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Sample records for atlantic forest region

  1. State of mid-atlantic region forests in 2000

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Stolte; Barbara L. Conkling; Stephanie Fulton; M. Patricia Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Wet and warm climate, mountainous topography, and deep rich soils produced one of the most magnificent and diverse temperate forests in the world. In 1650 the Mid-Atlantic forests covered 95 percent of the region, but were greatly reduced in 1900 by extensive tree harvesting, and conversion to farms and pastures. Settlement of forests also led to severe wildfires, soil...

  2. State of mid-atlantic region forests in 2000-Summary Report

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Stolte

    2012-01-01

    Wet and warm climate, mountainous topography, and deep rich soils produced one of the most magnificent and diverse temperate forests in the world. In 1650 the Mid-Atlantic forests covered 95 percent of the region, but were greatly reduced in 1900 by extensive tree harvesting, and conversion to farms and pastures. Settlement of forests also led to severe wildfires, soil...

  3. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  4. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Treesearch

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  5. Forests and People in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Stephanie Fulton; Evan Mercer; M. Patricia Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Human populations in the Mid-Atlantic region over the last 250 years have increased nearly 100-fold, from an estimated few hundred thousand people to over 30 million people (Mercer and Murthy 2000). Increased population growth usually results in the conversion of forestland to nonforest uses, particularly agriculture, pastureland, and urban development. Not only is the...

  6. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  7. Prescribing regeneration treatments for mixed-oak forests in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Stephen B. Horsley; Peter D. Knopp; James N. Kochenderfer; Barbara J. McGuinness; Gary W. Miller; Todd E. Ristau; Scott H. Stoleson; Susan L. Stout

    2008-01-01

    Includes guidelines for using the SILVAH decision-support system to perpetuate oak forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. Six chapters provide information on values of oak forests, inventory methods, key decision variables, decision charts, and silvicultural prescriptions, as well as guidance on fostering young stands. Sample tally sheets and SILVAH computer printouts are...

  8. The potential impacts of climate change and variability on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Mary McKenney-Easterling; David R. DeWalle; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Anthony R. Buda; Anthony R. Buda

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment, an evaluation is being made of the impacts of climate variability and potential future climate change on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic Region. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of forests in the region, and then focuses on 2 components of this evaluation: (1) modeling of the potential...

  9. Management of hardwood forests in the mid-Atlantic region: past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis

    1991-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the Mid-Atlantic region have a multitude of values. They provide timber for furniture, paper, and other products, habitats for wildlife, water for homes and industry, and opportunities for outdoor recreation activities of many types. They dominate much of our landscape, serve as reservoirs of biological diversity, alter climate, and affect our lives...

  10. Using Resource Economics to Anticipate Forest Land Use Change in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Parks; Ian W. Hardie; Cheryl A. Tedder; David N. Wear

    2000-01-01

    Demands for forest, farm, and developed land are evolving in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The demand for land in developed uses, as well as demands for various forest and farm products are changing in response to population growth, demographic shifts, and market forces. As demand factors change so do relative land values. Land area in future forest, farm, and...

  11. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for therapeutic purposes in the Atlantic Forest region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tribess, Bianca; Pintarelli, Gabrielli Melatto; Bini, Larissa Alida; Camargo, Anderson; Funez, Luís Adriano; de Gasper, André Luís; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-04-22

    Atlantic Forest is a biome in dangerous situation and it lacks wider information on species with medicinal purposes used by people in this area. In this study an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Apiúna district, Brazil with the goal of assessing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by rural communities in a region covered by Atlantic Forest. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a free list of plants used for medicinal purposes. The respondents were selected by snow ball method. Therefore, the therapeutic use of plants was investigated and the species cited was collected and identified. Local plant uses were evaluated using ethnobotanical indices of diversity and equitability, and then compared with those obtained in other regions of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Besides, the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated. A total of 162 species belonging to 61 families were recorded, mainly Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. Furthermore, the species cited, 45.06% were native and 54.94% were considered exotic. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were the symptoms and signs (17.42%), digestive system (15.33%) and, infectious and parasitic diseases (12.73%). Although, the ICF calculation showed that mental and behavioral (0.85), respiratory system (0.79) and, digestive and genitourinary system diseases (0.78 for both) were the categories with higher values reached. Usually, the administration is oral from leaves preparations. Folk medicine in rural communities in this region of Atlantic Forest is an important source of primary health care. The results indicate an available knowledge of medicinal plants uses in this area, when compared to other regions previously studied. The fact that this research was conducted next to a conservation area makes it possible to dispose the knowledge organized here into a tool for environmental education as well as preservation. Moreover, the pharmacological information will further

  12. Ibero Atlantic Forested Wetlands: Plant-Abiotic Interactions at a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. R.; Ferreira, T.; Albuquerque, A.; Espirito-Santo, D.; Ramil-Rego, P.

    2005-05-01

    In biogeographical terms, forested wetlands are considered azonal ecosystems due to their special edaphic conditions. Duration of waterlogging decreases the effect of regional climate in vegetation communities. In this work we test this hypothesis by studying the relative contribution of spatial and environmental variation. Plant community composition and vertical structure were inventoried in inland forested wetlands along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The study area ranges from latitude N 44° to 38° and includes Temperate and Mediterranean climate. Forested wetlands area was delimitated and sampled using plots where all the vascular plants and bryophytes were registered and their percentage cover estimated. Collected environmental regional variables included geographic, climatic, geologic and hydro geomorphologic data. Multivariate analysis was used to interpret species abundance data to assess the relative weight of environmental conditions and the spatial structure in the species data variation. Results of species-environment treatment revealed that tree overstorey species were determinant for vegetation types and that hydroperiod was the key abiotic variable classifying forested wetlands.

  13. Status and trends of bottomland hardwood forests in the mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Anita Rose; Steve Meadows

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests cover approximately 2.9 million acres of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont region of Virginia and North Carolina. As of 2014, 59 percent of bottomland hardwood forests were in the large-diameter stand-size class. Between 2002 and 2014, area of large-diameter sized stands increased, while that of medium- and small-diameter stands decreased,...

  14. Wild Trypanosoma cruzi I genetic diversity in Brazil suggests admixture and disturbance in parasite populations from the Atlantic Forest region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investigate sylvatic T. cruzi genetic diversity across different biomes, detect instances of genetic exchange, and explore the possible impact of ecological disturbance on parasite diversity at an intra-species level. Methods We characterised 107 isolates of T. cruzi I (TcI; discrete typing unit, DTU I) from different major Brazilian biomes with twenty-seven nuclear microsatellite loci. A representative subset of biologically cloned isolates was further characterised using ten mitochondrial gene loci. We compared these data generated from Brazilian TcI isolates from around America. Results Genetic diversity was remarkably high, including one divergent cluster that branched outside the known genetic diversity of TcI in the Americas. We detected evidence for mitochondrial introgression and genetic exchange between the eastern Amazon and Caatinga. Finally, we found strong signatures of admixture among isolates from the Atlantic Forest region by comparison to parasites from other study sites. Conclusions Atlantic Forest sylvatic TcI populations are highly fragmented and admixed by comparison to others around Brazil. We speculate on: the possible causes of Atlantic Forest admixture; the role of T. cruzi as a sentinel for ecosystem health, and the impact disrupted sylvatic transmission cycles might have on accurate source attribution in oral outbreaks. PMID:24903849

  15. Is the Forest Healthy? (Mid-Atlantic, North Central, New England, and New York Regions)

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Stoyenoff; John Witter; Bruce Leutscher

    1997-01-01

    No single measurement can summarize forest health. Instead, we need to look at a wide set of indicators which together serve as a reflection of existing conditions. Repeated monitoring of the forest over time allows us to identify trends in forest conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of our actions. Information about forest health is obtained in a variety of ways...

  16. Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebich, Martina; Mingram, Jens; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    The results presented here from the annually laminated sedimentary sequence of Sihailongwan lake provide the first comprehensive palaeoecological record covering the Late Pleniglacial to the Early Holocene (16,700-10,600 cal yrs. BP) from Northeast China. High-resolution pollen analyses have enabled the vegetational and climatic changes of the last glacial-interglacial transition to be reconstructed in more detail than has been previously possible. Moreover, a reliable chronology has been provided by both varve counting and 40 calibrated AMS 14C age determinations. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates predominantly steppe and open taiga-like woodland communities, with abundant Betula, Larix, Alnus fruticosa, Artemisia, grasses and sedges, which are typical of cold and dry conditions between 16,700 and 14,450 cal yrs. BP. The beginning expansion of Ulmus and Fraxinus marks the onset of the Late-glacial climatic amelioration at 14,450 cal yrs. BP. Dense deciduous forests, predominantly consisting of thermophilous broadleaf taxa, become established and widespread during the Early Holocene. Two short-term climatic reversals to colder and/or dryer conditions are recorded in the proxy data between 13,900 and 13,800 cal yrs. BP and 13,100 and 12,900 cal yrs. BP, correlating with the Oldest Dryas/Greenland Interstadial (GI) 1d event and the Gerzensee/Killarney/GI-1b oscillation, respectively. The prominent reappearance of Picea and Larix, coupled with a marked decrease in broadleaved trees, prior to the start of the Holocene, implies a climatic reversal compatible with the Younger Dryas event in the circum-Atlantic region. The evident synchroneity of climate changes in the North Atlantic region and East Asia supports the theory of strong atmospheric coupling between both regions.

  17. Dictyostelids living in the soils of the Atlantic forest, Iguazú region, Misiones, Argentina: description of new species.

    PubMed

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C

    2007-01-01

    Thirteen new species and varieties of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (csm) were isolated from soils of the Atlantic Subtropical Rain Forest at the Iguazú Falls, Northeastern Misiones Province, Argentina. Seven new species are described herein, one of them is a Polysphondylium, while the rest of the species belong to the genus Dictyostelium. Also, six taxa are new varieties of Dictyostelium and Acytostelium, which will be reported later. Fourteen Northern Hemisphere (Tikal) species have also been isolated from Iguazú soils, some of them new records for Southern South America. This csm community, when compared with others from forests of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly Tikal, Guatemala, give some insight into a possibly different evolutionary history and/or natural selection in the two areas.

  18. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  19. Phylobetadiversity among Forest Types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Complex

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao’s H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups

  20. Association of the occurrence of Brazilian spotted fever and Atlantic rain forest fragmentation in the São Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scinachi, Claudia A; Takeda, Gabriela A C G; Mucci, Luís Filipe; Pinter, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) it is transmitted by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. In this region, annual lethality of the disease can reach 80% and spatial occurrence depends on environmental factors and more particularly on the presence and interaction of domestic and wild carnivores as well as the presence and characteristics of the remnant Atlantic Rain Forest patches. This study analyzed the association between forest fragmentation and its influence on the risk of occurrence of the disease in the human population. Domestic dogs tested for R. rickettsii antibodies in nine different areas under the influence of different patterns of Rain Forest fragmented landscapes and human occupancy. Landscape metrics were obtained by analyzing satellite images and high-resolution orthophotos. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine among the different landscape variables the one that could best explain the data variance, and the results were tested against canine seroprevalence in order to address disease occurrence risk levels. From 270 canine samples, the seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 37%. PCA showed an inverse correlation between functionally connected large forest patches and the canine seroprevalence for R. rickettsii (p=0.030; Spearman's R=-0.683), while there was a positive correlation between forest border effect and canine seroprevalence (p=0.037; Spearman's R=- 0.909). The further attributed disease occurrence risk level supported the real spatial prevalence of the disease reported for the last eight years (p=0.023; Spearman's R=0.63). The results suggest an important relation of deforestation and fragmentation with the occurrence of BSF in the SPMR.

  1. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  2. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

    Treesearch

    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo. Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  3. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lookingbill, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted

  4. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development's attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted

  5. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  6. Stability predicts genetic diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Hickerson, Michael J; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Moritz, Craig

    2009-02-06

    Biodiversity hotspots, representing regions with high species endemism and conservation threat, have been mapped globally. Yet, biodiversity distribution data from within hotspots are too sparse for effective conservation in the face of rapid environmental change. Using frogs as indicators, ecological niche models under paleoclimates, and simultaneous Bayesian analyses of multispecies molecular data, we compare alternative hypotheses of assemblage-scale response to late Quaternary climate change. This reveals a hotspot within the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot. We show that the southern Atlantic forest was climatically unstable relative to the central region, which served as a large climatic refugium for neotropical species in the late Pleistocene. This sets new priorities for conservation in Brazil and establishes a validated approach to biodiversity prediction in other understudied, species-rich regions.

  7. Forest regions of Montana

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  8. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Treesearch

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  9. Photo guide for estimating fuel loading and fire behavior in mixed-oak forests of the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose

    2009-01-01

    A field guide of 45 pairs of photographs depicting ericaceous shrub, leaf litter, and logging slash fuel types of eastern oak forests and observed fire behavior of these fuel types during prescribed burning. The guide contains instructions on how to use the photo guide to choose appropriate fuel models for prescribed fire planning.

  10. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-01-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems – two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:16270911

  11. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-11-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems - two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest.

  12. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  13. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  14. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  15. The timber economy of the Mid-Atlantic region: some preliminary results from the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment

    Treesearch

    P.B. Aruna; D. Evan Mercer

    1999-01-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) is a multi-agency effort headed by the USEPA to assess the health and sustainability of ecosystems in an 8 state region. We present some preliminary results on the economic impact of forest industries from the socio-economic component of the MAIA forest assessment. Employment and income trends between1975-1995 are examined...

  16. DNA barcoding in Atlantic Forest plants: What is the best marker for Sapotaceae species identification?

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Caio Vinicius; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Alves-Araújo, Anderson; Alves, Marccus; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; van den Berg, Cássio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region - ITS) in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122), followed by trnH-psbA (0.019), matK (0.008) and rbcL (0.002). For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest. PMID:25505841

  17. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m(2) per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  18. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  19. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Andena, Sergio R.; Carvalho, Antonio F.; Costa, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453

  20. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Andena, Sergio R; Carvalho, Antonio F; Costa, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.

  1. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  2. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist. PMID:26083245

  3. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  4. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  5. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Vanderklein, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance. PMID:25018759

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Forests on Human Welfare: Prelimnary Results from the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessement

    Treesearch

    D. Evan Mercer; P.B. Aruna

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. This paper presents results from the first phase of the socio-economic assessment of forest ecosystems in the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). First, we present results of the analysis of changes in the distribution of human population and forest land use in the region. Then, trends in wood products employment and income between...

  7. Houston's Regional Forest

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Peter D. Smith; Michael Merritt; John Giedraitis; Jeffrey T. Walton; Robert E. Hoehn; Jack C. Stevens; Daniel E. Crane; Mark Estes; Stephen Stetson; Charles Burditt; David Hitchcock; Wendee Holtcamp

    2005-01-01

    The population in and around Houston has grown rapidly over the past twenty years, now exceeding five million people. Studies of the area have noted that the loss of trees and changes to the forest makeup have generally accompanied this growth. Trees and urban forestry practices can be used effectively to reduce many of the negative effects of urban growth and other...

  8. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  9. Climate change and fire management in the mid-Atlantic region

    Treesearch

    Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Heidi Renninger; Robert. Scheller

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the potential impacts of climate change on wildfire activity in the mid-Atlantic region, and then consider how the beneficial uses of prescribed fire could conflict with mitigation needs for climate change, focusing on patters of carbon (C) sequestration by forests in the region. We use a synthesis of field studies, eddy flux tower...

  10. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    Marianne V. Moore; Michael L. Pace; John R. Mather; [and others; [Editor’s note: Patricia A. Flebbe is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous freshwater ecosystems, dense concentrations of humans along the eastern seaboard, extensive forests, and a history of intensive land use distinguish the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Human population densities are forecast to increase in portions of the region at the same time that climate is expected to be changing. Consequently, the effects of humans and...

  11. Forest clearing and regional landsliding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Greenberg, H.M.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of forest clearing on landsliding is central to longstanding concern over the effects of timber harvesting on slope stability. Here we document a strong topographic control on shallow landsliding by combining unique ground-based landslide surveys in an intensively monitored study area with digital terrain modeling using high-resolution laser altimetry and a coarser resolution regional study of 3224 landslides. As predicted by our digital terrain-based model, landslides occur disproportionately in steep, convergent topography. In terrain predicted to be at low risk of slope failure, a random model performs equally well to our mechanism-based model. Our monitoring shows that storms with 24 hr rainfall recurrence intervals of less than 4 yr triggered landslides in the decade after forest clearing and that conventional monitoring programs can substantially underestimate the effects of forest clearing. Our regional analysis further substantiates that forest clearing dramatically accelerates shallow landsliding in steep terrain typical of the Pacific Northwest.

  12. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  13. Changes in Orchid Bee Communities Across Forest-Agroecosystem Boundaries in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Landscapes.

    PubMed

    De Aguiar, Willian Moura; Sofia, Silvia H; Melo, Gabriel A R; Gaglianone, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Throughfall patterns of a Subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo Sá, João Henrique; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Yuimi de Oliveira, Debora; Nery Giglio, Joana; Kobiyama, Masato

    2017-04-01

    The interception process is responsible for the spatial and temporal redistribution of the precipitation that reaches the ground. This process is important especially in forested areas since it influences recycling of moisture from the air and also the amount of water that effectively reaches the ground. The contact of the precipitation with the canopy influences on the water quality, increasing the concentration of various nutrients in the throughfall (Tf) and stemflow (Sf). Brazil, only about 8% of the original Atlantic Forest cover remains. That is an important biome and little is known about the characteristics of rainfall interception of this forest. The total interception loss in forested areas is usually formulated as the gross precipitation (P) minus the sum of the throughfall (Tf) and the stemflow (Sf). The stems characteristics influence on Sf, meanwhile, the value of Tf strongly depends on the canopy and leaf structures. Because of the complex structure of the canopy, these characteristics are usually expressed by the simpler Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Canopy Cover Fraction (CCF). The Araponga river experimental catchment (ARA) with 5.3 ha is on the northern plateau of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. It is an area completely covered by secondary subtropical Atlantic Forest, the regional climate is the Köppen Cfb type, i.e., temperate climate without dry season and with warm summer (the mean temperature of the hottest month is always under 22°C). The objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of canopy cover; (ii) to influence of the interception process on the precipitation quality; and (iii) to explore the relation between canopy cover and throughfall. Inside the catchment, 9 Tf gauges were installed 40 cm above the soil surface in order to include the interception by shrub. 28 hand-made gauges were installed on a circular area of 3 m radius to analyze the spatial variability of throughfall. During

  15. ATLANTIC BATS: a dataset of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    PubMed

    de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Garbino, Guilherme Siniciato Terra; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André Luis; de Oliveira, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius Silva; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-09-06

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The dataset includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of 8 families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals/hour*m(2) (0.04+0.007 individuals/hour*m(2) ). Our dataset reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  17. Genetic diversity of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Y; Cunha-Machado, A S; Gontijo, A B P L; Favoreto, F C; Soares, T B C; Miranda, F D

    2017-04-20

    The Bromeliaceae family includes a range of species used for many purposes, including ornamental use and use as food, medicine, feed, and fiber. The state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is a center of diversity for this family in the Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the genetic diversity of five populations of the Bromeliaceae family, including specimens of the genera Aechmea, Billbergia (subfamily Bromelioideae), and Pitcairnia (subfamily Pitcairnioidea), all found in the Atlantic Forest and distributed in the state of Espírito Santo. The number of alleles per locus in populations ranged from two to six and the fixation index (F), estimated for some simple sequence repeats in bromeliad populations, was less than zero in all populations. All markers in the Pitcairnia flammea population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at some loci in populations of the five bromeliad species. In most cases, this can be attributed to the presence of inbreeding or the Wahlund effect. The genetic diversity indices of five species showed greater allelic richness in P. flammea (3.55). Therefore, we provide useful information for the characterization of genetic diversity in natural populations of Aechmea ramosa, Aechmea nudicaulis, Billbergia horrid, Billbergia euphemia, and P. flammea in Atlantic Forest remnants in the south of Espírito Santo state.

  18. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A.; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone. PMID:26940995

  19. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-03-04

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone.

  20. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  1. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  2. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  3. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  4. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-09-29

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7.5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves special attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies.

  5. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  6. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  7. DEVELOPING AND APPLYING AN INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY FOR THE US MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental conditions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States are presently being documented in a series of reports that use ?environmental report cards' to summarize the condition of individual natural resources (e.g. estuaries, streams, forests, and landscapes) over ...

  8. Waveform Tomography of the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Nicolas Luca; Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Gaina, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The enormous volumes of newly available, broadband seismic data and the continuing development of waveform tomography techniques present us with an opportunity to resolve the structure of North Atlantic at a new level of detail. Dynamics of the North Atlantic Ridge and the Iceland Hotspot, evolution of the passive margins on both sides of the ocean, and the nature of the upper-mantle flow beneath the region are some of the important fundamental problems that we can make progress on using new, more detailed and accurate models of seismic structure and anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We assemble a very large waveform dataset including all publicly available data in the region, from both permanent and temporary seismic networks and experiments conducted in Northern and Western Europe, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greenland and Russia. The tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations with respect to a 3D reference velocity model within an approximate sensitivity region between the source and the receiver. The equations are then combined into a large linear system and jointly inverted for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds reflect the temperature and composition at depth, offering important new information on both regional- and basin-scale lithospheric structure and evolution. Azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region, which can be interpreted together with other evidence from geological and geophysical data and recent plate kinematic models.

  9. Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Firmino, João V L; Mendonça, Milton D S; Lima, Iracilda M M; Grazia, Jocelia

    2017-06-01

    Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests. Singletons and doubletons represented 45.9% of all species collected. The most abundant genera were Mormidea Amyot & Serville, 1843; Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918; Xynocoris Garbelotto & Campos 2014; and Edessa F., 1803. Species richness differed among fragments, with a richness gradient correlated with decreased urbanization and increased fragment size. The species abundance distribution fitted the logseries function but not the lognormal, in accordance with what is found for other assemblages in southern Brazil. Species composition also changed, in association with changes in temperature (revealed by the canonical correspondence analysis [CCA]), among fragments. Murici is one of the last remaining dense forests with high plant diversity in the region, having higher pentatomid species richness and a distinctive fauna. This first diversity study for Pentatomidae in fragments of tropical Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil reveals richness comparable with those from subtropical southern Brazil, with some species in common as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The reduced effectiveness of protected areas under climate change threatens Atlantic forest tiger moths.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Viviane G; Lemes, Priscila; Melo, Adriano S; Loyola, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Climate change leads to species' range shifts, which may end up reducing the effectiveness of protected areas. These deleterious changes in biodiversity may become amplified if they include functionally important species, such as herbivores or pollinators. We evaluated how effective protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are in maintaining the diversity of tiger moths (Arctiinae) under climate change. Specifically, we assessed whether protected areas will gain or lose species under climate change and mapped their locations in the Atlantic Forest, in order to assess potential spatial patterns of protected areas that will gain or lose species richness. Comparisons were completed using modeled species occurrence data based on the current and projected climate in 2080. We also built a null model for random allocation of protected areas to identify where reductions in species richness will be more severe than expected. We employed several modern techniques for modeling species' distributions and summarized results using ensembles of models. Our models indicate areas of high species richness in the central and southern regions of the Atlantic Forest both for now and the future. However, we estimate that in 2080 these regions should become climatically unsuitable, decreasing the species' distribution area. Around 4% of species were predicted to become extinct, some of them being endemic to the biome. Estimates of species turnover from current to future climate tended to be high, but these findings are dependent on modeling methods. Our most important results show that only a few protected areas in the southern region of the biome would gain species. Protected areas in semideciduous forests in the western region of the biome would lose more species than expected by the null model employed. Hence, current protected areas are worse off, than just randomly selected areas, at protecting species in the future.

  11. Parametrization of Land Surface Temperature Fields with Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing in Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Khan, A.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is home to two of the largest and most biodiverse ecosystems in the world, primarily encompassed in forests and wetlands. A main region of interest in this project is Brazil's Atlantic Forest (AF). Although this forest is only a fraction of the size of the Amazon rainforest, it harbors significant biological richness, making it one of the world's major hotspots for biodiversity. The AF is located on the East to Southeast region of Brazil, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. As luscious and biologically rich as this region is, the area covered by the Atlantic Forest has been diminishing over past decades, mainly due to human influences and effects of climate change. We examine 1 km resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) data from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) combined with 25 km resolution radiometric temperature derived from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) to develop a capability employing both in combination to assess LST. Since AMSR-E is a microwave remote sensing instrument, products derived from its measurements are minimally effected by cloud cover. On the other hand, MODIS data are heavily influenced by cloud cover. We employ a statistical downscaling technique to the coarse-resolution AMSR-E datasets to enhance its spatial resolution to match that of MODIS. Our approach employs 16-day composite MODIS LST data in combination with synergistic ASMR-E radiometric brightness temperature data to develop a combined, downscaled dataset. Our goal is to use this integrated LST retrieval with complementary in situ station data to examine associated influences on regional biodiversity

  12. The Reduced Effectiveness of Protected Areas under Climate Change Threatens Atlantic Forest Tiger Moths

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Viviane G.; Lemes, Priscila; Melo, Adriano S.; Loyola, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Climate change leads to species' range shifts, which may end up reducing the effectiveness of protected areas. These deleterious changes in biodiversity may become amplified if they include functionally important species, such as herbivores or pollinators. We evaluated how effective protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are in maintaining the diversity of tiger moths (Arctiinae) under climate change. Specifically, we assessed whether protected areas will gain or lose species under climate change and mapped their locations in the Atlantic Forest, in order to assess potential spatial patterns of protected areas that will gain or lose species richness. Comparisons were completed using modeled species occurrence data based on the current and projected climate in 2080. We also built a null model for random allocation of protected areas to identify where reductions in species richness will be more severe than expected. We employed several modern techniques for modeling species' distributions and summarized results using ensembles of models. Our models indicate areas of high species richness in the central and southern regions of the Atlantic Forest both for now and the future. However, we estimate that in 2080 these regions should become climatically unsuitable, decreasing the species' distribution area. Around 4% of species were predicted to become extinct, some of them being endemic to the biome. Estimates of species turnover from current to future climate tended to be high, but these findings are dependent on modeling methods. Our most important results show that only a few protected areas in the southern region of the biome would gain species. Protected areas in semideciduous forests in the western region of the biome would lose more species than expected by the null model employed. Hence, current protected areas are worse off, than just randomly selected areas, at protecting species in the future. PMID:25229422

  13. Throughfall patterns of a subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo Sá, J. H.; Chaffe, P. L. B.; de Oliveira, D. Y.; Giglio, J. N.; Kobiyama, M.

