Joana; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Kangas, Leena; Riikonen, Kari; Kousa, Anu; Asikainen, Arja; Jantunen, Matti J.

    The intake fraction (iF) gives a measure of the portion of a source's emissions that is inhaled by an exposed population over a defined period of time. This study examines spatial and population-based iF distributions of a known human carcinogen, benzene, from a ubiquitous urban source, local vehicular traffic, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area using three computational methods. The first method uses the EXPAND model (EXPosure to Air pollution, especially to Nitrogen Dioxide and particulate matter), which incorporates spatial and temporal information on population activity patterns as well as urban-scale and street canyon dispersion models to predict spatial population exposure distributions. The second method uses data from the personal monitoring study EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions of Adult Urban Populations in Europe) to estimate the intake fractions for individuals in the study. The third method, a one-compartment box model provides estimates within an order-of-magnitude or better for non-reactive agents in an urban area. Population intake fractions are higher using the personal monitoring data method (median iF 30 per million, mean iF 39 per million) compared with the spatial model (annual mean iF 10 per million) and the box model (median iF 4 per million, mean iF 7 per million). In particular, this study presents detailed intake fraction distributions on several different levels (spatial, individual, and generic) for the same urban area.

  4. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. Methods In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. Results In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. Conclusions A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. PMID:26811375

  5. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  6. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality–neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people’s life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live. PMID:25583480

  7. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  8. Atlanta NAVIGATOR case study. Final report, May 1996--Jun 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCC), one Transit Information Center (TIC), the Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the NAVIGATOR Case Study and documents the lessons learned from the Atlanta ITS deployment experience in order to improve other ITS deployments in the future. The Case Study focuses on the institutional, programmatic, and technical issues and opportunities from planning and implementing the ITS deployment in Atlanta. The Case Study collected data and information from interviews, observations, focus groups, and documentation reviews. It presents a series of lessons learned and recommendations for enabling successful ITS deployments nationwide.

  9. New Magnetic and Geochemical Results on Topsoils of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pichar, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Morton, O.; Hernandez, E.; Lozano-Santa-Cruz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; Beramendi, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.

    2008-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico city is a region well known for intense industrial and commercial activity. The potential sources of the heavy metal pollutants are assumed to be petroleum processing, production of iron material, manufacturing, coal combustion, commercial and automobile exhaust. New samples were collected from industrial, roadside, residential and public parks in the urban areas around the city and added to two previous field campaigns (2003 and 2005). Localities selected for the study represent, presumably, different heavy metal pollution levels and sources. At each sampling point, the top 2 cm layer of the soil profile was collected with a stainless steel trowel and stored in a plastic bag. The elements Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by EDXRF (Philips PW1400 apparatus) on bulk- sample pressed, boric-acid backed pellets. Metal concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, and V were analyzed by ICP-MS with a VG Elemental PQ3 instrument. Magnetic mineralogy in bulk soil samples was investigated by low-field susceptibility using a Kappabridge KLY2. Remanent magnetizations (ARM and IRM) and Hysteresis loops of micro samples had been carried out at room temperature. Bivariate analysis on different ratios of magnetic parameters was employed to characterize the pollution sources.

  10. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO), which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO), lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3) formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  11. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  12. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  13. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  14. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  15. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  16. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002.... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state... is part of the Atlanta, Georgia (hereafter referred to as ``the Atlanta Area'' or ``Area''),...

  17. Remote sensing applications to hydrology in Minnesota. [Rice Creek watershed and St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D.; Skaggs, R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of low lying southeastern shore of Pike Lake is described as part of the Rice Creek watershed study. Several small wetlands in Arden Hills, Minnesota were incorporated into the drainage plans as pollutant and nutrient sinks rather than being infilled. Lake water quality in the St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area was analyzed using Landsat images. In the same urban area, the inventory and seasonal change of the open water were also studied.

  18. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC.

  19. Comparison of conceptually based and regression rainfall-runoff models, Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado, and potential applications in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Ellis, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Multievent, conceptually based models and a single-event, multiple linear-regression model for estimating storm-runoff quantity and quality from urban areas were calibrated and verified for four small (57 to 167 acres) basins in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The basins represented different land-use types - light commercial, single-family housing, and multi-family housing. Both types of models were calibrated using the same data set for each basin. A comparison was made between the storm-runoff volume, peak flow, and storm-runoff loads of seven water quality constituents simulated by each of the models by use of identical verification data sets. The models studied were the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II) (a runoff-quantity model designed for urban areas), and a multievent urban runoff quality model (DR3M-QUAL). Water quality constituents modeled were chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total lead, total manganese, and total zinc. (USGS)

  20. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A.; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage. PMID:23748169

  1. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  2. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon.

  3. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. 222Rn (radon gas) and 220Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6 % geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3 % of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m−3 (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m−3 (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon. PMID:24748485

  4. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, nitrates, and other chemicals in well water in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Kloos, H

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the spatial and temporal distribution of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, nitrate, and several other organic and inorganic chemicals in large community wells in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area and estimated the lifetime cancer risk associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene. By 1992-1993, investigators found the industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene in 34 wells and found trichloroethylene in 16 wells. All wells had detectable levels of nitrate. In addition, investigators found radon, arsenic, cadmium, iron, manganese, trihalomethanes, and several other volatile organic chemicals in the wells, but only radon and arsenic posed a significant health risk. In 1995, 16 wells were closed because chemicals were found in them. Twenty-six of 248 (10.5%) active wells and 24 of 43 (55.8%) closed wells contained multiple contaminants, excluding nitrate. Between 1988 and 1993, concentrations of trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and nitrates increased in selected wells. Daily, monthly, and bimonthly variations in the concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and nitrate were often considerable. Granulated activated carbon filtration reduced trichloroethylene levels in well water by 91%-95%, and the author examined its usefulness as a remedial measure. Estimated lifetime cancer risks for tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were 1 excess cancer death per 9.5 million people and 1 excess death per 250 million, respectively. The author also included recommendations for the conduct of further epidemiological and environmental studies.

  5. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population.

  6. Regional Similarities in Seasonal Mortality across the United States: An Examination of 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. While the pattern itself is clear, there have been very few studies examining whether the magnitude or timing of seasonal mortality varies considerably across space. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States and to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the geographic variation and underlying causes of seasonal mortality across the United States. PMID:23734179

  7. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot

  8. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-11-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  9. Water-quality data for Arvada Reservoir, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, L.J.; Gaggiani, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological water quality data were collected and compiled for five sites in Arvada Reservoir, one site in Ralston Creek, and two sites in Croke Canal, in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The purpose of the data collection was to determine the water quality of Arvada Reservoir, evaluate the effect of source waters on the reservoir , and determine the trophic state of the reservoir. Data collected include reservoir profile measurements with depth and inflow measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Secchi disk depth measurements also are reported. In addition, water samples were analyzed periodically for concentrations of major chemical constituents, nutrients, trace elements, and selected radiochemicals; for densities and relative abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and for concentrations of chlorophyll alpha. Results of algal growth potential determinations are included. This report describes sampling site locations and methods of data collection and analyses and presents qualitative and quantitative results of water quality data collected during the study. Sampling began during June 1983 and continued through September 1985. (USGS)

  10. [Bullying in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Vega López, María Guadalupe; González Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Valle Barbosa, María Ana; Flores Villavicencio, María Elena; Vega López, Agustín

    2013-08-01

    This paper seeks to determine the prevalence of victims of school bullying among youth enrolled in public secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico and to identify the factors associated with being a victim of bullying in the period 2009-2011. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out. A multistage probability sampling was designed for the public secondary schools, in which 1,706 students between 11 and 16 years old were studied. A questionnare with four sections was applied in order to identify victims of bullying. A logistic regression model was then used to measure the association between the factors analyzed and being a victim of bullying. The prevalence of school bullying was 17.6% (95% CI 15.8; 19.5). Personal factors, such as the feeling of not being accepted by peers or not spending much time with friends, were the factors with the strongest statistically significant association with being a victim of bullying.

  11. Seismic hazard in the Istanbul metropolitan area: A preliminary re-evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Gulkan, Polat; Ozturk, N.Y.; Celebi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, two destructive earthquakes (M7.4 Kocaeli and M7.2 Duzce) occurred in the north west of Turkey and resulted in major stress-drops on the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault system where it continues under the Marmara Sea. These undersea fault segments were recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped to reshape the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on collected new information, seismic hazard of the Marmara region, particularly Istanbul Metropolitan Area and its vicinity, were re-examined using a probabilistic approach. Two seismic source and alternate recurrence models combined with various indigenous and foreign attenuation relationships were adapted within a logic tree formulation to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. The hazard maps show the peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 1.0 s. These acceleration levels were computed for 2 and 10 % probabilities of transcendence in 50 years.

  12. An exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about empirical variation in the extent to which healthcare organizations conduct formal strategic planning or the extent to which strategic planning affects performance. Structural contingency and complexity science theory offer differing interpretations of the value of strategic planning. Structural contingency theory emphasizes adaptation to achieve organizational fit with a changing environment and views strategic planning as a way to chart the organization's path. Complexity science argues that planning is largely futile in changing environments. Interviews of leaders in 20 healthcare organizations in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and San Antonio, Texas, reveal that strategic planning is a common and valued function in healthcare organizations. Respondents emphasized the need to continuously update strategic plans, involve physicians and the governing board, and integrate strategic plans with other organizational plans. Most leaders expressed that strategic planning contributes to organizational focus, fosters stakeholder participation and commitment, and leads to achievement of strategic goals. Because the widespread belief in strategic planning is based largely on experience, intuition, and faith, we present recommendations for developing an evidence base for healthcare strategic planning.

  13. Diversity of bacterial communities of fitness center surfaces in a U.S. metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Dowd, Scot E; Wise, Andy; Kedia, Sapna; Vohra, Varun; Banerjee, Pratik

    2014-12-03

    Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities) may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  14. Naturopaths in Ontario, Canada: geographic patterns in intermediately-sized metropolitan areas and integration implications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stephen P

    2017-02-14

    Evaluating conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with respect to integration opportunities (such as patient referrals and professional knowledge sharing) and possible geographic implications is novel. This research utilizes nearest neighbour and local spatial autocorrelation statistical analyses and surveys directed towards Doctors of Naturopathic Medicine (NDs) and their patients to better understand the geographic patterns of NDs and potential integration qualities. While the statistical tests reveal that the offices of NDs and Doctors of Medicine (MDs) display clustered patterns in intermediately-sized census metropolitan areas in Ontario and that the majority of NDs are near MDs, proximity is not manifesting in discernible integration tendencies between NDs and MDs. The NDs polled were strongly in favour of greater integration with the CM sector (as were their patients) to: achieve better patient health outcomes and to gain efficiencies within the health care system. Yet, both surveys also indicate that the barriers to integration are substantial and, generally speaking, centre on the perception that many MDs lack respect for, and/or knowledge about, naturopathic approaches. It is speculated that as students in conventional medical schools are increasingly exposed to CAM approaches, perhaps more MDs in the future will be receptive to greater integration with CAM. Should this occur, then it is also possible that geographic proximity may be a catalyst for deeper CAM-CM integration; as it has been for CAM-CAM relationships.

  15. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  16. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Evaluation of the vehicle inspection/maintenance program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Vera, M; Guzmán, E; Durán, J; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2003-01-01

    The Inspection/Maintenance Program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) mandates a test every 6 months for all gasoline motor vehicles as one of the strategies to decrease emissions of vehicular pollutants. FTP-75 and ASM procedures were performed in our facilities to a fleet of 108 in-use motor vehicles before and after the approval of the I/M mandatory test When our laboratory-simulated ASM data were compared with those of the official certificate, a large difference was observed between them. On the other hand, audits at the test-only centers indicate poor maintenance of the analytical instruments and dynamometers. On the basis of our FTP results, an estimation of the emissions change for the MAMC fleet shows a net 4% decrease in CO emissions, while total hydrocarbons and NOx increased 9 and 8%, respectively. Our results indicate that the I/M system in the MAMC lacks the technical capability and investment to ensure that software and hardware are properly maintained, calibrated, and upgraded. Sometimes limited attention is paid to ensure adequate training of inspectors, auditors, and quality control staff.

  18. Water from the Coastal Plain aquifers in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papadopulos, S.S.; Bennett, R.R.; Mack, F.K.; Trescott, P.C.

    1974-01-01

    A brief study of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area was made, using available data, to estimate the water-supply potential of these aquifers and to determine the possibility of developing an emergency water supply during droughts. Assuming that the data available are representative, the study indicates that the water-supply potential of these aquifers, within an assumed 30-mile radius of Washington, D.C., is about 170 million gallons per day. That is, these aquifers, which are now furnishing an estimated 60 million gallons per day, could be developed to supply an additional 110 million gallons per day on a continuous basis. This quantity might be even larger if a significant amount of water is derived from leakage through finer grained confining beds, but further studies would be necessary to determine the amount of leakage and the long-term effects of large-scale continuous use. Furthermore, under intermittent pumping conditions, an assumed emergency supply of 100 million gallons per day could probably be developed from well fields within a 30-mile radius of Washington. An exploration and testing program would be necessary to assess the reliability of these preliminary estimates.

  19. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  20. Survey of infectious and parasitic diseases in stray cats at the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana; Castro, Isabel; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel M; Almeida, Virgilio; Madeira de Carvalho, Luis M; Meireles, José; Fazendeiro, Maria I; Tavares, Luis; Vaz, Yolanda

    2010-06-01

    A survey of infectious and parasitic diseases of stray cats was carried out using biological samples collected from animals captured during a catch-neuter-release programme in four counties of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The main objective was to investigate the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health. Samples of blood, stool, hair and auricular swabs were collected from 231 cats in 27 colonies. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in 47/194 samples (24.2%); anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in 1/180 cats (0.6%); intestinal parasites in 23/74 samples (Toxocara cati, Isospora felis, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dipylidium caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina) and Otodectes cynotis in 4/182 cats (2.2%); dermatophyte fungi were isolated in 40/136 samples (29.4%); feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies were detected in 23/226 samples (10.2%); feline leukaemia virus antigen in 14/198 samples (7.1%); and feline coronavirus RNA in 9/127 samples (7.1%). Our results revealed that zoonotic agents, namely dermatophyte fungi and Toxocara cati were present in stray cat colonies in the investigated counties. Overall the low frequency of major pathogens suggests a balanced relationship between host and agents.

  1. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  2. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Dowd, Scot E.; Wise, Andy; Kedia, Sapna; Vohra, Varun; Banerjee, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities) may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users. PMID:25479039

  3. Assessing sustainability in real urban systems: the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Area in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mejía, Alejandra M; Eason, Tarsha N; Cabezas, Heriberto; Suidan, Makram T

    2012-09-04

    Urban systems have a number of factors (i.e., economic, social, and environmental) that can potentially impact growth, change, and transition. As such, assessing and managing these systems is a complex challenge. While, tracking trends of key variables may provide some insight, identifying the critical characteristics that truly impact the dynamic behavior of these systems is difficult. As an integrated approach to evaluate real urban systems, this work contributes to the research on scientific techniques for assessing sustainability. Specifically, it proposes a practical methodology based on the estimation of dynamic order, for identifying stable and unstable periods of sustainable or unsustainable trends with Fisher Information (FI) metric. As a test case, the dynamic behavior of the City, Suburbs, and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) of Cincinnati was evaluated by using 29 social and 11 economic variables to characterize each system from 1970 to 2009. Air quality variables were also selected to describe the MSA's environmental component (1980-2009). Results indicate systems dynamic started to change from about 1995 for the social variables and about 2000 for the economic and environmental characteristics.

  4. Application of preliminary risk analysis at marble finishing plants in Recife's metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    de Melo Neto, Rútilo P; Kohlman Rabbani, Emilia R

    2012-01-01

    The finishing of marble occurs in quarries all over Brazil, being the most significant dimension of the ornamental stone sector, with 7,000 businesses. Recife's Metropolitan Area (RMR) contains approximately 106 marble quarries, 25 of them unionized. The study focused on the application of Preliminary Risk Analysis, conducted at two unionized quarries: M1, a small business; and the second, M2, considered a micro enterprise. In this analysis both the administrative and the productive sectors were evaluated. The fieldwork was done in the month of December 2010. The study revealed that the two quarries carried moderate risks in the administrative sector, mainly due to ergonomic factors, and that in the productive sectors the risks were high, specifically because of excess noise, dust material, and precarious electrical installations. Using the results of the qualitative analysis as a base, the need for quantitative study presents itself in order to determine the most adequate modes of protection to be of assistance in the management of these risks, guaranteeing the safety and health of the worker and consequently the improvement in productivity in this sector.

  5. Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

    2006-03-01

    Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles.

  6. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  7. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  8. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  9. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  10. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m-3, 3.6 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.35 μg m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 μg m-3, 2.8 μg m-3, 1.7 μg m-3, and 0.25 μg m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of

  11. An Examination of Green School Practices in Atlanta Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to examine green environmental practices exercised in maintaining healthy schools in Atlanta. A forty-item researcher-developed instrument was used to survey 30 randomly sampled schools in the Atlanta area. Five schools particularly strong in green environment implementation were visited to observe their green…

  12. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  13. Energy potential of residue from wood transformation industry in the central metropolitan area of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain).

    PubMed

    Paredes-Sánchez, José Pablo; Gutiérrez-Trashorras, Antonio José; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    The development of modern cities favours the formation of metropolitan zones with urban and industrial areas. The central metropolitan area (CMA) of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain), takes up 9.6% of the territory and represents 78% of its population. The first and second wood transformation industries of the CMA generate rather large amounts of biomass residues suitable for both reclaim and energy valuation considering technical, economic, and environmental restrictions. The results obtained from the evaluation of the biomass and the bioenergy of these residues are 7.9 kt/year and 114.7 TJ/year, respectively. The location for the development of a densified solid biofuels plant to produce pellets from these available residues is proposed for the Siero municipality, which is in the CMA. The plant would have an annual potential production capacity for the conventional pelletization process equivalent to 10 MW of fuel output.

  14. Culture and self: are there within-culture differences in self between metropolitan areas and regional cities?

    PubMed

    Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kokubo, Teruyoshi; Kashima, Emiko S; Boxall, Dianne; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Macrae, Kristina

    2004-07-01

    Although differences in self-conception across cultures have been well researched, regional differences within a culture have escaped attention. The present study examined individual, relational, and collective selves, which capture people's conceptions of themselves in relation to their goals, significant others, and in groups, comparing Australians and Japanese participants living in regional cities and metropolitan areas. Culture, gender, and urbanism were found to be related to individual, relational, and collective selves, respectively. Australians emphasized individual self more than Japanese, women stressed relational self more than men, and residents in regional cities regarded collective self as more important than their counterparts in metropolitan areas. These findings provide support for the tripartite division of the self and suggest a need to construct a culture theory that links self and societal processes.

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of the Safety Net Specialty Care Program in the Denver Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Meredith P; Namba, Lynnette M; Dutcher, Sarah; Copeland, Tracy; Bermingham, Neysa; Fellenz, Chris; Lantz, Deborah; Reusch, John J; Bayliss, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In response to limited access to specialty care in safety-net settings, an integrated delivery system and three safety-net organizations in the Denver, CO, metropolitan area launched a unique program in 2013. The program offers safety-net providers the option to electronically consult with specialists. Uninsured patients may be seen by specialists in office visits for a defined set of services. This article describes the program, identifies aspects that have worked well and areas that need improvement, and offers lessons learned. Methods: We quantified electronic consultations (e-consults) between safety-net clinicians and specialists, and face-to-face specialist visits between May 2013 and December 2014. We reviewed and categorized all e-consults from November and December 2014. In 2015, we interviewed 21 safety-net clinicians and staff, 12 specialists, and 10 patients, and conducted a thematic analysis to determine factors facilitating and limiting optimal program use. Results: In the first 20 months of the program, safety-net clinicians at 23 clinics made 602 e-consults to specialists, and 81 patients received face-to-face specialist visits. Of 204 primary care clinicians, 103 made e-consults; 65 specialists participated in the program. Aspects facilitating program use were referral case managers’ involvement and the use of clear, concise questions in e-consults. Key recommendations for process improvement were to promote an understanding of the different health care contexts, support provider-to-provider communication, facilitate hand-offs between settings, and clarify program scope. Conclusion: Participants perceived the program as responsive to their needs, yet opportunities exist for continued uptake and expansion. Communitywide efforts to assess and address needs remain important. PMID:28241908

  16. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  17. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  18. Prescription monitoring programs and emergency department visits involving benzodiazepine misuse: early evidence from 11 United States metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Bachhuber, Marcus A.; Maughan, Brandon C.; Mitra, Nandita; Feingold, Jordyn; Starrels, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) visits involving benzodiazepines have increased in the United States. Most states have created prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) to improve drug prescribing safety. To determine the association between PMP implementation and ED visits involving benzodiazepine misuse, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 11 metropolitan areas in the United States from 2004 to 2011. Methods We estimated rates of ED visits per 100,000 residents involving benzodiazepine misuse from the Drug Abuse Warning Network dataset. Dates of PMP implementation were obtained from program administrators. We used linear regression models to assess whether PMP implementation was associated with a change in ED visits involving benzodiazepines. Models were adjusted for calendar quarter, metropolitan area, and metropolitan area-specific linear time trends. Results Rates of ED visits involving benzodiazepine misuse increased in all metropolitan areas during the study period. PMP implementation was not associated with a change in ED visits (mean difference: 0.9 [95% CI: −0.09 to 1.9] visits per 100,000 population per quarter; p=0.08). When analyzed by number of years after implementation, PMPs were associated with a higher visit rate in year one (0.8 [95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5]; p = 0.01]), but not in year two (0.3 [95% CI: −2.1 to 2.8]; p = 0.78) or year three or later (2.1 [95% CI: −0.4 to 4.7]; p = 0.10). Conclusion We did not find evidence that PMP implementation was associated with reductions in ED visits involving benzodiazepine misuse. Future work should identify PMP features and capabilities that improve benzodiazepine safety. PMID:26345658

  19. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management Study. Tonawanda Creek Watershed. Interim Flood Management Study. Main report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Silurian and Devonian periods of the Paleozoic era. It includes sedimentary formations of the Lockport Group of the Middle Silurian System through the...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER - 4. TITk E (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York... period of years, prior to 1973, segments of floodwalls have been constructed or reconstructed along both banks of the Tonawanda Ckeek channel within

  20. Relationship between the metereological conditions and the air-borne fungal flora of the Athens metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Bartzokas, C A

    1975-12-08

    The statistical relationship between the metereological conditions and the population of the air-borne fungi of the Athens metropolitan area were considered. It was found that during autumn and winter the number of suspended microfungi was more than double that which occurred during spring and summer. The fungal content appeared to be correlated positively with humidity and negatively with terperature, although during the analysis of the six predominant genera some exceptions were found to the general form of the results.

  1. 78 FR 32222 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour..., 2009, to address the reasonable further progress (RFP) plan requirements for the Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) nonattainment area. The Atlanta,...

  2. 78 FR 44439 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour... Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) nonattainment area. EPA... Planning Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 4, 61 Forsyth Street SW., Atlanta,...

  3. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  4. Occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream sediments from seven U.S. metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A nationally consistent approach was used to assess the occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream bed sediments from seven metropolitan areas across the United States. One or more pyrethroids were detected in almost half of the samples, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently (41%) and in each metropolitan area. Cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, and resmethrin were detected much less frequently. Pyrethroid concentrations and Hyalella azteca mortality in 28-d tests were lower than in most urban stream studies. Log-transformed total pyrethroid toxic units (TUs) were significantly correlated with survival and bifenthrin was likely responsible for the majority of the observed toxicity. Sampling sites spanned a wide range of urbanization and log-transformed total pyrethroid concentrations were significantly correlated with urban land use. Dallas/Fort Worth had the highest pyrethroid detection frequency (89%), the greatest number of pyrethroids (4), and some of the highest concentrations. Salt Lake City had a similar percentage of detections but only bifenthrin was detected and at lower concentrations. The variation in pyrethroid concentrations among metropolitan areas suggests regional differences in pyrethroid use and transport processes. This study shows that pyrethroids commonly occur in urban stream sediments and may be contributing to sediment toxicity across the country.

  5. Hydroclimatology of flash flooding in Atlanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Smith, James A.; Villarini, Gabriele; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the climatology of extreme rainfall and flash flooding in Atlanta, Georgia using high-resolution land surface, rainfall, and discharge datasets. We examine nine urban watersheds in the Atlanta area that range in size from 3.7 to 225 km2 and exhibit a range of urban development and land-use characteristics. We develop a high-resolution 15 min, 1 km2 radar rainfall data set for the 2002-2010 period using the Hydro-NEXRAD system with volume scan reflectivity observations from the Atlanta WSR-88D radar and rainfall observations from a dense network of 72 U.S. Geological Survey rain gauges. Bias-corrected radar rainfall fields accurately capture the spatial and temporal structure of heavy rainfall. There is enhancement of heavy rainfall within and east of the urban core, and a rainfall minimum north and northwest of the city. There has been an increase in variability of annual flood peaks in Atlanta since the 1960s associated with urban impacts on runoff production. Flood response is dependent on a combination of basin size, drainage network structure, spatial distribution of land use, and basin storage in urban soils and storm water detention ponds. Future studies of urban rainfall modification in Atlanta and elsewhere should consider the influence of regional topography and other geographic features on the storm environment.

  6. Urban enhancement of the heat waves in Madrid and its metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, F.; Rasilla, D.

    2009-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a worldwide phenomenon that causes an increase of the temperatures in the centre of the cities. The process of urbanization has developed an intense urban heat island in Madrid, with temperature differences up to 10°C higher than the surrounding rural environment. Such differences may potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities, exacerbating their most negative effects over human health, particularly by night, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas. In this contribution we study the long term trends on warm extreme temperature episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area, and their impact at local scale, on the onw city of Madrid. For the first task, we have compared maximum and minimum temperatures from rural (Barajas and Torrejón) and urban (El Retiro, Cuatro Vientos, Getafe) stations from 1961-2008; for the second one a local network of automated meteorological stations inside the city provided hourly data from the 2002-2004 years. Finally, the 2003 heat wave is used as an example of the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and ozone concentrations during those extreme episodes. Our results show a regional increase in the frequency and duration of those extreme warm episodes since the end of the 80´s, although their absolute magnitude remains unchanged. The urban environment exacerbates the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures during the night-time hours, as it is shown by the above average number of tropical nights (> 20°C) inside the urban spaces, simultaneous to the increasing trend of maximum temperatures. Besides, the diversity of urban morphologies introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas. The regional meteorological conditions associated to these warm episodes, characterized also by low wind speed

  7. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  8. Effects of urban development on stormwater runoff characteristics for the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A study was done to estimate the effects of urban development in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area on nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Three of the nine characteristics define the magnitude of stormwater runoff, and the remaining six characteristics describe the shape and duration of a storm hydrograph. Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to estimate the nine stormwater runoff characteristics from basin and rainfall characteristics. Five basin characteristics and five rainfall characteristics were tested in the regressions to determine which basin and rainfall characteristics significantly affect stormwater runoff characteristics. Basin development factor was found to be significant in equations for eight of the nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Two sets of equations were developed, one for each of two regions based on soil type, from a database containing 1,089 storm discharge hydrographs for 42 sites compiled during 1964–89.The effects of urban development on the eight stormwater runoff characteristics were quantified by varying basin development factor in the equations and recomputing the stormwater runoff characteristics. The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 1 (north of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 40 percent (for direct runoff) to 235 percent (for peak yield); and corresponding decreases in the characteristics that describe hydrograph shape and duration ranging from about 22 percent (for direct runoff duration) to about 58 percent (for basin lag). The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 2 (south of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 33 percent (for direct runoff) to about 210 percent (for both peak flow and peak yield

  9. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  10. Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory for the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifter, I.; Díaz, L.; Múgica, V.; López-Salinas, E.