    2016-12-01

    Forests play a major role in spatial and temporal rainfall redistribution. In Brazil, only about 8% of the original Atlantic Forest cover remains. That is an important biome and little is known about the characteristics of rainfall interception of this forest. The total interception loss in forested areas is usually formulated as the gross precipitation (P) minus the sum of the throughfall (Tf) and the stemflow (Sf). The stems characteristics influence on Sf, meanwhile, the value of Tf strongly depends on the canopy and leaf structures. Because of the complex structure of the canopy, these characteristics are usually expressed by the simpler Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Canopy Cover Fraction (CCF). The Araponga river experimental catchment (ARA) with 5.3 ha is on the northern plateau of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. It is an area completely covered by secondary subtropical Atlantic Forest. The objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of canopy cover in a Subtropical Atlantic forest catchment in Brazil; and (ii) to explore the relation between canopy cover and throughfall. Inside the catchment, 9 Tf gages were installed 40 cm above the soil surface in order to include the interception by shrub. 28 hand-made gauges were installed on a circular area of 3 m radius to analyze the spatial variability of throughfall. During 3 year in 2012 to 2014, digital images were taken every month with a camera installed horizontally 25 cm above the soil surface at each Tf gage. The total incident rainfall was 4624 mm, the throughfall volume was 3538 mm or 76% of incident rainfall. CCF and LAI ranged from 70 to 90% and from 3 to 5.5 m²/m², respectively. The NDVI ranged between 0.25 to 0.55 and LAINDVI ranged between 0.5 to 3.5, both with clear seasonal variation. We could not find any satisfactory relationship between Tf and canopy parameters (CCF, LAI, NDVI and LAINDVI). The results indicate that the internal distribution of

  14. The efficiency of indicator groups for the conservation of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Felipe Siqueira; Trindade-Filho, Joaquim; Brito, Daniel; Llorente, Gustavo A; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    The adequate selection of indicator groups of biodiversity is an important aspect of the systematic conservation planning. However, these assessments differ in the spatial scales, in the methods used and in the groups considered to accomplish this task, which generally produces contradictory results. The quantification of the spatial congruence between species richness and complementarity among different taxonomic groups is a fundamental step to identify potential indicator groups. Using a constructive approach, the main purposes of this study were to evaluate the performance and efficiency of eight potential indicator groups representing amphibian diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Data on the geographic range of amphibian species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest were overlapped to the full geographic extent of the biome, which was divided into a regular equal-area grid. Optimization routines based on the concept of complementarily were applied to verify the performance of each indicator group selected in relation to the representativeness of the amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest as a whole, which were solved by the algorithm “simulated annealing,” through the use of the software MARXAN. Some indicator groups were substantially more effective than others in regard to the representation of the taxonomic groups assessed, which was confirmed by the high significance of the data (F = 312.76; P < 0.01). Leiuperidae was considered as the best indicator group among the families analyzed, as it showed a good performance, representing 71% of amphibian species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (i.e., 290 species), which may be associated with the diffuse geographic distribution of their species. In this sense, this study promotes understanding of how the diversity standards of amphibians can be informative for systematic conservation planning on a regional scale. PMID:25360282

  15. The efficiency of indicator groups for the conservation of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Campos, Felipe Siqueira; Trindade-Filho, Joaquim; Brito, Daniel; Llorente, Gustavo A; Solé, Mirco

    2014-06-01

    The adequate selection of indicator groups of biodiversity is an important aspect of the systematic conservation planning. However, these assessments differ in the spatial scales, in the methods used and in the groups considered to accomplish this task, which generally produces contradictory results. The quantification of the spatial congruence between species richness and complementarity among different taxonomic groups is a fundamental step to identify potential indicator groups. Using a constructive approach, the main purposes of this study were to evaluate the performance and efficiency of eight potential indicator groups representing amphibian diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Data on the geographic range of amphibian species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest were overlapped to the full geographic extent of the biome, which was divided into a regular equal-area grid. Optimization routines based on the concept of complementarily were applied to verify the performance of each indicator group selected in relation to the representativeness of the amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest as a whole, which were solved by the algorithm "simulated annealing," through the use of the software MARXAN. Some indicator groups were substantially more effective than others in regard to the representation of the taxonomic groups assessed, which was confirmed by the high significance of the data (F = 312.76; P < 0.01). Leiuperidae was considered as the best indicator group among the families analyzed, as it showed a good performance, representing 71% of amphibian species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (i.e., 290 species), which may be associated with the diffuse geographic distribution of their species. In this sense, this study promotes understanding of how the diversity standards of amphibians can be informative for systematic conservation planning on a regional scale.

  16. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery will...

  17. Antiviral evaluation of plants from Brazilian Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Andrighetti-Fröhner, C R; Sincero, T C M; da Silva, A C; Savi, L A; Gaido, C M; Bettega, J M R; Mancini, M; de Almeida, M T R; Barbosa, R A; Farias, M R; Barardi, C R M; Simões, C M O

    2005-06-01

    The antiviral activity of six medicinal plants from Brazilian Atlantic Tropical Forest was investigated against two viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and poliovirus type 2 (PV-2). Cuphea carthagenensis and Tillandsia usneoides extracts showed the best antiherpes activity. T. usneoides dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, and Lippia alba n-butanol extract showed inhibition of HSV-1, strain 29R/acyclovir resistant. In addition, only L. alba ethyl acetate extract showed antipoliovirus activity. These results corroborate that medicinal plants can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  18. A Small Mammal Community in a Forest Fragment, Vegetation Corridor and Coffee Matrix System in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mariana Ferreira; Passamani, Marcelo; Louzada, Júlio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species), followed by the forest fragments (10) and the coffee matrix (6). The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064), and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001) and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007). Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width), our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level. PMID:21912591

  19. Spider diversity and endemism in a South American hotspot: 20 new species of Carapoia (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2016-10-19

    The Atlantic Forest along the eastern South American coast is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. A megatransect study (2003-2015) focusing on pholcid spiders and covering 48 localities across a large part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest resulted in 132 morphospecies, of which 81% were new to science. The present paper deals with the species of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998 collected during this campaign. The endemism level is 100%, i.e. all 26 species of Carapoia in the Atlantic Forest are not known from (and not likely to occur) anywhere else. While few species (all of them with non-overlapping ranges) occur in the most southern and northern regions, the central region (between Rio Doce and Rio Paraguaçu; largely equivalent to what has been called the 'Bahia refuge') is characterized by high diversity and up to five species per locality. The following species are newly described (from South to North): C. voltavelha (Santa Catarina); C. macacu, C. divisa (Rio de Janeiro); C. nairae, C. capixaba, C. mirim, C. patafina (Espírito Santo); C. pau, C. gracilis, C. zumbii, C. dandarae, C. marceloi, C. viridis, C. jiboia, C. carvalhoi, C. carybei (Bahia); C. alagoas (Alagoas); C. saltinho, C. abdita (Pernambuco); C. septentrionalis (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Norte). New records and amendments are given for most previously described Atlantic Forest species.

  20. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

    PubMed

    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa.

  1. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    PubMed

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Helminth parasites of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae), from localities in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Pilar; Bueno, Cecília; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Muniz-Pereira, Luís Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the helminth parasites of a population of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae) that occur in Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern region of Brazil. We necropsied 18 specimens of G. cuja, collected between January 2009 and May 2014, ran over victims on BR-040 highway, between the municipalities of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro and Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, localities inserted in Atlantic rainforest Biome. A total of six species of helminths were identified: Dioctophyme renale, Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Platynosomum illiciens, and Pachysentis gethi. Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp. and P. illiciens were recorded for the first time in this host. Data provided in the current study when compared to the previous reports of parasitism by helminths in G. cuja in Brazil demonstrate that this study is the most representative with this host species.

  3. Diversity of yellow fever mosquito vectors in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecilia Ferreira de; Barbosa, Leandro Silva; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Maia, Daniele de Aguiar; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental modifications caused by human activities have led to changes in mosquito vector populations, and sylvatic species have adapted to breeding in urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected using ovitraps in three sampling sites in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected 2,162 Culicidae specimens. Haemagogus janthinomys and Haemagogus leucocelaenus, both sylvatic yellow fever virus vectors, were the most common species found. There is a potential for the transmission of arboviruses in and around these natural reserves. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain entomological surveillance programs in the region.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning.

    PubMed

    Villela, D M; Mattos, E A de; Pinto, A S; Vieira, S A; Martinelli, L A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  5. Forest growth in the Douglas fir region.

    Treesearch

    W.H. Meyer; P.A. Briegleb

    1936-01-01

    A study of forest growth in western Oregon and western Washington, the so-called Douglas fir region, was made in 1934-35 by the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station. This is one phase of the Nation-wide forest survey undertaken by the Department of Agriculture under authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act. Other phases of the survey are an...

  6. Waveform Tomography of the South Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Gaina, C.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth in broadband seismic data, along with developments in waveform tomography techniques, allow us to greatly improve the data sampling in the southern hemisphere and resolve the upper-mantle structure beneath the South Atlantic region at a new level of detail. We have gathered a very large waveform dataset, including all publicly available data from permanent and temporary networks. Our S-velocity tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. All the equations are then combined into a large linear system and inverted jointly for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds are proxies for temperature and composition at depth, while azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region. We resolve the complex boundaries of the mantle roots of South America's and Africa's cratons and the deep low-velocity anomalies beneath volcanic areas in South America. Pronounced lithospheric high seismic velocity anomalies beneath the Argentine Basin suggest that its anomalously deep seafloor, previously attributed to dynamic topography, is mainly due to anomalously cold, thick lithosphere. Major hotspots show low-velocity anomalies extending substantially deeper than those beneath the mid-ocean ridge. The Vema Hotspot shows a major, hot asthenospheric anomaly beneath thick, cold oceanic lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath the Walvis Ridge—a hotspot track—shows normal cooling. The volcanic Cameroon Line, in contrast, is characterized by thin lithosphere beneath the locations of recent

  7. Plant diversity hotspots in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Murray-Smith, Charlotte; Brummitt, Neil A; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Lughadha, Eimear M Nic; Lucas, Eve J

    2009-02-01

    Plant-diversity hotspots on a global scale are well established, but smaller local hotspots within these must be identified for effective conservation of plants at the global and local scales. We used the distributions of endemic and endemic-threatened species of Myrtaceae to indicate areas of plant diversity and conservation importance within the Atlantic coastal forests (Mata Atlântica) of Brazil. We applied 3 simple, inexpensive geographic information system (GIS) techniques to a herbarium specimen database: predictive species-distribution modeling (Maxent); complementarity analysis (DIVA-GIS); and mapping of herbarium specimen collection locations. We also considered collecting intensity, which is an inherent limitation of use of natural history records for biodiversity studies. Two separate areas of endemism were evident: the Serra do Mar mountain range from Paraná to Rio de Janeiro and the coastal forests of northern Espírito Santo and southern Bahia. We identified 12 areas of approximately 35 km(2) each as priority areas for conservation. These areas had the highest species richness and were highly threatened by urban and agricultural expansion. Observed species occurrences, species occurrences predicted from the model, and results of our complementarity analysis were congruent in identifying those areas with the most endemic species. These areas were then prioritized for conservation importance by comparing ecological data for each.

  8. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  9. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Júnior, Edivaldo Costa Sousa; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T; Júnior, João Lídio S G V; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L; de Sá, Lilian Rose M

    2016-08-18

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  10. Study of the principal constituents of tropical angico (Anadenanthera sp.) honey from the atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2015-03-15

    Free proline was significantly (p<0.05) lower compared to that of other honeys from the atlantic forest, caatinga and cerrado biomes. Honeys from the atlantic forest and cerrado had a significantly (p<0.05) lower HMF than angico. Fructose and glucose in angico honeys were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those from caatinga. Mean values for turanose, nigerose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, panose and raffinose in angico were significantly (p<0.05) different from honeys from the atlantic forest and caatinga. Use of cluster analysis permitted the three kinds of honey to be grouped independently. Angico was closest to caatinga honey, but both were significantly (p<0.05) different from other atlantic forest honey. GC/SNIFFING showed that linalool oxide, 2-ethyl hexanol, phenylethanol, and phenylacetic acid may be important contributors to the flavour of angico honey.

  11. Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L

    2017-03-02

    Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.

  12. ATLANTIC-FRUGIVORY: A plant-frugivore interaction dataset for the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-03-19

    The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive dataset available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76 and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3883), followed by mammals (1315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and rufous-bellied thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our dataset is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  14. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  15. Biogeographic distribution patterns and their correlates in the diverse frog fauna of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Tiago S; Prado, Vitor H M; da Silva, Fernando R; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-01-01

    Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF), yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a) less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b) northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c) highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d) southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical and ecological

  16. ATLANTIC-CAMTRAPS: a dataset of medium and large terrestrial mammal communities in the Atlantic Forest of South America.

    PubMed

    Lima, Fernando; Beca, Gabrielle; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Jenkins, Clinton N; Perilli, Miriam Lucia Lages; de Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia; Graipel, Maurício Eduardo; Cherem, Jorge José; Regolin, André Luis; Oliveira Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Brocardo, Carlos Rodrigo; Paviolo, Agustín; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Scoss, Leandro Moraes; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Rosa, Clarissa Alves da; da Silva, Marina Xavier; Hufnagel, Ludmila; Santos, Paloma Marques; Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira; Guimarães, Luiza Neves; Bailey, Larissa Lynn; Guimarães Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique; Cunha, Heitor Morais; Moreli Fantacini, Felipe; Batista, Graziele Oliveira; Bogoni, Juliano André; Tortato, Marco Adriano; Luiz, Micheli Ribeiro; Peroni, Nivaldo; de Castilho, Pedro Volkmer; Maccarini, Thiago Bernardes; Picinatto Filho, Vilmar; De Angelo, Carlos; Cruz, Paula; Quiroga, Verónica; Iezzi, María Eugenia; Varela, Diego; Cavalcanti, Sandra Maria Cintra; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Maggiorini, Erica Vanessa; Keesen, Fabíola Ferreira; Valle Nunes, André; Lessa, Gisele Mendes; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Beltrão, Mayara Guimarães; de Albuquerque, Anna Carolina Figueiredo; Ingberman, Bianca; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Junior, Laury Cullen; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-31

    Our understanding of mammal ecology has always been hindered by the difficulties of observing species in closed tropical forests. Camera trapping has become a major advance for monitoring terrestrial mammals in biodiversity rich ecosystems. Here we compiled one of the largest datasets of inventories of terrestrial mammal communities for the Neotropical region based on camera trapping studies. The dataset comprises 170 surveys of medium to large terrestrial mammals using camera traps conducted in 144 areas by 74 studies, covering six vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest of South America (Brazil and Argentina), and present data on species composition and richness. The complete dataset comprises 53,438 independent records of 83 species of mammals, includes 10 species of marsupials, 15 rodents, 20 carnivores, 8 ungulates and 6 armadillos. Species richness averaged 13 species (± 6.07 SD) per site. Only six species occurred in more than 50% of the sites: the domestic dog Canis familiaris, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, tayra Eira barbara, south American coati Nasua nasua, crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus and the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus. The information contained in this dataset can be used to understand macroecological patterns of biodiversity, community, and population structure, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation, defaunation, and trophic interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  19. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Seasonal changes in dominant bacterial taxa from acidic peatlands of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice

    2014-09-01

    The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  2. Millennial-Scale ITCZ Variability in the Tropical Atlantic and Dynamics of Amazonian Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Precipitation in the Amazon Basin is largely related to the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic which undergoes a regular seasonal migration. We chose a site south of the present day rainforest in semiarid northeastern Brazil, in order to study the timing of pluvial periods when the southern extend of the ITCZ would have been much further south than today. Shifts in the ITCZ position may have influenced the dynamics of rain forest and species diversity. We collected speleothems from northern Bahia state, located southeast of Amazonia. Age determinations with U-series dating methods show that samples grew rapidly during relatively short intervals (several hundreds of years) of glacial periods in the last 210 kyr. In addition, paleopluvial phases delineated by speleothem growth intervals show millennial-scale variations. Pluvial phases coincide with the timing of weak East Asian summer monsoon intensities (Wang et al., 2001, Science 294: 2345-2348), which have been correlated to the timing of stadials in Greenland ice core records and Heinrich events (Bond and Lotti, 1995, Science 267: 1005-1010). Furthermore, these intervals correspond to the periods of light color reflectance of Cariaco Basin sediments from ODP Hole 1002C (Peterson et al., 2000, Science, 290: 1947-1951), which was suggested to be caused by a southward shift of the northernmost position of the ITCZ and decreased rainfall in this region. Abrupt precipitation changes in northeastern Brazil may be due to the southward displacement of the southernmost position of the ITCZ associated with atmosphere-ocean circulation changes caused by (1) an increase in northern high latitude-tropical temperature gradient (Chiang et al., 2003, Paleoceanography, in press), and/or (2) the bipolar seesaw mechanism (Broecker et al., 1998, Paleoceanography 13: 119-121) during these Heinrich events. Pluvial phases are also coincident with higher insolation at 10° S during austral autumn. This

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A AGGREGATED INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of reports on the condition of resources for the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States is being produced. These reports focus on individual resources (e.g., estuaries, streams, forests, and landscapes), summarizing
    with an environmental report card for each resour...

  4. Systematics of Spiny Predatory Katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Based on Morphology and Molecular Data

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Verônica Saraiva; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Yotoko, Karla Suemy Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition. PMID:25118712

  5. Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Verônica Saraiva; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Yotoko, Karla Suemy Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.

  6. Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Leão, Tarciso C C; Fonseca, Carlos R; Peres, Carlos A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how plant life history affects species vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbances and environmental change is a major ecological challenge. We examined how vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size relate to extinction risk throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. We used a database containing species-level information of 6,929 angiosperms within 112 families and a molecular-based working phylogeny. We used decision trees, standard regression, and phylogenetic regression to explore the relationships between species attributes and extinction risk. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in extinction risk. Vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size were related to species extinction risk, but the effect of growth form was not evident after phylogeny was controlled for. Species restricted to either rocky outcrops or scrub vegetation on sandy coastal plains exhibited the highest extinction risk among vegetation types, a finding that supports the hypothesis that species adapted to resource-limited environments are more vulnerable to extinction. Among growth forms, epiphytes were associated with the highest extinction risk in non-phylogenetic regression models, followed by trees, whereas shrubs and climbers were associated with lower extinction risk. However, the higher extinction risk of epiphytes was not significant after correcting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our findings provide new indicators of extinction risk and insights into the mechanisms governing plant vulnerability to extinction in a highly diverse flora where human disturbances are both frequent and widespread.

  7. Abundance of small mammals in the Atlantic Forest (ASMAF): a data set for analyzing tropical community patterns.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Marcos S L; Barros, Camila S; Delciellos, Ana C; Guerra, Edú B; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Kajin, Maja; Alvarez, Martin R; Asfora, Paulo H; Astúa, Diego; Bergallo, Helena G; Cerqueira, Rui; Geise, Lena; Gentile, Rosana; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo V; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Oliveira, Leonardo C; Weksler, Marcelo; Vieira, Marcus V

    2017-09-06

    Local abundance results from the interaction between populational and environmental processes. The abundance of the species in a community is also one of the most basic descriptors of its structure. Despite its importance, information about species abundances is fragmentary, creating a knowledge gap about species abundances known as Prestonian Shortfall. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of small mammal abundance in the Atlantic Forest. Data were extracted from 114 published sources and from unpublished data collected by our research groups spanning from 1943 to 2017. The data set includes 1,902 records of at least 111 species in 155 localities, totaling 42,617 individuals represented. We selected studies that (i) were conducted in forested habitats of the Atlantic Forest, (ii) had a minimum sampling effort of at least 500 trap-nights, and (iii) contained species abundance data in detail. For each study, we recorded (i) latitude and longitude, (ii) name of the locality, (iii) employed sampling effort, (iv) type of traps used, (v) study year, (vi) country, and (vii) species name with (viii) its respective abundances. For every locality, we also obtained information regarding its (ix) ecoregion, (x) predominant vegetation type, and (xi) biogeographic subdivision. Whenever necessary, we also (xii) updated the species names as new species were described and some genera suffered taxonomic revision since the publication. The localities are spread across the Atlantic Forest and most of the small mammal species known for to occur in Atlantic Forest are present in the data set, making it representative of communities of the entire biome. This data set can be used to address various patterns in community ecology and geographical ecology, as the relation between local abundance and environmental suitability, hypothesis regarding local and regional factors on community structuring, species abundance distributions (SAD), and functional and phylogenetic mechanisms on

  8. Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: ecological findings and conservation initiatives.

    PubMed

    Joly, Carlos A; Metzger, Jean Paul; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest hosts one of the world's most diverse and threatened tropical forest biota. In many ways, its history of degradation describes the fate experienced by tropical forests around the world. After five centuries of human expansion, most Atlantic Forest landscapes are archipelagos of small forest fragments surrounded by open-habitat matrices. This 'natural laboratory' has contributed to a better understanding of the evolutionary history and ecology of tropical forests and to determining the extent to which this irreplaceable biota is susceptible to major human disturbances. We share some of the major findings with respect to the responses of tropical forests to human disturbances across multiple biological levels and spatial scales and discuss some of the conservation initiatives adopted in the past decade. First, we provide a short description of the Atlantic Forest biota and its historical degradation. Secondly, we offer conceptual models describing major shifts experienced by tree assemblages at local scales and discuss landscape ecological processes that can help to maintain this biota at larger scales. We also examine potential plant responses to climate change. Finally, we propose a research agenda to improve the conservation value of human-modified landscapes and safeguard the biological heritage of tropical forests.

  9. Microbial populations and activities of mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils from Cardoso Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pupin, B; Nahas, E

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves provide a distinctive ecological environment that differentiates them from other ecosystems. This study deal to evaluate the frequency of microbial groups and the metabolic activities of bacteria and fungi isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils. Soil samples were collected during the summer and winter at depths of 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm. Except for fungi, the counts of the total, sporulating, Gram-negative, actinomycetes, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria decreased significantly in the following order: Atlantic forest >mangrove > restinga. The counts of micro-organisms decreased by 11 and 21% from the surface to the 2-5 and 5-10 cm layers, but denitrifying bacteria increased by 44 and 166%, respectively. A larger growth of micro-organisms was verified in the summer compared with the winter, except for actinomycetes and fungi. The average frequency of bacteria isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils was 95, 77 and 78%, and 93, 90 and 95% for fungi, respectively. Bacteria were amylolytic (33%), producers of acid phosphatase (79%) and solubilizers (18%) of inorganic phosphate. The proportions of fungi were 19, 90 and 27%. The mangrove soil studied had higher chemical characteristics than the Atlantic forest, but the high salinity may have restricted the growth of microbial populations. Estimates of the microbial counts and activities were important to elucidate the differences of mangrove ecosystem from restinga and Atlantic forest. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Litterfall mercury deposition in Atlantic forest ecosystem from SE-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Daniel C; Montezuma, Rita C; Oliveira, Rogério R; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2012-05-01

    Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g(-1) and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m(-2) y(-1). The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g(-1). Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Manhães, Marco A; Dias, Manoel M

    2011-09-01

    The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.

  12. Testing resiliency of hydrologic dynamics of a paired forested watershed after a hurricane in Atlantic coastal plain using long-term data

    Treesearch

    Devendra Amatya; Herbert Ssegane; Charles Andy Harrison; Carl Trettin

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes, including streamflow and evapotranspiration dynamics in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. However, literature on hurricane effects on long-term streamflow dynamics is lacking in this highly urbanizing region characterized by a poorly drained low-gradient forested landscape.

  13. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hilário, R R; Toledo, J J

    2016-01-01

    Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  14. TRICARE Mid-Atlantic Region Business Planning Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    This paper discusses the business planning processes and the development of a business plan. A business plan reflects the ultimate goal of an...provides valuable information about business operations. An assessment of business planning initiatives within the TRICARE Mid-Atlantic Region is provided

  15. Soil dynamics and carbon stocks 10 years after restoration of degraded land using Atlantic Forest tree species

    Treesearch

    Lauro R. Nogueira; José Leonardo M. Goncalves; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta

    2011-01-01

    Brazil’s Atlantic Forest ecosystem has been greatly affected by land use changes, with only 11.26% of its original vegetation cover remaining. Currently, Atlantic Forest restoration is receiving increasing attention because of its potential for carbon sequestration and the important role of soil carbon in the global carbon balance. Soil organic matter is also essential...