    The level and nature of air pollution varies substantially from city to city. Hence, the first requirement is the creation of an adequate knowledge base on local air quality on which to develop an air quality policy. Because the availability of data used in traditional on-road mobile source estimation methodologies is limited in Mexico, an alternative methodology was implemented to estimate motor vehicle emissions. In the year 2000, on-road gasoline powered vehicle emissions in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), were characterized using fuel sales as a measure of vehicle activity, and exhaust emissions factors from remote sensing measurements. In a similar way, remote sensing data obtained by researchers of the University of Denver back in 1991 and 1994 were used to estimate a fuel-based emission inventory for those years. Average emissions factors were estimated in 113.5±13, 13.1±1.9 and 9.84±2.3 g l -1 for CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x), respectively, based on remote sensing measurements of 42,800 vehicles. For year 2000 light and medium gasoline vehicles exhaust emissions contributed with 2065, 238, and 179 metric ton day-1 of CO, HC and NO x, respectively. The inventory is 48% and 26% lower in CO and NO x, respectively, than official inventory estimates for the year 1998 using travel-based models. Calculated CO reduction from 1991 to 1994 is approximately 46% while the atmospheric CO measurements, as indicator of mobile activity, in the same period decrease 51%. For the period 1994-2000 the reductions were 36% and 31%, respectively. The calculations indicate a continually decreasing inventory over the study period, and represents and ideal alternative for locations such as Mexican cities lacking the resources to develop an emissions model.

  11. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2005- 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, E.; Reyes, E.; Blanco, S.; Perez, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Retama, A.; Muñoz, R.; Ramos, R.; Paramo, V. H.; Gutiérrez, V.; Cárdenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    One of the main air quality problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are the high ozone levels, resulting from the photochemical reactions among precursors such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The MCMA air quality monitoring network includes 19 NOx and 19 O3 monitoring sites. However, no routine VOC monitoring is carried out. This work presents results of a field campaign done from September 2005 to September 2006 in the MCMA. 24 hours integrated samples were obtained every six days in five different sites, considered representative of the northwest, northeast, southeast, southwest, and center of the MCMA. Samples were obtained in stainless steel canisters adapted with a programmable flow controller. Analyses were done using a GC-FID to identify 57 VOCs following USEPA-TO-14A. A total of 354 samples were obtained corresponding to 62 sampling days. On the average, highest concentrations were found in the center, whereas lowest concentrations were found at the southwest. However, the overall maximum concentration (741 ppbV) was determined at the northeast site, and the overall minimum concentration (27 ppbV) was determined at the southwest site. At all sites, propane, butane, acetylene and toluene were the compounds found at highest concentrations. The main source for propane and butane is LPG, whereas for acetylene and toluene are combustion and evaporation of gasoline. It was found that southwest site is significantively different from the rest of all sites. A short field campaign was also done during 5 days in November-December 2005 with 3 periods of 3hrs integrated samples.

  12. Sun-Earth Connection Education and Public Outreach Activities in the Washington. DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Thomas, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    One of the primary education and public outreach activities we have been involved in over the last few years, is a project sponsored by the South East Regional Clearing House (SERCH), a NASA EPO broker-facilitator, to support EPO activities related to NASA's Office of Space Science research themes; specifically (1) The Sun-Earth Connection; (2) Exploration of the Solar System; (3) Astronomical Search for Origins; and (4) Structure and Evolution of the Universe. The grant was by way of the DC Space Grant Consortium, of which S.M.A.R.T. is an affiliate. The objectives of the grant were to provide educational materials and activities related to these themes, in DC Public Schools (and other formal, as well as informal, educational organizations, in the DC metropolitan area). We have also given presentations on these topics in informal educational venues and at universities. The objectives of our SERCH grant included production of videos, as well as CD copies of presentation documents, for use in the schools. Of particular note is that students, and their teachers, are active participants in the videos. The Sun-Earth Connection theme is the one we have focused on initially. Two DC schools, Anacostia Senior High School and Backus Middle School, were participants in the video production. In addition, students working during the summers as Science and Engineering Apprentice Program (SEAP) students at the Naval Research Laboratory participated in some of the videos and in developing and testing instruments used in the EPO activities. Also, the SEC presentations have been used in invited talks on several occasions as part of NRL's Community Outreach activities.

  13. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  14. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  15. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  16. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  17. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  18. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply. PMID:16151096

  19. Individual morbidity and neighbourhood deprivation in a non-metropolitan area.

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, E G

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to replicate, in a non-metropolitan area, a study by Curtis based on data from different parts of London which found a significant relationship between individual morbidity and neighbourhood deprivation. DESIGN--This study used the same design as the previous study. Information on individual morbidity was obtained, using the Nottingham health profile. Deprivation scores were assigned to respondents according the Jarman (and also Townsend) scores of the enumeration district in which they lived. Logistic regression models were built, using the enumeration district as the unit of analysis, to see if, after allowance for age and sex, the Jarman (or Townsend) score significantly improved the prediction of the enumeration district being above or below the sample median to any of the six dimensions of the profile. SETTING--The survey involved households in 10 electoral wards in Colchester and Clacton, Essex, United Kingdom, in 1988. PARTICIPANTS--A systematic sample of 200 persons was drawn from the electoral register in each of 10 wards yielding 2000 names. MAIN RESULTS--Nottingham health profiles were obtained from 1555 respondents out of an initial sample of 2000 names from the electoral register; the response rate among those alive and resident at a valid address was 93%. Jarman and Townsend scores were assigned to 1496 of the respondents, and the 162 enumeration districts were used as a unit of analysis. Contrary to Curtis's finding, Jarman score did not add significantly in a multiple logistic regression model to the prediction of response to any of the six dimensions of the Nottingham health profile, nor did the Townsend score. CONCLUSIONS--Apart from chance variation, there are two possible explanations for this finding. The measures of deprivation may be valid in London but not elsewhere; or there may be a true difference between cities and towns in the effect that deprivation has on subjective health. PMID:1479328

  20. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  1. Seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan based on adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Obayashi, M.; Tono, Y.; Tsuboi, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained a three-dimensional (3D) model of seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan. We applied the spectral-element method (e.g. Komatitsch and Tromp 1999) and adjoint method (Liu and Tromp 2006) to the broadband seismograms in order to infer the 3D model. We used the travel-time tomography result (Matsubara and Obara 2011) as an initial 3D model and used broadband waveforms recorded at the NIED F-net stations. We selected 147 earthquakes with magnitude of larger than 4.5 from the F-net earthquake catalog and used their bandpass filtered seismograms between 5 and 20 second with a high S/N ratio. The 3D model used for the forward and adjoint simulations is represented as a region of approximately 500 by 450 km in horizontal and 120 km in depth. Minimum period of theoretical waveforms was 4.35 second. For the adjoint inversion, we picked up the windows of the body waves from the observed and theoretical seismograms. We used SPECFEM3D_Cartesian code (e.g. Peter et al. 2011) for the forward and adjoint simulations, and their simulations were implemented by K-computer in RIKEN. Each iteration required about 0.1 million CPU hours at least. The model parameters of Vp and Vs were updated by using the steepest descent method. We obtained the fourth iterative model (M04), which reproduced observed waveforms better than the initial model. The shear wave-speed of M04 was significantly smaller than the initial model at any depth. The model of compressional wave-speed was not improved by inversion because of small alpha kernel values. Acknowledgements: This research was partly supported by MEXT Strategic Program for Innovative Research. We thank to the NIED for providing seismological data.

  2. THE ATLANTA SUPERSITE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlanta Supersites project is the first of two Supersites projects to be established during Phase I of EPA's Supersites Program; Phase 11 is being established through a Request for Assistance. The other initial project is in Fresno, California. The Supersites Program is par...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D’Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with “small green islands” corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  4. Annotated report and data inventory for the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This inventory of reports and data concerning the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Twin Cities metropolitan area was compiled from November 1981 through January 1982 for a planned river-quality assessment to be conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission. There are 260 annotated citations: 176 citations of reports; 8 citations of computer models that have been used to model either or both rivers; and 76 citations of data in reports , in field notes, lab sheets, or handwritten tabulations, and in computer data bases. Citations of all the reports and data located that might conceivably be useful in understanding and interpreting the biological and chemical quality of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the past, present, or future were included. The accuracy of the citations was not verified and secondary sources, such as other annotated bibliographies, were used in the compilation of this inventory.

  5. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  6. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  7. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  8. Simulation of instrumental intensities in the Tokyo Metropolitan area using a 3D attenuation structure model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the development of dense seismic networks in Japan has enabled high quality observations of instrumental intensities. However, the distribution of intensities of historical earthquakes can only be retrieved by the damage reports on historical documents. Their epicenter and magnitude can be roughly estimated from the intensity distribution, assuming that seismic intensity decays with distance. This approximation is not always accurate, since the amplitude of short period ground motion decays with focal distance and is affected by the 3D attenuation structure along the path and in addition displays frequency dependence. In order to estimate the location and size of a large historical earthquake, we need to accurately simulate the seismic intensity distribution, accounting for non linear attenuation of seismic waves along the path. The instrumental seismic intensities inside the Kanto basin observed at the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) and Hi-net stations display unusual distribution patterns, with peak intensities observed several km away from the epicenter rather than at the stations closer to it. In order to understand the source of this intensity distribution, we estimated the theoretical instrumental intensities using a 3D attenuation structure and compare it to the observed intensity distribution. We first estimated a 3D attenuation structure using the spectral decay of seismic waves, by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. The obtained model suggests Qs values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin and low Qs values < 300 in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific plate. We then use an ω2 model in order to estimate the source acceleration spectrum of several earthquakes occurring below the Kanto basin at depths ranging 30~80 km. Our simulation shows that earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through the low Qs area inside the

  9. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions.

  10. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  11. Household Poverty in Rural and Metropolitan-Core Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David L.; Hirschl, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1985 wave) indicate that rural households have the highest probability of poverty, followed by metropolitan-core households. Household factors (educational attainment, family structure, age, minority status) and the local opportunity structure were important determinants of poverty, but controlling for…

  12. Estimating numbers of injecting drug users in metropolitan areas for structural analyses of community vulnerability and for assessing relative degrees of service provision for injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah; Perlis, Theresa; Keem, Marie; Friedman, Risa; Flom, Peter L

    2004-09-01

    This article estimates the population prevalence of current injection drug users (IDUs) in 96 large US metropolitan areas to facilitate structural analyses of its predictors and sequelae and assesses the extent to which drug abuse treatment and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing are made available to drug injectors in each metropolitan area. We estimated the total number of current IDUs in the United States and then allocated the large metropolitan area total among large metropolitan areas using four different multiplier methods. Mean values were used as best estimates, and their validity and limitations were assessed. Prevalence of drug injectors per 10,000 population varied from 19 to 173 (median 60; interquartile range 42-87). Proportions of drug injectors in treatment varied from 1.0% to 39.3% (median 8.6%); and the ratio of HIV counseling and testing events to the estimated number of IDUs varied from 0.013 to 0.285 (median 0.082). Despite limitations in the accuracy of these estimates, they can be used for structural analyses of the correlates and predictors of the population density of drug injectors in metropolitan areas and for assessing the extent of service delivery to drug injectors. Although service provision levels varied considerably, few if any metropolitan areas seemed to be providing adequate levels of services.

  13. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an

  14. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  15. Biological assessment of streams in the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area, Indiana, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, David C.

    2004-01-01

    During 1999?2001, benthic invertebrates and fish were sampled to describe biological communities in the White River and selected tributaries in the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area in Indiana. Twelve sites (six on the White River and six on tributaries) were sampled biannually for benthic invertebrates and annually for fish. The information complements water-chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works in the study area. Evaluation of the habitat for sites in the study area was done, using a Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) developed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The QHEI scores basin and habitat characteristics for each site, with a maximum possible score of 100. Higher scores indicate better habitat conditions for biotic communities. The QHEI scores for sites on the White River ranged from 55 at the Harding site to 71 at the Waverly site; scores on the tributaries ranged from 45 on Pogues Run to 82 on Williams Creek. A total of 151 taxa were identified from the benthic-invertebrate samples. The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index scores for sites on the White River ranged from 0 at the Harding site to 15 at the Nora site. The Nora site, which is upstream from Indianapolis, generally scored the highest of all White River sites. Sites in the immediate vicinity of Indianapolis scored the lowest and indicate a negative effect on benthic-invertebrate communities in that reach. EPT Index scores increased in the farthest downstream reaches, which indicate that water-quality conditions had improved in comparison to sites in Indianapolis. For the tributary sites, EPT Index values ranged from 0 at Pogues Run to 16 at Buck Creek. Tributary sites on Fall Creek, Pleasant Run, and Pogues Run consistently scored 7 or lower; sites on Buck Creek, Eagle Creek, and Williams Creek scored 7 or higher. Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) scores ranged from 4.9 (good) to 9.6 (very poor) for the White River sites and from 5

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  17. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  18. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  19. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  20. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  1. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Verena; Carty, Cara L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) and of 10 μm (PM 10). In 1999-2000, we collected PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Munich urban air and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Using Teflon filters and Harvard impactors, PM 2.5 was collected at 40 outdoor monitoring sites across Munich and PM 10 at a subset of these sites ( n=12). Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 PM 2.5 samples and 48 PM 10 samples. We visited and characterized the surrounding 100 m of each site for potential endotoxin sources. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration for all sites was 1.46 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-1.77) and at the subset of the sites was 1.30 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% CI: 1.01-1.67 EU mg -1 PM 2.5). Endotoxin levels in PM 10 were higher, 3.91 EU mg -1 PM 10 (95% CI: 3.03-5.03 EU mg -1 PM 10), than in PM 2.5 and were moderately correlated, r=0.51. All endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were <5.5 EU m -3 and thus lower than the accepted thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures. Sites with more potential sources ( n⩾3) had slightly higher mean endotoxin levels (MR: 1.30 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and 1.13 for EU m -3 PM 2.5) than sites with no identified sources. Based on the ranges of endotoxin levels at the different sites, we found very little spatial variation in ambient endotoxin concentrations across the metropolitan area of Munich using inverse distance weighting method (IDW) methods ( R2=0.013 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and R2=0.020 for EU m -3 PM 2.5). Potential sources of endotoxin surrounding the sites only partly explained the variation seen.

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  3. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  4. Clostridium tetani in a Metropolitan Area: A Limited Survey Incorporating a Simplified in Vitro Identification Test

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Thomas R.; Ley, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    In a limited survey, three toxigenic and one nontoxigenic strains of Clostridium tetani were isolated from 18 environmental samples from metropolitan Boston. No C. tetani was found in 100 samples of human feces, 20 samples of dog feces, and two samples of horse feces. A simple modification of the halo precipitin test was studied in conjunction with the mouse lethality test for tetanus toxigenicity and was found to be a useful, although not a wholly definitive, technique. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16349708

  5. Use of Chemical Analysis and Assays of Semipermeable Membrane Devices Extracts to Assess the Response of Bioavailable Organic Pollutants in Streams to Urbanization in Six Metropolitan Areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Wade L.; Goodbred, Steve L.; Leiker, Thomas L.; Inouye, Laura; Johnson, B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Studies to assess the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems are being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The overall objectives of these studies are to (1) determine how hydrologic, geomorphic, water quality, habitat, and biological characteristics respond to land-use changes associated with urbanization in specific environmental settings, and (2) compare these responses across environmental settings. As part of an integrated assessment, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; and Denver-Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004. Sites were selected to avoid point-source discharge and to minimize natural variability within each of the six metropolitan areas. In addition to standard chemical analysis for hydrophobic organic contaminants, three assays were used to address mixtures and potential toxicity: (1) Fluoroscan provides an estimate of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) the P450RGS assay indicates the presence and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists; and (3) Microtox? measures toxicological effects on photo-luminescent bacteria. Of the 140 compounds targeted or identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis in this study, 67 were not detected. In terms of numbers and types of compounds, the following were detected: 2 wood preservatives, 6 insecticides (parent compounds), 5 herbicides, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 dibenzofurans, 4 polychlorinated biphenyls, 7 compounds associated with fragrances or personal care products, 4 steroids associated with wastewater, 5 polydibromated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants), 3 plasticizers, 3 antimicrobials/disinfectants, and 3 detergent metabolites. Of the 73 compounds

  6. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000–$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010–1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  7. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H

    2016-07-23

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000-$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010-1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed.

  8. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary.

  9. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  10. Implications of differential urbanization on deconcentration in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H S

    1990-01-01

    Population migration and differences in urbanization patterns in South Africa are examined. "Indications are that the Blacks--a low-income group--are increasing proportionally, while the Whites--the highest-income group--are diminishing proportionally in the inner core zone of the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area (PWV), and vice versa in the other zones.... Study results presented in this paper reiterate [inadequacies of government policies] and stress the need for changes in the present official spatial policy for the PWV."

  11. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from fitness centers in the Memphis metropolitan area, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sulaiman, Irshad M; Banerjee, Pratik

    2016-12-01

    Indoor skin-contact surfaces of public fitness centers may serve as reservoirs of potential human transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRSA of clonal complex 59 lineage harboring a variety of extracellular toxin genes from surface swab samples collected from inanimate surfaces of fitness centers in the Memphis metropolitan area, Tennessee. Our findings underscore the role of inanimate surfaces as potential sources of transmission of MDR MRSA strains with considerable genetic diversity.

  12. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  13. Exploratory Investigation of Concentrations of Total Gaseous Mercury in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, S.; de La Rosa, D. A.; Márquez, C.; Solórzano, G.; Martínez, A.

    2004-12-01

    Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in ambient air at several locations within Mexico Valley Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, ZMVM, in Spanish) was measured during the Fall of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. Among these locations were Tecamachalco (19°26'N; 99°13'W), San Agustín (19°31'N; 99°01'W), Xalostoc (19°31'N; 99°04'W) and Iztapalapa (19°21'N; 99°04'W). San Agustín and Xalostoc border the State of Mexico. Iztapalapa contains CENICA's monitoring station, and Mercury was one of the parameters measured here during the MCMA-2003 field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in ZMVM in April of 2003. This last site was used to monitor Mercury during three different seasons. The reported concentrations of Mercury vapor were measured continuously using cold vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Tekran 2537A analyzer), with a detection limit of 0.10 ng·m-3 and a monitoring frequency of five minutes. The average TGM concentrations reported were 13.42, 10.22, 8.46 and 34.2 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa in the months of September, October and November of 2002 and April of 2003 during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, respectively. For Tecamachalco, a concentration of 49.67 ng·m-3 was reported in January, 11.3 ng·m-3, for San Agustín in February and 31.99 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc in March of 2003.The daily maximums, 24 hourly average, for the same periods are 223.5, 78.2, 31.4 and 503.75 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa, 118.62 ng·m-3 for Tecamachalco, 83.4 ng·m-3 for San Agustín and 261.2 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc. According to Ontario's air quality standards, the threshold value for mercury vapor in ambient air is 2 mg·m-3 on a 30 day average (Mercury situation in Canada, Report # 2, Environment Canada, May 2002). According to these criteria, then, the data reported for Mexico City are within the allowed limits for ambient air, but still 22 times higher than those reported as background concentrations at pristine locations (de la Rosa D

  14. An Analysis of Causal Factors of Burnout among School Counselors in a Large Urban School System in the Greater Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Beatrice R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school counselor participants' perceived levels of job burnout, as measured by Lee's 2007 Counselor Burnout Inventory (CBI) with the assignment of non-counseling duties, as measured by Scarborough's 2005 School Counselors Activity Rating Scale (SCARS) and the alignment of their…

  15. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  16. Increases in seismicity rate in the Tokyo Metropolitan area after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Sakai, S.; Shimazaki, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Hirata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abrupt increases in seismicity rate have been observed in the Kanto region, where the Tokyo Metropolitan area is located, after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011. They are well explained by the static increases in the Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF) imparted by the gigantic thrusting while some other possible factors (e.g., dynamic stress changes, excess of fluid dehydration, post-seismic slip) may also contribute the rate changes. Because of various types of earthquakes with different focal mechanisms occur in the Kanto region, the receiver faults for the calculation of ΔCFF were assumed to be two nodal planes of small earthquakes before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The regions where seismicity rate increased after the Tohoku earthquake well correlate with concentration on positive ΔCFF (i.e., southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures where intermediate-depth earthquakes occur, and in the shallow crust of western Kanagawa, eastern Shizuoka, and southeastern Yamanashi including the Izu and Hakone regions). The seismicity rate has increased since March 11, 2011 with respect to the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988), suggesting that the rate increase was due to the stress increase by the Tohoku earthquake. Furthermore, the z-values immediately after the Tohoku earthquake show the minimum values during the recent 10 years, indicating significant increases in seismicity rate. At intermediate depth, abrupt increases in thrust faulting earthquakes are well consistent with the Coulomb stress increase. At shallow depth, the earthquakes with the T-axes of roughly NE-SW were activated probably due to the E-W extension of the overriding continental plate, and this is also well explained by the Coulomb stress increase. However, the activated seismicity in the Izu and Hakone regions rapidly decayed following the Omori-Utsu formula, while the increased rate of seismicity in the southwestern

  17. Classification of magnitude 7 earthquakes which occurred after 1885 in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Nishiyama, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in tectonically complex region; both the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are subducting from east and south, respectively, beneath the Kanto region. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region; i.e., shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. Among these, the largest earthquakes are Kanto earthquakes (M~8) occurring between the continental plate and PHS. The average recurrence interval is estimated to be 200 - 400 years (Earthq. Res. Comm., 2004), and hence, urgency of the next Kanto earthquake is thought to be low considering the lapse time (~87 yrs.) from the most recent Kanto earthquake in 1923. However, urgency of the other types of earthquakes with M~7 is high; Earthq. Res. Comm. (2004) calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the facts that five M~7 earthquakes (i.e., the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu, 1922 Uraga channel and 1987 Chiba-Ken Toho-Oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of earthquakes are not well known especially for the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo and 1895 Ibaragi-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes due to low quality of data. Thus, it is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes and to estimate their occurrence frequency. Ishibe et al. (2009a, 2009b) compiled previous studies and data for these five earthquakes. In this study, we report the preliminary result of focal depth and mechanism for the 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes. The epicenter of the 1895 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquake (M 7.2; Utsu, 1979) is discussed by various studies (e.g., Usami, 1973; Ishibashi, 1975; Katsumata, 1975; Utsu, 1979). However, few studies have discussed the hypocentral depth. The hypocentral depth is estimated to be 75 ~ 85 km using S-P time at Tokyo

  18. [Characteristic analysis of a multi-day pollution event in Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area during October 2013].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi-heng; Fan, Shao-jia; Huang, Juan; Sun, Jia-ren

    2014-11-01

    Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area experienced a typical multi-day pollution event in October 2013. Based on the air pollution index, conventional pollutants observations, surface meteorological observations and sounding data, the relationships of air pollution, large-scale circumfluence and boundary layer meteorology of this event were comprehensively analyzed. Additionally, the sources and transport paths of pollutions were investigated by application of satellite remote sensing data and HYSPLIT4 model. The results showed that pollutants gradually accumulated in the earlier stage of the event (October 21th to 26th) , while in the later stage (October 27th to 31th) the characteristic pollutants of crop residue burning (PM2.5, CO, NO2) sharply increased. The deterioration of air quality in the later stage was mainly related to the remote transport of pollutants caused by straw burning. Analysis of simulations of HYSPLIT4 model and fire spots showed that the currents mainly came from Anhui and Hubei Province in the earlier stage, while in the later stage they were mainly from Jiangxi Province where fire spots were intensively located. Stable atmospheric stratification caused by steady uniform high-pressure field and slight wind due to the confrontation of cold and warm currents greatly contributed to the development, maintainability and reinforcement of the pollution event. The remote transport of pollutants had a significant impact on ambient air quality of Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area.

  19. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  20. Water quality, physical habitat, and fish community composition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talmage, Philip J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Anderson, Jesse P.; Fallon, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community composition were characterized at 13 Twin Cities metropolitan area streams during low-flow conditions, September 1997. Fish communities were resampled during September 1998. Sites were selected based on a range of human population density. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, rarely exceeding concentrations found in agricultural streams or water-quality criteria. Seventeen pesticides and five pesticide metabolites were detected, with atrazine being the only pesticide detected at all 13 streams. Colony counts of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 54 to greater than 11,000 colonies per 100 mL. Instream fish habitat was sparse with little woody debris and few boulders, cobble, or other suitable fish habitat. Thirty-eight species and one hybrid from 10 families were collected. Fish communities were characterized by high percentages of omnivores and tolerant species with few intolerant species. Index of Biotic Integrity scores were low, with most streams rating fair to very poor. Percent impervious surface was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations and human population density, but was negatively correlated with fish species richness and diversity. Urban land use and human population density influence fish communities and water quality in Twin Cities metropolitan area streams. Other factors that may influence fish community composition include percent impervious cover, water chemistry, water temperature, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and migration barriers.

  1. The Atlanta Dropout Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Edward D., Jr.

    The Atlanta (Georgia) Public School System (APS) has many existing dropout prevention programs, but they have been operating primarily independently, with limited information sharing or coordination. In 1986 these programs were linked through the formation of the Atlanta Dropout Prevention Collaborative, which unites the public school system with…

  2. Agricultural and green infrastructures: the role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented.

  3. Prioritising local action for water quality improvement using citizen science; a study across three major metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Ian; Ho, Jonathan G; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Huashou; Ho, Kin Chung; Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; Loiselle, Steven A

    2017-04-15

    Streams in urban areas are prone to degradation. While urbanization-induced poor water quality is a widely observed and well documented phenomenon, the mechanism to pinpoint local drivers of urban stream degradation, and their relative influence on water quality, is still lacking. Utilizing data from the citizen science project FreshWater Watch, we use a machine learning approach to identify key indicators, potential drivers, and potential controls to water quality across the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Partial dependencies were examined to establish the direction of relationships between predictors and water quality. A random forest classification model indicated that predictors of stream water colour (drivers related to artificial land coverage and agricultural land use coverage) and potential controls related to the presence of bankside vegetation were found to be important in identifying basins with degraded water quality conditions, based on individual measurements of turbidity and nutrient (N-NO3 and P-PO4) concentrations.

  4. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  5. Correlation between cocaine prices and purity with trends in emergency department visits in a major metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Illicit drug use not only causes acute and chronic adverse health outcomes but also results in a significant burden to health care providers. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between cocaine prices and purity with emergency department (ED) visits for the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet metropolitan area. Our primary outcome was number of cocaine-related ED visits per quarter provided by the Drug Abuse Warning Network. The predictor variables of cocaine purity and price were provided by the System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence database. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the effects of cocaine price and purity on cocaine-related ED visits. Although cocaine prices did not change substantially over time, cocaine purity decreased by over 30 % between 2006 and 2010. ARIMA regression results suggest that cocaine-related ED visits were not significantly associated with powder or crack cocaine prices; however, a decrease in powder cocaine purity was associated with 2,081 fewer ED visits overall from 2007 to 2010. The cocaine trade continues to be a major public health and law enforcement threat to large metropolitan cities like Chicago. Regular monitoring of cocaine purity levels may provide early warning of impending changes in cocaine-related ED visits for law enforcement and health care providers.