  16. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; da Cunha, Vanessa Pecini; de Assis, Gabriela Maria Pereira; de Souza, Júlio César; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Kano, Flora Satiko; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:25099335

  17. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; da Cunha, Vanessa Pecini; de Assis, Gabriela Maria Pereira; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Kano, Flora Satiko; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2014-08-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  18. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  19. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  20. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time. PMID:21637420

  1. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas’ beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  2. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  3. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    PubMed

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  4. Projected climate changes threaten ancient refugia of kelp forests in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Araújo, Miguel B; Serrão, Ester A

    2017-07-15

    Intraspecific genetic variability is critical for species adaptation and evolution and yet it is generally overlooked in projections of the biological consequences of climate change. We ask whether ongoing climate changes can cause the loss of important gene pools from North Atlantic relict kelp forests that persisted over glacial-interglacial cycles. We use ecological niche modelling to predict genetic diversity hotspots for eight species of large brown algae with different thermal tolerances (Arctic to warm temperate), estimated as regions of persistence throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000 YBP), the warmer Mid-Holocene (6,000 YBP), and the present. Changes in the genetic diversity within ancient refugia were projected for the future (year 2100) under two contrasting climate change scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Models predicted distributions that matched empirical distributions in cross-validation, and identified distinct refugia at the low latitude ranges, which largely coincide among species with similar ecological niches. Transferred models into the future projected polewards expansions and substantial range losses in lower latitudes, where richer gene pools are expected (in Nova Scotia and Iberia for cold affinity species and Gibraltar, Alboran, and Morocco for warm-temperate species). These effects were projected for both scenarios but were intensified under the extreme RCP8.5 scenario, with the complete borealization (circum-Arctic colonization) of kelp forests, the redistribution of the biogeographical transitional zones of the North Atlantic, and the erosion of global gene pools across all species. As the geographic distribution of genetic variability is unknown for most marine species, our results represent a baseline for identification of locations potentially rich in unique phylogeographic lineages that are also climatic relics in threat of disappearing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tatiani C; Bourke, Brian P; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2012-02-16

    The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced

  6. Factors Controlling Fluxes of Nitrous Oxide (N-N2O) in AN Upland Tropical Forest (atlantic Forest) - Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, I.; de Mello, W. Z.; McDowell, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Forest is located along the Brazilian coast and inland to Paraguay and Argentina. It has been largely devastated years ago by anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture and urbanization. Only ten percent of its original area remains (100.000 km2), which is concentrated on high lands. Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot that receives high nitrogen (N) input through atmospheric deposition in forests of Rio de Janeiro; however, not much is known about the consequences of this N addition. This study has been conducted in the Serra dos Orgaos National Park (SONP - 22.782 km2) located a few kilometers Northeast of Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region, Sea Mountain. The forest, characterized as Tropical Moist Forest, is rigorously protected. Vegetation varies along the altitudinal gradient, where the highest peak is at 2,200m asl. Previous studies reported that N atmospheric deposition in SONP varies from 14 to 24 kg ha-1 year-1. The high N deposition on tropical forests increases emission to the atmosphere of N-N2O, a greenhouse gas. There is a lack of N-N2O measurements in tropical forests, mainly in upland tropical forests. We present fluxes of N-N2O from a Brazilian upland tropical forest, and assess the factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Samples were collected from eight grids (48m2), between 330-451m asl (Subtropical vegetation) and eight grids between 1137-1251m (Montane vegetation), during the dry (July 2008) and wet (Jan-Feb 2009) seasons. Daily, N-N2O (N=372) and soil (N=185) were collected. Nitrous oxide emission was 0,7 (lower altitude) and 0,3 kgN ha-1 year-1 (higher altitude), which is lower than in other upland tropical forests, such as Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, where atmospheric N input (4 kg ha-1 year-1) is not as high as in SONP. Water filled pore space, soil temperature, phosphorus and C:N are the main factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Manganese was not a good indicator for presence or absence of N-N2O. Higher N-N2O

  7. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  8. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  9. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  10. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  11. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  12. Could refuge theory and rivers acting as barriers explain the genetic variability distribution in the Atlantic Forest?

    PubMed

    Cazé, Ana Luiza R; Mäder, Geraldo; Nunes, Teonildes S; Queiroz, Luciano P; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2016-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 24673 - Notice of Delegation of Authority From the Regional Forester, Pacific Southwest Region, to Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Southwest Region, hereby delegates to the Forest Supervisor, Eldorado National Forest, authority to grant a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Delegation of Authority From the Regional Forester, Pacific Southwest Region, to...

  14. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  15. Pressure indicators of wood resource use in an Atlantic forest area, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  16. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, C B; Santos-Neto, L G; Lozovei, A L

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  17. Two New Species of Xenotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lofego, A C; Cavalcante, A C C; Demite, P R

    2017-09-13

    Two new species, Xenotarsonemus quiriri n. sp. and Xenotarsonemus scorpius n. sp., are described and illustrated in this paper based on specimens collected on Myrtaceae plants in Atlantic Forest areas of the states of Bahia and Santa Catarina, Brazil. A key to identification of Xenotarsonemus species reported from Brazil is provided.

  18. Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Ana Paula; Rovzar, Corey; Davis, Kelsey S; Fuller, Trevon; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Smith, Thomas B; Silveira, Luis Fabio; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2014-09-01

    Historic rates of habitat change and growing exploitation of natural resources threaten avian biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a global biodiversity hotspot. We implemented a twostage framework for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest. First, we used ecological niche modeling to predict the distributions of 23 endemic bird species using 19 climatic metrics and 12 spectral and radar remote sensing metrics. Second, we utilized the principle of complementarity to prioritize new sites to augment the Atlantic Forest's existing reserves. The best predictors of bird distributions were precipitation metrics (the seasonality of rainfall) and radar remote sensing metrics (QSCAT). The existing protected areas do not include 10% of the habitat of each of the 23 endemic species. We propose a more economical set of protected areas by reducing the extent to which new sites duplicate the biodiversity content of existing protected areas. There is a high concordance between the proposed conservation areas that we designed using computerized algorithms and Important Bird Areas prioritized by BirdLife International. Insofar as deforestation in the Atlantic Forest is similar to land conversion in other biodiversity hotspots, our methodology is applicable to conservation efforts elsewhere in the world.

  19. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  20. Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Ana Paula; Rovzar, Corey; Davis, Kelsey S.; Fuller, Trevon; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Smith, Thomas B.; Silveira, Luis Fabio; Gillespie, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Historic rates of habitat change and growing exploitation of natural resources threaten avian biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a global biodiversity hotspot. We implemented a twostage framework for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest. First, we used ecological niche modeling to predict the distributions of 23 endemic bird species using 19 climatic metrics and 12 spectral and radar remote sensing metrics. Second, we utilized the principle of complementarity to prioritize new sites to augment the Atlantic Forest's existing reserves. The best predictors of bird distributions were precipitation metrics (the seasonality of rainfall) and radar remote sensing metrics (QSCAT). The existing protected areas do not include 10% of the habitat of each of the 23 endemic species. We propose a more economical set of protected areas by reducing the extent to which new sites duplicate the biodiversity content of existing protected areas. There is a high concordance between the proposed conservation areas that we designed using computerized algorithms and Important Bird Areas prioritized by BirdLife International. Insofar as deforestation in the Atlantic Forest is similar to land conversion in other biodiversity hotspots, our methodology is applicable to conservation efforts elsewhere in the world. PMID:28210009

  1. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina.

  2. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  3. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  4. Barriers, rather than refugia, underlie the origin of diversity in toads endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Maria Tereza C; Zamudio, Kelly R; Haddad, Célio F B; Alexandrino, João

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of geographic barriers and Pleistocene refuges in the diversification of the Rhinella crucifer species complex, a group of endemic toads with a widespread distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF). We used intensive sampling and multilocus DNA sequence data to compare nucleotide diversity between refuge and nonrefuge areas, investigate regional demographic patterns, estimate demographic parameters related to genetic breaks and test refuge versus barrier scenarios of diversification using approximate Bayesian computation. We did not find higher levels of genetic diversity in putative refuge areas, either at regional or biome scale. Rather, the demographic history of the species complex supports regional differences with moderate population growth in the north and central regions and stability in southern AF. Genetic breaks were dated to the Plio-Pleistocene; however, our analyses rejected the role of refuges in creating a northern and central divergence, supporting a recent colonization scenario at a smaller scale within the central AF. Overall, our data rule out massive climatically driven fragmentation and large-scale recolonization events for populations across the biome. We confirmed the importance of geographic barriers in creating main divergences and underscored the importance of searching for cryptic discontinuities in the landscape. Comparison of our results with those of other AF taxa indicates organismal specific responses to moderate shifts in habitat and that multiple refuges may constitute a more realistic model for diversification of Atlantic Forest biota. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  7. Comparative phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the widespread three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) (Bradypodidae, Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    de Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Silva, Juliana A B; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Morgante, J S

    2006-01-01

    The comparative phylogeographic study of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) was performed using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. We examined 19 B. torquatus from two regions and 47 B. variegatus from three distant regions of Atlantic forest. This first characterization of molecular diversity indicates a great diversity (B. torquatus: h = 0.901 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.012 +/- 0.007; B. variegatus: h = 0.699 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.010 +/- 0.006) and very divergent mitochondrial lineages within each sloth species. The different sampled regions carry distinct and non-overlapping sets of mtDNA haplotypes and are genetically divergent. This phylogeographic pattern may be characteristic of sloth species. In addition, we infer that two main phylogeographic groups exist in the Atlantic forest representing a north and south distinct divergence.

  8. Skipper Richness (Hesperiidae) Along Elevational Gradients in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, E; Mielke, O H H; Casagrande, M M; Fiedler, K

    2014-02-01

    Hesperiidae are claimed to be a group of elusive butterflies that need major effort for sampling, thus being frequently omitted from tropical butterfly surveys. As no studies have associated species richness patterns of butterflies with environmental gradients of high altitudes in Brazil, we surveyed Hesperiidae ensembles in Serra do Mar along elevational transects (900-1,800 m above sea level) on three mountains. Transects were sampled 11-12 times on each mountain to evaluate how local species richness is influenced by mountain region, vegetation type, and elevational zones. Patterns were also analyzed for the subfamilies, and after disregarding species that exhibit hilltopping behavior. Species richness was evaluated by the observed richness, Jacknife2 estimator and Chao 1 estimator standardized by sample coverage. Overall, 155 species were collected, but extrapolation algorithms suggest a regional richness of about 220 species. Species richness was far higher in forest than in early successional vegetation or grassland. Richness decreased with elevation, and was higher on Anhangava mountain compared with the two others. Patterns were similar between observed and extrapolated Jacknife2 richness, but vegetation type and mountain richness became altered using sample coverage standardization. Hilltopping species were more easily detected than species that do not show this behavior; however, their inclusion did neither affect estimated richness nor modify the shape of the species accumulation curve. This is the first contribution to systematically study highland butterflies in southern Brazil where all records above 1,200 m are altitudinal extensions of the known geographical ranges of skipper species in the region.

  9. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #17: PUBLICATION OF MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, "Preparing for a Changing Climate: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - Mid-Atlantic Overview", summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvani...

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #17: PUBLICATION OF MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, "Preparing for a Changing Climate: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - Mid-Atlantic Overview", summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvani...

  11. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

    PubMed

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  12. Carbon storage in old-growth forests of the Mid-Atlantic: toward better understanding the eastern forest carbon sink.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Jennifer C; Thompson, Jonathan R; Epstein, Howard E; Shugart, Herman H

    2015-02-01

    Few old-growth stands remain in the matrix of secondary forests that dominates the eastern North American landscape. These remnant stands offer insight on the potential carbon (C) storage capacity of now-recovering secondary forests. We surveyed the remaining old-growth forests on sites characteristic of the general Mid-Atlantic United States and estimated the size of multiple components of forest C storage. Within and between old-growth stands, variability in C density is high and related to overstory tree species composition. The sites contain 219 ± 46 Mg C/ha (mean ± SD), including live and dead aboveground biomass, leaf litter, and the soil O horizon, with over 20% stored in downed wood and snags. Stands dominated by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) store the most live biomass, while the mixed oak (Quercus spp.) stands overall store more dead wood. Total C density is 30% higher (154 Mg C/ha), and dead wood C density is 1800% higher (46 Mg C/ha) in the old-growth forests than in the surrounding younger forests (120 and 5 Mg C/ha, respectively). The high density of dead wood in old growth relative to secondary forests reflects a stark difference in historical land use and, possibly, the legacy of the local disturbance (e.g., disease) history. Our results demonstrate the potential for dead wood to maintain the sink capacity of secondary forests for many decades to come.

  13. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Korasaki, Vanesca; Lopes, José; Gardner Brown, George; Louzada, Julio

    2013-06-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness, abundance, composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the community aspects (abundance, richness, composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat, rotten fish, pig dung and decaying banana). A total of 1 719 individuals were collected, belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes. The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness. The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits. Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment, all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type. Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities, even small ones, can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  14. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    PubMed

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  15. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil’s scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost. PMID:26694874

  16. Genetic diversity of Casearia sylvestris populations in remnants of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Araujo, F L; Siqueira, M V B M; Grando, C; Viana, J P G; Pinheiro, J B; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Brancalion, P H S; Zucchi, M I

    2017-01-23

    Guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest, with high medicinal potential and relevance for reforestation programs. The aim of this study was to characterize, with microsatellite markers, two populations of C. sylvestris from remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of São Paulo. High allelic variation was found in both populations (NA = 101 and 117; AR = 12.5 and 14.4), although with high endogamy coefficients (f = 0.640 and 0.363). Estimates of genetic structure suggested the presence of considerable genetic divergence between the populations (FST = 0.103); however, there was no spatial genetic structure within the populations. Genetic divergence may have occurred due to decreased gene flow between the fragmented populations as the result of deforestation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of genetic diversity and its characterization in native plants within remaining forest areas for the management and restoration of such areas.

  17. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  18. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Moreno, Claudia E; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2010-09-08

    Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha) forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  19. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  20. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

  1. Canadian forest products shipped into the north-central region.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1972-01-01

    Documents the imports of Canadian forest products into the north central region and relates import trends to the potential for expanding markets for the region's surplus volume of hardwood growing stock. More than 42% of the $2.1 billion of forest products imported from Canada in 1969 came into the north central region. The value of forest imports has increased...

  2. Forest statistics for the glaciated region of Ohio

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1954-01-01

    In this report forest-area and timber-volume statistics for Western and Northeastern Ohio (frontispiece) are shown separately. Regional boundaries were established in order to group counties having similar forest, soil, and economic conditions. The two forest regions include most of the areas commonly known as the Ohio Corn Belt and the Dairy Region.

  3. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  4. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  5. Selection of imagery data and classifiers for mapping Brazilian semideciduous Atlantic forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Luis M. T. de; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Jong, Steven M. de

    This paper presents a case study on the use of features derived from remote sensing data for mapping the highly fragmented semideciduous Atlantic forest in Brazil. Innovative aspects of this research include the evaluation of different feature sets in order to improve land cover mapping. The feature sets were defined based on expert knowledge and on data mining techniques to be input to traditional and machine learning algorithms for pattern recognition, viz. maximum likelihood, univariate decision trees, multivariate decision trees, and neural networks. The results showed that the maximum likelihood classification using temporal texture descriptors as extracted with wavelet transforms was most accurate to classify the semideciduous Atlantic forest. In this study, a special accuracy measure was used: the so-called class mapping accuracy. Maximum likelihood performed relatively well, with forest mapping accuracies ranging from 34.5 to 51.3%. In contrast, accuracies for neural networks ranged from 19.0 to 45.2%. Classification confusion occurred mainly with coffee and eucalyptus plantations. Univariate trees provided the most robust results for different feature sets, with accuracies ranging from 39.6 to 46.7%. Temporal information of vegetation indices was more important than image texture, terrain topography and raw spectral information for discriminating semideciduous Atlantic forest.

  6. Estimating genetic structure and diversity of cyanobacterial communities in Atlantic forest phyllosphere.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gonçalves, Natalia; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2016-06-20

    Cyanobacterial communities on the phyllosphere of 4 plant species inhabiting the endangered Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome were evaluated using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Total genomic DNA was extracted from cells detached from the surface of leaves of Euterpe edulis, Guapira opposita, Garcinia gardneriana, and Merostachys neesii sampled in 2 Brazilian Atlantic Forest locations along an elevational gradient, i.e., lowland and montane forest. The DNA fingerprinting method PCR-DGGE revealed that the cyanobacterial phyllosphere community structures were mainly influenced by the plant species; geographical location of the plant had little effect. The 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by clone libraries showed a predominance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales, even though the majority of retrieved operational taxonomic units (∼60% of the sequences) showed similarity only to uncultured cyanobacteria phylotypes. The leaf surface of Guapira opposita had the highest richness and diversity of cyanobacteria, whereas the M. neesii (bamboo) had the largest number of copies of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene per cm(2) of leaf. This study investigated cyanobacteria diversity and its distribution pattern in Atlantic forest phyllosphere. The results indicated that plant species is the main driver of cyanobacteria community assemblage in the phyllosphere and that these communities are made up of a high diversity of cyanobacterial taxa that need to be discovered.

  7. Simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: first description of natural infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebinae subfamily) by Plasmodium simium.

    PubMed

    de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Pissinatti, Alcides; Zalis, Mariano G; Suaréz-Mutis, Martha C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2015-02-18

    In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting non-human primates, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. These species are morphologically, genetically and immunologically indistinguishable from the human Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax parasites, respectively. Plasmodium simium has been observed naturally infecting monkeys of the genera Alouatta and Brachyteles in a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. However, its reported geographical distribution and the diversity of its vertebrate hosts may be underestimated, since available data were largely based on analyses by microscopic examination of peripheral blood, a method with limited sensitivity, considering the potential sub-patent feature of these infections. The present study describes, for the first time, the natural infection of P. simium in capuchin monkeys from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Blood samples from 30 non-human primates belonging to nine species kept in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro were collected. Fragments of spleen and liver from one dead monkey found in the neighborhoods of the Primate Centre were also analysed. Molecular diagnosis was performed by nested PCR (18SSU rRNA) and the amplified fragment was sequenced. Thirty per cent of the captive animals were infected with P. simium and/or P. brasilianum. The dead monkey tested positive for DNA of P. simium. For the first time, Cebinae primates (two specimens of genus Cebus and two of genus Sapajos) were found naturally infected by P. simium. The infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18SSU rRNA. The results highlight the possibility of infection by P. simium in other species of non-human primates whose impact could be significant for the malaria epidemiology among non-human primates and, if it becomes clear that this P. simium is able to infect monkeys and, eventually, man, also for the maintenance of transmission of human malaria in

  8. Middle Atlantic Bight Marine Ecosystem: A Regional Forecast Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Coles, V. J.; Garraffo, Z. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in basin scale climate patterns can drive changes in mesoscale physical oceanographic processes and subsequent alterations of ecosystem states. Climatic variability can be induced in the northeastern shelfbreak large marine ecosystem by climate oscillations, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; and long-term trends, such as a warming pattern. Short term variability can be induced by changes in the water masses in the northern and southern boundaries, by Gulf Stream path and transport variations, and by local mesoscale and submesoscale features. A coupled bio-physical model (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) is being used to forecast the evolution of the frontal and current systems of the shelf and Gulf Stream, and subsequent changes in thermal conditions and ecosystem structure over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). This study aims to forecast the ocean state and nutrients in the MAB, and to investigate how cross-shelf exchanges of different water masses could affect nutrient budgets, primary and secondary production, and fish populations in coastal and shelf marine ecosystems. Preliminary results are shown for a regional MAB model nested to the global 1/12o HYCOM run at NOAA/NCEP/EMC using Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) daily initialization. Elements of this simulation are nutrient influx condition at the northern and southern boundaries through regression to ocean thermodynamic variables, and nutrient input at the river mouths.

  9. North Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    which provide habitats for many types of sweet gale, dogwoods, elder, witch hazel and organisms and interact in a vital way with the alder. This varied...the Region’s longer kinds of native aquatics found in the Region rivers originate in the higher elevations of the are water lilies, arrowheads, sweet ...and pro- forests and cultivated the land, trade with duced grain, potatoes and fruit as well as Europe increased and the port cities grew, livestock

  10. Land use and environmental assessment in the central Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H.; Fitzpatrick, K.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    Data from high altitude aircraft, LANDSAT and Skylab were used in a comprehensive regional survey of land use and its associated environmental impact in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS). Each sensor system has advantages that were demonstrated by producing experimental land use maps and other data products, applying them to typical problems encountered in regional planning and environmental impact assessment, and presenting the results to prospective users for evaluation. An archival collection of imagery, maps, data summaries, and technical reports was assembled, constituting an environmental profile of the central Atlantic region. The investigation was organized into four closely-related modules, a land use information module, an environmental impact module, a user interaction and evaluation module, and a geographic information systems module. Results revealed a heterogeneous user community with diverse information needs, tending, however, definitely toward the higher-resolution sensor data and the larger-scale land use maps and related information products. Among project recommendations are greater efforts toward improving compatibility of federal, state, and local land use information programs, and greater efforts toward a broader exchange of imagery, computer tapes, and land use information derived therefrom.

  11. Multi-wavelength Observations of South Atlantic Anomaly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. Y.; Tam, S. W. Y.; Chang, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region where the Earth's magnetic field is at its weakest. The energetic particles captured by the geomagnetic field can come closest to the Earth's surface forming a high-radiation region. The ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning) is a scientific payload aboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The scientific payload consists of an intensifier CCD Imager, an array photometer, and a six-channel spectrophotometers. ISUAL had been monitoring airglow and aurora in the global ionosphere. In this study, we will use ISUAL images and photometer data to analyze the background emissions in the SAA region. From the emission production mechanisms for different measurement channels, we can estimate the properties of the plasma precipitating from the inner radiation belt into the ionosphere of the SAA region. Besides, the ratios of different emissions are also discussed.

  12. The Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation Impact on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey S.

    2016-07-01

    The Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a period of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate impact on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the Atlantic overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO impact on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO impact was obtained in the Arctic region. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North Atlantic. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature impact was found over the Atlantic and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO impact was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.

  13. 18 Years of Recovery: Spatial Variation and Structure of a Secondary Forest Analyzed with Airborne Lidar Data in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos-Santos, M. N.; Keller, M. M.; Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; Longo, M.; Daniel, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing forest fragmentation in the tropics severely reduces the ability of remaining forests to store carbon and provide ecosystem services, however, secondary regeneration could offset the impacts of forest degradation. Previous plot-based forest inventory studies have shown that secondary regeneration is promoted at remnant forest edges. However, this process has not been studied at landscape scale. We used over 450 ha of lidar data to study the forest structure and spatial variation of secondary growth forest 18 years after swidden cultivation abandonment in Serra do Conduro State Park. Lidar data was acquired in December 2015 with a density of 93 points per square meter using an airborne scanning laser system (Optech Orion M-300). Serra do Conduru, a 10 000 ha State Park in Bahia was created in 1997 as part of a network of forest reserves with both old-growth forest and secondary forest aiming at establishing a central corridor of the Atlantic forest. The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape reduced to 12.5% of its original extent. Prior to the establishment of the State Park, the area was a mosaic of forest and agricultural area. We created 10m wide buffers from the edge of the remnant forest into the secondary forest and generated lidar metrics for each strip in order to ask: does the distance from the remnant forest create a gradient effect on the secondary forest structure? We cross-compared the lidar metrics of the samples. Results demonstrate that distance from old-growth forest promotes spatial variation in forest recovery and forest structure.

  14. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2014-03-18

    Ribautia paranaensis sp. nov. a new miniature species of geophilid centipede from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (the westernmost of the fifteen ecoregions comprising the Atlantic Forest biome sensu Di Bitetti et al. 2003), is herein described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by having the coxal organs grouped in clusters (one of these in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment) and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs; these traits being shared by three other Neotropical members of the genus, i.e., R. combinata Pereira, Uliana & Minelli, 2006 (from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru), R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 (from the Yungas rainforest of Northwestern Argentina), and R. lewisi Pereira, 2013 (collected in a gallery forest in the Mesopotamian region, Northeastern Argentina). R. paranaensis sp. nov. represents the first report of Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 in the entire Atlantic Forest biome, and the third confirmed record of the taxon from Argentina.

  15. Small scale endemism in Brazil's Atlantic Forest: 14 new species of Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae), each known from a single locality.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2015-04-07

    In an ongoing mega-transect project that aims at analyzing pholcid spider diversity and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, many species appear restricted to small geographic ranges. Of the 84 species collected between 2003 and 2011 at 17 sites between Bahia and Santa Catarina, 51 species (61%) were found at only one locality. The present paper focuses on such species in the genus Mesabolivar, and compares diversity and distribution patterns of this genus within and outside the Atlantic Forest. The percentage of species known from single localities is higher in the Atlantic Forest (34 of 52 species; 65%) than outside the Atlantic Forest (10 of 25; 40%). Distribution rages of species in the Atlantic Forest are significantly smaller than of species outside the Atlantic Forest (mean maximum distances between localities: 184 versus 541 km; medians: 10 km versus 220 km). The following species are newly described (arranged from north to south), each currently known from the respective type locality only: M. caipora; M. kathrinae; M. bonita; M. pau (Bahia); M. monteverde; M. perezi (Espírito Santo); M. giupponii; M. goitaca; M. sai (Rio de Janeiro); M. tamoio; M. unicornis; M. gabettae; M. inornatus (São Paulo); M. itapoa (Santa Catarina).

  16. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-02-18

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly.

  17. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  18. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Mendes, S L; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101), in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates.

  19. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Benedet, Rodrigo C.; Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, FIS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software), we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk. PMID:22481876

  20. Additional information about tick parasitism in Passeriformes birds in an Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R

    2015-11-01

    The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.

  1. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Landscape Conservation and Social Tension in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Challenges for Implementing Sustainability

    Treesearch

    Libia Patricia Peralta Agudelo; Maristela Marangon

    2006-01-01

    The study is based in the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba located in the Atlantic Forest of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. EPAs in Brazil allow private ownership, resource extraction, and agriculture according to predefined land use laws. A systems’ approach was adopted to define the main interacting variables needed to understand the local socio-...

  3. Small-forest management in the spruce-fir region

    Treesearch

    A. C. Hart

    1953-01-01

    Small forest properties occupy about 3.4 million acres, or 25 percent of the total forest land, in the spruce-fir region of Maine and New Hampshire. Careful management of these small forest properties is important to the region and to the owners.

  4. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Forest Fragmentation in the Atlantic Forest Reveals More Threatened Bird Species than the Current Red List

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Jessica K.; Harris, Grant M.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric — cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range — was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds’ abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km2). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species’ ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat. PMID:23734248

  6. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Jessica K; Harris, Grant M; Pimm, Stuart L; Russell, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2)). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  7. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Renata Bortolasse; Peiter, Paulo Cesar; de Albuquerque, Hermano; Coura, José Rodrigues; Moza, Patrícia Ganzenmüller; Costa, Anielle de Pina; Brasil, Patricia; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties) of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3%) were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ. PMID:25185004

  8. Evaluating multiple spatial scales to understand the distribution of anuran beta diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Lara G; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C; da Silva, Fernando R

    2017-04-01

    We partitioned the total beta diversity in the species composition of anuran tadpoles to evaluate if species replacement and nestedness components are congruent at different spatial resolutions in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We alternated the sampling grain and extent of the study area (among ponds at a site, among ponds within regions, among sites within regions, and among sites within regions pooled together) to assess the importance of anuran beta diversity components. We then performed variation partitioning to evaluate the congruence of environmental descriptors and geographical distance in explaining the spatial distribution of the species replacement and nestedness components. We found that species replacement was the main component of beta diversity, independent of the sampling grain and extent. Furthermore, when considering the same sampling grain and increasing the extent, the values of species replacement increased. On the other hand, when considering the same extent and increasing the sampling grain, the values of species replacement decreased. At the smallest sampling grain and extent, the environmental descriptors and geographic distance were not congruent and alternated in the percentage of variation explaining the spatial distribution of species replacement and nestedness. At the largest spatial scales (SSs), the biogeographical regions showed higher values of the percentage explaining the variation in the beta diversity components. We found high values of species replacement independently of the spatial resolution, but the processes driving community assembly seem to be dependent on the SS. At small scales, both stochastic and deterministic factors might be important processes structuring anuran tadpole assemblages. On the other hand, at a large spatial grain and extent, the processes restricting species distributions might be more effective for drawing inferences regarding the variation in anuran beta diversity in different regions of the

  9. A Potentially Endangered New Species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, S; Barbosa, E P; Freitas, A V L

    2017-01-06

    A new satyrine species in the subtribe Euptychiina, Euptychia atlantica Nakahara & Freitas sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Based on the existing museum specimens, E. atlantica sp. nov. is known from the coastal montane forests of Rio de Janeiro to south Bahia, a unique biogeographical region which is undergoing rapid degradation. Illustrations of adults and their genitalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided herein, in addition to a discussion of the relationships and conservation status of the new species.