  6. Demographic Perspectives on Metropolitan School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    School segregation is part of the cause and part of the effect of the metropolitan racial crisis. Metropolitan area school desegregation is a necessary element of any concerted attack on the complex of metropolitan racial problems. School desegregation is not, however, sufficient by itself. The author of this paper discusses metropolitan school…

  7. Colleges and Universities in the New York Metropolitan Area: Rapid Growth in Employment and Wages. Regional Report. Summary 09-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcum, Emily

    2009-01-01

    When people think of New York, Wall Street and Broadway theaters come to mind most often but in fact the New York area is also a major center for higher education. Indeed, the New York metropolitan area is home to more than 240 private colleges and universities employing about 97,000 workers and attracting students and faculty from around the…

  8. NMOC, ozone, and organic aerosol in the southeastern United States, 1999-2007: 3. Origins of organic aerosol in Atlanta, Georgia, and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Hidy, G. M.; Tanenbaum, S.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2011-02-01

    Carbonaceous compounds constitute a major fraction of the fine particle mass at locations throughout North America; much of the condensed-phase organic carbon (OC) is produced in the atmosphere from NMOC reactions as "secondary" OC (SOC). Ten years of particulate carbon and speciated non-methane organic compound (NMOC) data combined with other measurements from Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) and other sites provide insight into the association between elemental carbon (EC), OC and NMOCs. Data are analyzed to characterize the OC and SOC contrasts between urban Atlanta, Georgia, and nearby non-urban conditions in the Southeast. Analysis of the monitoring record indicates that the mean Atlanta urban excess of total carbon (TC) is 2.1-2.8 μg m -3. The OC/EC ratio of the Atlanta urban excess is in the range 1.3 to 1.8, consistent with OC/EC ratios observed in motor vehicle emissions and a fossil carbon source of urban excess TC. Carbon isotope analysis of a subset of particle samples demonstrates that the urban excess is mainly fossil in origin, even though the majority of the TC is modern at both urban and non-urban sites. Temperature-dependent partitioning of OC between gas and condensed phases cannot explain the observed diurnal and seasonal variations of OC/CO, EC/CO, and OC/EC ratios. Alternatively, a hypothesis involving vertical mixing of OC-enriched air from aloft is supported by the seasonal and diurnal OC, isopentane, aromatic and isoprene observations at the ground. A statistical model is applied to indicate the relative significance of aerometric factors affecting OC and EC concentrations, including meteorological and pollutant associations. The model results demonstrate strong linkages between fine particle carbon and pollutant indicators of source emissions compared with meteorological factors; the model results show weaker dependence of OC on meteorological factors than is the case for ozone (O 3) concentrations.

  9. Advanced accident research system based on a medical and engineering data in the metropolitan area of Florence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the metropolitan area of Florence, 62% of major traumas involve powered two wheeler rider and pillion passengers, 10% cyclists, and 7% pedestrians. The urban and extra-urban areas are the most dangerous for the vulnerable road user. In-depth investigations are needed for assessing detailed information on road accidents. This type of study has been very limited in time frame in Italy, and completely absent in the Tuscan region. Consequently a study called “In-depth Study of road Accident in FlorencE” (In-SAFE) has been initiated. Methods A network between the Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technologies (University of Florence) and the Intensive Care Unit of the Emergency Department (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence) was created with the aim of collecting information about the road accidents. The data collected includes: on-scene data, data coming from examination of the vehicles, kinematics and dynamic crash data, injuries, treatment, and injury mechanisms. Each injury is codified thorough the AIS score, localized by a three-dimensional human body model based on computer tomography slices, and the main scores are calculated. We then associate each injury with its cause and crash technical parameters. Finally, all the information is collected in the In-SAFE database. Results Patient mean age at the time of the accident was 34.6 years, and 80% were males. The ISS mean is 24.2 (SD 8.7) and the NISS mean is 33.6 (SD 10.5). The main road accident configurations are the “car-to-PTW” (25%) and “pedestrian run over” (17,9%). For the former, the main collision configuration is “head-on crash” (57%). Cyclists and PTW riders-and-pillions-passengers suffer serious injuries (AIS3+) mainly to the head and the thorax. The head (56.4%) and the lower extremities (12.7%) are the most frequently injured pedestrian body regions. Conclusions The aim of the project is to create an in-depth road accident study with special focus on the correlation

  10. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  11. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  12. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  13. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  14. Ozone modeling in an ethanol, gasoline and diesel fuels environment: The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, M.F.; Miguel, A.H.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past several years, in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), ambient ozone concentrations have reached over five times the concentration considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization, with routine occurrence of levels that exceed Brazil`s 1 hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (160 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). For the past 19 years, ethanol has been used both as fuel (E95) and as gasoline additive (E20G80) in light duty vehicles. This talk will discuss the results of the application of the CIT photochemical airshed model to the February 16-17, 1989 meteorological experiment carried out in the MASP. Simulated hourly ozone concentrations for the 1989 vehicular fleet included three cases: (1) the actual fleet (F.95, E20G80, and diesels), (2) a light duty fleet fueled with E95 only, and (3) entirely with gasoline.

  15. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.

  16. Factors Affecting Initial Intimate Partner Violence-Specific Health Care Seeking in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Bybee, Deborah; Yoshihama, Mieko

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the factors affecting a women's initial intimate partner violence (IPV)-specific health care seeking event which refers to the first health care seeking as a result of IPV in a lifetime. Data were collected using the Life History Calendar method in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 101 women who had experienced IPV. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the time to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. IPV-related injury was the most significant factor associated with increased likelihood of seeking IPV-specific health care seeking for the first time. In the presence of a strong effect of formal help seeking, physical and sexual IPV were no longer significantly related to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. The results suggest some victims of IPV may not seek health care unless they get injured. The timing of receiving health care would be important to ensure the health and safety of victims.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Chen, Z; Bi, C; Li, Y; Teng, J; Wang, L; Xu, S

    2010-03-01

    A set of toxic metals, i.e. As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, in urban and suburban SDSs were investigated comparatively in the biggest metropolitan area of China, Shanghai. Results showed that all of the metals except As were accumulated greatly, much higher than background values. Geo-accumulation index indicated that metal contamination in urban SDSs was generally heavier than that in suburban SDSs. Potential ecological risk index demonstrated that overall risks caused by metals were considerable. Cd contributed 52% to the overall risk. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that in urban SDSs, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr were related to traffic and industry; coal combustion led to elevated levels of Hg; soil parent materials controlled As contents. In suburban SDSs, Pb, Cu, As and Cd largely originated from traffic pollution; Zn, Ni and Cr were associated with industrial contaminants; Hg was mainly from domestic solid waste.

  18. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  19. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI) and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA) was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55) and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age), and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men (< 35 years of age) did we observe any association with parental nationality, with a higher BMI when having a MENA parentage. Regarding the association between the proportion of lifetime spent in France and overweight, we observed that, in women, a proportion of 50% to 99% appeared to be associated with overweight, especially after the age of 35. In men, having spent more than half of one’s lifetime in France was associated with a higher risk of overweight among oldest men. Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and

  20. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with poor functional status was higher in HCAP than CAP (64.0% vs. 26.6%, P < 0.001). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in HCAP patients than in CAP patients (15.8% vs. 5.0%, P < 0.001). Low levels of serum albumin (odds ratio, 0.126; 95% CI, 0.025-0.640; P = 0.012) and high scores in the ADROP (age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation, and blood pressure) system (odds ratio, 2.846; 95% CI, 1.449-5.587; P = 0.002) were the risk factors for HCAP mortality. In conclusion, patients with HCAP have different epidemiological characteristics compared with those with CAP in a metropolitan area of Japan. Outcomes and risk factors for mortality of patients with HCAP included poor nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  1. Violence-related firearm deaths among residents of metropolitan areas and cities---United States, 2006--2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-13

    Violence-related firearm deaths remain an important public health concern in the United States. During 2006--2007, a total of 25,423 firearm homicides and 34,235 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. These national totals include 4,166 firearm homicides and 1,446 firearm suicides among youths aged 10--19 years; the rate of firearm homicides among youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons of all ages. This report presents statistics on firearm homicides and firearm suicides for major metropolitan areas and cities, with an emphasis on youths aged 10--19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. It integrates analyses conducted by CDC in response to requests for detailed information, arising from a heightened focus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year. Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulated for the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and their central cities for 2006--2007, using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau. Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds of the MSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% of cities had rates higher than those of their MSAs. The youth firearm homicide rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% of the MSAs and in 88% of the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over half of the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% of cities had rates below those of their MSAs. Youth firearm suicide rates in the MSAs and cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates. Such variations in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be considered in the continuing development of prevention programs directed at reducing firearm violence.

  2. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  3. Diagnosis of sea breeze cases over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, C.; Freitas, E. D.

    2013-05-01

    The sea breeze is a great responsible for the organization of severe weather events, climate patterns and air pollution dispersion over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), being the knowledge about its correct predictability very important in the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model was used to simulate some events of sea breeze propagation over the MASP during the winter season of 2009 (18th and 20th june, 29th august, 02nd September) with the objective to analyze the skill of the model on the predictability of this events using the default parameterizations available in the model and identify some flaws and possible adjustments to be made in the model. For this purpose, the simulation results were compared with the observed velocity and wind direction collected in the "Campo de Marte" Airport - SP. The model had a good response for all simulated days, where the horizontal wind and the vapor mixing ratio indicating correctly the sea breeze arrival over the region. Another important feature observed in the wind moisture fields was the moments that the sea breeze reaches different parts of MASP in response to the Urban Heat Island effect, which can accelerate or prevent the sea breeze propagation depending on location, as observed in other studies, and the relative position of the metropolitan area with respect to the sea-shore and the topography of the region. It was observed that the sea-breeze front reaches the southwest portion of MASP approximately two hours before it reaches the northwest portion.

  4. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  5. Quantity and quality of urban runoff from three localities in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Sherman R.; Alley, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable variation in constituent concentrations was shown in urban runoff data for 1975-77 from three metropolitan Denver drainage basins. Constituent concentrations, greatest during initial rainfall runoff, generally peaked midday of snowmelt runoff, corresponding with maximum melting and runoff. Instantaneous loads of constituents were largely a function of discharge. Days since last street sweeping or antecedent precipitation had no apparent effect; snowmelt-runoff loads apparently increased with number of days snow had been on the ground. Urban storm runoff may significantly contribute total ammonia nitrogen, total nonfiltrable residue, total copper, total iron, total lead, and total zinc; and snowmelt runoff may significantly contribute sodium and chloride, to local receiving waters. Data from two basins were used for calibration and verification of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Storm Water Management Model II for rainfall-runoff modeling of flow and total nitrogen. The model assumption that land-surface loads of total nitrogen are directly proportional to number of days prior to storm during which accumulated rainfall was less than 1.0 inch was not substantiated. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Mapping aerial metal deposition in metropolitan areas from tree bark: a case study in Sheffield, England.

    PubMed

    Schelle, E; Rawlins, B G; Lark, R M; Webster, R; Staton, I; McLeod, C W

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the use of metals accumulated on tree bark for mapping their deposition across metropolitan Sheffield by sampling 642 trees of three common species. Mean concentrations of metals were generally an order of magnitude greater than in samples from a remote uncontaminated site. We found trivially small differences among tree species with respect to metal concentrations on bark, and in subsequent statistical analyses did not discriminate between them. We mapped the concentrations of As, Cd and Ni by lognormal universal kriging using parameters estimated by residual maximum likelihood (REML). The concentrations of Ni and Cd were greatest close to a large steel works, their probable source, and declined markedly within 500 m of it and from there more gradually over several kilometres. Arsenic was much more evenly distributed, probably as a result of locally mined coal burned in domestic fires for many years. Tree bark seems to integrate airborne pollution over time, and our findings show that sampling and analysing it are cost-effective means of mapping and identifying sources.

  7. [Prenatal and childbirth care equity in an area in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, 1996].

    PubMed

    Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Pedroso, Glaura César; da Silva, Edina Mariko Koga; de Araújo, Norma Sueli; da Silva, Nilza Nunes

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate prenatal and childbirth care interviewing mothers of infants in the municipality of Embu (Greater Metropolitan São Paulo) in 1996, according to four socioeconomic strata. A door-to-door survey included a probabilistic sample consisting of 483 infants. In all strata more than 90% of the mothers had received prenatal care, but with late access in stratum 4 (residents of favelas, or slums). Breast examination during prenatal care, reported by only 60.8% of the mothers, was the worst single indicator of quality of prenatal care in the municipality. The outcome indicator - first prenatal consultation after the first trimester and total number of consultations less than six - was associated with maternal age (less than 20 years), low per capita family income (less than one minimum wage), and lack of private health plan. As for deliveries, 97.7% occurred in hospital, of which 32.5% by cesarean section, with the latter more frequent in private health care facilities (63.2%). No population segments were identified as being excluded from the health care system, but some indicators suggest greater deficiencies in socioeconomic stratum 4. These results have supported local health system managers in redefining health measures for the municipality.

  8. Informal work, unemployment and health in Brazilian metropolitan areas, 1998 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; César, Cibele Comini

    2008-10-01

    This study investigates whether employment with no social security, as well as short and long term unemployment are associated with worse health among Brazilians. The representative study sample was taken from two National Health Surveys and included men aged between 15 and 64 who lived in one of the eight metropolitan regions of Brazil in 1998 (n = 31,870) and 2003 (n = 32,887). Both surveys showed that full and part time workers with no social security, as well as those in short and long term (> 12 months) unemployment had worse health indicators, regardless of age or schooling, when compared with full-time workers (> 40 hours/week) who had some form of social security through their employment. Hepatic cirrhosis was the disease most strongly associated with labor market status. Its prevalence was higher among individuals in long term unemployment and those with no social security. Labor market status was also negatively associated with the use of health care services, especially medical visits. The present study shows that the absence of social security at work, unemployment and length of unemployment, characterize heterogeneous groups of individuals in relation to health. Results reinforce the need to incorporate labor market status in research into health inequalities.

  9. Seismic imaging of the two subducting slabs underneath Tokyo Metropolitan area inferred from Ps single scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, T.; Nishida, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net) has recently been deployed in the Kanto region, central part of Japan, by a project supported by MEXT, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area. The MeSO-net is comprised of approximately 400 stations with a station spacing of 2~5 km, which realizes the one of the most instrumented metropolitan area in the world. Each seismometer is installed at the bottom of 20-m deep borehole. Thus, this network is capable of observing high quality data even in the metropolitan area where artificial noises are considered to be very high. Two slabs, the Pacific slab and the Philippine Sea slab, are present underneath the Kanto region at depths of 0-200 km. The complexities of subsurface structure in the uppermost mantle have been investigated by several seismological approaches, such as tomography, receiver function, and earthquake locations. However, the quality and quantity of the data would be still insufficient to recover the subsurface structure including two slabs in this region. In this study, we tried to image them using teleseismic single scattered waves observed by the MeSO-net. The method used in this study was introduced by Bostock and co-workers, which enables us to image dipping layers well in addition to horizontal layers. Here, we used Ps single scattered waves with an assumption of the Born approximation in the scattering. The used frequency band is 0.1~1.0 Hz. We selected 30 teleseismic events that occurred between April 2008 and March 2009 with magnitudes of 6.3 or greater. The used velocity model is basically 1D JMA velocity model, but its shallow portion from 0 to 10 km depth is replaced by a 2D velocity model. This model is produced by another analysis using seismic interferometry, which precisely describes shallower structure including sedimentary layers. As a result, we show the clear oceanic crust of the Pacific slab at depths of 50~70 km. The oceanic Moho within the

  10. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Moran, Patrick W; Gilliom, Robert J; Calhoun, Daniel L; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Phillips, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45-80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  11. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  12. The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Respiratory Disease: Maryland/DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushiva, A.; Strong, S. B.; Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ground level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, forms smog and becomes directly harmful to humans by exacerbating respiratory conditions, primarily asthma (Knowlton et al. 2004). As climate change progresses, increased ozone concentrations emerge as a major public health concern (Gardiner et al. 2011). Increasing ground level ozone concentrations have been directly correlated with rising temperatures (Patz et al. 2005). The projected increase in ozone concentration caused by climate induced temperature change is 1-2 ppb in 2020 and 2-7 ppb in 2050, with associated temperature increases of 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit and 2-5.5 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively (UCS, 2011). Those with existing respiratory conditions, children and the elderly, and those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors are the most sensitive to ground level ozone pollution (Schlink et al. 2006). In Maryland, there would be approximately 68,894 occurrences of acute respiratory symptoms associated with a 2 ppb climate penalty in 2020, and the total costs for health impacts associated with this would be approximately $133,398,027 (UCS, 2011). In their 2011 "State of the Air" report, the American Lung Association rated the Washington/Baltimore/Northern Virginia region as one of the 25 most ozone polluted regions nationwide (ALA, 2011). We examine asthma hospital admissions data for the Maryland/DC metropolitan region between 2005 and 2010 and identify possible correlations with the reported ozone measurements provided by the EPA (CASTNET). We examine trends between the archived temperatures from NCEP reanalysis data, the EPA ozone data, and reported asthma cases. We utilize these trends to investigate the future impact of changes in ozone concentration based on the IPCC AR4 and SRES emissions scenarios and attempt to quantify the financial burden of its implications. Visualizations from this data can serve as important educational and planning tools for decision makers in the Maryland, DC, and

  13. Racial Differences in Cervical Cancer Survival in the Detroit Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Movva, Sujana; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Banerjee, Mousumi; Patel, Divya A.; Schwartz, Kendra; Yee, Cecilia L.; Simon, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-American (AA) women have lower survival rates from cervical cancer compared with white women. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and other variables on racial disparities in overall survival among women with invasive cervical cancer. METHODS One thousand thirty-six women (705 white women and 331 AA women) who were diagnosed with primary invasive cancer of the cervix between 1988 and 1992 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS), a registry in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Pathology, treatment, and survival data were obtained through SEER. SES was categorized by using occupation, poverty, and educational status at the census tract level. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall survival between AA women and white women adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and treatment. RESULTS AA women were more likely to present at an older age (P < .001), with later stage disease (P < .001), and with squamous histology (P = .01), and they were more likely to reside in a census tract categorized as Working Poor (WP) (P < .001). After multivariate adjustment, race no longer had a significant impact on survival. Women who resided in a WP census tract had a higher risk of death than women from a Professional census tract (P = .05). There was a significant interaction between disease stage and time with the effect of stage on survival attenuated after 6 years. CONCLUSIONS In this study, factors that affected access to medical care appeared to have a more important influence than race on the long-term survival of women with invasive cervical cancer. PMID:18257090

  14. Technique for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Schroeder, Elmer E.; Hampton, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    Equations for predicting the magnitude and frequency of floods in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area were developed from recorded data from streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 1.25 to 66.4 square miles. The U. S. Geological Survey urban rainfall-runoff model was used to generate long-term flood-discharge record for gaged streams in the area. Simulated and recorded annual-peak data were subjected independently to log Pearson III frequency analyses. The results were weighted to determine appropriate discharges for selected 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals. These T-year values were then used as the dependent variables in a multiple regression analysis. The independent variable determined to be statistically significant and retained in the resulting equations were drainage area and an urbanization index that expresses the degree of urban development. Analysis of the results shows that a land-use change from rural to fully urbanized is accompanied by a 180% increase in discharge of a flood with a 5-year recurrence interval and about 100% increase in discharge of a flood with a 100-year recurrence interval. 

  15. Vehicle traffic as a source of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Marr, Linsey C; Grogan, Lisa A; Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Molina, Luisa T; Molina, Mario J; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric

    2004-05-01

    Surface properties of aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan area have been measured in a variety of exposure scenarios related to vehicle emissions in 2002, using continuous, real-time instruments. The objective of these experiments is to describe ambient and occupational particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with vehicular traffic and facilities using diesel vehicles. Median total particulate PAH concentrations along Mexico City's roadways range from 60 to 910 ng m(-3), averaged over a minimum of 1 h. These levels are approximately 5 times higher than concentrations measured in the United States and among the highest measured ambient values reported in the literature. The ratio of particulate PAH concentration to aerosol active surface area is much higher along roadways and in other areas of fresh vehicle emissions, compared to ratios measured at sites influenced more by aged emissions or noncombustion sources. For particles freshly emitted by vehicles, PAH and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations are correlated because they both originate during the combustion process. Comparison of PAH versus EC and active surface area concentrations at different locations suggests that surface PAH concentrations may diminish with particle aging. These results indicate that exposure to vehicle-related PAH emissions on Mexico City's roadways may present an important public health risk.

  16. The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  18. The effect of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on health behaviors, access to health services, and self-rated health in the United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-07-01

    The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest.

  19. Community Needs Assessments for the Texas Metropolitan Areas of Dallas-Ft. Worth and Houston: A Follow-up Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Robert M.; Vanderbilt, Rebecca

    This report summarizes the results of a needs assessment of American Indians with disabilities living in the Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth (Texas) metropolitan areas. In 1996, 97 American Indians with disabilities were interviewed, and results were compared with those of a similar needs assessment conducted in 1992; 21 of the interviewees had…

  20. Mental Health, Health, and Substance Abuse Service Needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofoot, Thomas L.; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining…

  1. Leading and Managing Today's Independent School: A Qualitative Analysis of the Skills and Practices of Experienced Heads of Independent Schools in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhel, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted in 2014 with 16 experienced heads of school in the New York metropolitan area. The study was designed to better understand the skills and practices that they view as critical to leading and managing independent schools. The data collected speak to each head's ability to manage the…

  2. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996.

  3. Education, Demand, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Berube, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report examines education gaps and industry demand in the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas are a natural unit of analysis given that they offer the best approximation of a regional labor market. Moreover, the wide variation in metropolitan area economic performance, as documented by the Brookings MetroMonitor…

  4. 78 FR 65877 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Area. Signal preemption for MARTA Atlanta 6/17/96 4/26/99. routes 15 and 23. Improve and expand service... for Control Atlanta 1997 8- 10/21/2009........ 09/28/2013. of VOC Emissions from Reactor Hour Ozone Processes and Distillation Nonattainment Operations in Synthetic Organic Area. Chemical...

  5. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen emitted in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires to coastal waters of de la Plata River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) is the third mega-city in Latin America. Atmospheric N emitted in the area deposits to coastal waters of de la Plata River. This study describes the parameterizations included in DAUMOD-RD (v.3) model to evaluate concentrations of nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitric acid and nitrate aerosol) and their total (dry and wet) deposition to a water surface. This model is applied to area sources and CALPUFF model to point sources of NO x in the MABA. The models are run for 3 years of hourly meteorological data, with a spatial resolution of 1 km 2. Mean annual deposition is 69, 728 kg-N year -1 over 2 339 km 2 of river. Dry deposition contributions of N-NO 2, N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- to this value are 44%, 22% and 20%, respectively. Wet deposition of N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- represents 3% and 11% of total annual value, respectively. This very low contribution results from the rare occurrence of rainy hours with wind blowing from the city to the river. Monthly dry deposition flux estimated for coastal waters of MABA varies between 7 and 13 kg-N km -2 month -1. These results are comparable to values reported for other coastal zones in the world.

  6. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Xie, YuLong; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-10-12

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish ef- 5 fective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter _2.5 µm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and 10 total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during 15 dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  7. Atlanta, Georgia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport is visible to the south of Atlanta, situated near the center of the photograph. Dobbins Air Force Base and the city of Marietta can also be seen to the north of Atlanta in this south-looking low-oblique view. The complex system of transportation routes and interstate highways surrounding and traversing Atlanta can also be seen in the photograph. The white dot near the center of the photograph is the Georgia Dome, a major sports and entertainment complex in downtown Atlanta. The Stone Mountain Memorial, with its enormous relief carvings of Confederate figures, is located east of Atlanta and is visible on the photograph.

  8. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  9. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  10. Contribution of the gasoline distribution cycle to volatile organic compound emissions in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Magdaleno, M; Díaz, L; Krüger, B; León, J; Palmerín, M E; Casas, R; Melgarejo, A; López-Salinas, E

    2002-05-01

    Gasoline distribution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) represents an area of opportunity for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The gasoline distribution in this huge urban center encompasses several operations: (1) storage in bulk and distribution plants, (2) transportation to gasoline service stations, (3) unloading at service stations' underground tanks, and (4) gasoline dispensing. In this study, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions resulting from breathing losses in closed reservoirs, leakage, and spillage from the operations just listed were calculated using both field measurements and reported emission factors. The results show that the contribution of volatile HC emissions due to storage, distribution, and sales of gasoline is 6651 t/year, approximately 13 times higher than previously reported values. Tank truck transportation results in 53.9% of the gasoline emissions, and 31.5% of emissions are generated when loading the tank trucks. The high concentration of emissions in the gasoline transportation and loading operations by tank trucks has been ascribed to (1) highly frequent trips from distribution plant to gasoline stations, and vice versa, to cope with excessive gasoline sales per gasoline station; (2) low leakproofness of tank trucks; and (3) poor training of employees. In addition, the contribution to HC evaporative and exhaust emissions from the vehicles of the MAMC was also evaluated.

  11. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  12. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  13. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m(-3)]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16 degrees C and above 25 degrees C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m(-3)) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  14. Transient deformation induced by groundwater change in Taipei metropolitan area revealed by high resolution X-band SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Hsin; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Ching, Kuo-En; Chen, Hongey; Yang, Kuo-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    We present precise deformation velocity maps for the two year period from September 2011 to July 2013 of the northern Taiwan area, Taipei, by using persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique for processing 18 high resolution X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images archived from COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation. According to the result, the highest subsidence rates are found in Luzou and Wuku area in which the rate is about 15 mm/yr and 10 mm/yr respectively in the whole dataset. However, dramatic change from serve subsidence to uplift in surface deformation was revealed in the Taipei Basin in two different time spans: 2011/09-2012/09 and 2012/09-2013/07. This result shows good agreement with robust continuous GPS measurement and precise leveling survey data across the central Taipei Basin. Moreover, it also represents high correlation with groundwater table. From 8 well data in the Taipei basin, the storativity is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.5 × 10- 4 and 1.6 × 10- 3 in Jingmei Formation and 0.8 × 10- 4 and 1.4 × 10- 3 in Wuku Formation. This high correlation indicated that one meter groundwater level change could induce about 9 and 16 mm surface deformation change in Luzou and Wuku area respectively, which is about eight times faster the long-term tectonic deformation rate in this area. Thus, to access the activity of the Shanchiao Fault, it is important to discriminate tectonic movement from anthropogenic or seasonal effect in the Taipei Basin to better understand the geohazards and mitigation in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  15. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  16. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 2. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    TABLE A-3a LOG-LOG TRANSFORMATION OF A POLY-CURVE FIT 2" (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cape Girardeau Cape Girardeau Year County City Jackson RSA ± ’ Hinterland...2030 92,700 72,600 15,700 1,800 2,600 1/ RSA : Remaining Study Area 2/ Hinterland: Remaining County Area 3/ Columns 2, 3, and 4 from the Study Area...4) football /soccer -33 fields; (5) baseball/softball - nine fields; (6) basketball - seventeen courts; sixteen swimming pools; (8) tent camping - 84

  17. The Effects of Urbanization and Other Environmental Gradients on Algal Assemblages in Nine Metropolitan Areas across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, James F.; Bell, Amanda H.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted studies from 2000 to 2004 to determine the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in nine major metropolitan study areas across the United States. Biological, chemical, and physical components of streams were assessed at 28 to 30 sites in each study area. Benthic algae were sampled to compare the degree to which algal assemblages correlated to urbanization, as characterized by an urban intensity index (UII), relative to other environmental gradients that function at either the watershed or reach scales. Ordination site scores were derived from principal components analyses of the environmental data to define environmental gradients at two spatial scales: (1) watershed-scale gradients that summarized (a) landscape modifications and (b) socioeconomic factors, and (2) reach-scale gradients that characterized (a) physical habitat and (b) water chemistry. Algal response was initially quantified by site scores derived from nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling ordinations of the algal assemblage data. The site scores were then correlated with a set of algal metrics of structure and function to help select specific indicators that would best represent changes in the algal assemblages and would infer ecological condition. The selected metrics were correlated to the UII and other environmental gradients. The results indicated that diatom-taxa in the assemblages were distinctly different across the nine study areas, likely due to physiographic differences across the country, but nevertheless, some algal metrics were applicable to all areas. Overall, the study results indicated that although the UII represented various landscape changes associated with urbanization across the country, the algal response was more strongly related to more specific factors generally associated with water quality measured within the stream reach.