  10. Landscape correlates of breeding bird richness across the United States mid-Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, K.B.; Neale, A.C.; Nash, M.S.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; O'Neill, R. V.; Van Remortel, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Using a new set of landscape indicator data generated by the U.S.EPA, and a comprehensive breeding bird database from the National Breeding Bird Survey, we evaluated associations between breeding bird richness and landscape characteristics across the entire mid-Atlantic region of the United States. We evaluated how these relationships varied among different groupings (guilds) of birds based on functional, structural, and compositional aspects of individual species demographics. Forest edge was by far the most important landscape attribute affecting the richness of the lumped specialist and generalist guilds; specialist species richness was negatively associated with forest edge and generalist richness was positively associated with forest edge. Landscape variables (indicators) explained a greater proportion of specialist species richness than the generalist guild (46% and 31%, respectively). The lower value in generalists may reflect freer-scale distributions of open habitat that go undetected by the Landsat satellite, open habitats created by roads (the areas from which breeding bird data are obtained), and the lumping of a wide variety of species into the generalist category. A further breakdown of species into 16 guilds showed considerable variation in the response of breeding birds to landscape conditions; forest obligate species had the strongest association with landscape indicators measured in this study (55% of the total variation explained) and forest generalists and open ground nesters the lowest (17% of the total variation explained). The variable response of guild species richness to landscape pattern suggests that one must consider species' demographics when assessing the consequences of landscape change on breeding birds.Using a new set of landscape indicator data generated by the U.S. EPA, and a comprehensive breeding bird database from the National Breeding Bird Survey, we evaluated associations between breeding bird richness and landscape

  11. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

  12. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The

  14. Assessment of the risk of invasion of national forest streams in the Pacific Northwest by farmed Atlantic salmon.

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the evidence for invasion of Pacific Northwest streams by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that have escaped from marine salmon farms, and assesses the potential impact of farmed salmon invasion on native fishes inhabiting streams on National Forest System lands. The current risk to streams on National Forest lands in the Pacific Northwest from...

  15. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  16. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  17. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  18. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  19. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest.

  20. Land planarians (Platyhelminthes) as a model organism for fine-scale phylogeographic studies: understanding patterns of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Presas, M; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

    2011-04-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the richest biodiversity hotspots of the world. Paleoclimatic models have predicted two large stability regions in its northern and central parts, whereas southern regions might have suffered strong instability during Pleistocene glaciations. Molecular phylogeographic and endemism studies show, nevertheless, contradictory results: although some results validate these predictions, other data suggest that paleoclimatic models fail to predict stable rainforest areas in the south. Most studies, however, have surveyed species with relatively high dispersal rates whereas taxa with lower dispersion capabilities should be better predictors of habitat stability. Here, we have used two land planarian species as model organisms to analyse the patterns and levels of nucleotide diversity on a locality within the Southern Atlantic Forest. We find that both species harbour high levels of genetic variability without exhibiting the molecular footprint of recent colonization or population expansions, suggesting a long-term stability scenario. The results reflect, therefore, that paleoclimatic models may fail to detect refugia in the Southern Atlantic Forest, and that model organisms with low dispersal capability can improve the resolution of these models.

  1. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna. PMID:26066508

  3. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    PubMed

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  4. Monitoring Temporal Variation to Assess Changes in the Structure of Subtropical Atlantic Forest Butterfly Communities.

    PubMed

    Iserhard, Cristiano Agra; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Richter, Aline; Mendonça, Milton de Souza

    2017-08-01

    The study of fauna through long-term surveys is important in unveiling how temporal patterns shape the structure of communities in tropical habitats. The butterfly assemblage of the subtropical Atlantic Forest may be considered highly diverse and shows changes in diversity and composition over time, highlighting the importance of long-term inventories. This work assessed temporal diversity patterns in the distribution and composition of butterfly assemblages in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil using combined data from three years of standardized sampling with entomological nets, increasing the knowledge on this group in the Neotropics for monitoring and conservation. The butterfly fauna was analyzed in terms of richness, abundance, and composition. The inventories reached 401 species, with 14,442 butterfly individuals sampled. All the diversity parameters evaluated show significant differences between the first year of sampling compared to the second and third years. The latter had higher values of richness and abundance, followed by the first and second years. Hesperiidae was the richest family, followed by Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae, indicating a good representation of the assemblage as a whole. The results of this work are important for developing conservation programs in the Atlantic Forest and other forested environments in the neotropics, especially concerning reliable diversity assessments for the monitoring and management of protected areas. Decision making and public policy might also benefit from knowledge on temporal patterns of diversity regarding the maintenance of native habitats and integrity of biomes and their associated fauna. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Geographic information systems and spatial analysis of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Price, S.D.; Das, A.; Shields, T.M.; Glass, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A., the vector of Lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and other human and veterinary pathogens is the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. In 1997 and 1998, 663 adult I. scapularis ticks were collected from 320 transects spanning 66,400 km2 in five states of the Middle Atlantic region. Tick abundance patterns were clustered, with relatively high numbers along the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay, decreasing to the west and south. There were significant associations between tick abundance and land cover, distance to water, distance to forest edge, elevation, and soil type.

  6. Geographic information systems and spatial analysis of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Joseph E; Price, Susan D; Das, Abhik; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E

    2003-07-01

    In the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A., the vector of Lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and other human and veterinary pathogens is the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. In 1997 and 1998, 663 adult I. scapularis ticks were collected from 320 transects spanning 66,400 km2 in five states of the Middle Atlantic region. Tick abundance patterns were clustered, with relatively high numbers along the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay, decreasing to the west and south. There were significant associations between tick abundance and land cover, distance to water, distance to forest edge, elevation, and soil type.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  8. Sustaining Productivity of Planted Forests in the Gulf Coast Region

    Treesearch

    James P. Bamett; Allan E. Tiarks; Mary Anne Sword

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the Gulf Coastal Region provide the basis for its economic well-being. Because of the semitropical climate, abundant rainfall and availing topography, the nation's richest plant communities thrive. These forests are predominately privately owned. Millions of private landowners are committed to managing their forests for a broad array of values which...

  9. Urban expansion in the forests of the Puget Sound region.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1997-01-01

    As part of a 1979 forest resource inventory, over 9,000 points on aerial photographs were sorted into three development zones-primary forest, suburban, and urban. These same points were reexamined in 1989, and zone changes were noted. This report summarizes urban expansion into the primary forest lands of the Puget Sound region (Island, King, Kitsap, Pierce, San Juan,...

  10. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 3 to implement a long-term research, monitoring, and assessment program in the Mid-Atlantic region - the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). The MAIA mission is to develop a broad-based partnership to integrate scientific knowledge into the decision-making proc...

  11. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #6: PUBLICATION OF FIRST REPORT FROM MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research news edition announces the publication of the first report from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). The report is entitled, *Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region -- A Workshop Report.* MARA is being conducted as part of the USGCRP First Nation...

  12. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) are studying the impacts of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic Region. This poster presents research investigating climate impacts ...

  13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 3 to implement a long-term research, monitoring, and assessment program in the Mid-Atlantic region - the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). The MAIA mission is to develop a broad-based partnership to integrate scientific knowledge into the decision-making proc...

  14. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON NUTRIENT FLUXES IN STREAM FLOW IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a national assessment process, researchers of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) are studying the impacts of climate variation and change on the natural and social systems of the Mid-Atlantic Region. This poster presents research investigating climate impacts ...

  15. The niche and phylogeography of a passerine reveal the history of biological diversification between the Andean and the Atlantic forests.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; Dantas, Gisele P M; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Naoki, Kazuya; Gómez, Maria I; Santos, Fabricio R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Aleixo, Alexandre; Tubaro, Pablo L; Cabanne, Gustavo S

    2017-07-01

    The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pesticides in surface water of the Mid-Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Ator, Scott W.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Dysart, Joel E.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality data from 463 surface-water sites were compiled and analyzed to document the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface water of the Mid-Atlantic region as part of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Those data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1973 through March 1997 were used in the analyses. Data are available for a large part of the Mid-Atlantic region, but large spatial gaps in the data do exist. USGS data bases contained analyses of surface-water samples for 127 pesticide compounds, including 12 degradates, but only 16 of the compounds were commonly detected. Atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, prometon, alachlor, tebuthiuron, cyanazine, diazinon, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, 2,4-D, dieldrin, DCPA, metribuzin, and desethylatrazine (an atrazine degradate) were detected in more than 100 of the samples analyzed. At least one pesticide was detected in about 75 percent of the samples collected and at more than 90 percent of the sites sampled. Concentrations greater than the Federal Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water of 3 micrograms per liter (ug/L) for atrazine were found in 67 of 2,076 samples analyzed; concentrations greater than the MCL of 2ug/L for alachlor were found in 13 of 1,693 samples analyzed, and concentrations greater than the MCL of 4 ug/L for simazine were found in 17 of 1,995 samples analyzed. Concentrations of four pesticides were greater than Federal Health Advisory levels for drinking water, and concentrations of nine pesticides were greater than Federal Ambient Water-Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms. Streams draining basins with different land uses tend to have different pesticide detection frequencies and median concentrations. Median concentrations of herbicides tend to be highest in streams draining basins in which the major land use is agriculture, whereas median concentrations of insecticides

  17. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of soil and litter along an altitudinal gradient in Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Carmo, J. B.; Sousa Neto, E.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Ombrophylus Dense Forest or Atlantic Forest is the second most important Biome in extension of Brazil, and it is considered a hot-spot in terms of biodiversity. It is localized in Brazilian Coast, and it covered originally 1.2 million km2, but currently only 8% of the original forest remains. The study was carried out in Sao Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Vegetation (RV), 5 m above sea level; Low Altitude Ombrophylus Dense Forest (LAODF), 100 m asl; Submontane Ombrophylus Dense Forest (SODF), 600m asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest (MODF), 1000 m asl. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of altitudinal gradient, with specific phytophysiognomies, on C and N dynamics in the soil and litter at Atlantic Forest. A sampling area of 1 ha was subdivided in contiguous sub- parcels (10 x 10 m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06 m2) was collected monthly (n=60), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30 m away from each other. Changes in litter contents of C and N were not detected along the altitudinal gradient, and the values observed were 400 and 15g kg-1 for C and N, respectively. Litter ä13C values did not change significantly with the altitudinal gradient and were represented by C3 plants values. The C and N stocks were high in the clay soils (LAODF, SODF and MODF) when compared to sandy soil (RV). The soil C stocks (24 to 30 Mg ha-1) were similar among the altitudinal gradients, except RV (16 Mg ha-1). The areas of elevated altitude (MODF and SODF) showed high N stocks (2.3 Mg ha-1), followed by LAODF (1.8Mg ha-1) and RV (0.9Mg ha-1). In all altitudes there was 13C enrichment with soil depth, and it can be explained by the different fractions of the organic matter distributed along the soil profile, and also due the effect of the isotopic dilution between the forest floor litter and the soil.

  18. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Treesearch

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  19. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments.

  20. Differences in seed rain composition in small and large fragments in the northeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Knörr, U C; Gottsberger, G

    2012-09-01

    Tropical forests are seriously threatened by fragmentation and habitat loss. The impact of fragment size and forest configuration on the composition of seed rain is insufficiently studied. For the present study, seed rain composition of small and large forest fragments (8-388 ha) was assessed in order to identify variations in seed abundance, species richness, seed size and dispersal mode. Seed rain was documented during a 1-year period in three large and four small Atlantic Forest fragments that are isolated by a sugarcane matrix. Total seed rain included 20,518 seeds of 149 species of trees, shrubs, palms, lianas and herbs. Most species and seeds were animal-dispersed. A significant difference in the proportion of seeds and species within different categories of seed size was found between small and large fragments. Small fragments received significantly more very small-sized seeds (<0.3 cm) and less large-seeded species (>1.5 cm) that were generally very rare, with only one species in small and eight in large fragments. We found a negative correlation between the inflow of small-sized seeds and the percentage of forest cover. Species richness was lower in small than in large fragments, but the difference was not very pronounced. Given our results, we propose changing plant species pools through logging, tree mortality and a high inflow of pioneer species and lianas, especially in small forest fragments and areas with low forest cover. Connecting forest fragments through corridors and reforestation with local large-seeded tree species may facilitate the maintenance of species diversity.

  1. Biodiversity of Coreoidea and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) from Atlantic forest protected areas. Insights into their conservation.

    PubMed

    Dellapé, Gimena; Colpo, Karine D; Melo, María C; Montemayor, Sara I; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2017-07-24

    Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In our study area, Pentatomidae had the greatest richness and diversity; Coreidae was the second most diverse family, with highest sampling deficit, highest percentage of singletons, and lowest inventory completeness; and Rhopalidae was the best sampled family with asymptotic rarefaction curves. We explored the application of the Species Conservation Importance index, following four criteria, to evaluate the relative importance of the pentatomid species studied and its usefulness for assigning conservation values to areas. We found similar Site Conservation Values among the six areas and noted that the use of criteria was limited by the lack of information, being crucial to increase the knowledge of most of the species.

  2. AVHRR images capture natural calamities in Mid-Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, S. N. V.; Borak, J. S.

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Fblar Orbiting Environmental satellite is used to assess the severity of natural disasters including drought and vegetative conditions in this study. Satellite images captured the impact of extremely dry conditions suffered throughout the Mid-Atlantic region during the summer of 1999, which was dubbed as the drought of the century [Eos, August 17, 1999, p.365]. According to NOAA, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Rhode Island endured their driest periods from April through July 1999 in 105 years of recordkeeping. Based on statistics from the Northeast Regional Climate Center at Cornell University Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, and West Virginia exhibited departures of 26%, 29%, 32%, and 35%, respectively from normal precipitation totals during the 1999 summer According to the National Weather Service, a deficiency of 15% or more over a 6-month period can be considered as the onset of drought. Reduced rainfall in this region resulted in low soil moisture, which has a significant impact on vegetation conditions.

  3. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  4. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Danilo; Metzger, Jean Paul; Vielliard, Jacques M E

    2006-12-01

    Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura) for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil) and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.

  5. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Evaluation on sustainability of forest resources in Bailong River forest region, Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenggang; Cheng, Guodong; Wu, Bingli; Chen, Yuqi; Sun, Xuegang

    2003-09-01

    Based on the theories of sustainable development of forest resources, this paper constructed an index system for the integrative evaluation on the sustainability of forest resources in Bailon River forest region of Gansu Province. After calculated the index values of five strategic levels and twenty measure levels, the degree of harmony (DH) was obtained, with which, the sustainability of test forest resources could be evaluated. The DH value was 0.5320 in 1996 and 0.6100 in 2000, which was smaller than the theoretic value of 0.7000, and hence, this forest region belonged to non-sustainable development, but made some progress for its sustainability.

  7. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  8. Current forest conditions of older stands of the mixed mesophytic forest region on the Appalachian Plateaus Province of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James F. Jr. Rosson

    2008-01-01

    E. Lucy Braun coined the term "mixed mesophytic forest" in 1916. These forests are structurally complex and occur extensively across the Appalachian Plateaus Province. This region is considered the epicenter of highest development of the eastern deciduous forest. I used U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to study current forest...

  9. A new genus and a new species of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diego Dias; Palacios-Vargas, José G; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2015-07-27

    Sminthuridae comprises approximately 240 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil it is represented only by 11 species and four genera. Herein we describe a new genus and species of subfamily Sminthurinae from Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The new described genus is similar to Gisinurus, Songhaica, Dietersminthurus and Soqotrasminthurus, especially in its unguis shape, with open cavity; but differs from all other genera of Sminthuridae by the presence of a single pretarsal chaeta in anterior side, smooth mucronal edges and a unique head chaetotaxy.

  10. First cytogenetic information for Drymoreomys albimaculatus (Rodentia, Cricetidae), a recently described genus from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y.; Di-Nizo, Camilla B.; Neves, Carolina L.; Silva, Maria José de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The recently described taxon Drymoreomys albimaculatus is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and its biology and genetics are still poorly known. Herein, we present, for the first time, the karyotype of the species using classical and molecular cytogenetics, which showed 2n=62, FN=62, and interstitial telomeric signals at the sex chromosomes. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from the two karyotyped individuals verify the taxonomic identity as the recently described Drymoreomys albimaculatus and confirm the relationship of the species with other Oryzomyini. Additionally, external morphological information is provided. PMID:23794904

  11. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  12. New records of Anopheles homunculus in central and Serra do Mar biodiversity corridors of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cardoso, Jader C; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sant'ana, Denise C; Motoki, Maysa T; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2012-03-01

    Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquiné municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I.

  13. The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region

    Treesearch

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region occupy as substantial portion - 28.6 percent or 915,200 acres - of the region's 3,198,400 acres of forest land. These forests have been so heavily cut for lumber and mine timbers during the past 100 years and have been so badly ravaged by fire following these heavy cuttings that in their present condition...

  14. The aspen-gray birch forests of the Anthracite Region

    Treesearch

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    This paper is a progress report of forest research in the Anthracite Region by personnel of the Station's branch at Kingston, Pa. It is the fourth in a series of seven reports dealing with the principal forest types in the Anthracite Region.

  15. Forest resources of the Riverborder region in Missouri

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1948-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant statistics on forest area and timber volume in the Riverborder region of eastern Missouri. Similar releases have been issued for the other forest regions of the State. A summary release giving similar data for the entire State will be published shortly. Later an analytical report for the State will be published, which...

  16. The white pine - oak forests of the anthracite region

    Treesearch

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The white pine - oak forests in the Anthracite Region occupy approximately one-fifth of the forested area. They occur chiefly in the central and southern counties of the region and are characteristic of the fairly fertile agricultural sections in the rolling foothills. Sixty-nine percent are located in these farming areas, another 23 percent are in less accessible...

  17. Identification of sources contributing to Mid-Atlantic regional aerosol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoshida, Yasuko; Turpin, Barbara J; Hopke, Philip K; Poirot, Richard L; Lioy, Paul J; Oxley, James C

    2002-10-01

    Source types or source regions contributing to the concentration of atmospheric fine particles measured at Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, NJ, were identified using a factor analysis model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Cluster analysis of backward air trajectories on days of high- and low-factor concentrations was used to link factors to potential source regions. Brigantine is a Class I visibility area with few local sources in the center of the eastern urban corridor and is therefore a good location to study Mid-Atlantic regional aerosol. Sulfate (expressed as ammonium sulfate) was the most abundant species, accounting for 49% of annual average fine mass. Organic compounds (22%; expressed as 1.4 x organic carbon) and ammonium nitrate (10%) were the next abundant species. Some evidence herein suggests that secondary organic aerosol formation is an important contributor to summertime regional aerosol. Nine factors were identified that contributed to PM2.5 mass concentrations: coal combustion factors (66%, summer and winter), sea salt factors (9%, fresh and aged), motor vehicle/mixed combustion (8%), diesel/Zn-Pb (6%), incinerator/industrial (5%), oil combustion (4%), and soil (2%). The aged sea salt concentrations were highest in springtime, when the land breeze-sea breeze cycle is strongest. Comparison of backward air trajectories of high- and low-concentration days suggests that Brigantine is surrounded by sources of oil combustion, motor vehicle/mixed combustion, and waste incinerator/industrial emissions that together account for 17% of PM2.5 mass. The diesel/Zn-Pb factor was associated with sources north and west of Brigantine. Coal combustion factors were associated with coal-fired power plants west and southwest of the site. Particulate carbon was associated not only with oil combustion, motor vehicle/mixed combustion, waste incinerator/industrial, and diesel/Pb-Zn, but also with the coal combustion factors, perhaps through common transport.

  18. A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F.; D'Addezio, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the ideal location for the world's highest open ocean sea surface salinity. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/day and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/day but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/day. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/day and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water northward to the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for almost half of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  19. A subtropical North Atlantic regional atmospheric moisture budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Bingham, Frederick M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-1) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the natural location for the world's highest open ocean SSS maximum. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS-1 region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/d and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/d but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/d. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/d and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water toward the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for about one third of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  20. Quantitative ethnobotany in an atlantic forest fragment of northeastern Brazil: implications to conservation.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Luiz Vital F Cruz; De Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2006-03-01

    An ethnobotanical study was executed in the rural community of the Municipality of "Rio Formoso", starting from the forest inventory accomplished in an Atlantic Forest remnant adjacent to the studied community. Using the methodology of quantitative ethnobotany allied to the ecological parameters (richness, relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and importance value index) the following results were obtained: 42 inventoried species gathered in 26 families, presented from 1 to 27 means of use for the community. The largest use of the plants is related to obtaining wood in order to be used in house building, firewood production and charcoal. The largest use value was attributed to the Vouacapoua virgilioides (Kunth) Kuntze. The most frequent species were Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), Thyrsodium schomburgkianum Benth. (Anacardiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyem. & Frodin (Araliaceae) and Dialium guianense (Aubl.) Sandwith. (Leg-Caesalpinioideae).

  1. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João R

    2014-01-01

    Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern.

  2. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  3. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, N; Gentile, R; Fiszon, J T

    2005-08-01

    Anthropic activities are frequently related in many ways to forest fragmentation and alteration of natural communities. In this study, we correlate the presence of hunting, tourism activity, agriculture/pasturing, and the distance of the study sites to the nearest human residences with the species composition of small Atlantic forest mammals. To do this, we utilize a multiple regression analysis of similarity matrices. The presence of both agriculture/pasturing and human residences near the study sites proved to be determinant factors in species composition of small mammals of the studied areas. Working with socioeconomic variables related directly with the study site could be a reliable and a direct way to predict the influence of human presence and entailed activity on small mammal communities.

  4. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  5. Floral sources to Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and their pollen morphology in a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Braga, Juliana Almeida; Sales, Erika Oliveira; Soares Neto, João; Conde, Marilena Menezes; Barth, Ortrud Monika; Maria, Cristina Lorenzon

    2012-12-01

    The stingless bees are important flowers visitors of several plant species, due to their feeding habits and foraging behavior, constituting an important group to maintain biodiversity and the dynamics of tropical communities. Among stingless bees, Tetragonisca angustula is widely distributed in tropical habitats, and has been considered an important pollinator of different plant families. To support a rational economic use of this group, there is a need to characterize the plant species that represent important sources as part of their diet, as preferred, alternative or casual food sources. The aim of this survey was to distinguish the plant species that T. angustula visited most often. The study was undertaken in four regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil) over a year from March 2008 to February 2009. For this, we collected bees, flowering plants and bee pollen loads from the four sites, and evaluated pollen morphology in the laboratory. Field observations showed the presence of plants belonging to ten different families and pollen loads showed the presence of pollen types belonging to 26 plant families. There were strong differences between pollen types, especially regarding pollen grain shape. The present survey suggests a high value of these plant species as trophic resources for the T. angustula in the understory of Atlantic Rainforest. Changes in these fragments of this forest may compromise the availability of resources for Tetragonisca angustula species and other stingless bees.

  6. Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  7. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  8. Implications of rural-urban migration for conservation of the Atlantic Forest and urban growth in Misiones, Argentina (1970-2030).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Andrea E; Grau, Héctor R; Aide, T Mitchell

    2011-05-01

    Global trends of increasing rural-urban migration and population urbanization could provide opportunities for nature conservation, particularly in regions where deforestation is driven by subsistence agriculture. We analyzed the role of rural population as a driver of deforestation and its contribution to urban population growth from 1970 to the present in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, a global conservation priority. We created future land-use-cover scenarios based on human demographic parameters and the relationship between rural population and land-cover change between 1970 and 2006. In 2006, native forest covered 50% of the province, but by 2030 all scenarios predicted a decrease that ranged from 18 to 39% forest cover. Between 1970 and 2001, rural migrants represented 20% of urban population growth and are expected to represent less than 10% by 2030. This modeling approach shows how rural-urban migration and land-use planning can favor nature conservation with little impact on urban areas.

  9. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NAO VARIBILITY AND U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROCLIMATOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in the climate of the US Mid-Atlantic Region is associated with larger scale variability in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Collectively, these three large-scal...

  10. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada V. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Atlantic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The fifth volume in a series of six on educational planning and policies in Canada, this review focuses on the Atlantic region--New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Sections of the document discuss the historical development of the Atlantic provinces' system of education; give an overview of education--its aims and…

  11. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NAO VARIBILITY AND U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROCLIMATOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in the climate of the US Mid-Atlantic Region is associated with larger scale variability in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Collectively, these three large-scal...

  12. Ant-diaspore interactions during secondary succession in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zwiener, Victor P; Bihn, Jochen H; Marques, Márcia C M

    2012-06-01

    Animal-plant interactions are important for the recovery of diversity and processes in secondary forests, which increasingly dominate the tropical landscape. We used a combination of observational and experimental approaches to study the interactions of ants with diaspores across a successional gradient of forests in Southern Brazil, from August 2007 to April 2008. In addition to diaspore removal rates, we assessed the species richness, diversity and behaviour of ants interacting with diaspores, in three replicated sites of four successional stages of forests. We recorded 22 ant species interacting with diaspores (an estimated 15% of the total species pool in the region). Species richness and diversity did not differ among successional stages but the behaviour of ants towards diaspores changed with the age of secondary forests. In old successional stages the removal of entire diaspores was more common than in young successional stages of forests. Concordantly, diaspore removal rates were lowest in the youngest successional stage of secondary forests and increased with the age of forests. These results indicate that ant-diaspore interactions in secondary forests are disturbed and lower removal rates in secondary forests are likely to constrain the recruitment of plant populations during secondary succession.