  18. A Study of the Role of Clouds in the Relationship Between Land Use/Land Cover and the Climate and Air Quality of the Atlanta Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Project ATLANTA is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization affect local and regional climate and air quality. Clouds play a significant role in this relationship. Using GOES images, we found that in a 63-day period (5 July-5 September 1996) there were zero days which were clear for the entire daylight period. Days which are cloud-free in the morning become partly cloudy with small cumulus clouds in the afternoon in response to solar heating. This result casts doubt on the applicability of California-style air quality models which run in perpetual clear skies. Days which are clear in the morning have higher ozone than those which are cloudy in the morning. Using the RAMS model, we found that urbanization increases the skin surface temperature by about 1.0-1.5 C on average under cloudy conditions, with an extreme of +3.5 C. Clouds cool the surface due to their shading effect by 1.5-2.0 C on average, with an extreme of 5.0 C. RAMS simulates well the building stage of the cumulus cloud field, but does poorly in the decaying phase. Next year's work: doing a detailed cloud climatology and developing improved RAMS cloud simulations.

  19. Low-flow characteristics of the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 1932-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Erich; Lorenz, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council, conducted a study to characterize regional low flows during 1932?2007 in the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities metropolitan area in Minnesota and to describe the low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls. Probabilities of extremely low flow were estimated for the streamflow-gaging station (Mississippi River near Anoka) and the coincidence of low-flow periods, defined as the extended periods (at least 7 days) when all the daily flows were less than the 10th percentile of daily mean flows for the entire period of record, at four selected streamflow-gaging stations located upstream. The likelihood of extremely low flows was estimated by a superposition method for the Mississippi River near Anoka that created 5,776 synthetic hydrographs resulting in a minimum synthetic low flow of 398 cubic feet per second at a probability of occurrence of 0.0002 per year. Low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were associated with low-flow conditions at two or fewer of four upstream streamflow-gaging stations 42 percent of the time, indicating that sufficient water is available within the basin for many low flows and the occurrence of extremely low-flows is small. However, summer low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were almost always associated with low-stage elevations in three or more of the six upper basin reservoirs. A low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls was completed using a real-time kinematic global positioning system, and the water-surface profile was mapped during October 8?9, 2008, and annotated with local landmarks. This was done so that water-use planners could relate free-board elevations of selected water utility structures to the lowest flow conditions during 2008.

  20. Statistical analysis of seismicity rate change in the Tokyo Metropolitan area due to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Sakai, S.; Shimazaki, K.; Satake, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    We examined a relationship between the Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF) due to the Tohoku earthquake (March 11, 2011; MJMA 9.0) and the seismicity rate change in Tokyo Metropolitan area following March 2011. Because of large variation in focal mechanism in the Kanto region, the receiver faults for the ΔCFF were assumed to be two nodal planes of small (M ≥ 2.0) earthquakes which occurred before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity rate changes, particularly the rate increase, are well explained by ΔCFF due to the gigantic thrusting, while some other possible factors (e.g., dynamic stress changes, excess of fluid dehydration) may also contribute the rate changes. Among 30,746 previous events provided by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (M ≥ 2.0, July 1979 - July 2003), we used as receiver faults, almost 16,000 events indicate significant increase in ΔCFF, while about 8,000 events show significant decrease. Positive ΔCFF predicts seismicity rate increase in southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures where intermediate-depth earthquakes occur, and in shallow crust of the Izu-Oshima and Hakone regions. In these regions, seismicity rates significantly increased after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity has increased since March 2011 with respect to the Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988), indicating that the rate change was due to the stress increase by the Tohoku earthquake. The activated seismicity in the Izu and Hakone regions rapidly decayed following the Omori-Utsu formula, while the increased rate of seismicity in the southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures is still continuing. We also calculated ΔCFF due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake for the focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes between April 2008 and October 2011 recorded on the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The ΔCFF values for the earthquakes after March 2011 show more

  1. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Mass Spectrometer Location:  Altanta, Georgia Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Atlanta SPMS Guide EPA Sites Get Google Earth ...

  2. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    area: the Patuxent, Patapsco, Magothy , and the Aquia Greensand Formations. All of these important water- bearing formations outcrop in the MWA and have...Formation - Glauconitic Silty Quartz Sand, Fine Black Magothy Formation Included at Base Nanjemoy and Wicomico Formations - Glauconitic Sand Interbedded

  3. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... economic vitality and preserves a healthy environment; and 4. Supporting the long-range vision, goals, and... regional transit investment that supports economic vitality, preserves the environment, preserves... environment. Areas of investigation include, but are not limited to, transportation, land use,...

  4. Truckee Meadows (Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area) Nevada: Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Creek, the largest tributary in the Reno area, originates at the outlet of Washoe Lake, a large flat depression that receives any runoff originating...pollutants, and other chemicals; and c) decompose organic materials by microbiota on and in wetland sediments. FWS estimates 14 percent of the Truckee River

  5. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION--NON-METROPOLITAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMAS, ROBERT W.

    A STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE UNIT AND A RESEARCH ACTIVITIES UNIT WERE THE TWO MAIN COMPONENTS OF THIS PROJECT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION FOR NONMETROPOLITAN AREAS. PROBLEM CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH WERE THE ACTIVITIES OF THESE TWO PROJECT COMPONENTS. THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF…

  6. Research and Development in Vocational and Technical Education: Non-Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert W.

    A strategic intelligence unit and a research activities unit were the two main components of a project to undertake inderdisciplinary discussions and studies of problems associated with vocational and technical education in nonmetropolitan areas. Reasons for an interdisciplinary attack were: (1) changes affecting town and rural residents including…

  7. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Lina; Schantz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately. PMID:25153462

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF TRAINING NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GREENHOUSE GROWER IN THREE METROPOLITAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PARSONS, WARREN

    INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH THE MANAGERS OF 58 GREENHOUSES WHICH COVERED ONE ACRE OR MORE IN THE CHICAGO, CLEVELAND, AND DETROIT AREAS (1) TO DETERMINE THE NATURE OF TRAINING DESIRED FOR THE COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSE GROWER IN TERMS OF THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE SPECIES OF ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING PLANTS PRODUCED, AND THE DEGREE OF ATTAINMENT OF…

  9. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in central Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change, which occurs with large seasonal and regional differences in its magnitude. The extent of loss depends on natural parameters (e.g. topography and vegetation) as well as on socio-economic factors like urbanized and industrialized areas and population density. Dangerous cascade effects appear, if critical infrastructure like the electrical power supply is affected. In some cases mudflows and flash floods cause inundated or undercut roads and cause a high demand for fast and effective assistance of the authorities. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Commonly this responsibility is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units of the community or district. After heavy rainfall in an urban area, numerous incidents and emergency calls appearing at a time are overstressing the human and technical resources of the fire brigades within the local authority frequently. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades shall be developed for the Rhine-Main-Area in order to identify particular affected spots of heavy rain and bundle resources of the fire brigades. It is to be found out if the study area contains regions with a particularly high exposure to heavy rain and high application numbers of the fire department and whether there is a relationship of rainfall and frequency of use. To evaluate particular local effects on the fire brigades capability, a brief analysis of the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) as well as the evaluation of the incident data of the affected fire brigades, is used to frame a realistic approach. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain

  10. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  11. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Poulain, L.; Freutel, F.; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Di Marco, C. F.; Elsasser, M.; Nicolas, J. B.; Marchand, N.; Abidi, E.; Wiedensohler, A.; Drewnick, F.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Nemitz, E.; Zimmermann, R.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30-36%) and nitrate (28-29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14-16%), ammonium (12-14%) and black carbon (7-13%). Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11-15% of organic mass), biomass burning (13-15%) and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours). Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  12. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  13. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  14. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  15. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  16. Effect of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Concentrations on Exhaust Emissions from Gasoline Used in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, Isaac; Dfaz, Luis; Avalos, Sergio; Vera, Mario; Barrera, Adrian; López-Salinas, Esteban

    2000-04-01

    In this work, the primary objective was to assess the impact of oxygenated fuel on the exhaust emissions from an important fraction of vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The results aim to provide information on the actual effect of MTBE on a fleet that represents more than 60% of the in-use vehicles in the MAMC. Ten vehicles were tested with a low-octane base gasoline, and 10 more with a regular-grade unleaded base gasoline. Three MTBE concentrations, 5, 10, and 15 vol %, were tested following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). CO, total HC, and NOx from the exhaust gases were quantitatively evaluated and also characterized for FTP speciated organic emissions. From this data, the O3-forming potential of the fuels was calculated. Results show that for the fleet using low-octane gasoline, the addition of 10% MTBE substantially reduced CO emissions, but total HC concentration in the exhaust showed a modest decrease. For the regular gasoline, the 10% MTBE blend seemed to be the best choice, but there was not a significant decrease in emissions. The specific reactivity of each fuel, expressed in grams of O3 per gram of nonmethane organic gases, increased with MTBE concentration in both cases. This result is important to consider, especially for a region like Mexico City, which has high atmospheric O3 concentrations.

  17. Effect of methyl tertiary butyl ether concentrations on exhaust emissions from gasoline used in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Avalos, S; Vera, M; Barrera, A; López-Salinas, E

    2000-04-01

    In this work, the primary objective was to assess the impact of oxygenated fuel on the exhaust emissions from an important fraction of vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The results aim to provide information on the actual effect of MTBE on a fleet that represents more than 60% of the in-use vehicles in the MAMC. Ten vehicles were tested with a low-octane base gasoline, and 10 more with a regular-grade unleaded base gasoline. Three MTBE concentrations, 5, 10, and 15 vol %, were tested following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). CO, total HC, and NOx from the exhaust gases were quantitatively evaluated and also characterized for FTP speciated organic emissions. From this data, the O3-forming potential of the fuels was calculated. Results show that for the fleet using low-octane gasoline, the addition of 10% MTBE substantially reduced CO emissions, but total HC concentration in the exhaust showed a modest decrease. For the regular gasoline, the 10% MTBE blend seemed to be the best choice, but there was not a significant decrease in emissions. The specific reactivity of each fuel, expressed in grams of O3 per gram of nonmethane organic gases, increased with MTBE concentration in both cases. This result is important to consider, especially for a region like Mexico City, which has high atmospheric O3 concentrations.

  18. [The consortium of Biological Resource Centres (BRC) and tumour cell and tissue banks in the Marseilles metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Chabannon, Christian; Lassailly, François; Romain, Sylvie; Xerri, Luc; Bonavita, Marie-José; Atger, Véronique; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Maraninchi, Dominique; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Martin, Pierre-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe current and future aspects of the operations within the consortium of Biological Resource Centres (BRC) and Tumour cell and tissue banks of the Marseilles metropolitan area. The consortium was created in year 2001, through the association of several tissue and cell banks that were operating for many years in Marseilles. Existing collections are not exclusively collections of tumour cells or tissues; however, the two tumour cell and tissue banks located at the Regional Cancer Research Centre and at the University Hospital account for a very significant proportion of the collections. Our collective work leads to the recognition and funding of the consortium by Inserm, through the "Collections 2003" grant. The consortium objectives are to define a common scientific strategy, to share professional practices in the logistics and database management of the banks, to establish a quality management program, and to build a common catalogue that describes existing biological resources. Through these efforts, the ultimate goal is to adopt rules that define BRC, as defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

  19. Coupling SLEUTH model and population projection to simulate urban growth of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Y.; Zhao, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study used two modelling approaches to predict future urban landscapes for the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. In the first approach, we implemented traditional SLEUTH urban simulation model by using publicly available and locally-developed land cover and transportation data. Historical land cover data from 1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used to calibrate the SLEUTH model and predict urban growth from 2011 to 2070. The SLEUTH model achieved 94.8% overall accuracy for validation year 2014. For the second modelling approach, we used a future population projection for 2050, aided by a strong population-imperviousness statistical relationship (R2 ~ 0.95), to predict impervious surface density for each county. These population-predicted impervious surface density values were compared to SLEUTH model output, at the county spatial scale. R2 of 0.84 suggested general agreement of overall pattern, although SLEUTH generated higher impervious surface density values for 36 out of 40 counties. For population-predicted impervious surface density, we further developed a lookup table approach to integrate SLEUTH output and generated a spatially explicit urban map for 2050. This lookup table approach has high potential to integrate population-predicted and SLEUTH-predicted urban landscape, especially when future population can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  1. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  2. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  3. Spotting Epidemic Keystones by R0 Sensitivity Analysis: High-Risk Stations in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-01-01

    How can we identify the epidemiologically high-risk communities in a metapopulation network? The network centrality measure, which quantifies the relative importance of each location, is commonly utilized for this purpose. As the disease invasion condition is given from the basic reproductive ratio R0, we have introduced a novel centrality measure based on the sensitivity analysis of this R0 and shown its capability of revealing the characteristics that has been overlooked by the conventional centrality measures. The epidemic dynamics over the commute network of the Tokyo metropolitan area is theoretically analyzed by using this centrality measure. We found that, the impact of countermeasures at the largest station is more than 1,000 times stronger compare to that at the second largest station, even though the population sizes are only around 1.5 times larger. Furthermore, the effect of countermeasures at every station is strongly dependent on the existence and the number of commuters to this largest station. It is well known that the hubs are the most influential nodes, however, our analysis shows that only the largest among the network plays an extraordinary role. Lastly, we also found that, the location that is important for the prevention of disease invasion does not necessarily match the location that is important for reducing the number of infected. PMID:27607239

  4. Applying Multivariate Clustering Techniques to Health Data: The 4 Types of Healthcare Utilization in the Paris Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Rondet, Claire; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients’ health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs. Methods This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation. Results We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women. Conclusion The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems. PMID:25506916

  5. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro G.; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Flores-Saiffe, María E.; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  6. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  7. Contextual Predictors of Injection Drug Use Among Black Adolescents and Adults in US Metropolitan Areas, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke; Linton, Sabriya; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Stall, Ron; Wolfe, Mary E.; Williams, Leslie; Hall, H. Irene; Cleland, Charles; Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether contextual factors shape injection drug use among Black adolescents and adults. Methods. For this longitudinal study of 95 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), we drew annual MSA-specific estimates of the prevalence of injection drug use (IDU) among Black adolescents and adults in 1993 through 2007 from 3 surveillance databases. We used existing administrative data to measure MSA-level socioeconomic status; criminal justice activities; expenditures on social welfare, health, and policing; and histories of Black uprisings (1960–1969) and urban renewal funding (1949–1974). We regressed Black IDU prevalence on these predictors by using hierarchical linear models. Results. Black IDU prevalence was lower in MSAs with declining Black high-school dropout rates, a history of Black uprisings, higher percentages of Black residents, and, in MSAs where 1992 White income was high, higher 1992 Black income. Incarceration rates were unrelated. Conclusions. Contextual factors shape patterns of drug use among Black individuals. Structural interventions, especially those that improve Black socioeconomic security and political strength, may help reduce IDU among Black adolescents and adults. PMID:26691126

  8. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  9. Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Gustafsson, Orjan; Reddy, Christopher M; Xu, Li

    2004-10-15

    Source-diagnostic markers and the isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in surface sediments from the greater Stockholm waterways to deduce the contribution from biomass sources to the environmental PAH load. The summed concentration of 20 PAHs ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 microg/g (dry weight) and exhibited a steep decline with increasing distance from the city center evidencing that sources within the metropolitan area of Stockholm dominate its PAH burden. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated an overwhelming predominance of pyrogenic sources over the petrogenic ones, while retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene were unable to correctly evaluate the contribution from biomass combustion. The stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of individual PAHs ranged from -24.8 to -27.0% but also was proved inefficient to discriminate between different types of fuels due to the overlapping signals in various sources. The delta14C values of PAHs ranged between -550.4 and -934.1%, indicating a clear predominance of fossil fuel sources. By using an isotopic mass balance approach, we estimated that on average 17+/-9% of PAHs derived from biomass combustion. This radiocarbon apportionment, in conjunction with detailed energy statistics for the Stockholm region, revealed that the ambient PAH burden is roughly similar, per unit energy produced, from fossil fuels and biofuels. Societies' shifting energy policies toward a larger reliance on biofuels may thus not lead to further deterioration of air quality and respiratory ailments for the urban population.