  13. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Dowell, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Conservation of birds requires an understanding of their nesting requirements, including area as well as structural characteristics of the habitat. Previous studies have shown that many neotropical migrant bird species seem to depend on extensive forested areas, but the specific area requirements of individual species have not been clarified sufficiently to aid in design and management of effective preserves. For this 5-year study, bird and vegetation data were obtained at 469 points in forests ranging in area from 0.1 ha to more than 3,000 ha in Maryland and adjacent states. Data were analyzed first by stepwise regression to identify habitat factors that had the greatest influence on relative abundance of each bird species. In the relatively undisturbed mature forests studied, degree of isolation and area were significant predictors of relative abundance for more bird species than were any habitat variables. For species for which forest area was a significant predictor of abundance, we used logistic regression to examine the relationship between forest area and the probability of detecting the species. In managing forest lands for wildlife, top priority should go toward providing for the needs of area-sensitive or rare species rather than increasing species diversity per se. Avian species that occur in small and disturbed forests are generalists that are adapted to survival under edge conditions and need no special assistance from man. Forest reserves with thousands of hectares are required to have the highest probability of providing for the least common species of forest birds in a region. However, if preservation of large contiguous forest tracts is not a realistic option, results of this study suggest 2 alternative approaches. First, if other habitat attributes also are considered, smaller forests may provide suitable breeding sites for relatively rare species. Second, smaller tracts in close proximity to other forests may serve to attract or retain area

  14. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cláudia; Silva, Diva Maria Izabel O; Oliveira, Geórgia F; Monteiro, Liv S; Montes, Martín A; Garcia, Ana Cristina L

    2014-12-01

    Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments.

  15. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cláudia; Silva, Diva Maria Izabel O; Oliveira, Geórgia F; Monteiro, Liv S; Montes, Martín A; Garcia, Ana Cristina L

    2014-11-11

    Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments.

  16. Regional estimation of current and future forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Mickler, R A; Earnhardt, T S; Moore, J A

    2002-01-01

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exclusion policies and practices. The fire regime at any given location in these regions is a result of complex interactions between forest biomass, topography, ignitions, and weather. Forest structure and biomass are important aspects in determining current and future fire regimes. Efforts to quantify live and dead forest biomass at the local to regional scale has been hindered by the uncertainty surrounding the measurement and modeling of forest ecosystem processes and fluxes. The interaction of elevated CO2 with climate, soil nutrients, and other forest management factors that affect forest growth and fuel loading will play a major role in determining future forest stand growth and the distribution of species across the southern United States. The use of satellite image analysis has been tested for timely and accurate measurement of spatially explicit land use change and is well suited for use in inventory and monitoring of forest carbon. The incorporation of Landsat Thematic Mapper data coupled with a physiologically based productivity model (PnET), soil water holding capacity, and historic and projected climatic data provides an opportunity to enhance field plot based forest inventory and monitoring methodologies. We use periodic forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) project to obtain estimates of forest area and type to generate estimates of carbon storage for evergreen, deciduous, and mixed forest classes for use in an assessment of remotely sensed forest cover at the regional scale for the southern United States. The displays of net primary productivity (NPP) generated from the PnET model show areas of high and low forest carbon storage

  17. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  18. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Loise Araujo; Gusmão, Luís Fernando Pascholati

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  19. Morphological variation in the appendicular skeleton of Atlantic Forest sigmodontine rodents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Ludmilla Carvalho; de Oliveira, João Alves; Pessôa, Leila Maria

    2013-07-01

    Rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae comprise a highly diversified group in the Atlantic Forest, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, and arboreal forms. In this study, we analyzed morphometric variation in humerus, scapula, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and pelvis to investigate its possible relationship with the different types of locomotion recorded in the literature. Skeletal characters were measured in 321 specimens belonging to 29 species and 19 genera either restricted to or recorded in this ecoregion. Multivariate morphometric analyses (principal component and canonical variate analyses) arranged individuals of different genera in groups congruent with the different types of locomotion. This arrangement was more clearly defined when analyses included only forelimb measurements, indicating that most of the variation in appendicular traits associated with the different locomotor modes occurs in the forelimb skeleton. Semifossorial forms exhibited the most distinct appendicular morphology, as well as the greatest frequency of endemism among analyzed species. These results suggest that this mode of locomotion led to greater differentiation in semifossorial Atlantic forest sigmodontines than in terrestrial and arboreal forms, which were found to have more subtle differentiation and fewer endemics. Scansorial species could not be set apart from terrestrial ones in terms of appendicular morphology, suggesting that these two modes of locomotion are the most similar and generalized for the group, as they occur in most lineages in the subfamily. The results of this study corroborate previous observations on the relevance of appendicular characters in the differentiation of species and genera in the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Loise Araujo; Gusmão, Luís Fernando Pascholati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:26691460

  1. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-12-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  2. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

  3. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest Toposequence.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Gumiere, Thiago; de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Denise; Oehl, Fritz; Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was studied in the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Mar Park (SE Brazil), based on seven host plants in relationship to their soil environment, altitude and seasonality. The studied plots along an elevation gradient are located at 80, 600, and 1,000 m. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in four seasons from SE Brazilian winter 2012 to autumn 2013. AMF spores in rhizosperic soils were morphologically classified and chemical, physical and microbiological soil caracteristics were determined. AMF diversity in roots was evaluated using the NS31/AM1 primer pair, with subsequent cloning and sequencing. In the rhizosphere, 58 AMF species were identified. The genera Acaulospora and Glomus were predominant. However, in the roots, only 14 AMF sequencing groups were found and all had high similarity to Glomeraceae. AMF species identities varied between altitudes and seasons. There were species that contributed the most to this variation. Some soil characteristics (pH, organic matter, microbial activity and microbial biomass carbon) showed a strong relationship with the occurrence of certain species. The highest AMF species diversity, based on Shannon's diversity index, was found for the highest altitude. Seasonality did not affect the diversity. Our results show a high AMF diversity, higher than commonly found in the Atlantic Forest. The AMF detected in roots were not identical to those detected in rhizosperic soil and differences in AMF communities were found in different altitudes even in geographically close-lying sites.

  4. Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Domain Collected With Malaise Traps.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Moreira, Jéssica Adalia Costa; Costa, Tiago Silva da

    2016-11-01

    Here, we present the results of a 2-yr sampling using malaise traps along the Atlantic Forest domain from the northeast to the south of Brazil. In total, 217 sand flies were collected, of which the most abundant species was Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) (60.4%), followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai (Barretto & Coutinho, 1940) (11%) and Micropygomyia schreiberi (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1975) (4.1%), and the remaining less abundant species comprised 10.1% of the total of sand flies collected. We report the occurrence for the first time of: 1) B. flaviscutellata, Pintomyia fischeri (Pinto, 1926), Ps. ayrozai, and Psychodopygus carreirai (Barretto, 1946) in the state of Alagoas; 2) Psychodopygus claustrei (Abonnenc, Lèger & Fauran,1979), Psychodopygus amazonensis (Root, 1934), and Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & del ponte, 1927) in the state of Bahia; 3) Nyssomyia anduzei (Rozeboom, 1942) in the state of Pernambuco; and 4) B. flaviscutellata, M. schreiberi, Ps. ayrozai, and Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934) in the state of Sergipe. Our results present novel records of sand flies collected with malaise traps in the Atlantic Forest domain demonstrating that different collecting methods such as malaise traps can provide new interesting data about these insects that are natural vectors of many pathogens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  7. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change.

    PubMed

    Colombo, A F; Joly, C A

    2010-10-01

    After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica), considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  8. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  9. Regional forestry practices and forest management certification

    Treesearch

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Matthew H. Pelkki

    2001-01-01

    Under a "mandated" management scenario, landowners in states with comprehensive forest practices laws meet more sustainable forestry standards and certification programs' guidelines than do owners in states with other regulatory approaches. This confers certification advantages to landowners in the Pacific Northwest where comprehensive forest laws...

  10. Natural events of anoxia and low respiration index in oligotrophic lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, H.; Fontes, M. L. S.; Petrucio, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    Hypoxia is a well-recognized condition reducing biodiversity and increasing greenhouse gas emissions in aquatic ecosystems, especially under warmer temperatures of tropical waters. Anoxia is a natural event commonly intensified by human-induced organic inputs in inland waters. Here, we assessed the partial pressure of O2 (pO2) and CO2 (pCO2), and the ratio between them (represented by the respiration index, RI) in two oligotrophic lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest, encompassing dry and rainy seasons over 19 months. We formulated the hypothesis that thermal stratification events could be coupled to natural hypoxia in deep waters of both lakes. Our results indicated a persistence of CO2 emissions from these tropical lakes to the atmosphere, on average ± standard error (SE) of 17.4 mg C m-2 h-1 probably subsided by terrestrial C inputs from the forest. Additionally, the thermal stratification during the end of the dry season and the rainy summer was coupled to anoxic events and very low RI in deep waters, and to significantly higher pO2 and RI at the surface (about 20 000 μatm and 1.0, respectively). In contrast, the water mixing during dry seasons at the beginning of the winter was related to a strong destratification in pO2, pCO2 and RI in surface and deep waters, without reaching any anoxic conditions throughout the water column. These findings confirm our hypothesis, suggesting that lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest could be dynamic, but especially sensitive to organic inputs. Natural anoxic events indicate that tropical oligotrophic lakes might be highly influenced by human land uses, which increase organic discharges into the watershed.

  11. Natural events of anoxia and low respiration index in oligotrophic lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, H.; Fontes, M. L. S.; Petrucio, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Hypoxia is a well-recognized condition reducing biodiversity and increasing greenhouse gases emissions in aquatic ecosystems, especially under warmer temperatures of tropical waters. Anoxia is a natural event commonly intensified by human-induced organic inputs in inland waters. Here, we assessed the partial pressure of O2 (pO2) and CO2 (pCO2) and the ratio between both (represented by the respiration index, RI) in two oligotrophic lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest, encompassing dry and rainy seasons over 19 months. We formulated the hypothesis that thermal stratification events could be coupled to natural hypoxia in deep waters of both lakes. Our results indicated a persistence of CO2 emissions from these tropical lakes to the atmosphere, on average ± standard error (SE), 2.3 (±0.3) mmol m-2 h-1 probably subsided by terrestrial C inputs from the forest. Additionally, the thermal stratification during the end of the dry season and the rainy summer was coupled to anoxic events and very low RI in deep waters, and to significantly higher pO2 and RI at the surface (about 20 000 μatm and 1.0, respectively). In contrast, the water mixing during dry seasons in the beginning of the winter was related to a strong destratification in pO2, pCO2 and RI in surface and deep waters, without reaching any anoxic conditions throughout the water column. These findings confirm our hypothesis, suggesting that lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest could be dynamic, but especially sensitive to organic inputs. Natural anoxic events indicate that tropical oligotrophic lakes might be highly influenced by human land uses, which increase organic discharges into the watershed.

  12. A STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased sediments, nutrients, and other contaminants in the Mid-Atlantic region contribute to environmental problems ranging from stream degradation to possibly Pfiesteria attacks in Chesapeake Bay. Restoring riparian areas - the filters between terrestrial watersheds and aquat...

  13. A STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased sediments, nutrients, and other contaminants in the Mid-Atlantic region contribute to environmental problems ranging from stream degradation to possibly Pfiesteria attacks in Chesapeake Bay. Restoring riparian areas - the filters between terrestrial watersheds and aquat...

  14. MID-ATLANTIC LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...

  15. MID-ATLANTIC LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...

  16. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  17. High-Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Biomass for Forest Carbon Monitoring - A Case Study in Three Mid-Atlantic States, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Dolan, K. A.; Johnson, K. D.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate mapping of forest aboveground biomass is critical for reducing uncertainties in carbon monitoring and accounting systems. As part of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System program, we have developed a robust, replicable and scalable framework that quantifies forest structure and aboveground biomass over large areas at high resolution. Discrete return LiDAR data were collected over 150,000 square km area in three Mid-Atlantic States (Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania). A set of 30-m LiDAR metrics derived from LiDAR point clouds were extracted as co-variables for mapping forest aboveground biomass density. Machine learning Random Forest models for four Eco-Regions (i.e., Eastern Broadleaf, Northeastern Mixed, Outer Coastal Plain, and Central Appalachian) were calibrated by linking LiDAR metrics to estimates of biomass from FIA plot measurements that most closely matched the year of LiDAR acquisition. Independent field plot measurements over four eco-regions were used for validation, and spatial errors were estimated at the pixel level using Quantile Random Forests. Additionally, we conducted detailed map comparisons to national products at pixel-, county-, and state-level. Results show that the proposed framework can produce accurate estimates of biomass at fine spatial resolution. High-resolution LiDAR-derived biomass maps such as these, provide a valuable bottom-up reference to improve the analysis and interpretation of large-scale mapping efforts, and future development of a national carbon monitoring system.

  18. Interannual Rainfall Variability in the Tropical Atlantic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun

    2005-01-01

    Rainfall variability on seasonal and interannual-to-interdecadal time scales in the tropical Atlantic is quantified using a 25-year (1979-2003) monthly rainfall dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The ITCZ measured by monthly rainfall between 15-37.5 deg W attains its peak as moving to the northernmost latitude (4-10 deg N) during July-September in which the most total rainfall is observed in the tropical Atlantic basin (17.5 deg S-22.5 deg N, 15 deg-37.5 deg W); the ITCZ becomes weakest during January-February with the least total rainfall as it moves to the south. In contrast, rainfall variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales shows a quite different seasonal preference. The most intense interannual variability occurs during March-May when the ITCZ tends to be near the equator and becomes weaker. Significant, negative correlations between the ITCZ strength and latitude anomalies are observed during boreal spring and early summer. The ITCZ strength and total rainfall amount in the tropical Atlantic basin are significantly modulated by the Pacific El Nino and the Atlantic equatorial mode (or Atlantic Nino) particularly during boreal spring and summer; whereas the impact of the Atlantic interhemispheric mode is considerably weaker. Regarding the anomalous latitudes of the ITCZ, the influence can come from both local, i.e., the Atlantic interhemispheric and equatorial modes, and remote forcings, i. e., El Nino; however, a direct impact of El Nino on the latitudes of the ITCZ can only be found during April-July, not in winter and early spring in which the warmest SST anomalies are usually observed in the equatorial Pacific.

  19. Conceptual ecological model for management of breeding shrubland birds in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2006-01-01

    While grassland birds have become the focus of increased conservation activities, the status of birds occupying shrubland habitats has received relatively little attention (Hunter et al. 2001). Yet, in eastern North America, shrubland birds exhibited consistent population declines during the past 40 years, based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (Pardieck and Sauer 2001). These population declines primarily reflect large-scale changes in land use patterns during the previous century (Lorimer 2001). Large areas of marginal farmland were abandoned and underwent secondary succession during the first half of the twentieth century, producing abundant successional habitats favored by shrubland birds. As these habitats matured, combined with strict fire-suppression policies (Hunter et al. 2001), shrublands succeeded into mature forests, and shrubland bird communities were replaced by woodland birds (Irland 1982; Askins 1993). For example, while nearly 29% of New England forests were classified as sapling stage in 1950, only 8% remained at that stage in the 1980s (Askins 1993). The trend towards forest maturation and loss of shrubland habitats continues, yet concerted conservation activities have not been directed to benefit declining shrubland bird populations. The National Park Service (NPS) could contribute to shrubland bird conservation in the Mid- Atlantic Region. The NPS maintains a number of historic sites and former battlefields managed for their cultural significance but also support wildlife populations. Many of these “cultural parks” maintain open landscapes, recreating land use patterns existing at the times of the historical events. While these open landscapes are frequently managed grasslands, some parks also support successional habitats that could be managed to benefit shrubland birds. In 2005, the NPS initiated a project exploring the potential of “cultural parks” to support significant breeding grassland and shrubland bird

  20. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    PubMed

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  1. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  2. Ozone affects leaf physiology and causes injury to foliage of native tree species from the tropical Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Alves, Edenise Segala; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Schaub, Marcus; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2017-08-19

    In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey. Exposure to 70ppb O3 reduced assimilation and leaf conductance but increased respiration in Astronium graveolens while gas exchange in Croton floribundus was little affected. Both A. graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha developed characteristic O3-induced injury in the foliage, similar to visible symptoms observed in >30% of trees assessed in the MRC, while C. floribundus remained asymptomatic. The underlying structural symptoms in both O3-exposed and field samples were indicative of oxidative burst, hypersensitive responses, accelerated cell senescence and, primarily in field samples, interaction with photo-oxidative stress. The markers of O3 stress were thus mostly similar to those observed in other regions of the world. Further research is needed, to estimate the proportion of sensitive forest species, the O3 impact on tree growth and stand stability and to detect O3 hot spots where woody species in the Atlantic Forest are mostly affected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Air Quality in the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Region: An Aircraft Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marufu, L. T.; Doddridge, B.; Taubman, B.; Piety, C.

    2002-12-01

    Parts of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic and Northeast are frequently in violation of the 125 ppbv 1-hr national ambient air quality standard for ozone (O3). The frequency of occurrence and spatial coverage of these violations are expected to increase when/if new standards for fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone averaged over 8-hr come into effect. Online aircraft measurements provide a powerful tool for determining the levels and origins of both primary and secondary pollutants of interest. During the summer of 2002 the University of Maryland at College Park used a twin engine Piper Aztec-F PA-27-250 aircraft to; investigate pollution transport (ozone, haze, and gaseous precursors) over region, state, and class 1 area boundaries; characterize planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, dynamics and development; investigate cross-corridor (transport corridors, metropolitan/ industrial areas) differences in air quality aloft leading to downwind enhancements in pollutants; investigate mesoscale and sub-regional transport influences (e.g. bay and sea breezes, low-level jets, urban island effects) upon near surface air quality and visibility; acquire in situ data for initialization, constraint, and evaluation of ongoing and planned measurement analyses efforts and modeling studies within the region. A total of 54 research flights (192.5 hours), consisting of fixed-position vertical survey spirals and constant altitude transects, were made upwind, near and downwind of selected major cities/industrial areas, transport corridors and class 1 areas in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic regions. Preliminary results from upwind, near and downwind data show that major cities/industrial areas (Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston) and transport corridors are net sources of primary and secondary pollutants (gaseous precursors, ozone, and haze). Class 1 areas (Shenandoah national park VA, Lye Brook NY, Mt. Washington in New Hampshire NH and Acadia in ME), on the other

  4. Outbreak of human malaria caused by Plasmodium simium in the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro: a molecular epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Zalis, Mariano Gustavo; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Júnior, Cesare Bianco; Silva, Sidnei; Areas, André Luiz Lisboa; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; da Silva Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria; Albuquerque, Hermano Gomes; Cravo, Pedro; Santos de Abreu, Filipe Vieira; Peterka, Cassio Leonel; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Suárez Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria; Culleton, Richard; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2017-10-01

    Malaria was eliminated from southern and southeastern Brazil over 50 years ago. However, an increasing number of autochthonous episodes attributed to Plasmodium vivax have recently been reported from the Atlantic Forest region of Rio de Janeiro state. As the P vivax-like non-human primate malaria parasite species Plasmodium simium is locally enzootic, we performed a molecular epidemiological investigation to determine whether zoonotic malaria transmission is occurring. We examined blood samples from patients presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of malaria as well as from local howler monkeys by microscopy and PCR. Samples were included from individuals if they had a history of travel to or resided in areas within the Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest, but not if they had malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion or tissue or organ transplantation, or had travelled to known malaria endemic areas in the preceding year. Additionally, we developed a molecular assay based on sequencing of the parasite mitochondrial genome to distinguish between P vivax and P simium, and applied this assay to 33 cases from outbreaks that occurred in 2015, and 2016. A total of 49 autochthonous malaria cases were reported in 2015-16. Most patients were male, with a mean age of 44 years (SD 14·6), and 82% lived in urban areas of Rio de Janeiro state and had visited the Atlantic Forest for leisure or work-related activities. 33 cases were used for mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The assay was successfully performed for 28 samples, and all were shown to be P simium, indicative of zoonotic transmission of this species to human beings in this region. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of three of these cases showed that P simium is most closely related to P vivax parasites from South America. The malaria outbreaks in this region were caused by P simium, previously considered to be a monkey-specific malaria parasite, related to but distinct from P vivax, and which has never

  5. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Treesearch

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  6. Lake States regional forest resources assessment: technical papers.

    Treesearch

    Henry H. Webster; J. Michael Vasievich

    1997-01-01

    Contains 21 technical working papers prepared for the Lake States regional forest resources assessment, Lake States Forestry Alliance 1995. They represent significant contributions from many individuals and organizations and form the technical background for the assessment.

  7. Ecology of maritime forests of the southern Atlantic coast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, V.J.

    1995-05-01

    Maritime forests dominated by broadleaved evergreen trees and shrubs occur in a discontinuous narrow band along the barrier islands and on the adjacent mainland from North Carolina to Florida. The flora and fauna of maritime forests typically consist of a distinctive subset of the regional biota that is particularly well adapted to survive the elevated salt content, limited availability of fresh water, soil erosion and dune migration, periodic seawater inundation, and wind damage associated with oceanic storms. Recent recognition of the relatively greater physical stability of maritime forests compared to the beachfront has resulted in intensified urban development within them. Maritime forests across the range have been increasingly impaired by clearing for roads and parking lots and fragmented by subdivision development.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    PubMed

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats.

  9. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  10. Forest Fire Prevention Programs and Their Evaluation In U.S. Forest Service Region 8

    Treesearch

    G. Richard Wetherill

    1982-01-01

    A telephone survey of all national forest ranger districts in Region 8 obtained data describing the status of forest fire prevention program evaluation. Out of the 396 programs being conducted on the 105 districts in the South, only one program had undergone any sort of systematic evaluation. Survey data indicate that ranger district prevention personnel are aware of...

  11. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  12. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  13. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Danielle O; Mendes, Sérgio L

    2016-01-01

    Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605). We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590) to George Marcgrave (1610-1644). We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  14. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Corrêa, Ary; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms.

  15. Application of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to estimate the amount of old growth forest and snag density in the Northern Region of the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses valid use of data produced by the Forest Service?s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and used by the Northern Region of the National Forest System to analyze the compliance of individual National Forests with their Standards and Guidelines. It emphasizes use of FIA data on snag density and the percentage of forest area that meets the...

  16. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A new species of porcupine, genus Coendou (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Antonio Rossano Mendes; Gadelha, José Ramon; Melo, Éverton R A; de Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; Loss, Ana Carolina; Caldara Junior, Vilacio; Costa, Leonora Pires; Leite, Yuri L R

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new species of Coendou (Rodentia, Erethizontidae), here designated Coendou speratus sp. nov. This small porcupine, locally known as coandumirim, is found in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre in the Atlantic coast of northeastern Brazil north of the São Francisco river, one of the most important known biodiversity hotspots. The geographic range of C. speratus overlaps with that of the larger, widespread C. prehensilis, but not with that of C. insidiosus from the southeastern Atlantic forest, nor with that of C. nycthemera, an eastern Amazonian species. Coendou speratus is a small-bodied, long-tailed species that appears to be completely spiny because it lacks long dorsal fur. The dorsal quills have conspicuously brownish red tips that contrast with the blackish dorsal background color. The new species is overall similar to C. nycthemera, but the dorsal body quills are typically tricolored in the former and bicolored in the latter. The new species is externally very distinct from C. insidiosus, especially because the latter has bicolored dorsal quills that are almost completely hidden beneath longer and homogeneous pale or dark hairs.

  18. Forest resources of the prairie region in Missouri

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1948-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant statistics on the forest area and timber volume in the Prairie region of vestern and northern Missouri. Similar reports have been published for the Eastern, Southwestern, and Northwestern Ozark regions, and a release for the River Border region wrill be issued as soon as statistical tabulations have been completed....

  19. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

    PubMed

    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  20. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest domains in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Renata M; Nascimento, Luciana B; Feio, Renato N

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií - FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region.

  1. Forests through the Eye of a Satellite: Understanding regional forest-cover dynamics using Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Matthias

    Forests are changing at an alarming pace worldwide. Forests are an important provider of ecosystem services that contribute to human wellbeing, including the provision of timber and non-timber products, habitat for biodiversity, recreation amenities. Most prominently, forests serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide that ultimately helps to mitigate changes in the global climate. It is thus important to understand where, how and why forests change worldwide. My dissertation provides answers to these questions. The overarching goal of my dissertation is to improve our understanding of regional forest-cover dynamics by analyzing Landsat satellite imagery. I answer where forests change following drastic socio-economic shocks by using the breakdown of the Soviet Union as a natural experiment. My dissertation provides innovative algorithms to answer why forests change---because of human activities or because of natural events such as storms. Finally, I will show how dynamic forests are within one year by providing ways to characterize green-leaf phenology from satellite imagery. With my findings I directly contribute to a better understanding of the processes on the Earth's surface and I highlight the importance of satellite imagery to learn about regional and local forest-cover dynamics.

  2. Region Based Forest Change Detection from CARTOSAT-1 Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J.; Leitloff, J.; Krauß, T.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    Tree height is a fundamental parameter for describing the forest situation and changes. The latest development of automatic Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation techniques allows new approaches of forest change detection from satellite stereo imagery. This paper shows how DSMs can support the change detection in forest area. A novel region based forest change detection method is proposed using single-channel CARTOSAT-1 stereo imagery. In the first step, DSMs from two dates are generated based on automatic matching technology. After co-registration and normalising by using LiDAR data, the mean-shift segmentation is applied to the original pan images, and the images of both dates are classified to forest and non-forest areas by analysing their histograms and height differences. In the second step, a rough forest change detection map is generated based on the comparison of the two forest map. Then the GLCM texture from the nDSM and the Cartosat-1 images of the resulting regions are analyzed and compared, the real changes are extracted by SVM based classification.

  3. Amphibian Beta Diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Contrasting the Roles of Historical Events and Contemporary Conditions at Different Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Arena, Mariana Victorino Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    Current patterns of biodiversity distribution result from a combination of historical and contemporary processes. Here, we compiled checklists of amphibian species to assess the roles of long-term climate stability (Quaternary oscillations), contemporary environmental gradients and geographical distance as determinants of change in amphibian taxonomic and phylogenetic composition in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We calculated beta diversity as both variation in species composition (CBD) and phylogenetic differentiation (PBD) among the assemblages. In both cases, overall beta diversity was partitioned into two basic components: species replacement and difference in species richness. Our results suggest that the CBD and PBD of amphibians are determined by spatial turnover. Geographical distance, current environmental gradients and long-term climatic conditions were complementary predictors of the variation in CBD and PBD of amphibian species. Furthermore, the turnover components between sites from different regions and between sites within the stable region were greater than between sites within the unstable region. On the other hand, the proportion of beta-diversity due to species richness difference for both CBD and PBD was higher between sites in the unstable region than between sites in the stable region. The high turnover components from CBD and PBD between sites in unstable vs stable regions suggest that these distinct regions have different biogeographic histories. Sites in the stable region shared distinct clades that might have led to greater diversity, whereas sites in the unstable region shared close relatives. Taken together, these results indicate that speciation, environmental filtering and limited dispersal are complementary drivers of beta-diversity of amphibian assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. PMID:25295514

  4. Amphibian beta diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: contrasting the roles of historical events and contemporary conditions at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Arena, Mariana Victorino Nicolosi

    2014-01-01

    Current patterns of biodiversity distribution result from a combination of historical and contemporary processes. Here, we compiled checklists of amphibian species to assess the roles of long-term climate stability (Quaternary oscillations), contemporary environmental gradients and geographical distance as determinants of change in amphibian taxonomic and phylogenetic composition in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We calculated beta diversity as both variation in species composition (CBD) and phylogenetic differentiation (PBD) among the assemblages. In both cases, overall beta diversity was partitioned into two basic components: species replacement and difference in species richness. Our results suggest that the CBD and PBD of amphibians are determined by spatial turnover. Geographical distance, current environmental gradients and long-term climatic conditions were complementary predictors of the variation in CBD and PBD of amphibian species. Furthermore, the turnover components between sites from different regions and between sites within the stable region were greater than between sites within the unstable region. On the other hand, the proportion of beta-diversity due to species richness difference for both CBD and PBD was higher between sites in the unstable region than between sites in the stable region. The high turnover components from CBD and PBD between sites in unstable vs stable regions suggest that these distinct regions have different biogeographic histories. Sites in the stable region shared distinct clades that might have led to greater diversity, whereas sites in the unstable region shared close relatives. Taken together, these results indicate that speciation, environmental filtering and limited dispersal are complementary drivers of beta-diversity of amphibian assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  5. Lake states regional forest resources assessments: Technical papers. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, H.H.; Vasievich, J.M.

    1997-07-23

    Contains 21 technical working papers prepared for the Lake States regional forest resources assessment, Lake States Forestry Alliance 1995. They represent significant contributions from many individuals and organizations and form the technical background for the Assessment.

  6. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.V.; Pace, M.L.; Mather, J.R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Howarth, R.W.; Folt, C.L.; Chen, C.-Y.; Hemond, Harold F.; Flebbe, P.A.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous freshwater ecosystems, dense concentrations of humans along the eastern seaboard, extensive forests and a history of intensive land use distinguish the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Human population densities are forecast to increase in portions of the region at the same time that climate is expected to be changing. Consequently, the effects of humans and climatic change are likely to affect freshwater ecosystems within the region interactively. The general climate, at present, is humid continental, and the region receives abundant precipitation. Climatic projections for a 2 ??CO2 atmosphere, however, suggest warmer and drier conditions for much of this region. Annual temperature increases ranging from 3-5??C are projected, with the greatest increases occurring in autumn or winter. According to a water balance model, the projected increase in temperature will result in greater rates of evaporation and evapotranspiration. This could cause a 21 and 31% reduction in annual stream flow in the southern and northern sections of the region, respectively, with greatest reductions occurring in autumn and winter. The amount and duration of snow cover is also projected to decrease across the region, and summer convective thunderstorms are likely to decrease in frequency but increase in intensity. The dual effects of climate change and direct anthropogenic stress will most likely alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes, and, hence, the floral and faunal communities of the region's freshwater ecosystems. For example, the projected increase in evapotranspiration and evaporation could eliminate most bog ecosystems, and increases in water temperature may increase bioaccumulation, and possibly biomagnification, of organic and inorganic contaminants. Not all change may be adverse. For example, a decrease in runoff may reduce the intensity of ongoing estuarine eutrophication, and acidification of aquatic habitats during the spring snowmelt period may be

  7. A biodiversity hotspot losing its top predator: The challenge of jaguar conservation in the Atlantic Forest of South America

    PubMed Central

    Paviolo, Agustin; De Angelo, Carlos; Ferraz, Katia M. P. M. B.; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Martinez Pardo, Julia; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Beisiegel, Beatriz de Mello; Lima, Fernando; Sana, Denis; Xavier da Silva, Marina; Velázquez, Myriam C.; Cullen, Laury; Crawshaw Jr, Peter; Jorge, María Luisa S. P.; Galetti, Pedro M.; Di Bitetti, Mario S.; de Paula, Rogerio Cunha; Eizirik, Eduardo; Aide, T. Mitchell; Cruz, Paula; Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Souza, Andiara S. M. C.; Quiroga, Verónica; Nakano, Eduardo; Ramírez Pinto, Fredy; Fernández, Sixto; Costa, Sebastian; Moraes Jr, Edsel A.; Azevedo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The jaguar is the top predator of the Atlantic Forest (AF), which is a highly threatened biodiversity hotspot that occurs in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. By combining data sets from 14 research groups across the region, we determine the population status of the jaguar and propose a spatial prioritization for conservation actions. About 85% of the jaguar’s habitat in the AF has been lost and only 7% remains in good condition. Jaguars persist in around 2.8% of the region, and live in very low densities in most of the areas. The population of jaguars in the AF is probably lower than 300 individuals scattered in small sub-populations. We identified seven Jaguar Conservation Units (JCUs) and seven potential JCUs, and only three of these areas may have ≥50 individuals. A connectivity analysis shows that most of the JCUs are isolated. Habitat loss and fragmentation were the major causes for jaguar decline, but human induced mortality is the main threat for the remaining population. We classified areas according to their contribution to jaguar conservation and we recommend management actions for each of them. The methodology in this study could be used for conservation planning of other carnivore species. PMID:27849006

  8. A biodiversity hotspot losing its top predator: The challenge of jaguar conservation in the Atlantic Forest of South America.

    PubMed

    Paviolo, Agustin; De Angelo, Carlos; Ferraz, Katia M P M B; Morato, Ronaldo G; Martinez Pardo, Julia; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C; Beisiegel, Beatriz de Mello; Lima, Fernando; Sana, Denis; Xavier da Silva, Marina; Velázquez, Myriam C; Cullen, Laury; Crawshaw, Peter; Jorge, María Luisa S P; Galetti, Pedro M; Di Bitetti, Mario S; de Paula, Rogerio Cunha; Eizirik, Eduardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Cruz, Paula; Perilli, Miriam L L; Souza, Andiara S M C; Quiroga, Verónica; Nakano, Eduardo; Ramírez Pinto, Fredy; Fernández, Sixto; Costa, Sebastian; Moraes, Edsel A; Azevedo, Fernando

    2016-11-16

    The jaguar is the top predator of the Atlantic Forest (AF), which is a highly threatened biodiversity hotspot that occurs in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. By combining data sets from 14 research groups across the region, we determine the population status of the jaguar and propose a spatial prioritization for conservation actions. About 85% of the jaguar's habitat in the AF has been lost and only 7% remains in good condition. Jaguars persist in around 2.8% of the region, and live in very low densities in most of the areas. The population of jaguars in the AF is probably lower than 300 individuals scattered in small sub-populations. We identified seven Jaguar Conservation Units (JCUs) and seven potential JCUs, and only three of these areas may have ≥50 individuals. A connectivity analysis shows that most of the JCUs are isolated. Habitat loss and fragmentation were the major causes for jaguar decline, but human induced mortality is the main threat for the remaining population. We classified areas according to their contribution to jaguar conservation and we recommend management actions for each of them. The methodology in this study could be used for conservation planning of other carnivore species.

  9. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L L; Akçakaya, H Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.

  10. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C.; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes. PMID:27973584

  11. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  12. Effects of soil mechanical resistance on nematode community structure under conventional sugarcane and remaining of Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Cardoso, Mércia; Pedrosa, Elvira M R; Rolim, Mário M; Silva, Enio F F E; de Barros, Patrícia A

    2012-06-01

    Nematodes present high potential as a biological indicator of soil quality. In this work, it was evaluated relations between soil physical properties and nematode community under sugarcane cropping and remaining of Atlantic Forest areas in Northeastern Pernambuco, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from September to November 2009 along two 200-m transects in both remaining of Atlantic Forest and sugarcane field at deeps of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm. For soil characterization, it was carried out analysis of soil size, water content, total porosity, bulk density, and particle density. The level of soil mechanical resistance was evaluated through a digital penetrometer. Nematodes were extracted per 300 cm(3) of soil through centrifugal flotation in sucrose being quantified, classified according trophic habit, and identified in level of genus or family. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation at 5% of probability. Geostatistical analysis showed that the penetration resistance, water content, total porosity, and bulk density on both forest and cultivated area exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale, and their experimental semivariograms were fitted to spherical and exponential models. In forest area, the ectoparasites and free-living nematodes exhibited spherical model. In sugarcane field, the soil nematodes exhibited pure nugget effect. Pratylenchus sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. were prevalent in sugarcane field, but in forest, there was prevalence of Dorylaimidae and Rhabditidae. Total amount of nematode did not differ between environments; however, community trophic structure in forest presented prevalence of free-living nematodes: omnivores followed by bacterial-feeding soil nematodes, while plant-feeding nematodes were prevalent in sugarcane field. The nematode diversity was higher in the remaining of Atlantic Forest. However, the soil mechanical resistance was higher under sugarcane cropping, affecting more directly the free

  13. Biochemical leaf traits as indicators of tolerance potential in tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest against oxidative environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Solange E; Bulbovas, Patricia; Lima, Marcos E L; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study. We aimed at determining the tolerance potential of tree species from the Atlantic Forest remnants in SE Brazil against multiple oxidative environmental stressors. We assumed that pioneer tree species are more tolerant against oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species and that their tolerance potential vary spatially in response to distinct combined effects of oxidative environmental stressors. The study was carried out in three Atlantic Forest remnants, which differ in physiognomy, species composition, climatic characteristics and air pollution exposure. Leaves of three pioneer and three non-pioneer species were collected from each forest remnant during wet (January 2015) and dry periods (June 2015), for analyses of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury indicators. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The pioneer tree species displayed biochemical leaf traits (e.g. high levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids and lower lipid peroxidation) that indicate their higher potential tolerance against oxidative environmental stressors than non-pioneer species. The biochemical leaf traits of both successional groups of species varied between the forest remnants, in response to a linear combination of oxidative environmental stressors, from natural (relative humidity and temperature) and anthropogenic sources (ozone and nitrogen dioxide).

  14. Long-term seasonal dominance of the wasp Trihapsis polita Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Alexandre P; Tedesco, Anazélia M; Fontenelle, Julio C R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The temporal dynamics of insect populations in tropical environments is highly complex and poorly known. Long-term seasonality studies are scarce, and particularly so for ichneumonid wasps (Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae). This study represents an effort to elucidate aspects of seasonality and forest succession in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. New information We report on the seasonal and successional dominance of the ichneumonid wasp Trihapsis polita (Cryptinae). A long-term survey of Cryptinae was carried out in a protected area of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in primary, tall secondary and low secondary forest areas. Specimens were collected during rainy season (RS) and dry season (DS) between 2000 and 2008, with total sampling effort of 4,095 trap-days. A total of 8,385 specimens of Cryptinae were collected, of which 6,655 (79.4%) belonged to T. polita. The occurrence of T. polita species was heavily concentrated in the RS, with abundance 148× higher than during the DS. Seasonal fluctuation was also detected for Cryptinae as a whole, but was two orders of magnitude lower. Sampling efficiency also varied widely among areas, with the peak of abundance at the tall secondary forest. The dominance of T. polita in secondary vegetation might be of general interest, as this type of forest is currently on the rise, due to unprecedented levels of human pressure. PMID:28325982

  15. Long-term seasonal dominance of the wasp Trihapsis polita Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bernardo F; Aguiar, Alexandre P; Tedesco, Anazélia M; Fontenelle, Julio C R

    2017-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of insect populations in tropical environments is highly complex and poorly known. Long-term seasonality studies are scarce, and particularly so for ichneumonid wasps (Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae). This study represents an effort to elucidate aspects of seasonality and forest succession in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We report on the seasonal and successional dominance of the ichneumonid wasp Trihapsis polita (Cryptinae). A long-term survey of Cryptinae was carried out in a protected area of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in primary, tall secondary and low secondary forest areas. Specimens were collected during rainy season (RS) and dry season (DS) between 2000 and 2008, with total sampling effort of 4,095 trap-days. A total of 8,385 specimens of Cryptinae were collected, of which 6,655 (79.4%) belonged to T. polita. The occurrence of T. polita species was heavily concentrated in the RS, with abundance 148× higher than during the DS. Seasonal fluctuation was also detected for Cryptinae as a whole, but was two orders of magnitude lower. Sampling efficiency also varied widely among areas, with the peak of abundance at the tall secondary forest. The dominance of T. polita in secondary vegetation might be of general interest, as this type of forest is currently on the rise, due to unprecedented levels of human pressure.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the current status of forested, wetland, freshwater and coastal ecosystems; the combined impacts of habitat alteration, pollution and non-native invasive species on those systems; how climatic changes could interact with existing stresses; potential managemen...

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the current status of forested, wetland, freshwater and coastal ecosystems; the combined impacts of habitat alteration, pollution and non-native invasive species on those systems; how climatic changes could interact with existing stresses; potential managemen...

  18. Surface Temperature Trends in the Arctic Atlantic Region Over the Last 2,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhola, A.; Hanhijarvi, S.; Tingley, M.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost Atlantic region, which we call Arctic Atlantic, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic Atlantic is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic Atlantic regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic Atlantic than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic Atlantic reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset of the recent warming trend.

  19. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-01-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

  20. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CONTAMINATION OF FISH IN STREAMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: AN APPROACH TO REGIONAL INDICATOR SELECTION AND WILDLIFE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of contamination of fish in the Mid-Atlantic Region was evaluated as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Monitoring and Assessment Program's regional assessment in 1993 through 1994. Fish assemblages from wadeable streams were dominated by small, short-...

  2. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M

    2007-09-19

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (-30.3%), floral types (-23.6%), and floral sizes (-20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly reduces

  3. Changes in Tree Reproductive Traits Reduce Functional Diversity in a Fragmented Atlantic Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2007-01-01

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments-pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals-and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (−30.3%), floral types (−23.6%), and floral sizes (−20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly

  4. Communication from the National Forest Inventories Working Group of the 16th Caribbean Foresters meeting: proposal for a regional workshop

    Treesearch

    Humfredo Marcano-Vega; Carlton Roberts; Henri Valles; Jacqueline Andre; Kevin Boswell; Dennis Lemen; Floyd Liburd; Christian López

    2016-01-01

    We addressed the National Forests Inventories Working Group of the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting to propose a series of training modules regarding how to conduct national forest inventories and analyze the data collected. Improving regional capacity is crucial to ensuring the sustainable management of Caribbean forest ecosystems. We focused on the statistical and...

  5. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Treesearch

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  6. Fire Restoration in the Northern Region, USDA Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Glenda Scott; Steve Shelly; Jim Olivarez

    2005-01-01

    Restoring native plant communities is a key objective in the maintenance of healthy ecosystems. Opportunities have increased following recent wildfires. This paper describes the policy and history behind the reforestation and restoration programs in the Northern Region (Region 1) of the USDA Forest Service, which focused primarily on meeting the objectives in the...

  7. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  8. Landscape responses of bats to habitat fragmentation in Atlantic forest of paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Willig, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on populations or communities is critical to effective conservation and restoration. This is particularly important for bats because they provide vital services to ecosystems via pollination and seed dispersal, especially in tropical and subtropical habitats. Based on more than 1,000 h of survey during a 15-month period, we quantified species abundances and community structure of phyllostomid bats at 14 sites in a 3,000-km2 region of eastern Paraguay. Abundance was highest for Artibeus lituratus in deforested landscapes and for Chrotopterus auritus in forested habitats. In contrast, Artibeus fimbriatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Pygoderma bilabiatum, and Sturnira lilium attained highest abundance in moderately fragmented forest landscapes. Forest cover, patch size, and patch density frequently were associated with abundance of species. At the community level, species richness was highest in partly deforested landscapes, whereas evenness was greatest in forested habitat. In general, the highest diversity of bats occurred in landscapes comprising moderately fragmented forest habitat. This underscores the importance of remnant habitat patches to conservation strategies.

  9. Mid-Atlantic Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the deliberations of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the District of Columbia and…

  10. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) region of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC region in response to higher levels o...

  11. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) region of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC region in response to higher levels o...

  12. Phenological Variation Within and Among Populations of Plathymenia reticulata in Brazilian Cerrado, the Atlantic Forest and Transitional Sites

    PubMed Central

    GOULART, MAÍRA FIGUEIREDO; LEMOS FILHO, JOSÉ PIRES; LOVATO, MARIA BERNADETE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) is a Brazilian tree that occurs in two biomes: Cerrado, a woody savanna vegetation, and the Atlantic Forest, a tropical forest. In this study, phenological patterns and their variability within and among populations located in these biomes and in transitional zones between them were assessed. • Methods During a 15-month period, individuals from two populations in Cerrado, two in the Atlantic Forest, and six in transitional zones (three in a cerrado-like environment and three in forest fragments) were evaluated in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The individuals were evaluated monthly according to the proportion of the canopy in each vegetative phenophase (leaf fall, leaf flush and mature leaves) and each reproductive phenophase (floral buds, flowers, immature fruits and mature fruit/seed dispersal). In order to assess the phenological variability within and among populations, habitats and biomes, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, the Morisita–Horn similarity index and genetic population approach of partitioning diversity were used. • Key Results Populations of P. reticulata, in general, showed similar phenology; the main differences were related to leaf fall, a process that starts months earlier in the Cerrado than in transitional sites, and even later in forest areas. Considerable synchrony was observed for reproductive phenology among populations and between biomes. Most phenological diversity was due to differences among individuals within populations. • Conclusion In spite of environmental differences, P. reticulata from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado showed similar phenological behavior with only about 10 % of the total diversity being attributed to differences between biomes. PMID:15972799

  13. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.

  14. Biomass change in an Atlantic tropical moist forest: the ENSO effect in permanent sample plots over a 22-year period.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Samir G; Jesus, Renato M; Nascimento, Henrique E M; do Couto, Hilton T Z; Chambers, Jeffrey Q

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of controversies surrounding both biomass estimation and carbon balance in tropical forests. Here we use long-term (from 1978 through 2000) data from five 0.5-ha permanent sample plots (PSPs) within a large tract of relatively undisturbed Atlantic moist forest in southeastern Brazil to quantify the biomass increment (DeltaM(I)), and change in total stand biomass (DeltaM(stand)), from mortality, recruitment, and growth data for trees >/=10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Despite receiving an average of only 1,200 mm annual precipitation, total forests biomass (334.5+/-11.3 Mg ha(-1)) was comparable to moist tropical forests with much greater precipitation. Over this relatively long-term study, forest biomass experienced rapid declines associated with El Niño events, followed by gradual biomass accumulation. Over short time intervals that overlook extreme events, these dynamics can be misinterpreted as net biomass accumulation. However for the 22 years of this study, there was a small reduction in forest biomass, averaging -1.2 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) (+/-3.1). Strong climatic disturbances can severely reduce forest biomass, and if the frequency and intensity of these events increases beyond historical averages, these changing disturbance regimes have the capacity to significantly reduce forest biomass, resulting in a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic Xiphorhynchus fuscus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae): biogeography and systematics implications.

    PubMed

    Cabanne, Gustavo S; d'Horta, Fernando M; Sari, Eloisa H R; Santos, Fabrício R; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2008-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific evolutionary history of the South American Atlantic forest endemic Xiphorhynchusfuscus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) to address questions such as: Was the diversification of this bird's populations associated to areas of avian endemism? Which models of speciation (i.e., refuges, river as barriers or geotectonism) explain the diversification within X. fuscus? Does the genetic data support subspecies as independent evolutionary units (species)? We used mitochondrial (n=34) and nuclear (n=68) DNA sequences of X. fuscus to study temporal and spatial relationships within and between populations. We described four main monophyletic lineages that diverged during the Pleistocene. The subspecies taxonomy did not match all the evolutionary lineages; subspecies atlanticus was the only one that represented a monophyletic and isolated lineage. The distribution of these lineages coincided with some areas of endemism for passerines, suggesting that those areas could be regions of biotic differentiation. The ancestor of X. fuscus diverged approximately 3 million years ago from Amazonian taxa and the phylogeographic pattern suggested that X. fuscus radiated from northeastern Brazil. Neither the riverine nor the geotectonic vicariance models are supported as the primary cause for diversification of geographic lineages, but rainforest contractions and expansions (ecological vicariance) can explain most of the spatial divergence observed in this species. Finally, analyses of gene flow and divergence time estimates suggest that the endangered subspecies atlanticus (from northeastern Brazil) can be considered a full species under the general lineage species concept.

  16. A new plate motions model for the central Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, L.; Schettino, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the plate kinematics associated with the opening of the central Atlantic ocean after the break-up of Pangaea has been the subject of several studies since the late 1960s, there are still open problems and debated solutions to the tectonic evolution of this area. In particular, the initial fit of Pangaea, the spreading directions during the early stages of opening, the existence of ridge jumps, and the entity of deformation processes in northwest Africa are still subject to different interpretations by distinct research groups. We performed a reassessment of the central Atlantic plate kinematics since the early Jurassic through a re-examination of marine magnetic anomalies and fracture zone trends. A total of 432 ship tracks from the NGDC GEODAS database for the time interval from 1964 through 1994 in the area comprised between the Fifteen-Twenty FZ and the Azores triple junction were analyzed. The data quality was assessed through the examination of Kp indices, and 191 magnetic profiles were extracted having an azimuth that differed from the fracture zones trend by less than 30° and did not cross any fracture zone. Magnetic data collected during moderately disturbed days (Kp > 5) were also filtered away. The 191 ship track segments were projected onto flow lines that parallel existing fracture zones in order to avoid shape distortion of the magnetic anomalies. Finally, the magnetic data were high-pass filtered to remove trends. A new advanced software tool for the analysis and interpretation of the anomalies was developed in order to improve the reliability of magnetic anomaly identifications. The main result of this work is a new map of the magnetic lineations in the central Atlantic, which overcomes the flaws of previous maps. The structural pattern that results from this study evidences that: 1) a unique spreading direction existed during the early and middle Jurassic, and until the M25 - M21 time interval in the late Jurassic. Such a spreading

  17. A Multiscale Approach Indicates a Severe Reduction in Atlantic Forest Wetlands and Highlights that São Paulo Marsh Antwren Is on the Brink of Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Del-Rio, Glaucia; Rêgo, Marco Antonio; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species’ distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest), Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy) of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis) densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems. PMID:25798608

  18. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that São Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

    PubMed

    Del-Rio, Glaucia; Rêgo, Marco Antonio; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest), Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy) of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis) densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems.

  19. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  20. Interannual-to-decadal air-sea interactions in the tropical Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

    2001-09-01

    The present research identifies modes of atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Atlantic region and the mechanisms by which air-sea interactions influence the regional climate. Novelties of the present work are (1)the use of relevant ocean and atmosphere variables important to identity coupled variability in the system. (2)The use of new data sets, including realistic diabatic heating. (3)The study of interactions between ocean and atmosphere relevant at interannual-to-decadal time scales. Two tropical modes of variability are identified during the period 1958-1993, the Atlantic Niño mode and the Interhemispheric mode. Those modes have defined structures in both ocean and atmosphere. Anomalous sea surface temperatures and winds are associated to anomalous placement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). They develop maximum amplitude during boreal summer and spring, respectively. The anomalous positioning of the ITCZ produces anomalous precipitation in some places like Nordeste, Brazil and the Caribbean region. Through the use of a diagnostic primitive equation model, it is found that the most important terms controlling local anomalous surface winds over the ocean are boundary layer temperature gradients and diabatic heating anomalies at low levels (below 780 mb). The latter is of particular importance in the deep tropics in producing the anomalous meridional response to the surface circulation. Simulated latent heat anomalies indicate that a thermodynamic feedback establishes positive feedbacks at both sides of the equator and west of 20°W in the deep tropics and a negative feedback in front of the north west coast of Africa for the Interhemispheric mode. This thermodynamic feedback only establishes negative feedbacks for the Atlantic Niño mode. Transients establish some connection between the tropical Atlantic and other basins. Interhemispheric gradients of surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic influence winds in the midlatitude North

  1. Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hot spot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Presas, M; Sánchez-Gracia, A; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

    2014-06-01

    The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hot spots, is severely damaged by human activities. To formulate an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, the land planarian species Cephaloflexa bergi (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida). Analysing multi-locus DNA sequence variation under the Approximate Bayesian Computation framework, we evaluated two scenarios proposed to explain the diversity of Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF) region. We found that most sampled localities harbour high levels of genetic diversity, with lineages sharing common ancestors that predate the Pleistocene. Remarkably, we detected the molecular hallmark of the isolation-by-distance effect and little evidence of a recent colonization of SAF localities; nevertheless, some populations might result from very recent secondary contacts. We conclude that extant SAF biodiversity originated and has been shaped by complex interactions between ancient geological events and more recent evolutionary processes, whereas Pleistocene climate changes had a minor influence in generating present-day diversity. We also demonstrate that land planarians are an advantageous biological model for making phylogeographic and, particularly, fine-scale evolutionary inferences, and propose appropriate conservation policies.