  10. SIXTEEN YEARS OF DERMATOMYCOSIS CAUSED BY Candida spp. IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; VETTORATO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The yeasts of the genus Candida infect skin, nails, and mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and the genitourinary tract. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatomycoses caused by Candida spp., and their etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective study with data obtained from tertiary hospital patients, from 1996 to 2011, was performed. The analyzed parameters were date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesions, and the direct examination results. For all the statistical analyses, a = 0.05 was considered. Among positive results in the direct mycological examination, 12.5% of the total of 4,815 cases were positive for Candida spp. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.7%/ year, showing a decrease over the years. The genus Candida was more prevalent in women (15.9% of women versus 5.84% of men), and in addition, women were older than men (54 versus 47 years old, respectively). There was no difference between ethnic groups. The nails were more affected than the skin, with 80.37% of the infections in the nails (72.9% in fingernails and 7.47% in toenails). Our study corroborates the literature regarding the preference for gender, age, and place of injury. Moreover, we found a decrease in infection over the studied period. PMID:27007557

  11. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  12. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  13. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.; Doefer, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data collected from April through September 1981 from nine Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites, urban storm-runoff data collected from April 1980 through September 1981 from ten South Platte River Study sites, and rainfall-runoff simulation data from two sites for June 1980 and May 1981 are presented in this report. The Denver Nationwide Urban Runoff Program sites were two single-family residential areas, two multifamily residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multifamily residential area, one natural area (open space), and two detention ponds. The South Platte River Study sites were six tributaries of the South Platte River and four instream sites on the South Platte River. The tributary sites were Bear Creek at mouth, at Sheridan; Harvard Gulch at Harvard Park, at Denver; Sanderson Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Weir Gulch at mouth, at Denver; Lakewood Gulch at mouth, at Denver; and Cherry Creek at Denver. The instream sites were South Platte River at Littleton; South Platte River at Florida Avenue, at Denver; South Platte River at Denver; and South Platte River at 50th Avenue, at Denver. The rainfall-runoff simulation sites were North Avenue at Denver Federal Center, at Lakewood and Rooney Gulch at Rooney Ranch, near Morrison. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality data, and basin characteristics were collected at the urban storm-runoff sites. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semiarid regions. (USGS)

  14. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  15. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  16. Eco-health evaluation for the Shanghai metropolitan area during the recent industrial transformation (1990-2003).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiangrong; Ho, Hon H; Yong, Yi

    2008-09-01

    Shanghai is a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important economic centers in China, but is saddled with serious environmental problems resulting from a recent industrial transformation. This paper examines the interactive relationships between economic growth, eco-efficiency of urban metabolism, and environmental performance of the Shanghai metropolitan area since the 1990s using 15 indicators. This study has revealed an enhanced eco-efficiency of water and energy use as well as an improved overall environmental quality in the central urban districts of Shanghai. Both TGDP (total GDP) and GDP per capita increased rapidly at the annual rate of 16.28% and 15.91%, respectively. In contrast, energy consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (ECG), water consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WCG), wastewater discharged per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WWDG), and waste gases emitted per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WGEG) decreased at the annual rate of 9.34%, 10.69%, 14.57%, and 8.52%, respectively. The rapid decline in ECG, WCG, WWDG, and WGEG indicates an enhanced eco-efficiency of urban metabolism. However, uncontrolled emission of wastes from domestic instead of industrial sources adversely affected the overall environmental quality. In addition, suburban areas have undergone rapid economic growth at the cost of human health deterioration, as measured by mortalities and relative mortality ratios of three major diseases (tumor, respiratory disease, and trauma/toxicosis). With Shanghai serving as the "locomotive" driving the economy of the Yangtze River Basin, effective pollution control policies and a network of regional coordination are urgently needed in the globalization and ecological security of the entire area.

  17. Biological assessment and streambed-sediment chemistry of streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2003–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2003–2008, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 13 sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area in Indiana for benthic invertebrates, fish communities, and streambed-sediment chemistry. Data from seven White River sites and six tributary sites complement surface-water chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works. The information is being used to assess changes in water quality in conjunction with the City's programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and other point and nonpoint sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area. During the study, 233 benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified from which the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were calculated. EPT index scores ranged from 2 to 16 on the White River and from 2 to 17 on the tributaries. EPT index scores indicate that these pollution-intolerant taxa are more prevalent upstream from and away from the combined-sewer areas of Indianapolis. HBI scores from sites on the White River ranged from 4.67 (good) to 9.55 (very poor), whereas on the tributaries, scores ranged from 4.21 (very good) to 8.14 (poor). Lower HBI scores suggest that less organic pollution was present and, like the EPT scores, indicate better conditions where combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) are not present. Similarly, ICI scores indicated better conditions upstream from the CSO outfalls on the White River. White River scores ranged from 12 to 46, where higher ICI scores indicate better conditions in the benthic-invertebrate community. ICI scores at the tributary sites ranged from 12 to 52, with the highest scores on streams without CSOs.

  18. Epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents in a metropolitan area of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Jacinto, Camilla N; Lima, Caroline B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population.

  19. Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Atmospheric transport of pesticides in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area, 1996-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Baston, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Weekly composite, bulk air was sampled with respect to wind speed and direction from January 1996 through December 1997 in one urban and two agricultural locations in Sacramento County, California. The sampling sites were located along a north-south transect, the dominant directions of the prevailing winds. The samples were analyzed for a variety of current-use pesticides, including dormant orchard spray insecticides and rice herbicides. A variety of pesticides were detected throughout the year, predominantly chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and trifluralin. The data obtained during the winter and spring suggest that some pesticides used in agricultural areas become airborne and may be transported into the urban area. Confirmation of this drift is difficult, however, because these three predominant pesticides, as well as other detected pesticides, also are heavily used in the urban environment. The spring data clearly show that molinate and thiobencarb, two herbicides used only in rice production, do drift into the urban environment.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Areal distribution of calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were analyzed to provide information on the hydrologic and geochemical relationships between aquifers. Ground water is generally of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Jordan Sandstone and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer generally decreases from southwest to northeast across the study area. This decrease probably reflects differences in the quality of recharge water and geochemical processes within the aquifers, such as ion exchange.

  3. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  4. Collaboration in the San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Medical Response System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    a Navy veteran who always emphasized education and did quiet , hard work. For a guy with a GED, he seemed to know a lot of stuff. xviii THIS...synonymous with MMST. 18 5. Increase regional MMTF capability to be self -sufficient during the 72- hour deployment outside of its operational area. 6...He believes that the self -managing teams, strike forces, and the like are examples of flexibility. Flexibility needs protection as well as

  5. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  6. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  7. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: The added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baud, Isa; Kuffer, Monika; Pfeffer, Karin; Sliuzas, Richard; Karuppannan, Sadasivam

    2010-10-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from the Census of India 2001 ( http://censusindia.gov.in). While that index, described in an earlier paper, provided a first approach to identify heterogeneity at the citywide scale, it neither provided information on spatial variations within the geographical boundaries of the Census database, nor about physical characteristics, such as green spaces and the variation in housing density and quality. In this article, we analyze whether different types of sub-standard residential areas can be identified through remote sensing data, combined, where relevant, with ground-truthing and local knowledge. The specific questions address: (1) the extent to which types of residential sub-standard areas can be drawn from remote sensing data, based on patterns of green space, structure of layout, density of built-up areas, size of buildings and other site characteristics; (2) the spatial diversity of these residential types for selected electoral wards; and (3) the correlation between different types of sub-standard residential areas and the results of the index of multiple deprivations utilized at electoral ward level found previously. The results of a limited number of test wards in Delhi showed that it was possible to extract different residential types matching existing settlement categories using the physical indicators structure of layout, built-up density, building size and other site characteristics. However, the indicator 'amount of green spaces' was not useful to identify informal areas. The analysis of heterogeneity showed that wards with higher IMD scores displayed more or less the full range of residential types, implying that visual image interpretation is able to zoom in

  8. An ecological study to identify census blocks supporting a higher burden of disease: infant mortality in the lille metropolitan area, france.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cindy; Lalloué, Benoit; Pies, Cheri; Lucas, Emminarie; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Séverine, Deguen

    2014-01-01

    In France, reducing social health inequalities has become an explicit goal of health policies over the past few years, one of its objectives is specifically the reduction of the perinatal mortality rate. This study investigates the association between infant mortality and social deprivation categories at a small area level in the Lille metropolitan area, in the north of France, to identify census blocks where public authorities should prioritize appropriate preventive actions. We used census data to establish a neighbourhood deprivation index whose multiple dimensions encompass socioeconomic characteristics. Infant mortality data were obtained from the Lille metropolitan area municipalities to estimate a death rate at the census tract level. We used Bayesian hierarchical models in order to reduce the extra variability when computing relative risks (RR) and to assess the associations between infant mortality and deprivation. Between 2000 and 2009, 668 cases of infant death occurred in the Lille metropolitan area (4.2 per 1,000 live births). The socioeconomic status is associated with infant mortality, with a clear gradient of risk from the most privileged census blocks to the most deprived ones (RR = 2.62, 95 % confidence interval [1.87; 3.70]). The latter have 24.6 % of families who were single parents and 29.9 % of unemployed people in the labor force versus 8.5 % and 7.7 % in the former. Our study reveals socio-spatial disparities in infant mortality in the Lille metropolitan area and highlights the census blocks most affected by the inequalities. Fine spatial analysis may help inform the design of preventive policies tailored to the characteristics of the local communities.

  9. Meteorological influences on myocardial infarction in the metropolitan area of Milan.

    PubMed

    Gnecchi Ruscone, T; Crosignani, P; Micheletti, T; Sala, L; Santomauro, D

    1985-09-01

    We attempted to relate admission rate for acute myocardial infarction with some meteorological variables in a region having a temperate climate. We used 2830 consecutive episodes collected over a 2-year (1979-1980) period. The temperatures, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, front passage, rain and snow and foehn wind have been associated in the past with acute myocardial infarction. No significant association with any of them was found in our study, nor any correlation over the time between admission rates in six different Coronary Care Units (at the time the only ones active in the area) which participated in the study.

  10. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin metropolitan area, Texas, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, J.D.; Pate, D.L.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    To quantitatively appraise the ground-water resources of the Edwards aquifer in hydraulic circulation with Barton Springs, the effect of urbanization on the quality and quantity of recharge and discharge, and the extent of contamination in the aquifer. This report presents the basic hydrologic data collected in the Austin urban area for the 1984 water year (Oct. 1, 1983 to Sept. 30, 1984). Additional explanations of terms related to streamflow, water quality, and other hydrologic data used in this report are defined in the U.S. Geological Survey annual report Water Resources Data for Texas, TX-84-3, 1984.

  11. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  12. Enhancement of Collective Immunity in Tokyo Metropolitan Area by Selective Vaccination against an Emerging Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masaya M.; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kami, Masahiro; Nakada, Haruka; Sato, Hiroki; Miyano, Satoru; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is a preventive measure against influenza that does not require placing restrictions on social activities. However, since the stockpile of vaccine that can be prepared before the arrival of an emerging pandemic strain is generally quite limited, one has to select priority target groups to which the first stockpile is distributed. In this paper, we study a simulation-based priority target selection method with the goal of enhancing the collective immunity of the whole population. To model the region in which the disease spreads, we consider an urban area composed of suburbs and central areas connected by a single commuter train line. Human activity is modelled following an agent-based approach. The degree to which collective immunity is enhanced is judged by the attack rate in unvaccinated people. The simulation results show that if students and office workers are given exclusive priority in the first three months, the attack rate can be reduced from in the baseline case down to 1–2%. In contrast, random vaccination only slightly reduces the attack rate. It should be noted that giving preference to active social groups does not mean sacrificing those at high risk, which corresponds to the elderly in our simulation model. Compared with the random administration of vaccine to all social groups, this design successfully reduces the attack rate across all age groups. PMID:24058445

  13. A spatial analysis of health-related resources in three diverse metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Smiley, Melissa J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brines, Shannon J; Brown, Daniel G; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the spatial clustering of multiple health-related resources. We constructed 0.5 mile kernel densities of resources for census areas in New York City, NY (n=819 block groups), Baltimore, MD (n=737), and Winston-Salem, NC (n=169). Three of the four resource densities (supermarkets/produce stores, retail areas, and recreational facilities) tended to be correlated with each other, whereas park density was less cons