  2. Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hot spot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Presas, M; Sánchez-Gracia, A; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hot spots, is severely damaged by human activities. To formulate an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, the land planarian species Cephaloflexa bergi (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida). Analysing multi-locus DNA sequence variation under the Approximate Bayesian Computation framework, we evaluated two scenarios proposed to explain the diversity of Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF) region. We found that most sampled localities harbour high levels of genetic diversity, with lineages sharing common ancestors that predate the Pleistocene. Remarkably, we detected the molecular hallmark of the isolation-by-distance effect and little evidence of a recent colonization of SAF localities; nevertheless, some populations might result from very recent secondary contacts. We conclude that extant SAF biodiversity originated and has been shaped by complex interactions between ancient geological events and more recent evolutionary processes, whereas Pleistocene climate changes had a minor influence in generating present-day diversity. We also demonstrate that land planarians are an advantageous biological model for making phylogeographic and, particularly, fine-scale evolutionary inferences, and propose appropriate conservation policies. PMID:24549112

  3. Regional seesaw between the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas during the last glacial abrupt climate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wary, Mélanie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Matthiessen, Jens; Kissel, Catherine; Zumaque, Jena; Rossignol, Linda; Jouzel, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations constitute one of the most enigmatic features of the last glacial cycle. Their cold atmospheric phases have been commonly associated with cold sea-surface temperatures and expansion of sea ice in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Here, based on dinocyst analyses from the 48-30 ka interval of four sediment cores from the northern Northeast Atlantic and southern Norwegian Sea, we provide direct and quantitative evidence of a regional paradoxical seesaw pattern: cold Greenland and North Atlantic phases coincide with warmer sea-surface conditions and shorter seasonal sea-ice cover durations in the Norwegian Sea as compared to warm phases. Combined with additional palaeorecords and multi-model hosing simulations, our results suggest that during cold Greenland phases, reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and cold North Atlantic sea-surface conditions were accompanied by the subsurface propagation of warm Atlantic waters that re-emerged in the Nordic Seas and provided moisture towards Greenland summit.

  4. Habitat, food, and climate affecting leaf litter anuran assemblages in an Atlantic Forest remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Camila Rabelo; Pires, Maria Rita Silvério; Eterovick, Paula Cabral

    2014-07-01

    Leaf litter anuran assemblages include both species that have terrestrial development and species that, during the breeding season, aggregate around bodies of water where their tadpoles develop. The resources used by these two groups in the leaf litter are likely to differ, as well as their sampled species richness, abundance and biomass as resource availability changes. We conducted a 12-month survey of leaf litter anuran assemblages at three forest areas in the largest Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Each month we estimated, based on capture rates, anuran species richness, abundance, and biomass as assemblage descriptors. We also measured variables that could potentially affect these descriptors in space and time: invertebrate litter fauna (abundance and richness of taxa), leaf litter biomass, and microclimatic conditions (air humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, and rainfall). We tested for differences in these variables among areas. We used general linear models to search for the variables that best explained variation in anuran abundance (based on capture rates) throughout the year. We analyzed species with terrestrial development (TD) and with aquatic larvae (AL) separately. We recorded 326 anurans of 15 species. Sampled anuran abundance (correlated to species richness and biomass) was explained by air humidity and/or invertebrate abundance for species with TD, and by soil water content or air humidity and leaf litter biomass for species with AL. The variability in the results of studies on leaf litter frogs that try to find variables to explain changes in community descriptors may be due to spatial variation of resources among areas and also to the fact that TD and AL species are frequently analyzed together, when in fact they are likely to show different responses to resources present in the leaf litter habitat, reflected on capture rates.

  5. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    PubMed

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  6. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species’ flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548

  7. Forest Canopy Processes in a Regional Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Staebler, Ralf; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Zhang, Junhua; McLinden, Chris; Kharol, Shailesh; Moran, Michael; Robichaud, Alain; Zhang, Leiming; Stroud, Craig; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Forest canopies have typically been absent or highly parameterized in regional chemical transport models. Some forest-related processes are often considered - for example, biogenic emissions from the forests are included as a flux lower boundary condition on vertical diffusion, as is deposition to vegetation. However, real forest canopies comprise a much more complicated set of processes, at scales below the "transport model-resolved scale" of vertical levels usually employed in regional transport models. Advective and diffusive transport within the forest canopy typically scale with the height of the canopy, and the former process tends to dominate over the latter. Emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons arise from the foliage, which may be located tens of metres above the surface, while emissions of biogenic nitric oxide from decaying plant matter are located at the surface - in contrast to the surface flux boundary condition usually employed in chemical transport models. Deposition, similarly, is usually parameterized as a flux boundary condition, but may be differentiated between fluxes to vegetation and fluxes to the surface when the canopy scale is considered. The chemical environment also changes within forest canopies: shading, temperature, and relativity humidity changes with height within the canopy may influence chemical reaction rates. These processes have been observed in a host of measurement studies, and have been simulated using site-specific one-dimensional forest canopy models. Their influence on regional scale chemistry has been unknown, until now. In this work, we describe the results of the first attempt to include complex canopy processes within a regional chemical transport model (GEM-MACH). The original model core was subdivided into "canopy" and "non-canopy" subdomains. In the former, three additional near-surface layers based on spatially and seasonally varying satellite-derived canopy height and leaf area index were added to the original model

  8. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  9. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively.

  10. Different regional climatic drivers of Holocene large wildfires in boreal forests of northeastern America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Cécile C.; Hély, Christelle; Blarquez, Olivier; Magnan, Gabriel; Bergeron, Yves; Lavoie, Martin; Ali, Adam A.

    2017-03-01

    Global warming could increase climatic instability and large wildfire activity in circumboreal regions, potentially impairing both ecosystem functioning and human health. However, links between large wildfire events and climatic and/or meteorological conditions are still poorly understood, partly because few studies have covered a wide range of past climate-fire interactions. We compared palaeofire and simulated climatic data over the last 7000 years to assess causes of large wildfire events in three coniferous boreal forest regions in north-eastern Canada. These regions span an east-west cline, from a hilly region influenced by the Atlantic Ocean currently dominated by Picea mariana and Abies balsamea to a flatter continental region dominated by Picea mariana and Pinus banksiana. The largest wildfires occurred across the entire study zone between 3000 and 1000 cal. BP. In western and central continental regions these events were triggered by increases in both the fire-season length and summer/spring temperatures, while in the eastern region close to the ocean they were likely responses to hydrological (precipitation/evapotranspiration) variability. The impact of climatic drivers on fire size varied spatially across the study zone, confirming that regional climate dynamics could modulate effects of global climate change on wildfire regimes.

  11. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Carignano Torres, Patricia; Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources-especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests-is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point.

  12. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): an example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Bertolotto, Carolina Elena Viña; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Freire, Eliza Maria Xavier; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2014-12-01

    The endemic Brazilian Enyalius encompasses a diverse group of forest lizards with most species restricted to the Atlantic Forest (AF). Their taxonomy is problematic due to extensive variation in color pattern and external morphology. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on 2102 bp of the mtDNA (cyt-b, ND4, and 16S) and nuclear (c-mos) regions, uncovering all previously admitted taxa (9 spp). Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored with Urostrophus vautieri, Anisolepis grilli and A. longicauda as outgroups. The monophyly of Enyalius and its split into two deeply divergent clades (late Oligocene and early Miocene) is strongly supported. Clade A assembles most lineages restricted to south and southeastern Brazil, and within it Enyalius brasiliensis is polyphyletic; herein full species status of E. brasiliensis and E. boulengeri is resurrected. Clade B unites the Amazonian E. leechii as sister-group to a major clade containing E. bilineatus as sister-group to all remaining species from northeastern Brazil. We detected unrecognized diversity in several populations suggesting putative species. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Enyalius keeps fidelity to shadowed forests, with few cases of dispersal into open regions. Ancient dispersal into the Amazon from an AF ancestor may have occurred through northeastern Brazil.

  13. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  14. Anthropophily of Lutzomyia wellcomei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  16. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H; Pombal, José P

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care.

  17. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings.

  18. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Angélica H.; Oliveira, Pablo V.; Britto, Karollini B.; Freire, Bárbara F.; Moreno, Marcel R.; dos Santos, Alexandre R.; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G.

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  19. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  20. Evaluating the ecological integrity of Atlantic forest remnants by using rapid ecological assessment.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Hugo Reis; Torezan, José Marcelo

    2013-05-01

    The need for quick identification of priority areas for biodiversity protection makes rapid assessment methods important management tools for defining conservation strategies. An increasingly used rapid assessment method is rapid ecological assessment (REA), a fast and flexible survey directed toward selected indicator species and vegetation forms. The purpose of this study was to propose and test REA based on plant community features of the semideciduous Atlantic forest (SAF). Correlation tests were performed between data collected by REA and plant species diversity, richness, and abundance collected by conventional woody plant inventory methods. The study was conducted in 21 SAF patches in Northern Paraná State, Brazil. The phytosociological inventory was conducted along a single transect and required 2 days to complete (excluding time spent for herbarium identification), whereas REA was conducted along three to four transects per working day. REA results correlated positively with woody plant diversity, proving REA to be an efficient method for defining the conservation status of SAF fragments, but accuracy of evaluations of threats to biological integrity are relatively low. Both the selection of appropriate variables and the skill level of field staff are critical and can strongly influence REA results.

  1. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida.

  2. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  3. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Ramiris C. S.; Vivas, Caio V.; Oliveira, Fernanda A.; Menezes, Ivandilson P. P.; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, HE and HO, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average HE = 0.809 and HO = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10–11, respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  4. The roles of barriers, refugia, and chromosomal clines underlying diversification in Atlantic Forest social wasps.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Brady, Seán G; Carvalho, Antônio F; Del Lama, Marco A; Costa, Marco A

    2017-08-09

    Phylogeographic studies have sought to explain the genetic imprints of historical climatic changes and geographic barriers within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) biota, and consequently two processes of diversification (refugia and barriers) have been proposed. Additionally, there is evidence that eustatic changes influenced the biogeographic history of the AF. Here we evaluate these contrasting diversification processes using two AF social wasp species - the mid-montane Synoeca cyanea and the lowland Synoeca aff. septentrionalis. We analyzed several sources of data including multilocus DNA sequence, climatic niche models and chromosomal features. We find support for idiosyncratic phylogeographic patterns between these wasps, involving different levels of population structure and genetic diversity, contrary suitable climatic conditions during the last glaciation, and contrasting historical movements along the AF. Our data indicate that neotectonics and refugia played distinct roles in shaping the genetic structure of these wasps. However, we argue that eustatic changes influenced the demographic expansion but not population structure in AF biota. Notably, these wasps exhibited chromosomal clines, involving chromosome number and decreasing of GC content, latitudinally oriented along the AF. Together, these results reinforce the need to consider individual organismal histories and indicate that barriers and refugia are significant factors in understanding AF evolution.

  5. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  6. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Almeida, Viviane Medeiros de; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample) were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals) we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  7. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  8. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids.

  9. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity.

  10. Characterization of ciliate diversity in bromeliad tank waters from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Simão, Taiz L L; Borges, Adriana Giongo; Gano, Kelsey A; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Fagen, Jennie R; Triplett, Eric W; Dias, Raquel; Mondin, Claudio A; da Silva, Renata M; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R P

    2017-05-17

    Bromeliads are a diverse group of plants that includes many species whose individuals are capable of retaining water, forming habitats called phytotelmata. These habitats harbor a diversity of organisms including prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans, and fungi. Among single-celled eukaryotic organisms, ciliates are generally the most abundant. In the present study, we used Illumina DNA sequencing to survey the eukaryotic communities, especially ciliates, inhabiting the tanks of the bromeliads Aechmea gamosepala and Vriesea platynema in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. Filtered sequences were clustered into distinct OTUs using a 99% identity threshold, and then assigned to phylum and genus using a BLAST-based approach (implemented in QIIME) and the SILVA reference database. Both bromeliad species harbored very diverse eukaryotic communities, with Arthropoda and Ciliophora showing the highest abundance (as estimated by the number of sequence reads). The ciliate genus Tetrahymena was the most abundant among single-celled organisms, followed by apicomplexan gregarines and the ciliate genus Glaucoma. Another interesting finding was the presence and high abundance of Trypanosoma in these bromeliad tanks, demonstrating their occurrence in this type of environment. The results presented here demonstrate a hidden diversity of eukaryotes in bromeliad tank waters, opening up new avenues for their in-depth characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  12. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-07-22

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions.

  13. Endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of endangered native orchids from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sabrina Feliciano; Bocayuva, Melissa Faust; Veloso, Tomás Gomes Reis; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; da Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    The composition and diversity of fungal communities associated with three endangered orchid species, Hadrolaelia jongheana, Hoffmannseggella caulescens, and Hoffmannseggella cinnabarina, found in different vegetation formations of the Atlantic Forest were determined by constructing clone libraries and by applying diversity and richness indices. Our results demonstrated the presence of Basidiomycetes. Sebacinales (81.61%) and Cantharellales (12.10%) were the dominant orders and are potential candidates for orchid mycorrhizal fungi. The Ascomycetes identified included the Helotiales (29.31%), Capnodiales (18.10%), and Sordariales (10.34%), among others. These orders may represent potentially endophytic fungi. A Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') analysis showed a relatively high fungal community diversity associated with these tropical orchids. This diversity may offer greater flexibility in terms of the adaptation of the plants to changing environmental conditions and the potential facilitation of reintroduction programs. The Simpson diversity index values showed that all of the libraries included dominant species, and a LIBSHUFF analysis showed that the fungal communities were structurally different from each other, suggesting an influence of local factors on this diversity. This study offers important information for the development of conservation strategies for threatened and endemic species of Brazilian flora in an important and threatened hotspot.

  14. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  15. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot. Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions. PMID:26136440

  16. Evaluating the impact of abrupt changes in forest policy and management practices on landscape dynamics: analysis of a Landsat image time series in the Atlantic Northern Forest.

    PubMed

    Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging <15 ha) and a correspondingly large amount of edge. Management regimes impacted different areas to

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Abrupt Changes in Forest Policy and Management Practices on Landscape Dynamics: Analysis of a Landsat Image Time Series in the Atlantic Northern Forest

    PubMed Central

    Legaard, Kasey R.; Sader, Steven A.; Simons-Legaard, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging <15 ha) and a correspondingly large amount of edge. Management regimes impacted different areas to

  18. Local and Remote Influences on Vertical Wind Shear over the Northern Tropical Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Zhu, X.

    2009-12-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the most important parameters controlling the frequency and intensity of Atlantic hurricanes. It has been argued that in global warming scenarios, the mechanical effect of changing vertical wind shear may even trump the thermodynamic effect of increasing Atlantic sea surface temperatures, when it comes to projected trends in Atlantic hurricane activity. Despite its importance, little is known about the connection between vertical shear in the north Atlantic region and the global atmospheric circulation, apart from the well-known positive correlation with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we analyze the statistical relationship between vertical shear and features of the large-scale circulation such as the distribution of sea surface temperature and vertical motion. We examine whether this relationship is different on interannual timescales associated with ENSO as compared to the decadal timescales associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We also investigate how well the global general circulation models manage to simulate the observed vertical shear in this region, and its relationship to the large-scale circulation. Our analyses reveal an interesting sensitivity to air-sea coupling in model simulations of vertical shear. Another interesting property of vertical shear, as defined in the context of hurricane studies, is that it is positive definite, rather like precipitation. This means that it has a very nongaussian probability distribution on short timescales. We analyze how this nongaussianity changes when averaged over longer timescales.

  19. Model-based analyses reveal insular population diversification and cryptic frog species in the Ischnocnema parva complex in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Barth, Adriane; Oliveira, Eliana Faria de; Costa, Marco Antonio; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Vences, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) of Brazil has long been recognized as a biodiversity conservation hotspot. Despite decades of studies the species inventory of this biome continues to increase with the discovery of cryptic diversity and the description of new species. Different diversification mechanisms have been proposed to explain the diversity in the region, including models of forest dynamics, barriers to gene flow and dispersal. Also, sea level change is thought to have influenced coastal diversification and isolated populations on continental islands. However, the timing and mode of diversification of insular populations in the AF region were rarely investigated. Here, we analyze the phylogeography and species diversity of the small-sized direct-developing frog Ischnocnema parva. These frogs are independent from water bodies but dependent on forest cover and high humidity, and provide good models to understand forest dynamics and insular diversification. Our analysis was based on DNA sequences for one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes of 71 samples from 18 localities including two islands, São Sebastião, municipality of Ilhabela, and Mar Virado, municipality of Ubatuba, both in the state of São Paulo. We use molecular taxonomic methods to show that I. parva is composed of six independently evolving lineages, with the nominal I. parva likely endemic to the type locality. The time-calibrated species tree shows that these lineages have diverged in the Pliocene and Pleistocene, suggesting the persistence of micro-refuges of forest in the AF. For the two insular populations we used approximate Bayesian computation to test different diversification hypotheses. Our findings support isolation with migration for São Sebastião population, with ∼1Mya divergence time, and isolation without migration for Mar Virado population, with ∼13Kya divergence time, suggesting a combination of different processes for diversification on AF islands. Copyright © 2017. Published

  20. Forest resources of the eastern Ozark Region in Missouri

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1948-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant statistics on forest area and timber volume in 14 counties in the Eastern Ozark region of Missouri. As soon as statistical tabulations have been completed other releases will be issued giving similar information for the other important subdivisions of the State. Later an analytical report for the entire State will be...

  1. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources—especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests—is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point. PMID:27942038

  2. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and

  3. A SURVEY OF FISH CONTAMINATION IN SMALL WADEABLE STREAMS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1993 and 1994, fish tissue samples were collected from first, second and third order streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States.The tissue samples were prepared from whole fish from prioritized lists of Small Target Species and Large Target Species. The two types ...

  4. IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of hydrology and water resources to climate variation and climate change is assessed for the Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of the United States. Observed streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality data are shown to vary in association with climate variation. Projectio...

  5. A SURVEY OF FISH CONTAMINATION IN SMALL WADEABLE STREAMS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1993 and 1994, fish tissue samples were collected from first, second and third order streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States.The tissue samples were prepared from whole fish from prioritized lists of Small Target Species and Large Target Species. The two types ...

  6. VULNERABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA, TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were explored for two climate-change scenarios. The equilibrium vegetation ecology (EVE) model was used to project the distribution of life forms and to combine these into biomes for a doubl...

  7. SEDIMENT MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN A SYNOPTIC SURVEY OF MID-ATLANTIC REGION STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    l. The rate of microbial respiration on fine-grained stream sediments was measured at 196 first-to third-order sites in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.2. Sample collection took place between April and July in 1993, 1994 and 1995.3. Study streams were randomly sele...

  8. Connecting Regional Modeling Communities Across the Atlantic: The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As any traveler crossing the Atlantic can attest, there certainly are differences between North America and Europe – differences in language, food, culture, and social attitudes, to name but a few. However, the “Old World” and “New World” have a lot in common as well; both region...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #2: MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of this National Assessment effort mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990, EPA's Global Change Research Program is sponsoring the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). With EPA sponsorship, a multi-disciplinary team of faculty members is leading the first a...

  11. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study analyzes periodic variations in the climate of the mid-Atlantic Region over the last 100 years and uses general circulation models (GCMs) to project major climate trends for the next hundred years. Historical data include the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for th...

  12. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study analyzes periodic variations in the climate of the mid-Atlantic Region over the last 100 years and uses general circulation models (GCMs) to project major climate trends for the next hundred years. Historical data include the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for th...

  13. A REGIONAL SCALE TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), sediment samples were collected to assess toxicity on a regional scale in streams and rivers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. in 1994, 1997 and 1998, and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in 1994 and 1995. Sample sites...

  14. The Education Reform Movement: Impact on Hispanic Youth in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivieso, Rafael

    To understand why the general situation of young Hispanic Americans is critical it is necessary to consider some demographic characteristics of the Hispanic population and examine the need for reform in their educational experiences. The impact of some current initiatives in the Mid-Atlantic region are discussed, and some alternative reforms are…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  16. ESTIMATING STREAMFLOW AND ASSOCIATED HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY, THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to estimate streamflow and channel hydraulic geometry were developed for ungaged streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Observed mean annual streamflow and associated hydraulic geometry data from 75 gaging stations located in the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, an...

  17. INTEGRATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) Project began in 1994 as a partnership between USEPA's Region III Office and Office of Research and Development. This multi-year initiative was envisioned to: (1) improve the quality of environmental science and promote the use of sou...

  18. IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of hydrology and water resources to climate variation and climate change is assessed for the Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of the United States. Observed streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality data are shown to vary in association with climate variation. Projectio...

  19. SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. new method was developed to perform an environmental assessment for the
    Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR). This was a combination of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA). The method is capable of clustering ecosystems in terms of envi...

  20. Mid-Atlantic Regional Training Center for Residential Construction Trades. Final Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasdyke (R. G.) & Associates, Annapolis, MD.

    A group of partners headed by the Home Builders Institute (HBI) created the Mid-Atlantic Regional Training (MART) Center for Residential Construction, with a primary focus on providing education and training services related to the masonry and carpentry trades at existing institutions in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West…

  1. INTEGRATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) Project began in 1994 as a partnership between USEPA's Region III Office and Office of Research and Development. This multi-year initiative was envisioned to: (1) improve the quality of environmental science and promote the use of sou...

  2. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #2: MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of this National Assessment effort mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990, EPA's Global Change Research Program is sponsoring the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). With EPA sponsorship, a multi-disciplinary team of faculty members is leading the first a...

  3. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone Caroline and comparisons with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keup-Thiel, E.; Klepp, C.-Ph.; Raschke, E.; Rockel, B.

    2003-03-01

    An individual regional model simulation of cyclone Caroline has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) satellite data.

  4. SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. new method was developed to perform an environmental assessment for the
    Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR). This was a combination of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA). The method is capable of clustering ecosystems in terms of envi...

  5. Landscape Correlates of Breeding Bird Richness Across the United States Mid-Atlantic Region

    Treesearch

    K. Bruce Jones; Anne C. Neale; Maliha S. Nash; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; Rick D. van Remortel

    2000-01-01

    Using a new set of landscape indicator data generated by the U.S. EPA, and a comprhensive breeding database from the National Breeding Bird Survey, we evaluated associations between breeding bird richness and landscape characteristics across the entire mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

  6. STAFFING THE EVENING COLLEGE, A STUDY OF TWELVE INSTITUTIONS IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAGER, GARRETT A.

    SIX ASPECTS OF STAFFING--SELECTION, ORIENTATION, PROMOTION, FACULTY IN-SERVICE GROWTH, SALARY ADMINISTRATION, AND EVALUATION OF FACULTY--WERE STUDIED THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES AND FOLLOW-UP INTERVIEWS AT 12 EVENING COLLEGES IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGION. MANY PRINCIPLES ADVOCATED IN THE LITERATURE WERE FOUND IN COMMON USE (INCLUDING USING STANDARD…

  7. VULNERABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA, TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were explored for two climate-change scenarios. The equilibrium vegetation ecology (EVE) model was used to project the distribution of life forms and to combine these into biomes for a doubl...

  8. SEDIMENT MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN A SYNOPTIC SURVEY OF MID-ATLANTIC REGION STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    l. The rate of microbial respiration on fine-grained stream sediments was measured at 196 first-to third-order sites in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.2. Sample collection took place between April and July in 1993, 1994 and 1995.3. Study streams were randomly sele...

  9. ESTIMATING STREAMFLOW AND ASSOCIATED HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY, THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to estimate streamflow and channel hydraulic geometry were developed for ungaged streams in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Observed mean annual streamflow and associated hydraulic geometry data from 75 gaging stations located in the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, an...

  10. Curriculum Digest for the Training of United States Fisheries Observer Corps Atlantic Region. Marine Bulletin 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merdinyan, Mark E.; Mortimer, Christine D.

    This digest is intended to be used in conjunction with the text Manual for the Training of United States Fisheries Observers - Atlantic Region. The digest contains five elements; an organization of the training program into sections that allow cumulative learning experience; provides a chronology of these sections to provide optimum coverage and…

  11. Manual for the Training of United States Fisheries Observer Corps Atlantic Region. Marine Bulletin 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merdinyan, Mark E.; Mortimer, Christine D.

    This manual has been produced for use in a four-week training program developed by University of Rhode Island fisheries educators for the training of United States citizens in the duties and responsibilities of observers placed on foreign fishing vessels operating in the Fisheries Conservation Zone in the Atlantic Region. The program combines…

  12. Connecting Regional Modeling Communities Across the Atlantic: The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As any traveler crossing the Atlantic can attest, there certainly are differences between North America and Europe – differences in language, food, culture, and social attitudes, to name but a few. However, the “Old World” and “New World” have a lot in common as well; both region...

  13. A REGIONAL SCALE TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), sediment samples were collected to assess toxicity on a regional scale in streams and rivers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. in 1994, 1997 and 1998, and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in 1994 and 1995. Sample sites...

  14. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, Steve W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  15. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  16. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  17. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor

  18. Supplementary report on the ground-water supplies of the Atlantic City region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Brunstein, Maurice S.

    1936-01-01

    At present more potable water is taken from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand than from any other source of supply for the region. This sand is the sole source for some of the smaller communities on the barrier beaches. The original static head of the water in it at Atlantic City was between 20 and 25 feet above sea level. The head has been lowered more than 50 feet over much of the region,  and in parts of Atlantic City it has been lowered considerably more than 100 feet. A consideration of the principles governing the relation between salt water and fresh water in water-bearing sands indicates that the 800-foot sand probably contained salt water at a distance of 5 or 10 miles out from Atlantic City before any water was pumped from it. The evidence collected in this investigation indicates that the cone of depression created by the pumping from this sand in the Atlantic City region has probably extended inland to the intake area of the sand, the nearest part of which is probably about 40 miles from Atlantic City. If this is so, the conclusion is almost inescapable that it has also extended oceanward for a distance considerably greater than the 5 or 10 miles to the original zone of contact between the fresh and salt waters, and that salt water is probably being drawn toward the Atlantic City region through this sand. The time of its arrival will depend primarily upon the rate of pumping in the region and upon how much of the fresh water that originally lay between the region and the zone of contact must be removed before the salt water can reach the region. It may arrive in the near future if it advances in the form of a narrow tongue. On the other hand, if it advances along a broader front; so that more of the intervening fresh water must be pumped out of the formation, its arrival may be delayed for some time.

  19. Fallow Effects on Improving Soil Properties and Decreasing Erosion: Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J. P.; Silva, L. M.; Lima, R. L.; Donagemma, G. K.; Bertolino, A. V. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Correa, F. M.; Polidoro, J. C.; Tato, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil tillage plays a major role in changing physical and hydrological properties of soils through time, and in consequence, in the dynamics of infiltration, soil water and erosion. In the hilly landscape of southeastern Brazil, many areas originally occupied by the Atlantic Forest (one the most threatened biomes on the planet) have been continuously transformed in the last decades into agricultural systems, usually associated with small farming properties. Traditionally, the agricultural activities in these areas incorporate rotational systems which include a fallow period, where previously farmed areas repose for at least five years. In some areas, vegetation grows so fast that after 7 or 8 years these sites may be considered by regulator agencies as forests, impeding their use again for farming. As a consequence, farmers tend to decrease the amount of time used fallow impeding the recovery of original soil properties, reducing in consequence the infiltration rate, and increasing the runoff and erosion. Currently, the Brazilian laws allow that the farmers use the fallow system for 10 years in areas where this technique has been used traditionally. So, a major issue here is for how long the farming plots should be left reposing. Therefore, this study aims both to characterize the effects of continuous farming on soil physical and hydrological properties, as well as to define the impacts of different fallow periods on the improvement of soil properties and in the reduction of runoff and erosion. The experiments were carried out in a cultivation site located at Bom Jardim city, close to Rio de Janeiro city. The area is situated at about 800m of elevation in the hilly steep topography of the Serra do Mar, a coast range in southeastern Brazil, with an average total annual rainfall of 2000 mm. In this study, carried out in a typical farm of the area, we compared the effects of 5 different soil usages on soil properties: banana, coffee, F2 (2-year fallow), F5 (5-year

  20. Effects of orbital-scale ITCZ fluctuations on the mid Cretaceous tropical Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Beckmann, B.; Flögel, S.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Shifts of the Inter Tropic Convergence Zone (ITCZ) on Milankovitch time scales have profound effects on the climate-ocean system of tropical regions. Changes in wind systems, regional hydrology and continental runoff linked to past fluctuations of the ITCZ are well known to have triggered a complex chain of forcing and feedback mechanisms between the regional biosphere and geosphere. In our study we explore these relationships for the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse. We present proxy records from two regions of the Coniacian tropical Atlantic, ODP Site 959 (West Africa off Ivory Coast) and ODP Site 1261 (Northern South America off Suriname) and compare them with results of GENESIS Atmospheric General Circulation modeling. Our data suggest that bioproductivity in the eastern tropical Atlantic mainly followed a precession controlled cyclic pattern which was closely linked to changes in nutrient and freshwater supply via continental runoff from the African continent. Different from that bioproductivity in the western tropical Atlantic shows a strong obliquity and eccentricity cycle pattern. We propose that these differences in the west were mainly caused by fluctuations in wind-driven upwelling off northern South America with a constant and high supply of nutrients from the continent maintaining the ocean redox system anoxic without interruption. Bioproductivity from wind-driven upwelling in the west would have pushed the water column into repetitive sulfidic conditions (euxinia), as confirmed by geochemical evidence. Overall bioproductivity east and west of the tropical Atlantic was high supporting deposition of extensive black shale deposits. The observed differences in depositional patterns on both sides of the Coniacian tropical Atlantic support that (orbital-driven) fluctuations of the ITCZ were mainly responsible, with strong contrasts in regional moisture distribution over Africa and South America and local strengthening of the trade wind system causing

  1. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  2. Sphagnum as an Indicator of Wetland Hydrology in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...suggested during field testing for the Southeastern Regional Supplement . However, some species of Sphagnum occur occasionally in uplands in the Atlantic...testing for the Sou- theastern regional supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delin- eation Manual (USACE 2008), the Norfolk District suggested using

  3. Soil properties and soil nitrogen dynamics of prairie-like forest openings and surrounding forests in Kentucky's Knobs Region

    Treesearch

    C.C. Rhoades; S.P. Miller; M.M. Shea

    2004-01-01

    Herbaceous communities located within forest openings increase plant species diversity of forests in the Knobs Region of Kentucky. Although these grass-dominated communities are protected and managed for rare plant species conservation, it is unclear how soil conditions may delineate the grassland-forest boundary. We compared soil chemical and physical properties and...

  4. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic forest area on the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jáder da C; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Fernandes, Aristides; dos Santos, Edmilson; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-06-01

    Mosquito diversity was determined in an area located on the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest on the north coast of Rio Grande of Sul State. Our major objective was to verify the composition, diversity, and temporal distribution of the mosquito fauna, and the influence of temperature and rainfall. Samplings were performed monthly between December, 2006 and December, 2008, in three biotopes: forest, urban area, and transition area, using CDC light traps and a Nasci vacuum. A total of 2,376 specimens was collected, from which 1,766 (74.32%) were identified as 55 different species belonging to ten genera. Culex lygrus, Aedes serratus, and Aedes nubilus were dominant (eudominant) and constant throughout samplings. The forest environment presented the highest species dominance (D(S) =0.20), while the transition area showed the highest values of diversity (H'=2.55) and evenness (J'=0.85). These two environments were the most similar, according to the Morisita-Horn Index (I(M-H) =0.35). Bootstrap estimates showed that 87.3% of the species occurring in the region were detected. The seasonal pattern showed a greater abundance of mosquitoes between May and October, indicating the period to intensify entomological surveillance in that area. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 14 species and 9 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,728 trees sampled in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  6. Shifts in Plant Assemblages Reduce the Richness of Galling Insects Across Edge-Affected Habitats in the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Souza, Danielle G; Santos, Jean C; Oliveira, Marcondes A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on specialist herbivores have been rarely addressed. Here we examine the structure of plant and galling insect assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic forest to verify a potential impoverishment of these assemblages mediated by edge effects. Saplings and galling insects were recorded once within a 0.1-ha area at habitat level, covering forest interior stands, forest edges, and small fragments. A total of 1,769 saplings from 219 tree species were recorded across all three habitats, with differences in terms of sapling abundance and species richness. Additionally, edge-affected habitats exhibited reduced richness of both host-plant and galling insects at plot and habitat spatial scale. Attack levels also differed among forest types at habitat spatial scale (21.1% of attacked stems in forest interior, 12.4% in small fragments but only 8.5% in forest edges). Plot ordination resulted in three clearly segregated clusters: one formed by forest interior, one by small fragments, and another formed by edge plots. Finally, the indicator species analysis identified seven and one indicator plant species in forest interior and edge-affected habitats, respectively. Consequently, edge effects lead to formation of distinct taxonomic groups and also an impoverished assemblage of plants and galling insects at multiple spatial scales. The results of the present study indicate that fragmentation-related changes in plant assemblages can have a cascade effects on specialist herbivores. Accordingly, hyperfragmented landscapes may not be able to retain an expressive portion of tropical biodiversity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  8. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m2. The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain. PMID:20673190

  9. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain.

  10. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  11. Sensitivity of northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation to surface and boundary forcing: A regional model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Bianucci, Laura; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation, influenced by both North Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres, is one of the hydrographically most variable regions in the North Atlantic Ocean and hosts biologically rich and productive fishing grounds. With the goal of simulating conditions in this productive and complex region, we implemented a nested regional ocean model for the northwest North Atlantic shelves including the Gulf of Maine, the Scotian Shelf, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Grand Banks, and the adjacent deep ocean. Configuring such a model requires choosing external data to supply surface forcing and initial and boundary conditions, as well as the consideration of nesting options. Although these selections can greatly affect model performance and results, often they are not systematically investigated. Here we assessed the sensitivity of our regional model to a suite of atmospheric forcing datasets, to sets of initial and boundary conditions constructed from multiple global ocean models and a larger scale regional ocean model, and to two variants of the model grid - one extending further off-shelf and resolving Flemish Cap topography. We conducted model simulations for a 6-year period and assessed model performance relative to a regional climatological dataset of temperature and salinity, observations collected from multiple monitoring stations and cruise transect lines, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and descriptions of regional currents from literature. Based on this model assessment, we determined the model configuration that best reproduces observations. We find that while all surface forcing datasets are capable of producing model SST close to observed, the different datasets result in significant differences in model sea surface salinity (SSS). We find that initial and boundary conditions based on global ocean models do not necessary produce realistic circulation, and climatological initial and boundary conditions can

  12. Pathways of fish invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Fuller, Pam; Neilson, Matthew; Murphy, Brian R.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-native fish introductions are a major threat to biodiversity and fisheries, and occur through numerous pathways that vary regionally in importance. A key strategy for managing invasions is to focus prevention efforts on pathways posing the greatest risk of future introductions. We identified high-risk pathways for fish establishment in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States based on estimates of probability of establishment and records of previous introductions, which were considered in the context of emerging socioeconomic trends. We used estimates of propagule pressure, species’ environmental tolerance, and size of species pool to assess the risk of establishment by pathway. Pathways varied considerably in historic importance and species composition, with the majority of species introduced intentionally via stocking (primarily for sport, forage, or biocontrol) or bait release. Bait release, private stocking, illegal introductions intended to establish reproducing populations (e.g., of sport fish), aquaculture, and the sale of live organisms all create risks for future invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region. Of these pathways, bait release probably poses the greatest risk of introductions for the Mid-Atlantic region because propagule pressure is moderate, most released species are tolerant of local environmental conditions, and the pool of species available for transplantation is large. Our findings differ considerably from studies in other regions (e.g., bait release is a dominant pathway in the Mid-Atlantic region, whereas illegal introduction of sport fish is dominant in the western US and aquarium releases are dominant in Florida), demonstrating the need for regional-scale assessments of, and management strategies for, introduction pathways.

  13. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation.

  14. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Leão-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals), museum specimens (N = 9,730) and literature records (N = 4,763). Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%), as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%). However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%). Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for understanding

  15. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Leão-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals), museum specimens (N = 9,730) and literature records (N = 4,763). Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%), as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%). However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%). Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for understanding

  16. Flowering, die-back and recovery of a semelparous woody bamboo in the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.

  17. Simulium (Chirostilbia) bifenestratum (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Neusa; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2004-02-01

    The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic forest, in São José do Barreiro county, state of São Paulo, in a high (1500 m) natural grassland. Larvae and pupae were collected on the edges of small waterfalls and in places with-high speed laminar water flow, attached to the bedrock.

  18. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  19. Biodiversity and times of activity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the biome of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Fereira, Zeni Melo; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; de Mello, Rubens Pinto; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2011-03-01

    A temporal observational study on culicid entomofauna was conducted in a region characterized as a fragment of the Atlantic Forest that forms the Tinguá Biological Reserve in the State of Rio de Janeiro. This investigation was performed with the aim of analyzing the influence of climatic factors (temperature and relative air humidity) on the activity levels at different times of the day among mosquito species within the ecosystems that form the Tinguá Biological Reserve. The abundance index and dominance coefficient were calculated in relation to 61 mosquito species that were caught at four sampling sites, in the mornings, afternoons, and evenings. The results revealed that culicid species were distributed with greater incidence during the two diurnal periods and that their preference for times of the day was directly influenced by the climatic variables analyzed. The latter acted as limiting factors for occurrences of mosquito species.

  20. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  1. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen. PMID:25229220

  3. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  4. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-01-01

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  5. Domestic dogs in a fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: abundance, habitat use and caring by owners.

    PubMed

    Torres, P C; Prado, P I

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch), using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the anthropogenic matrix to the forest patch edge, which suggests that dogs act as an edge effect on forest patches. Encounters between domestic dog and wild animals can still be frequent in severely fragmented landscapes, mainly at the forest edges. However the fact that most dogs have an owner and are more frequent in the anthropic habitat suggests that their putative effects are less severe than expected for a carnivore of such abundance, but the reinforcement of responsible ownership is needed to further ameliorate such effects.

  6. Synopsis of Martinella Baill. (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), with the description of a new species from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuntini, Alexandre R.; Lohmann, Lucia G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Martinella has traditionally included two species, Martinella iquitoensis and Martinella obovata, that are characterized by the presence of interpetiolar ridges surrounding the stems and minute prophylls of the axillary buds. A third species, Martinella insignis, is here described as new, illustrated and compared to other species in the genus. Martinella insignis is the first record of the genus in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and differs from other species of Martinella by the yellow corolla (vs. red to dark purple) and 5-lobed calices (vs. 2–4-lobed). PMID:24843296

  7. Regional estimation of current and future forest biomass

    Treesearch

    R.A. Mickler; T.S. Earnhardt; J.A. Moore

    2002-01-01

    The 90,674 wildland fires that burned 2.9 million ha at an estimated suppression cost of $1.6 billion in the United States during the 2000 fire season demonstrated that forest fuel loading has become a hazard to life, property, and ecosystem health as a result of past fire exclusion policies and practices. The fire regime at any given location in these regions is a...

  8. European Forest Conservation has Created More Robust Forests to Changes in Climate on the Continental and Regional Scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. L. S.; Thurnher, C.; Neumann, M.; Hasenauer, H.

    2016-12-01

    Europe has been placing forests under conservation since 1909, but more recently, with the establishment of Natura 2000 in 1992, the continent has seen even more land being taken out of active forest management and into conservation. Little research has been done on how this large-scale, multi-national forest conservation policy has affected European ecosystems to date. It is assumed that forest conservation can help play a role in mitigating climate change, but that is only true if forest under conservation will retain their level of net primary production (NPP) under climate anomalies (e.g., increased temperature, higher/lower precipitation) - which are projected to increase in the future. To test whether managed or unmanaged forests are better suited to withstand future climate change, we use remotely sensed data along with computer algorithms to isolate the management effect on forest productivity thereby removing drivers of forest productivity that management cannot control (e.g. elevation and latitude). We then examine the productivity and robustness of forests that are under conservation to those under typical forest management, using empirical data in the context of climate anomalies. We found that the sensitivity of forests to climate anomalies given the differences between managed and unmanaged forests varied by bio-region. The strongest effect was seen in central Europe. Here, unmanaged forests have been more robust to climate anomalies than their managed counterparts when analyzing relative NPP values. These unmanaged forests experienced the lowest relative decrease in productivity during drought, and experienced smaller variation in productivity in response to changing temperatures. Productivity levels in unmanaged forests in other regions also experienced little relative change overall given climate anomalies. Though there is a relatively short history of conservation management in Europe, with the average forest only having been conserved for 32

  9. Patterns and predictors of β-diversity in the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest: a multiscale analysis of forest specialist and generalist birds.

    PubMed

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Faria, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity maintenance in human-altered landscapes (HALs) depends on the species turnover among localities, but the patterns and determinants of β-diversity in HALs are poorly known. In fact, declines, increases and neutral shifts in β-diversity have all been documented, depending on the landscape, ecological group and spatial scale of analysis. We shed some light on this controversy by assessing the patterns and predictors of bird β-diversity across multiple spatial scales considering forest specialist and habitat generalist bird assemblages. We surveyed birds from 144 point counts in 36 different forest sites across two landscapes with different amount of forest cover in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We analysed β-diversity among points, among sites and between landscapes with multiplicative diversity partitioning of Hill numbers. We tested whether β-diversity among points was related to within-site variations in vegetation structure, and whether β-diversity among sites was related to site location and/or to differences among sites in vegetation structure and landscape composition (i.e. per cent forest and pasture cover surrounding each site). β-diversity between landscapes was lower than among sites and among points in both bird assemblages. In forest specialist birds, the landscape with less forest cover showed the highest β-diversity among sites (bird differentiation among sites), but generalist birds showed the opposite pattern. At the local scale, however, the less forested landscape showed the lowest β-diversity among points (bird homogenization within sites), independently of the bird assemblage. β-diversity among points was weakly related to vegetation structure, but higher β-diversity values were recorded among sites that were more isolated from each other, and among sites with higher differences in landscape composition, particularly in the less forested landscape. Our findings indicate that patterns of bird β-diversity vary across scales

  10. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  11. Quantitative relationships between watershed-scale stressors and estuarine condition for mid-Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.F.; Hale, S.S.; Comeleo, R.L.; Copeland, J.; August, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot project has been conducted that developed quantitative relationships between watershed-scale (landscape) stressors and sediment contamination for sub-estuaries within Chesapeake Bay. The landscape stressors, land use patterns (derived from classified, contemporary satellite imagery) and point source pollution, were spatially analyzed for each individual watershed of 25 sub-estuaries using a geographic information system. Sediment contamination data for the sub-estuaries, available from the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), were statistically reduced to one principal component for the metals and organics. Non-parametric statistical techniques were used to develop empirical relationships between sediment contamination and developed land (positive), herbaceous land (negative) and point source loadings (positive). These analyses have been extended to (1) include approximately 80 subestuaries across the mid-Atlantic region for which EMAP data were available, and (2) relate landscape stressors with estuarine condition. The measure of estuarine condition was an index of benthic quality developed by EMAP. The only available land use data set for the entire mid-Atlantic region was from US Geological Survey Land Use Data Analysis database, which is of 1970s vintage. Because of the dramatic differences in spatial area of the sub-estuaries in the mid-Atlantic region, adjustments for differing hydrologic regimes had to be factored into the analysis. Results indicate that it is possible to develop relationships between watershed-scale stressors and estuarine condition across large geographic regions.

  12. Angiosperms and the Linnean shortfall: three new species from three lineages of Melastomataceae at one spot at the Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Aona, Lidyanne Y.S.; Amorim, André M.

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Angiosperms have been found in four short collection trips to the same protected reserve—“Estação Ecológica Estadual de Wenceslau Guimarães”—and neighboring areas in the Atlantic Forest in the south of the Brazilian state of Bahia. These new species belong to three genera from three distinct lineages in the family Melastomataceae: Huberia, Meriania and Physeterostemon. The description of these species represent a good example of a Linnean shortfall, i.e., the absence of basic knowledge about the biodiversity in the area, as well as in tropical forests as a whole. The description of these probably endemic species per se is a signal that this area deserves more attention regarding research and policies, but its consequences go farther: this area has a relevant role as a phylogenetic (both genetic and morphological) stock, and thus is also valuable as a phylogenetic conservation priority. PMID:27019469

  13. Examining Pseudotsuga menziesii biomass change dynamics through succession using a regional forest inventory system

    Treesearch

    David M. Bell; Andrew N. Gray

    2015-01-01

    Models of forest succession provide an appealing conceptual framework for understanding forest dynamics, but uncertainty in the degree to which patterns are regionally consistent might limit the application of successional theory in forest management. Remeasurements of forest inventory networks provide an opportunity to assess this consistency, improving our...

  14. 75 FR 25198 - Intermountain Region, Boise National Forest, Emmett Ranger District; Idaho Scriver Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... development of larger tree size class stands and old forest habitat; (2) improve watershed conditions and... Forest Service Intermountain Region, Boise National Forest, Emmett Ranger District; Idaho Scriver Creek Integrated Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...

  15. Transitions in forest fragmentation: implications for restoration opportunities at regional scales

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Robert V. O' Neill

    1999-01-01

    Where the potential natural vegetation is continuous forest (e.g., eastern US), a region can be divided into smaller units (e.g., counties, watersheds), and a graph of the proportion of forest in the largest patch versus the proportion in anthropogenic cover can be used as an index of forest fragmentation. If forests are not fragmented beyond that converted to...

  16. Regional dynamics of forest canopy change and underlying causal processes in the contiguous US

    Treesearch

    Karen Schleeweis; Samuel N. Goward; Chengquan Huang; Jeffrey G. Masek; Gretchen Moisen; Robert E. Kennedy; Nancy E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The history of forest change processes is written into forest age and distribution and affects earth systems at many scales. No one data set has been able to capture the full forest disturbance and land use record through time, so in this study, we combined multiple lines of evidence to examine trends, for six US regions, in forest area affected by harvest, fire, wind...

  17. Low-frequency storminess signal at Bermuda linked to cooling events in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kingston, Andrew W.; Williams, Bruce E.; Scott, David B.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Little, Shawna N.; Patterson, William P.

    2015-02-01

    North Atlantic climate archives provide evidence for increased storm activity during the Little Ice Age (150 to 600 calibrated years (cal years) B.P.) and centered at 1700 and 3000 cal years B.P., typically in centennial-scale sedimentary records. Meteorological (tropical versus extratropical storms) and climate forcings of this signal remain poorly understood, although variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are frequently hypothesized to be involved. Here we present records of late Holocene storminess and coastal temperature change from a Bermudian submarine cave that is hydrographically circulated with the coastal ocean. Thermal variability in the cave is documented by stable oxygen isotope values of cave benthic foraminifera, which document a close linkage between regional temperature change and NAO phasing during the late Holocene. However, erosion of terrestrial sediment into the submarine cave provides a "storminess signal" that correlates with higher-latitude storminess archives and broader North Atlantic cooling events. Understanding the driver of this storminess signal will require higher-resolution storm records to disentangle the contribution of tropical versus extratropical cyclones and a better understanding of cyclone activity during hemispheric cooling periods. Most importantly, however, the signal in Bermuda appears more closely correlated with proxy-based evidence for subtle AMOC reductions than NAO phasing.

  18. Abrupt climate variability in the North Atlantic region: Did the icebergs do it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, S.; Chen, J.; Gong, X.; Jonkers, L.; Knorr, G.; Thornalley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present high resolution records of temperature and ice rafted debris over the last ~440Kyr from a sediment core retrieved from the NE Atlantic. Our records reveal that episodes of ice rafting typically occurred after abrupt cooling at the site. Because the site is sensitive to the earliest phases of ice rafting as recorded by other sites across the wider Atlantic, this suggests that icebergs were not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Moreover we find a different relationship between cooling and the arrival of rafted ice at a site ~750km to the SE of ours. We suggest that asynchronous cooling between these locations can be explained by the more gradual southward migration of the North Atlantic polar front. We describe a mechanism that can explain the occurrence of abrupt stadial events over Greenland as a non-linear response as regional cooling continues beyond the threshold necessary for sustaining ocean circulation in its 'warm' mode with active convection north of Iceland. Thus while the freshwater derived from melting icebergs may provide a positive feedback for enhancing and prolonging stadial conditions, it is probably not the trigger for northern stadial events.

  19. What caused the 2009 cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic (TA) exhibits sea surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. This variability is associated with changes of atmospheric dynamics, linking it to severe flooding or droughts in South America and West Africa. This study investigates processes in the TA that might have caused the extreme cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) region in 2009. During boreal spring, a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event developed in the TA associated with northwesterly wind anomalies along the equator. Contrary to what would be expected from ENSO-like dynamics, these wind anomalies did not lead to a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal summer. Instead, from May to August 2009, an abrupt cooling took place in the ACT region resulting in the coldest August ACT SST on record. In the literature, two processes - equatorial wave reflection and meridional advection of subsurface temperatures - are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Whereas previous studies are mainly based on satellite data, reanalysis products and model output, we here use in situ measurements (data from Argo floats, PIRATA buoys, and TACE moorings, as well as CTD data of various ship cruises) in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both processes to the strong surface cooling in the ACT region in 2009. Results based on the Argo float data confirm previous findings that equatorial wave reflection contributed to the cold event in the ACT region in 2009. They further indicate that higher baroclinic mode waves played an important role. The analysis of in situ and reanalysis temperature and velocity data does not suggest a significant contribution of meridional advection of subsurface temperatures for the onset of the 2009 cold event. The results indicate an asymmetry in the importance of meridional advection for non-ENSO-like cold and warm events with warm events more strongly affected

  20. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David

    1989-01-01

    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  2. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David

    1989-01-01

    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  3. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of native and exotic plants from the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest selected through an ethnobotanical survey.

    PubMed

    Castelo Branco Rangel de Almeida, Cecília de Fátima; de Vasconcelos Cabral, Daniela Lyra; Rangel de Almeida, Camila Castelo Branco; Cavalcanti de Amorim, Elba Lúcia; de Araújo, Janete Magali; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-02-01

    The idea that many commonly used medicinal plants may lead to the discovery of new drugs has encouraged the study of local knowledge of these resources. An ethnobotanical survey of species traditionally used for the treatment of infectious diseases was undertaken in two areas of northeastern Brazil: one in the Caatinga (dry forest) and another in the Atlantic Forest (humid forest). Initially, diffusion tests using paper disks and subsequently, for extracts presenting significant results (inhibition halos above 15 mm), minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. The activity was evaluated as a percentage for each species, comparing the diameters of the inhibition halos and the number of positive results against the seven microorganisms studied. Extracts were classified into three categories: strong activity-species with halos exceeding 16 mm, moderate activity-species with halos between 13 mm and 15 mm and low activity-species with halos below 12 mm. We selected 34 species, 20 from the Caatinga and 14 from the Atlantic Forest. In the Caatinga, 50% of the 20 plant extracts studied had strong antimicrobial activity, 25% had moderate activity and 15% had low activity. In the Atlantic Forest, 28.5% of the 14 plant extracts studied showed strong activity, with 14.5% having moderate activity and 28.5% having low activity. The microorganism that was most susceptible to the extracts from the Caatinga, was Mycobacterium smegmatis; 85% of the species tested were able to inhibit its growth. The organism that was susceptible to the highest number of plant species (71%) from the Atlantic Forest was Staphylococcus aureus. Extracts from the Caatinga showed a trend of superior antimicrobial activity compared to the species from the Atlantic Forest, in terms of both inhibiting a greater variety of microorganisms and demonstrating higher activity against susceptible strains.

  4. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were

  5. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments.

  6. Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond?

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F M; Mendonça, M S; Campos, L A

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) is considered the most fragmented and endangered Brazilian biome. The diversity of phytophagous insects increases after disturbances in forests, and it was hypothesized the Pentatomidae can furnish ecologically reliable information in terms of diversity in response to the changes occurring in AF. Our aim was to quantify the response of assemblages of Pentatomoidea to gradient of human disturbance in two vegetation types of the AF-dense ombrophilous forest (DOF) and mixed ombrophilous forest (MOF). Twelve transects were grouped into environmental classes, namely open, intermediate, and closed. Overall, 1,017 pentatomoids were sampled, representing 64 species. The open environment was more abundant than closed environment, though it is expected that Pentatomoidea respond with increasing abundance when under light or moderate disturbance. The MOF was more abundant than DOF, and the composition differed between both of them. Given the differences in composition between MOF and DOF, abiotic variables are important factors acting as environmental filters for Pentatomoidea, not just directly on the insects, but probably also on the nutritional support of their host plants.

  7. Lineage-specific serology confirms Brazilian Atlantic forest lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Leontopithecus rosalia, as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II (TcII).

    PubMed

    Kerr, Charlotte L; Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Xavier, Samanta C C; Barros, Juliana H; Lima, Valdirene S; Jansen, Ana M; Miles, Michael A

    2016-11-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin), L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin), Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin) and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey). The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.

  8. Timber volume and type acreage on the national forests of the north Pacific region from the inventory phase of the forest survey

    Treesearch

    R.W. Cowlin; F.L. Moravets

    1937-01-01

    Completion of the forest survey of Oregon and Washington has recently made it possible to compile reliable statistics as to the forest-land areas and timber volumes of the national forests in the North Pacific Region. This region, the sixth of 10 regions into which the United States is divided for purposes of national-forest administration, includes all the national-...

  9. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams.

  10. Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.